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K2: a fully-reproducible large language model outperforming Llama 2 70B using 35% less compute

LLM360 demystifies the training recipe used for Llama 2 70B with K2. K2 is fully transparent, meaning we’ve open-sourced all artifacts, including code, data, model checkpoints, intermediate results, and more.

k2 eval table

About K2:

  • 65 billion parameter LLM
  • Tokens: 1.4T
  • Languages: English
  • Models Released: base, chat model
  • Trained in 2 stages
  • License: Apache 2.0

K2 was developed as a collaboration between MBZUAI, Petuum, and LLM360.

LLM360 Model Performance and Evaluation Collection

The LLM360 Performance and Evaluation Collection is a robust evaluations set consisting of general and domain specific evaluations to assess model knowledge and function.

Evaluations include standard best practice benchmarks, medical, math, and coding knowledge. More about the evaluations can be found here.

k2 big eval table

Detailed analysis can be found on the K2 Weights and Biases project here

K2 Gallery

The K2 gallery allows one to browse the output of various prompts on intermediate K2 checkpoints, which provides an intuitive understanding on how the model develops and improves over time. This is inspired by The Bloom Book.

View K2 gallery here

Datasets and Mix

The following data mix was used to train K2 and achieve results in line with Llama 2 70B.

The full data sequence can be found here

Dataset Starting Tokens Multiplier Total Tokens % of Total
dm-math 4.33B 3x 13B 1%
pubmed-abstracts 4.77B 3x 14.3B 1.1%
uspto 4.77B 3x 14.3B 1.1%
pubmed-central 26B 1x 26B 2%
redpajama.arxiv 27.3B 1x 27.3B 2.1%
starcoder.spm 67.6B 0.5x 33.8B 2.6%
starcoder.fim 67.6B 0.5x 33.8B 2.6%
redpajama.stackexchange 61.1B 1x 61.1B 4.7%
starcoder 132.6B 0.5x 66.3B 5.1%
pile-of-law 76.7B 1x 76.7B 5.9%
redpajama.book 80.6B 1x 80.6B 6.2%
s2orc 107.9B 1x 107.9B 8.3%
redpajama.wikipedia 22.1B 6x 132.6B 10.2%
refinedweb 612.3B 1x 612.3B 47.1%
Totals - - 1.3T 100%

LLM360 Reasearch Suite

Stage 2 - Last 10 Checkpoints

Stage 1 - Last 10 Checkpoints

[to find all branches: git branch -a]

LLM360 Pretraining Suite

We provide step-by-step reproducation tutorials for tech enthusiasts, AI practitioners and academic or industry researchers who want to learn pretraining techniques here.

LLM360 Developer Suite

We provide step-by-step finetuning tutorials for tech enthusiasts, AI practitioners and academic or industry researchers here.

Loading K2

from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, AutoTokenizer

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("LLM360/K2")
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("LLM360/K2")

prompt = 'what is the highest mountain on earth?'

input_ids = tokenizer(prompt, return_tensors="pt").input_ids
gen_tokens = model.generate(input_ids, do_sample=True, max_new_tokens=128)

print("-"*20 + "Output for model"  + 20 * '-')

About LLM360

LLM360 is an open research lab enabling community-owned AGI through open-source large model research and development.

LLM360 enables community-owned AGI by creating standards and tools to advance the bleeding edge of LLM capability and empower knowledge transfer, research, and development.

We believe in a future where artificial general intelligence (AGI) is created by the community, for the community. Through an open ecosystem of equitable computational resources, high quality data, and flowing technical knowledge, we can ensure ethical AGI development and universal access for all innovators.

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      title={LLM360 K2-65B: Scaling Up Fully Transparent Open-Source LLMs}, 
      author={The LLM360 Team},
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