NeuroPictor: Refining fMRI-to-Image Reconstruction via Multi-individual Pretraining and Multi-level Modulation

Published on Mar 27


Recent fMRI-to-image approaches mainly focused on associating fMRI signals with specific conditions of pre-trained diffusion models. These approaches, while producing high-quality images, capture only a limited aspect of the complex information in fMRI signals and offer little detailed control over image creation. In contrast, this paper proposes to directly modulate the generation process of diffusion models using fMRI signals. Our approach, NeuroPictor, divides the fMRI-to-image process into three steps: i) fMRI calibrated-encoding, to tackle multi-individual pre-training for a shared latent space to minimize individual difference and enable the subsequent cross-subject training; ii) fMRI-to-image cross-subject pre-training, perceptually learning to guide diffusion model with high- and low-level conditions across different individuals; iii) fMRI-to-image single-subject refining, similar with step ii but focus on adapting to particular individual. NeuroPictor extracts high-level semantic features from fMRI signals that characterizing the visual stimulus and incrementally fine-tunes the diffusion model with a low-level manipulation network to provide precise structural instructions. By training with over 60,000 fMRI-image pairs from various individuals, our model enjoys superior fMRI-to-image decoding capacity, particularly in the within-subject setting, as evidenced in benchmark datasets. Project page:


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