LQ-LoRA: Low-rank Plus Quantized Matrix Decomposition for Efficient Language Model Finetuning

Published on Nov 20, 2023


We propose a simple approach for memory-efficient adaptation of pretrained language models. Our approach uses an iterative algorithm to decompose each pretrained matrix into a high-precision low-rank component and a memory-efficient quantized component. During finetuning, the quantized component remains fixed and only the low-rank component is updated. We present an integer linear programming formulation of the quantization component which enables dynamic configuration of quantization parameters (e.g., bit-width, block size) for each matrix given an overall target memory budget. We further explore a data-aware version of the algorithm which uses an approximation of the Fisher information matrix to weight the reconstruction objective during matrix decomposition. Experiments on adapting RoBERTa and LLaMA-2 (7B and 70B) demonstrate that our low-rank plus quantized matrix decomposition approach (LQ-LoRA) outperforms strong QLoRA and GPTQ-LoRA baselines and moreover enables more aggressive quantization. For example, on the OpenAssistant benchmark LQ-LoRA is able to learn a 2.5-bit LLaMA-2 model that is competitive with a model finetuned with 4-bit QLoRA. When finetuned on a language modeling calibration dataset, LQ-LoRA can also be used for model compression; in this setting our 2.75-bit LLaMA-2-70B model (which has 2.85 bits on average when including the low-rank components and requires 27GB of GPU memory) is competitive with the original model in full precision.


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