SecureBERT: A Domain-Specific Language Model for Cybersecurity

SecureBERT is a domain-specific language model based on RoBERTa which is trained on a huge amount of cybersecurity data and fine-tuned/tweaked to understand/represent cybersecurity textual data.

SecureBERT is a domain-specific language model to represent cybersecurity textual data which is trained on a large amount of in-domain text crawled from online resources. See the presentation on YouTube

See details at GitHub Repo


SecureBERT can be used as the base model for any downstream task including text classification, NER, Seq-to-Seq, QA, etc.

  • SecureBERT has demonstrated significantly higher performance in predicting masked words within the text when compared to existing models like RoBERTa (base and large), SciBERT, and SecBERT.
  • SecureBERT has also demonstrated promising performance in preserving general English language understanding (representation).

How to use SecureBERT

SecureBERT has been uploaded to Huggingface framework. You may use the code below

from transformers import RobertaTokenizer, RobertaModel
import torch

tokenizer = RobertaTokenizer.from_pretrained("ehsanaghaei/SecureBERT")
model = RobertaModel.from_pretrained("ehsanaghaei/SecureBERT")

inputs = tokenizer("This is SecureBERT!", return_tensors="pt")
outputs = model(**inputs)

last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

## Fill Mask
SecureBERT has been trained on MLM. Use the code below to predict the masked word within the given sentences:

#!pip install transformers
#!pip install torch
#!pip install tokenizers

import torch
import transformers
from transformers import RobertaTokenizer, RobertaTokenizerFast

tokenizer = RobertaTokenizerFast.from_pretrained("ehsanaghaei/SecureBERT")
model = transformers.RobertaForMaskedLM.from_pretrained("ehsanaghaei/SecureBERT")

def predict_mask(sent, tokenizer, model, topk =10, print_results = True):
    token_ids = tokenizer.encode(sent, return_tensors='pt')
    masked_position = (token_ids.squeeze() == tokenizer.mask_token_id).nonzero()
    masked_pos = [mask.item() for mask in masked_position]
    words = []
    with torch.no_grad():
        output = model(token_ids)

    last_hidden_state = output[0].squeeze()

    list_of_list = []
    for index, mask_index in enumerate(masked_pos):
        mask_hidden_state = last_hidden_state[mask_index]
        idx = torch.topk(mask_hidden_state, k=topk, dim=0)[1]
        words = [tokenizer.decode(i.item()).strip() for i in idx]
        words = [w.replace(' ','') for w in words]
        if print_results:
            print("Mask ", "Predictions : ", words)

    best_guess = ""
    for j in list_of_list:
        best_guess = best_guess + "," + j[0]

    return words

while True:
    sent = input("Text here: \t")
    print("SecureBERT: ")
    predict_mask(sent, tokenizer, model)


@inproceedings{aghaei2023securebert, title={SecureBERT: A Domain-Specific Language Model for Cybersecurity}, author={Aghaei, Ehsan and Niu, Xi and Shadid, Waseem and Al-Shaer, Ehab}, booktitle={Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 18th EAI International Conference, SecureComm 2022, Virtual Event, October 2022, Proceedings}, pages={39--56}, year={2023}, organization={Springer} }

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