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patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16 patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16
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Contributed by

patrickvonplaten Patrick von Platen
24 models

How to use this model directly from the πŸ€—/transformers library:

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from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForSeq2SeqLM tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16") model = AutoModelForSeq2SeqLM.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16")

Bert2Bert Summarization with πŸ€— EncoderDecoder Framework

This model is a Bert2Bert model fine-tuned on summarization.

Bert2Bert is a EncoderDecoderModel, meaning that both the encoder and the decoder are bert-base-uncased BERT models. Leveraging the EncoderDecoderFramework, the two pretrained models can simply be loaded into the framework via:

bert2bert = EncoderDecoderModel.from_encoder_decoder_pretrained("bert-base-uncased", "bert-base-uncased")

The decoder of an EncoderDecoder model needs cross-attention layers and usually makes use of causal masking for auto-regressiv generation. Thus, bert2bert is consequently fined-tuned on the CNN/Daily Maildataset and the resulting model bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16 is uploaded here.


The model is by no means a state-of-the-art model, but nevertheless produces reasonable summarization results. It was mainly fine-tuned as a proof-of-concept for the πŸ€— EncoderDecoder Framework.

The model can be used as follows:

from transformers import BertTokenizer, EncoderDecoderModel

model = EncoderDecoderModel.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16")
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16")

article = """(CNN)Sigma Alpha Epsilon is under fire for a video showing party-bound fraternity members singing a racist chant. SAE's national chapter suspended the students, but University of Oklahoma President David Boren took it a step further, saying the university's affiliation with the fraternity is permanently done. The news is shocking, but it's not the first time SAE has faced controversy. SAE was founded March 9, 1856, at the University of Alabama, five years before the American Civil War, according to the fraternity website. When the war began, the group had fewer than 400 members, of which "369 went to war for the Confederate States and seven for the Union Army," the website says. The fraternity now boasts more than 200,000 living alumni, along with about 15,000 undergraduates populating 219 chapters and 20 "colonies" seeking full membership at universities. SAE has had to work hard to change recently after a string of member deaths, many blamed on the hazing of new recruits, SAE national President Bradley Cohen wrote in a message on the fraternity's website. The fraternity's website lists more than 130 chapters cited or suspended for "health and safety incidents" since 2010. At least 30 of the incidents involved hazing, and dozens more involved alcohol. However, the list is missing numerous incidents from recent months. Among them, according to various media outlets: Yale University banned the SAEs from campus activities last month after members allegedly tried to interfere with a sexual misconduct investigation connected to an initiation rite. Stanford University in December suspended SAE housing privileges after finding sorority members attending a fraternity function were subjected to graphic sexual content. And Johns Hopkins University in November suspended the fraternity for underage drinking. "The media has labeled us as the 'nation's deadliest fraternity,' " Cohen said. In 2011, for example, a student died while being coerced into excessive alcohol consumption, according to a lawsuit. SAE's previous insurer dumped the fraternity. "As a result, we are paying Lloyd's of London the highest insurance rates in the Greek-letter world," Cohen said. Universities have turned down SAE's attempts to open new chapters, and the fraternity had to close 12 in 18 months over hazing incidents."""

input_ids = tokenizer(article, return_tensors="pt").input_ids
output_ids = model.generate(input_ids)

print(tokenizer.decode(output_ids[0], skip_special_tokens=True))
# should produce
# sae was founded in 1856, five years before the civil war. the fraternity has had to work hard to change recently. the university of oklahoma president says the university's affiliation with the fraternity is permanently done. the sae has had a string of members in recent mon

Training script:

IMPORTANT: In order for this code to work, make sure you checkout to the branch more_general_trainer_metric, which slightly adapts the Trainer for EncoderDecoderModels according to this PR:

The following code shows the complete training script that was used to fine-tune bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16 for reproducability. The training last ~9h on a standard GPU.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import nlp
import logging
from transformers import BertTokenizer, EncoderDecoderModel, Trainer, TrainingArguments


model = EncoderDecoderModel.from_encoder_decoder_pretrained("bert-base-uncased", "bert-base-uncased")
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained("bert-base-uncased")

# CLS token will work as BOS token
tokenizer.bos_token = tokenizer.cls_token

# SEP token will work as EOS token
tokenizer.eos_token = tokenizer.sep_token

# load train and validation data
train_dataset = nlp.load_dataset("cnn_dailymail", "3.0.0", split="train")
val_dataset = nlp.load_dataset("cnn_dailymail", "3.0.0", split="validation[:10%]")

