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question_stem (string)question_para_step (sequence)answer_label (string)answer_label_as_choice (string)choices (sequence)metadata_question_id (string)metadata_graph_id (string)metadata_para_id (string)metadata_question_type (string)metadata_path_len (int32)
"suppose there will be fewer new trees happens, how will it affect LESS forest formation."
[ "A tree produces seeds", "The seeds are dispersed by wind, animals, etc", "The seeds reach the ground", "Grow into new trees", "These new trees produce seeds", "The process repeats itself over and over", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1217:144:106#0"
"144"
"1217"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose less cubes will have water to freeze happens, how will it affect LESS snow."
[ "Water in the clouds becomes very cold", "The cold water forms ice crystals", "The ice crystals grow by absorbing surrounding water droplets", "Form snowflakes", "The snowflakes fall to the ground." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:892:1001:77"
"1001"
"892"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose Pollute the air even more happens, how will it affect find a way to release the heat trapped in the atmosphere."
[ "Solar radiation reaches Earth's atmosphere", "Some is reflected back into space", "The rest of the energy is absorbed by land and oceans, heating the Earth", "Heat radiates from Earth to space", "Some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere", "Human activities such as burning fuel are increasing the amount of greenhouses gases", "This causes more heat radiation to stay trapped in our atmosphere", "The Earth's temperature rises", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:478:422:82#0"
"422"
"478"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose people are more responsible about putting out their campfires happens, how will it affect LESS power produced by the steam engine."
[ "Coal is loaded into the firebox", "The boiler produces steam under high pressure", "The steam generated in the boiler flows down into a cylinder", "Just ahead of the wheels, pushing a tight-fitting plunger, the piston", "The piston is connected to one or more of the locomotive's wheels through a kind of arm-elbow-shoulder joint called a crank and connecting rod", "As the piston pushes, the crank and connecting rod turn the locomotive's wheels and power the train along", "An outlet valve opens and the piston pushes the steam back through the cylinder and out up the locomotive's chimney", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:565:804:111"
"804"
"565"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose The recycling plant uses proper technique happens, how will it affect The cans are heated to a less high temperature."
[ "Put the aluminum can into a recycle bin", "The cans are transported to a facility", "The cans are shredded by a machine", "The cans are heated to 1400 degrees to melt them", "The molten metal is poured into molds", "The molds are flattened and rolled into sheets to reuse." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:158:896:116#0"
"896"
"158"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose gas condenses back into water happens, how will it affect LESS salt being removed from the water."
[ "The salt water is heated", "As the saltwater is heated the water becomes a gas", "The salt particles sink to the bottom of the container", "Gaseous water is piped into another container", "Allowed to cool", "The salt particles are left behind in the first container", "The second container contains fresh water." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:468:1888:77#1"
"1888"
"468"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
3
"suppose sediment becomes a smaller rock happens, how will it affect MORE igneous rock forming."
[ "Rock begins as magma from a volcano", "The magma cools", "Crystals form and the magma become igneous rocks", "The igneous rocks break down into sediment", "Become sedimentary rocks", "If subjected to heat and/or pressure from plate-tectonic activity the sedimentary rocks become metamorphic rock", "The metamorphic rocks melt", "Become magma again." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:449:1192:21"
"1192"
"449"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose not eating right weakens the immune system happens, how will it affect more copies infect other cells."
[ "The flu virus has receptors, which are like viral Velcro, on the surface of the virus particle", "The receptors will lock onto a target cell using these chemical receptors on the surface, which docks onto the cell surface", "The receptors then go into the cell", "The receptors use it like a factory", "The receptors take it over and make it produce thousands or in some cases millions of copies of new viruses", "The copies come streaming out of the cell", "The copies infect other cells to make more viruses, or they escape from the body and infect a new victim", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:830:1863:29#1"
"1863"
"830"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose the mother does not get an abortion happens, how will it affect MORE babies."
[ "There is a fetus in the womb", "They are born and are a baby", "The baby grows into a child", "Puberty turns the child into an adolescent", "The adolescent becomes an adult", "An adult becomes an elderly person", "The elderly person dies." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:524:475:58#0"
"475"
"524"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose the space rock is bigger happens, how will it affect more of a cave is formed."
[ "Water from the surface seeps below the soil", "The water comes into contact with the rock below", "The rock over the years carves through the rock", "The space in the rock becomes larger and forms into a cave", "As more rather rushes through the cave becomes a cavern." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:747:1059:144#0"
"1059"
"747"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less light to travel happens, how will it affect LESS sugar and oxygen being produced."
[ "Carbon dioxide passes through stomata in the leaves", "Water is absorbed through roots", "Chloroplast cells in leaves contain chlorophyll", "Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight", "Energy splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen", "Oxygen gets released into atmosphere", "Hydrogen and carbon dioxide used to create glucose", "Glucose is food for plants." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:686:1818:196"
"1818"
"686"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose prices for aluminum rise happens, how will it affect less aluminum pollutes waterways."
[ "Acid rain makes waters acidic", "Causes them to absorb aluminum from soil", "The water runs off from the soil into lakes, streams, etc", "Fish and their eggs die", "Frogs and plants die", "Insects and other wildlife die", "The ecosystem is out of balance, causing further problems", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:365:878:175"
"878"
"365"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose cracks do not develop happens, how will it affect MORE solar power being generated."
