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This model is a fine-tuned version of bert-base-multilingual-cased on an Babelscape/multinerd dataset.

Is your data not (always) capitalized correctly? Then consider using the uncased variant of this model instead for better performance: lxyuan/span-marker-bert-base-multilingual-uncased-multinerd.

This model achieves the following results on the evaluation set:

  • Loss: 0.0049
  • Overall Precision: 0.9242
  • Overall Recall: 0.9281
  • Overall F1: 0.9261
  • Overall Accuracy: 0.9852

Test set results:

  • test_loss: 0.005226554349064827,
  • test_overall_accuracy: 0.9851129807294873,
  • test_overall_f1: 0.9270450073152169,
  • test_overall_precision: 0.9281906912835416,
  • test_overall_recall: 0.9259021481405626,
  • test_runtime: 2690.9722,
  • test_samples_per_second: 150.748,
  • test_steps_per_second: 4.711

This is a replication of Tom's work. Everything remains unchanged, except that we extended the number of training epochs to 3 for a slightly longer training duration and set the gradient_accumulation_steps to 2. Please refer to the official model page to review their results and training script


Language Precision Recall F1
all 92.42 92.81 92.61
de 95.03 95.07 95.05
en 95.00 95.40 95.20
es 92.05 91.37 91.71
fr 92.37 91.41 91.89
it 91.45 93.15 92.29
nl 93.85 92.98 93.41
pl 93.13 92.66 92.89
pt 93.60 92.50 93.05
ru 93.25 93.32 93.29
zh 89.47 88.40 88.93
  • Special thanks to Tom for creating the evaluation script and generating the results.

Label set

Class Description Examples
PER (person) People Ray Charles, Jessica Alba, Leonardo DiCaprio, Roger Federer, Anna Massey.
ORG (organization) Associations, companies, agencies, institutions, nationalities and religious or political groups University of Edinburgh, San Francisco Giants, Google, Democratic Party.
LOC (location) Physical locations (e.g. mountains, bodies of water), geopolitical entities (e.g. cities, states), and facilities (e.g. bridges, buildings, airports). Rome, Lake Paiku, Chrysler Building, Mount Rushmore, Mississippi River.
ANIM (animal) Breeds of dogs, cats and other animals, including their scientific names. Maine Coon, African Wild Dog, Great White Shark, New Zealand Bellbird.
BIO (biological) Genus of fungus, bacteria and protoctists, families of viruses, and other biological entities. Herpes Simplex Virus, Escherichia Coli, Salmonella, Bacillus Anthracis.
CEL (celestial) Planets, stars, asteroids, comets, nebulae, galaxies and other astronomical objects. Sun, Neptune, Asteroid 187 Lamberta, Proxima Centauri, V838 Monocerotis.
DIS (disease) Physical, mental, infectious, non-infectious, deficiency, inherited, degenerative, social and self-inflicted diseases. Alzheimer’s Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Arthritis.
EVE (event) Sport events, battles, wars and other events. American Civil War, 2003 Wimbledon Championships, Cannes Film Festival.
FOOD (food) Foods and drinks. Carbonara, Sangiovese, Cheddar Beer Fondue, Pizza Margherita.
INST (instrument) Technological instruments, mechanical instruments, musical instruments, and other tools. Spitzer Space Telescope, Commodore 64, Skype, Apple Watch, Fender Stratocaster.
MEDIA (media) Titles of films, books, magazines, songs and albums, fictional characters and languages. Forbes, American Psycho, Kiss Me Once, Twin Peaks, Disney Adventures.
PLANT (plant) Types of trees, flowers, and other plants, including their scientific names. Salix, Quercus Petraea, Douglas Fir, Forsythia, Artemisia Maritima.
MYTH (mythological) Mythological and religious entities. Apollo, Persephone, Aphrodite, Saint Peter, Pope Gregory I, Hercules.
TIME (time) Specific and well-defined time intervals, such as eras, historical periods, centuries, years and important days. No months and days of the week. Renaissance, Middle Ages, Christmas, Great Depression, 17th Century, 2012.
VEHI (vehicle) Cars, motorcycles and other vehicles. Ferrari Testarossa, Suzuki Jimny, Honda CR-X, Boeing 747, Fairey Fulmar.

Inference Example

# install span_marker
(env)$ pip install span_marker

from span_marker import SpanMarkerModel

model = SpanMarkerModel.from_pretrained("lxyuan/span-marker-bert-base-multilingual-cased-multinerd")

description = "Singapore is renowned for its hawker centers offering dishes \
like Hainanese chicken rice and laksa, while Malaysia boasts dishes such as \
nasi lemak and rendang, reflecting its rich culinary heritage."

entities = model.predict(description)

  {'span': 'Singapore', 'label': 'LOC', 'score': 0.999988317489624, 'char_start_index': 0, 'char_end_index': 9},
  {'span': 'Hainanese chicken rice', 'label': 'FOOD', 'score': 0.9894770383834839, 'char_start_index': 66, 'char_end_index': 88},
  {'span': 'laksa', 'label': 'FOOD', 'score': 0.9224908947944641, 'char_start_index': 93, 'char_end_index': 98},
  {'span': 'Malaysia', 'label': 'LOC', 'score': 0.9999839067459106, 'char_start_index': 106, 'char_end_index': 114}]

# missed: nasi lemak as FOOD
# missed: rendang as FOOD
# :(

Quick test on Chinese

from span_marker import SpanMarkerModel

model = SpanMarkerModel.from_pretrained("lxyuan/span-marker-bert-base-multilingual-cased-multinerd")

# translate to chinese
description = "Singapore is renowned for its hawker centers offering dishes \
like Hainanese chicken rice and laksa, while Malaysia boasts dishes such as \
nasi lemak and rendang, reflecting its rich culinary heritage."

zh_description = "新加坡因其小贩中心提供海南鸡饭和叻沙等菜肴而闻名, 而马来西亚则拥有椰浆饭和仁当等菜肴,反映了其丰富的烹饪传统."

entities = model.predict(zh_description)

  {'span': '新加坡', 'label': 'LOC', 'score': 0.9282007813453674, 'char_start_index': 0, 'char_end_index': 3},
  {'span': '马来西亚', 'label': 'LOC', 'score': 0.7439665794372559, 'char_start_index': 27, 'char_end_index': 31}]

# It only managed to capture two countries: Singapore and Malaysia.
# All other entities were missed out.

Training procedure

One can reproduce the result running this script

Training hyperparameters

The following hyperparameters were used during training:

  • learning_rate: 5e-05
  • train_batch_size: 32
  • eval_batch_size: 32
  • seed: 42
  • gradient_accumulation_steps: 2
  • total_train_batch_size: 64
  • optimizer: Adam with betas=(0.9,0.999) and epsilon=1e-08
  • lr_scheduler_type: linear
  • lr_scheduler_warmup_ratio: 0.1
  • num_epochs: 3

Training results

Training Loss Epoch Step Validation Loss Overall Precision Overall Recall Overall F1 Overall Accuracy
0.0129 1.0 50436 0.0042 0.9226 0.9169 0.9197 0.9837
0.0027 2.0 100873 0.0043 0.9255 0.9206 0.9230 0.9846
0.0015 3.0 151308 0.0049 0.9242 0.9281 0.9261 0.9852

Framework versions

  • Transformers 4.30.2
  • Pytorch 2.0.1+cu117
  • Datasets 2.14.3
  • Tokenizers 0.13.3
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Finetuned from

Dataset used to train lxyuan/span-marker-bert-base-multilingual-cased-multinerd

Evaluation results