# load rouge for validation
rouge = nlp.load_metric("rouge")

# set decoding params
model.config.decoder_start_token_id = tokenizer.bos_token_id
model.config.eos_token_id = tokenizer.eos_token_id
model.config.max_length = 142
model.config.min_length = 56
model.config.no_repeat_ngram_size = 3
model.early_stopping = True
model.length_penalty = 2.0
model.num_beams = 4

# map data correctly
def map_to_encoder_decoder_inputs(batch):
    # Tokenizer will automatically set [BOS] <text> [EOS]
    # cut off at BERT max length 512
    inputs = tokenizer(batch["article"], padding="max_length", truncation=True, max_length=512)
    # force summarization <= 128
    outputs = tokenizer(batch["highlights"], padding="max_length", truncation=True, max_length=128)

    batch["input_ids"] = inputs.input_ids
    batch["attention_mask"] = inputs.attention_mask

    batch["decoder_input_ids"] = outputs.input_ids
    batch["labels"] = outputs.input_ids.copy()
    # mask loss for padding
    batch["labels"] = [
        [-100 if token == tokenizer.pad_token_id else token for token in labels] for labels in batch["labels"]
    batch["decoder_attention_mask"] = outputs.attention_mask

    assert all([len(x) == 512 for x in inputs.input_ids])
    assert all([len(x) == 128 for x in outputs.input_ids])

    return batch

def compute_metrics(pred):
    labels_ids = pred.label_ids
    pred_ids = pred.predictions

    # all unnecessary tokens are removed
    pred_str = tokenizer.batch_decode(pred_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
    label_str = tokenizer.batch_decode(labels_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)

    rouge_output = rouge.compute(predictions=pred_str, references=label_str, rouge_types=["rouge2"])["rouge2"].mid

    return {
        "rouge2_precision": round(rouge_output.precision, 4),
        "rouge2_recall": round(rouge_output.recall, 4),
        "rouge2_fmeasure": round(rouge_output.fmeasure, 4),

# set batch size here
batch_size = 16

# make train dataset ready
train_dataset =
    map_to_encoder_decoder_inputs, batched=True, batch_size=batch_size, remove_columns=["article", "highlights"],
    type="torch", columns=["input_ids", "attention_mask", "decoder_input_ids", "decoder_attention_mask", "labels"],

# same for validation dataset
val_dataset =
    map_to_encoder_decoder_inputs, batched=True, batch_size=batch_size, remove_columns=["article", "highlights"],
    type="torch", columns=["input_ids", "attention_mask", "decoder_input_ids", "decoder_attention_mask", "labels"],

# set training arguments - these params are not really tuned, feel free to change
training_args = TrainingArguments(

# instantiate trainer
trainer = Trainer(

# start training


The following script evaluates the model on the test set of CNN/Daily Mail.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import nlp
from transformers import BertTokenizer, EncoderDecoderModel
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16")
model = EncoderDecoderModel.from_pretrained("patrickvonplaten/bert2bert-cnn_dailymail-fp16")"cuda")
test_dataset = nlp.load_dataset("cnn_dailymail", "3.0.0", split="test")
batch_size = 128
# map data correctly
def generate_summary(batch):
    # Tokenizer will automatically set [BOS] <text> [EOS]
    # cut off at BERT max length 512
    inputs = tokenizer(batch["article"], padding="max_length", truncation=True, max_length=512, return_tensors="pt")
    input_ids ="cuda")
    attention_mask ="cuda")
    outputs = model.generate(input_ids, attention_mask=attention_mask)
    # all special tokens including will be removed
    output_str = tokenizer.batch_decode(outputs, skip_special_tokens=True)
    batch["pred"] = output_str
    return batch
results =, batched=True, batch_size=batch_size, remove_columns=["article"])
# load rouge for validation
rouge = nlp.load_metric("rouge")
pred_str = results["pred"]
label_str = results["highlights"]
rouge_output = rouge.compute(predictions=pred_str, references=label_str, rouge_types=["rouge2"])["rouge2"].mid

The obtained results should be:

- Rouge2 - mid -precision Rouge2 - mid - recall Rouge2 - mid - fmeasure
CNN/Daily Mail 16.12 17.07 16.1