[ "A photovoltaic cell is created with two layers of semiconductor material", "The top layer are 'doped' with impurities to allow a negative charge", "The bottom layer are 'doped' to allow for a positive charge", "This produces an electric field that allows electrons to flow from negative to positve", "Sunlight enters the cell", "Energy from sunlight knocks electrons loose in both fields", "This prevents the flow of electrons from negative to positive", "Adding an external circuit allows the exchange to continue", "Give the cells owner a flow of electricity." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1150:1475:104"
"1475"
"1150"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose using less water happens, how will it affect less air is transported to the lungs."
[ "The human body takes a breath inward", "Air is transported to the lungs", "Air reaches the alveoli, the smallest air sacs in the lungs", "In the alveoli, air passes into the blood within small capillaries", "The gaseous oxygen in the air dissolves into the capillary blood", "The dissolved oxygen is picked-up by red blood cells", "The red blood cells bind the oxygen via a protein called heme", "Red blood cells circulate throughout the body and reach the various tissues", "Within small capillaries, the heme release the oxygen", "The oxygen can then reach the cells within the tissue", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:617:1501:170"
"1501"
"617"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there is more acid rain happens, how will it affect MORE forest formation."
[ "Networks of trees start forming", "The trees die off", "The dead material provides nutrients for more trees", "The rising trees provide shelter", "And more organisms begin to thrive", "The ecosystem known as a forest is made." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1218:2009:148"
"2009"
"1218"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose a person is dead happens, how will it affect the griddle is not heated."
[ "Mix pancake mix with water", "Heat a griddle", "Pour a circle of batter in the griddle", "When most of the bubbles pop on the surface, flip", "Cook to desired color", "Apply butter, syrup and enjoy", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1290:634:2"
"634"
"1290"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose a tsunami occurs and creates huge waves happens, how will it affect more sediment is eroded from the land."
[ "Waves hit the coast", "Waves have energy that pushes the water and sediment", "The sediment can help erode land like sandpaper", "Water washes the sediment back", "Some sediment is left as sand." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:936:1575:2#0"
"1575"
"936"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose there will be fewer earthquakes happens, how will it affect MORE/STRONGER earthquakes."
[ "The earth develops cracks deep beneath the surface", "The cracks get very long and big in some places", "The earth places pressure against the rocks on both sides of the cracks", "The pressure causes the rocks to press against each other very hard", "The cracks continue to develop", "The earth moves against itself on both sides of the cracks", "The pressure and movement around the cracks causes the rocks to crumble in some places", "A lot of energy is released", "The energy causes seismic waves", "The seismic waves move the earth in an earthquake." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:41:223:78#0"
"223"
"41"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose the blood is able to filter through the kidneys happens, how will it affect MORE digestion occuring."
[ "The saliva breaks down the chemicals in the food a bit, which helps make the food mushy and easy to swallow", "Your tongue helps out, pushing the food around while you chew with your teeth", "The esophagus moves food from the back of your throat to your stomach", "Strong muscles in the walls of the stomach and gastric juices break down food in your stomach", "Your stomach moves the food into the intestines to complete digestion", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:905:1654:61"
"1654"
"905"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the magma rises less happens, how will it affect the magma building in the volcano is thinner."
[ "Magma is formed when rock melts inside the Earth's crust", "Magma rises", "Collects inside magma chambers underneath a volcano", "Pressure builds in the magma chambers as they fill", "Gain energy for eruption", "Some of the energy is converted into seismic activity (earthquakes)", "If the magma building in the volcano is thick and sticky it will trap gases", "Results in an explosive eruption when the pressure becomes too intense", "If the magma is thin and runs", "The magma results in a low-pressure, slow-moving flow of magma instead of a violent eruption", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:922:1907:91#1"
"1907"
"922"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less mass pulled happens, how will it affect less light to travel."
[ "The gravity of the sun pulls its mass inward", "There is a lot of pressure on the Sun", "The pressure forces atoms of hydrogen to fuse together in nuclear reactions", "The energy from the reactions gives off different kinds of light", "The light travels to the Earth." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1167:115:56#3"
"115"
"1167"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose zygote is miscarried happens, how will it affect HELPING mitosis to proceed normally."
[ "Prophase, the chromosomes become visible", "Centrioles separate to move to opposite poles", "Metaphase, the chromosomes line up in the center", "Anaphase, the chromatids separate", "Are pulled apart", "Telophase, the chromosomes gather at opposite poles", "Two new nuclear membranes form", "The cell membranes pinch", "Divide into two individual cells", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1170:1709:59#1"
"1709"
"1170"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose more carbon dioxide in the air happens, how will it affect more current is produced."
[ "A conducting metal, like copper, is wrapped around a piece of metal", "An electrical source, like a battery, produces an electrical current", "The electrical current flows through the wire", "The electrical current creates a magnetic field around the wire, magnetizing the metal", "The magnetic field can be turned on and off by starting or stopping the electricity source", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:844:706:17"
"706"
"844"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose being allergic to some forms of contraception happens, how will it affect the pancreas working SOFTER."
[ "Food enters the body", "Food begins to be processed by the digestive system", "The pancreas releases enzymes to aid digestion", "Digested food affects the amount of sugar in the blood", "The pancreas releases one hormone to lower the blood sugar (glucose) level", "The pancreas releases another hormone to raisethe blood sugar (glucose) level." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:552:2070:197"
"2070"
"552"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the engine not getting enough air happens, how will it affect Less caterpillars eat and grow."
[ "A butterfly lays an egg", "A larvae matures inside of the egg", "The caterpillar hatches from the egg", "The caterpillar eats and grows", "The caterpillar spins a coccoon around itself and forms into a pupa", "The butterfly forms inside of the coccoon", "The mature butterfly emerges from the coccoon", "The butterfly mates", "The female butterfly lays eggs." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:588:1896:171"
"1896"
"588"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more rainy days happens, how will it affect a GREATER spread of the virus."
[ "A virus enters a host body", "The virus has receptors that lock onto a target cell", "The virus enters the cell", "The virus uses the cell like a factory to make new copies of the virus", "The new copies of the virus leave the cell", "Infect other cells", "The host gets sick as its cells are damaged." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:834:1130:190"
"1130"
"834"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose less water is added to the tray happens, how will it affect LESS ice cubes being made."
[ "You take a tray", "Add water into the tray", "You insert the tray into a freezer", "The water molecules begin to slow down", "The water becomes ice", "The ice cubes are ready." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1005:2064:121#1"
"2064"
"1005"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose the atmosphere is very thin happens, how will it affect LESS SEVERE disease occurring."
[ "Someone is infected with bacteria", "That bacteria begins to grow and reproduce inside the cells", "The dividing bacteria begin to make toxins", "Those toxins damage your cells", "Disease symptoms may begin." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:298:41:33"
"41"
"298"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose less wombs available happens, how will it affect LESS babies."
[ "A man and woman mate", "Embryo is C", "Embryo grows and develops into a fetus inside the woman's womb", "The fetus is born", "Begins to grow and develop through infancy and childhood", "In the teenage years the human experiences puberty", "Reaches sexual maturity", "At 18 the human becomes an adult", "Adult may procreate continuing the cycle." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:525:824:135#0"
"824"
"525"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose the air is already clear of carbon dioxide happens, how will it affect a SMALLER amount of oxygen being delivered to the blood stream."
[ "A person breathes in oxygen", "The oxygen passes through the bronchial tubes to the lungs", "The oxygen is moved into the bloodstream", "Circulates through the body", "The cells in the body exchange the oxygen with carbon dioxide", "The bloodstream carries the carbon dioxide back to the lungs", "The lungs expel the carbon dioxide through the nose and mouth." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:140:1153:106#1"
"1153"
"140"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose more water comes sprays out of the jets happens, how will it affect the rain will not evaporate out of the wood."
[ "Rain falls on wood", "The rain seeps into the wood surface", "It permeates the wood", "When rain evaporates it leaves the wood", "It takes the finish of the wood with it", "The wood begins to lose it's luster", "It begins to look bad", "It has pieces of paint missing from the rain", "It gets worse when it rains", "It eventually will have no paint left." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:316:337:91"
"337"
"316"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose Blood cleaned less well, your urine output more affected happens, how will it affect HURTING the flashlight to work properly."
[ "Batteries are put in a flashlight", "The flashlight is turned on", "Two contact strips touch one another", "A circuit is completed between the batteries and the lamp", "The lamp in the flashlight begins to glow", "The reflector in the flashlight directs the lamp's beam", "A straight beam of light is generated", "The flashlight is turned off", "The circuit is broken", "The beam is no longer visible." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:499:451:120"
"451"
"499"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the weather is bad happens, how will it affect MORE/LARGER nests."
[ "The bird picks a tree", "The bird collects twigs and other refuse", "The bird makes a flat base with twigs", "The bird makes sides with twigs and other things", "The bird adds softer material to the inside", "The nest is done." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1265:624:104"
"624"
"1265"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose smaller river erodes the rock happens, how will it affect LESS or SMALLER valleys being formed."
[ "A large rocky area is formed", "The rocky area has a higher elevation than the surrounding areas", "Water from precipitation falls in the area", "The water forms a stream", "The stream flows towards lower elevation", "The stream becomes a river", "The river continues to flow along the same path for a long time", "The river erodes the rocky area that it touches", "The eroded area cuts deeply into the rock." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:22:212:106#0"
"212"
"22"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose less sunny days occur happens, how will it affect more sunlight available."
[ "A photovoltaic cell is created with two layers of semiconductor material", "The top layer are 'doped' with impurities to allow a negative charge", "The bottom layer are 'doped' to allow for a positive charge", "This produces an electric field that allows electrons to flow from negative to positve", "Sunlight enters the cell", "Energy from sunlight knocks electrons loose in both fields", "This prevents the flow of electrons from negative to positive", "Adding an external circuit allows the exchange to continue", "Give the cells owner a flow of electricity." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1150:1476:102#1"
"1476"
"1150"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose more ocean water breaks rocks off of cliffs happens, how will it affect more sand and rocks go to the bottom of the ocean."
[ "Ocean waves hit land", "Ocean water pulls sand off of beaches", "Ocean water breaks rocks off of cliffs", "Ocean water carries sand and rocks into the ocean", "Sand and rocks go to other land or the bottom of the ocean." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:935:1570:43#0"
"1570"
"935"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose there is no traffic to airport happens, how will it affect more luggage checked."
[ "An airline reservation is made", "The passenger arrives early at the airport", "The luggage is checked", "The passenger waits in line", "The passenger shows their identification and gets a boarding pass", "The passenger goes to their gate", "The passenger gets in line when it's time to board", "The person boards the plane", "The plane arrives at the destination", "The passenger gets off the plane at their destination." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:574:509:2#2"
"509"
"574"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose coal is brought from a coal mine to a boiler happens, how will it affect LESS or SMALLER caverns."
[ "Limestone is located under the soil", "Rain picks up carbon dioxide as it falls to earth", "The rain falls on the soil over the limestone", "The carbon dioxide in the rain washes through the soil", "The carbon dioxide turns into acid", "The acid in the rain gets to the limestone below the soil", "The acid dissolves the limestone", "Acid continues to erode the limestone with more rain over time", "The eroded limestone sometimes forms caves." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:31:216:76"
"216"
"31"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there is more sun shining the the area happens, how will it affect if more bats are asleep."
[ "The bat sends out sound waves from their mouth or nose", "The sound waves hit an object", "Echoes are produced", "The echo returns to the bat's ears", "The bat hears the echo", "The bat can figure out where the object is located." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:742:1792:43"
"1792"
"742"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more sunny days happens, how will it affect less sugar and oxygen produced."
[ "Green is a color that gathers sunlight easily", "Sunlight is gathered by the leaves of the plant", "The sunlight is broken down into glucose through photosynthesis", "The glucose travels the plant", "The plant uses that glucose as energy to grow." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:769:1060:9#1"
"1060"
"769"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less pollution in the environment happens, how will it affect more spores germinate in soil."
[ "Adult mushrooms produce spores", "Release them into the air by process of sporulation", "Spores are carried by the wind", "Land in a hospitable growing environment", "The spores germinate into the soil", "The mushroom starts growing", "The adult mushroom produce spores of its own to repeat the process." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1065:1809:35#1"
"1809"
"1065"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose less oil is gathered happens, how will it affect more oil is purchased."
[ "Oil is gathered through mining operations", "The oil is transported to stores", "Oil is purchased by homeowners", "Oil is placed into a stove in the house", "The oil is lit on fire, and burns for a long time", "The warm air off of the oil travels through the house", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1029:720:75#1"
"720"
"1029"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose You maintain a more healthy diet happens, how will it affect you develop pancreatic cancer."
[ "You eat food", "Your stomach digests the food", "Sugars from food enter your bloodstream", "Insulin helps turn sugars into energy", "Insulin helps your body store the energy in fat, muscle and liver cells", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1216:1074:55#0"
"1074"
"1216"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose faster baler machines are created happens, how will it affect landfill becomes full."
[ "Items are collected", "The items are sorted", "Trash is removed from everything else", "Goes to a landfill", "The items go into a baler machine for each kind of material", "They come out as bales", "The bales are shipped to manufacturers to use to make products." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:264:1876:55#0"
"1876"
"264"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose grass and plants gather together happens, how will it affect there is no grass in the area."
[ "Grass and small plants grow in an area", "These plants die", "The soil gains organic material", "The soil becomes more fertile", "Larger plants are able to be supported", "Trees eventually grow." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1219:1231:123#0"
"1231"
"1219"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose less soundwaves echo to the bat happens, how will it affect more fossils appears on the surface of ground."
[ "A plant dies", "The remains of the plant are buried very fast in sediment", "The soft parts of the plant decay", "The hard parts of the plant are replaced with minerals", "The sediment turns into rock", "The rock erodes", "The fossil appears on the surface of the ground." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:676:2059:211"
"2059"
"676"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more pollution in the environment happens, how will it affect more cocoon hatches."
[ "A larva is born", "The caterpillar eats constantly until it grows bigger", "The caterpillar starts to form a cocoon around itself", "The caterpillar becomes a pupa", "After some time the cocoon hatches", "And a butterfly is born." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:656:1484:138#1"
"1484"
"656"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose there is more hydrogen in the star happens, how will it affect a LARGER white dwarf star."
[ "A star burns in space", "Eventually it burns all its hydrogen", "Becomes a red giant", "Once the red giant burns itself out", "The core of the star collapses", "The gasses will start to disperse", "Only the core is left", "A white dwarf has been formed." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1095:801:157#0"
"801"
"1095"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
3
"suppose icebergs form and lower water levels happens, how will it affect MORE erosion by the ocean."
[ "Waves hit the coast", "Waves have energy that pushes the water and sediment", "The sediment can help erode land like sandpaper", "Water washes the sediment back", "Some sediment is left as sand." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:936:1575:11#0"
"1575"
"936"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose during death happens, how will it affect less cells."
[ "Prophase is the first and longest stage of mitosis", "In this stage the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell", "In prophase the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell", "In metaphase the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and become connected to the spindle fiber at their centromere", "In anaphase the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are pulled apart", "During telophase the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct rod-like shapes", "Two new nuclear membranes then form around each of the two regions of DNA and the spindle fibers disappear." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1169:120:83#0"
"120"
"1169"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose more sediment will form happens, how will it affect LESS oil."
[ "Dead organic material accumulates on the bottom of oceans, riverbeds or swamps, mixing with mud and sand", "Over time, more sediment piles on top", "The resulting heat and pressure transforms the organic layer into a dark and waxy substance known as kerogen", "Left alone, the kerogen molecules eventually crack", "The molecules break up into shorter and lighter molecules composed almost solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms", "It will turn into either petroleum or natural gas", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1155:2037:52#0"
"2037"
"1155"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose salt will remain in water happens, how will it affect LESS sugar and oxygen being produced."
[ "Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in a plant", "The light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide", "The plant uses nutrients in the soil", "The plant uses carbon dioxide in the air to produce glucose", "The plant uses the glucose to give itself energy", "Oxygen is released as a by product." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:938:1725:39"
"1725"
"938"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose larvae didn't have enough food happens, how will it affect more plants decay."
[ "A plant dies", "The remains of the plant are buried very fast in sediment", "The soft parts of the plant decay", "The hard parts of the plant are replaced with minerals", "The sediment turns into rock", "The rock erodes", "The fossil appears on the surface of the ground." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:676:2059:206"
"2059"
"676"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there is less of an appetite happens, how will it affect windpipe is blocked."
[ "You breathe oxygen into your body through the nose or mouth", "The oxygen travels to the lungs through the windpipe", "The air sacs in the lungs send the oxygen into the blood stream", "The carbon dioxide in the blood stream is transferred to the air sacs", "The lungs expel through the nose or mouth back into the environment." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:132:15:3"
"15"
"132"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the stomach acid is not staying in the stomach happens, how will it affect there is less acid rain."
[ "Acid rain leaches aluminum from clay particles in soil", "Aluminum flows into streams and lakes", "Acid rain dissolves minerals and nutrients in soil", "Washes them away so plants can't benefit from them", "PH in soil and water gets affected which can kill plants and animals", "Acid rain in fog at higher elevations can strip foliage off trees." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:607:931:130"
"931"
"607"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose air is cleared of carbon dioxide happens, how will it affect the greenhouse being COLDER."
[ "Sunlight passes through the glass into the greenhouse", "The plants and floor absorb the the sunlight", "The absorbed sunlight is converted to heat", "The heat cannot escape the glass", "The heat is trapped in the greenhouse", "The hot air rises", "The colder air at the top is pushed to the bottom", "The colder air is then warmed by the floor and the plants." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1053:585:237"
"585"
"1053"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose fewer cells are entered happens, how will it affect the person will not be as ill."
[ "A virus enters a host body", "The virus has receptors that lock onto a target cell", "The virus enters the cell", "The virus uses the cell like a factory to make new copies of the virus", "The new copies of the virus leave the cell", "Infect other cells", "The host gets sick as its cells are damaged." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:834:1127:42#0"
"1127"
"834"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose elevation of blood sugar happens, how will it affect MORE regulation of blood sugar level being needed."
[ "Sugar enters the body", "Bloodstream", "The pancreas", "Insulin lower sugar levels", "Bloo sugar goes back to normal." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:556:1204:26#0"
"1204"
"556"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose Choking starts to occurs happens, how will it affect Food enters the stomach."
[ "Food is put into mouth", "Food is chewed and mixed with saliva (spit)", "Food travels down the esophagus (throat)", "Food travels into the stomach", "Acid in the stomach breaks the food down further", "Food travels into the small intestine", "Nutrients from food are absorbed into the blood stream", "Food travels into the large intestine", "Most of the remaining material is now waste", "The waste is eventually removed from the body." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:490:1438:29#0"
"1438"
"490"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose the animal gets fatter happens, how will it affect HELPING the animal to hibernate properly."
[ "The animal eats large quantities of food that will be stored as fat", "Winter comes and the animal finds a place to hibernate", "Over a period of days, the animal's heart rate and breathing rate drop slowly", "Electrical activity in the brain almost ceases completely, though some areas remain active", "The animal has entered hibernation mode", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:681:2027:105#0"
"2027"
"681"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose there organisms live longer happens, how will it affect there will be less layers of sediment."
[ "Living organisms in the sea die", "The matter forms on the sea floor", "Layers of sediment form above the matter compressing it", "After many years the matter is compressed and heated", "The result is that crude oil forms." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1156:1992:110#3"
"1992"
"1156"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose more red blood cells carry oxygen happens, how will it affect wildlife will have more to eat."
[ "A forest fire starts", "The trees and plants burn", "The animals lose their homes", "If the animals can not escape, they may die from smoke inhalation", "The plants that provide food are gone", "The animals have little to eat", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1143:1959:53"
"1959"
"1143"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose something is creating a shadow happens, how will it affect the forest is infected with dead trees."
[ "Networks of trees start forming", "The trees die off", "The dead material provides nutrients for more trees", "The rising trees provide shelter", "And more organisms begin to thrive", "The ecosystem known as a forest is made." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1218:2006:19"
"2006"
"1218"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there is more limestone happens, how will it affect MORE coal arriving at the power station."
[ "A mine is excavated in the side of a mountain", "Miners enter the mine", "Miners remove the coal from the mine", "The coal is placed into carts or on a conveyor belt", "The coal is moved up to the surface", "The coal is loaded onto a truck", "The truck takes the coal to a power station." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:423:2000:29"
"2000"
"423"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose Less pollution is better for more trees. happens, how will it affect more seedlings survive longer."
[ "Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through the stomates by diffusion", "Water is transported to the leaves in the xylem", "Energy harvested through light reaction is stored by forming ATP", "Carbon dioxide and energy from ATP are used to create sugar", "Oxygen exits the leaves through the stomata by diffusion", "The plant reuses the water or the water exits through the stomata as water vapor." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:940:891:137#3"
"891"
"940"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose more seams are discovered happens, how will it affect LESS or SMALLER eruptions."
[ "Magma rises through cracks in the Earth's crust", "The pressure causes plates to move", "Magma explodes to the surface", "The lava from the eruption cools to form new crust", "After several eruptions, the rock builds up and a volcano forms", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:921:1042:32"
"1042"
"921"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the earth gets hotter happens, how will it affect MORE or FASTER erosion of rocks."
[ "When water freezes it becomes 10% bigger, or takes up 10% more space", "As water expands it puts great pressure on the walls of anything containing it, including any rocks which happen to be surrounding it", "The force of the pressure exerted on the rock surrounding it is enough to wedge the walls of the crack farther apart, thus expanding and deepening the crack", "Clay expends when wet like ice does", "This causes rock to break apart", "Some plants like mosses and lichens are capable of growing without soil on bare rock", "When they do this their roots penetrate pores and crevices and cause rocks to split apart as the roots force their way down through the rocks", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:908:670:5#1"
"670"
"908"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose when one has low water levels in the body happens, how will it affect LESS waste being removed from the body."
[ "Blood carried into kidney by the renal artery", "Nephrons in the kidney filter the blood", "The waste that is filtered out mixes with water", "Become urine", "Ureters carry urine out of the kidneys." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1298:651:148#0"
"651"
"1298"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose animals dying in floods happens, how will it affect LESS fossils forming."
[ "Animals and plants die in soft soil or mud", "Sediment builds up over the remains", "The remains decompose, leaving only trace amounts", "The remaining parts over the years are replaced with mineral", "A fossil is formed", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:675:785:40#1"
"785"
"675"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose the soil is unusually deep happens, how will it affect more carbon atoms would rearrange."
[ "Plants and animals long ago died", "They are buried under layers of soil", "Pressure builds over time", "The remains liquefy", "The carbon atoms rearrange to become a new substance." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1154:553:56#1"
"553"
"1154"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose there is no water to put into the machine happens, how will it affect the water spout is broken."
[ "The coffee pot is filled with water", "Water is poured into the well of the machine", "A filter is placed in the basket", "Ground coffee is measured into the filter", "Turning on the machine starts the water heating", "The hot water rises up", "The water drops into the ground coffee", "The hot water passes through the grounds", "The coffee drips into the pot from the basket." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1294:772:2#3"
"772"
"1294"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose The freezer is of insufficient size happens, how will it affect a smaller volume of water will be used."
[ "Put water in an ice cube tray", "Put the ice cube tray in the freezer", "Wait 5 to 6 hours", "Take the ice cube tray out of the freezer", "Bend the tray slightly to get the ice cubes out and into a drink." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:286:319:56#1"
"319"
"286"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose the atoms are less stable happens, how will it affect LESS radioactive decay occurring."
[ "The nuclei of some atoms have too few or too many neutrons", "The atoms become unstable", "The atoms split", "In alpha decay, two protons and two neutrons are released from the atom", "In beta decay, a neutron changes into a proton and an electron", "The proton joins the nucleus of the atom", "The electron is released", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1152:1518:104#0"
"1518"
"1152"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less environmental regulation happens, how will it affect more energy is trapped in the atmosphere."
[ "Human beings burn fossil fuels (oil, gas, etc.)", "Carbon dioxide from the burning fossil fuels enter the atmosphere", "The make-up of the atmosphere changes", "Some energy from the sun cannot escape back through the changed atmosphere", "The earth begins to heat because of the extra trapped energy", "Human beings cut down trees", "Human beings do not re-plant the trees", "Trees cannot help take the extra carbon dioxide from the atmosphere", "The extra trapped energy starts to change the earth's short term weather", "Eventually the long-term climate patterns start to change", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:476:1037:29#1"
"1037"
"476"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose the water is more scarce happens, how will it affect more ice crystals are formed."
[ "Water in the clouds becomes very cold", "The cold water forms ice crystals", "The ice crystals grow by absorbing surrounding water droplets", "Form snowflakes", "The snowflakes fall to the ground." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:892:1002:75#1"
"1002"
"892"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose less larvae is formed happens, how will it affect MORE butterflies."
[ "The butterfly starts as an egg", "The egg hatches to form a larva, also called a caterpillar", "The carterpillar molts (loses its skin) many times as it grows", "The caterpillar then forms itself into a pupa, or chrysalis", "The caterpillar in the chrysalis begins change, a process called mmetaphorphosis", "The caterpillar completes its metamorphosis and has turned into a butterfly", "The adult butterfly emerges out of the chrysalis and flys away!", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:658:1303:130#1"
"1303"
"658"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
3
"suppose a smaller satellites is determined happens, how will it affect less remains liquefy."
[ "Plants and animals long ago died", "They are buried under layers of soil", "Pressure builds over time", "The remains liquefy", "The carbon atoms rearrange to become a new substance." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1154:555:171"
"555"
"1154"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more cold temperatures happens, how will it affect there is an increase in pollution."
[ "Pollution enters natural water sources such as rivers and lakes", "The pollution negatively affects the water quality", "The pollution negatively affects the health of plants and animals", "The plants and animals have shorter, less healthy lives", "The plants and animals do not reproduce very well", "The number of plants and animals decreases over time", "The quality of water gets worse and worse as there are no plants or animals to clean it", "Eventually there is nothing living in the water and it is unusable", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:290:39:87"
"39"
"290"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose taking more deep breaths happens, how will it affect more oxygen released by blood."
[ "The human body takes a breath inward", "Air is transported to the lungs", "Air reaches the alveoli, the smallest air sacs in the lungs", "In the alveoli, air passes into the blood within small capillaries", "The gaseous oxygen in the air dissolves into the capillary blood", "The dissolved oxygen is picked-up by red blood cells", "The red blood cells bind the oxygen via a protein called heme", "Red blood cells circulate throughout the body and reach the various tissues", "Within small capillaries, the heme release the oxygen", "The oxygen can then reach the cells within the tissue", "" ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:617:1498:37#1"
"1498"
"617"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose More oxygen reaches the lungs happens, how will it affect more spores germinate."
[ "A mushroom gives off gills lined with basidia", "The basidia gives off spores", "The spores germinate", "The spores create Hyphae", "Multiple Hyphae meet and converge", "They join with Mycelium", "A hyphal knot forms in the ground", "A primordia shoots out of the ground", "A mushroom cap is formed." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:1066:1645:178"
"1645"
"1066"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more natural disasters occur happens, how will it affect more wombs available."
[ "A man and woman mate", "Embryo is C", "Embryo grows and develops into a fetus inside the woman's womb", "The fetus is born", "Begins to grow and develop through infancy and childhood", "In the teenage years the human experiences puberty", "Reaches sexual maturity", "At 18 the human becomes an adult", "Adult may procreate continuing the cycle." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:525:824:117#2"
"824"
"525"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose System weakened by more stress happens, how will it affect material will pass through stomach quickly."
[ "Food is taken into the mouth", "The food is chewed", "Saliva mixes with the food and starts breaking it down", "The chewed food travels down the esophagus to the stomach", "The stomach secretes acid", "Grinds and mixes the food", "The food moves to the small intestine", "The small intestine uses enzymes to further break down the food", "The food passes into the colon", "The food is expelled from the body." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:489:434:90#1"
"434"
"489"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose a greater amount of water is boiled happens, how will it affect MORE salt being removed from the water."
[ "Boil salt water", "The water will turn into water vapor", "Collect the water vapor", "Allow the water vapor to cool", "The water vapor will turn into liquid water", "The salt will be separated from the water." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:665:1844:18#0"
"1844"
"665"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
3
"suppose you have more depression happens, how will it affect liver works more more properly."
[ "The liver takes in blood from the rest of the body", "The liver uses enzymes to clean the blood", "The cleaned blood is expelled", "The liver creates bile from the items filtered", "The liver takes energy and stores it as glycogen", "The bile is sent to the intestines." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:624:1112:117#3"
"1112"
"624"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less air happens, how will it affect MORE oxygen reaching the body."
[ "A person takes in oxygen through their nose or mouth", "The oxygen travels into the body", "Breaks down into glucose", "Carbon dioxide is produced by the glucose breakdown", "The carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body through the nose or mouth." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:294:1503:24#0"
"1503"
"294"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose no blood sugar rise happens, how will it affect slower growth of bacteria."
[ "Bacteria enter the body", "Bacteria start to divide and grow", "The uncontrolled growth takes away resources from other cells", "Other cells cannot function properly", "We feel unwell", "The growth and division of bacteria produce toxins", "Toxins harm the body", "The body tries to react to the toxins", "The body's natural defenses can sometimes cause us to feel unwell." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:300:1173:212"
"1173"
"300"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there is no conducting material available happens, how will it affect a SMALLER amount of oxygen being delivered to the blood stream."
[ "Air is pulled into the lungs", "Oxygen moves from the lungs into the bloodstream", "Air is pushed through the vocal chords", "A person talks", "Other air is pushed out of the lungs into the environment." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:923:1870:119"
"1870"
"923"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose more space available happens, how will it affect more bacteria enters the body."
[ "Bacteria enters the body", "Bloodstream", "Cells in the body are attacked", "Cells are killed", "Different kinds of sickness are formed." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:382:357:169"
"357"
"382"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose Less radiation will be absorbed by the earth happens, how will it affect a SMALLER amount of oxygen being delivered to the blood stream."
[ "A person breathes in oxygen", "The oxygen passes through the bronchial tubes to the lungs", "The oxygen is moved into the bloodstream", "Circulates through the body", "The cells in the body exchange the oxygen with carbon dioxide", "The bloodstream carries the carbon dioxide back to the lungs", "The lungs expel the carbon dioxide through the nose and mouth." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:140:1150:38"
"1150"
"140"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the smaller aircraft is out of service happens, how will it affect More carbon dioxide and energy from ATP are used."
[ "Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through the stomates by diffusion", "Water is transported to the leaves in the xylem", "Energy harvested through light reaction is stored by forming ATP", "Carbon dioxide and energy from ATP are used to create sugar", "Oxygen exits the leaves through the stomata by diffusion", "The plant reuses the water or the water exits through the stomata as water vapor." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:940:887:55"
"887"
"940"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose the lungs remove less oxygen happens, how will it affect more red blood cells carry oxygen."
[ "Air goes into the lungs", "The lungs remove oxygen from the air", "Oxygen diffuses from alveoli in the lungs to the bloodstream", "Hemoglobin in red blood cells attaches to the oxygen", "Red blood cells carry oxygen all around the body", "Oxygen diffuses into cells from capillaries." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:618:1116:62#0"
"1116"
"618"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
2
"suppose decreased human population happens, how will it affect the animal does not fatten up."
[ "An animal eats a lot of food to fatten up", "The animal finds or builds a suitable place to hibernate where they can stay warm and protected", "The animal moves into their den", "Their heart rate and breathing slow down to conserve energy", "They emerge from the den when the weather is warming up again." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:493:437:20"
"437"
"493"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose bladder releases urine happens, how will it affect MORE oxygen reaching the body."
[ "Air is taken through the mouth", "Enters the lungs", "The oxygen fills the sacs in your lungs", "Carbon dioxide is removed from the lungs and exhaled", "The oxygen is pass throughout your body." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:942:1237:188"
"1237"
"942"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose person is vomiting from illness happens, how will it affect less food being broken down."
[ "An enzyme in saliva begins to break down carbohydrates", "Food is squeezed down the esophagus when you swallow", "Acid and enzyme in the stomach break the food down", "Releases nutrients", "Food then pumped into small intestine", "Fluid and enzymes from liver and pancreas pumped into small intestine", "Help break food into smallest molecules", "Nutrients pass through wall of small intestine", "Nutrients absorbed into blood stream", "Unused materials passed into large intestine to become fecal matter." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1158:558:37#1"
"558"
"1158"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less heat radiates happens, how will it affect trapping more heat radiation."
[ "Solar radiation reaches Earth's atmosphere", "Some is reflected back into space", "The rest of the energy is absorbed by land and oceans, heating the Earth", "Heat radiates from Earth to space", "Some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere", "Human activities such as burning fuel are increasing the amount of greenhouses gases", "This causes more heat radiation to stay trapped in our atmosphere", "The Earth's temperature rises", "" ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:478:419:21#1"
"419"
"478"
"INPARA_EFFECT"
2
"suppose there was water and rock touching happens, how will it affect MORE or LARGER caverns."
[ "Water from the surface seeps below the soil", "The water comes into contact with the rock below", "The rock over the years carves through the rock", "The space in the rock becomes larger and forms into a cave", "As more rather rushes through the cave becomes a cavern." ]
"more"
"A"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:747:1055:39#0"
"1055"
"747"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
4
"suppose it is a cloudy day happens, how will it affect more cells capture energy."
[ "Sunlight shines on plants", "Cells with chlorophyll in them capture the light energy", "Plants absorb carbon dioxide through their stoma", "Plants absorb water through their roots and other parts of themselves", "Plants absorb minerals through their roots", "Plants convert these inputs into sugars", "Sugars can be used as energy sources", "Oxygen and water are also produced", "Excess water and oxygen are released through stoma and other parts of the plant." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:330:351:117#0"
"351"
"330"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose less environmental regulation happens, how will it affect LESS sugar and oxygen being produced."
[ "Carbon dioxide from the air passes through small pores (holes) in the leaves", "These pores are called stomata", "Water is absorbed by the roots", "It passes through vessels in the stem on its way to the leaves", "Sunlight is absorbed by a green chemical in the leaves." ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:939:1997:159"
"1997"
"939"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
"suppose there are less animals that die happens, how will it affect there will be less layers of sediment."
[ "Living organisms in the sea die", "The matter forms on the sea floor", "Layers of sediment form above the matter compressing it", "After many years the matter is compressed and heated", "The result is that crude oil forms." ]
"less"
"B"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"influence_graph:1156:1993:144#3"
"1993"
"1156"
"EXOGENOUS_EFFECT"
3
"suppose there will be less water in the streams happens, how will it affect pressure builds up until it is released."
[ "Plates on the Earth's crust move slowly past each other", "As the plates move, they exert a great force", "When the force is large enough, the crust breaks", "The stress is released as energy", "The energy moves through the Earth in the form of waves", "We feel the earthquake", "" ]
"no_effect"
"C"
{ "text": [ "more", "less", "no effect" ], "label": [ "A", "B", "C" ] }
"out_of_para:919:1628:211"
"1628"
"919"
"OUTOFPARA_DISTRACTOR"
0
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "wiqa"

Dataset Summary

The WIQA dataset V1 has 39705 questions containing a perturbation and a possible effect in the context of a paragraph. The dataset is split into 29808 train questions, 6894 dev questions and 3003 test questions.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

default

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 5.00 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 21.36 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 26.37 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

{
    "answer_label": "more",
    "answer_label_as_choice": "A",
    "choices": {
        "label": ["A", "B", "C"],
        "text": ["more", "less", "no effect"]
    },
    "metadata_graph_id": "481",
    "metadata_para_id": "528",
    "metadata_path_len": 3,
    "metadata_question_id": "influence_graph:528:481:77#0",
    "metadata_question_type": "INPARA_EFFECT",
    "question_para_step": ["A male and female rabbit mate", "The female rabbit becomes pregnant", "Baby rabbits form inside of the mother rabbit", "The female rabbit gives birth to a litter", "The newborn rabbits grow up to become adults", "The adult rabbits find mates."],
    "question_stem": "suppose the female is sterile happens, how will it affect LESS rabbits."
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

default

  • question_stem: a string feature.
  • question_para_step: a list of string features.
  • answer_label: a string feature.
  • answer_label_as_choice: a string feature.
  • choices: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a string feature.
    • label: a string feature.
  • metadata_question_id: a string feature.
  • metadata_graph_id: a string feature.
  • metadata_para_id: a string feature.
  • metadata_question_type: a string feature.
  • metadata_path_len: a int32 feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 29808 6894 3003

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

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Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

@article{wiqa,
      author    = {Niket Tandon and Bhavana Dalvi Mishra and Keisuke Sakaguchi and Antoine Bosselut and Peter Clark}
      title     = {WIQA: A dataset for "What if..." reasoning over procedural text},
      journal   = {arXiv:1909.04739v1},
      year      = {2019},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @patrickvonplaten, @lewtun, @thomwolf, @mariamabarham, @lhoestq for adding this dataset.