Datasets:

Task Categories: multiple-choice
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: n<1K
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: original
Dataset Preview Go to dataset viewer
text (string)pronoun (string)pronoun_loc (int)quote (string)quote_loc (int)options (json)label (class label)source (string)
The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they feared violence.
they
63
they feared violence
63
[ "The city councilmen", "The demonstrators" ]
0 (0)
(Winograd 1972)
The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they advocated violence.
they
63
they advocated violence
63
[ "The city councilmen", "The demonstrators" ]
1 (1)
(Winograd 1972)
The trophy doesn't fit into the brown suitcase because it is too large.
it
55
it is too large
55
[ "the trophy", "the suitcase" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The trophy doesn't fit into the brown suitcase because it is too small.
it
55
it is too small
55
[ "the trophy", "the suitcase" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Joan made sure to thank Susan for all the help she had recieved.
she
47
she had received
47
[ "Joan", "Susan" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Joan made sure to thank Susan for all the help she had given.
she
47
she had given
47
[ "Joan", "Susan" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Paul tried to call George on the phone, but he wasn't successful.
he
44
he wasn't successful.
44
[ "Paul", "George" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Paul tried to call George on the phone, but he wasn't available.
he
44
he wasn't available.
44
[ "Paul", "George" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The lawyer asked the witness a question, but he was reluctant to repeat it.
he
45
he was reluctant
45
[ "the lawyer", "the witness" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The lawyer asked the witness a question, but he was reluctant to answer it.
he
45
he was reluctant
45
[ "the lawyer", "the witness" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The delivery truck zoomed by the school bus because it was going so fast.
it
52
it was going so fast.
52
[ "the delivery truck", "the school bus" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The delivery truck zoomed by the school bus because it was going so slow.
it
52
it was going so slow.
52
[ "the delivery truck", "the school bus" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Frank felt vindicated when his longtime rival Bill revealed that he was the winner of the competition.
he
65
he was the winner
65
[ "Frank", "Bill" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Frank felt crushed when his longtime rival Bill revealed that he was the winner of the competition.
he
62
he was the winner
62
[ "Frank", "Bill" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The man couldn't lift his son because he was so weak.
he
38
he was so weak.
38
[ "The man", "The son" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The man couldn't lift his son because he was so heavy.
he
38
he was so heavy.
38
[ "The man", "The son" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The large ball crashed right through the table because it was made of steel.
it
55
it was made of steel.
55
[ "The large ball", "The table" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The large ball crashed right through the table because it was made of styrofoam.
it
55
it was made of styrofoam.
55
[ "The large ball", "The table" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
John couldn't see the stage with Billy in front of him because he is so short.
he
63
he is so short.
63
[ "John", "Billy" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
John couldn't see the stage with Billy in front of him because he is so tall.
he
63
he is so tall.
63
[ "John", "Billy" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Tom threw his schoolbag down to Ray after he reached the top of the stairs.
he
42
he reached the top of the stairs.
42
[ "Tom", "Ray" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Tom threw his schoolbag down to Ray after he reached the bottom of the stairs.
he
42
he reached the bottom of the stairs.
42
[ "Tom", "Ray" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Although they ran at about the same speed, Sue beat Sally because she had such a good start.
she
66
she had such a good start.
66
[ "Sue", "Sally" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Although they ran at about the same speed, Sue beat Sally because she had such a bad start.
she
66
she had such a bad start.
66
[ "Sue", "Sally" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The sculpture rolled off the shelf because it wasn't anchored.
it
43
it wasn't anchored.
43
[ "The sculpture", "The shelf" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The sculpture rolled off the shelf because it wasn't level.
it
43
it wasn't level.
43
[ "The sculpture", "The shelf" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Sam's drawing was hung just above Tina's and it did look much better with another one below it.
it
45
it did look much better
45
[ "Sam's drawing", "Tina's drawing" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Sam's drawing was hung just above Tina's and it did look much better with another one above it.
it
45
it did look much better
45
[ "Sam's drawing", "Tina's drawing" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Anna did a lot better than her good friend Lucy on the test because she had studied so hard.
she
68
she had studied so hard.
68
[ "Anna", "Lucy" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Anna did a lot worse than her good friend Lucy on the test because she had studied so hard.
she
67
she had studied so hard.
67
[ "Anna", "Lucy" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The firemen arrived after the police because they were coming from so far away.
they
45
they were coming from so far away.
45
[ "The firemen", "The police" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The firemen arrived before the police because they were coming from so far away.
they
46
they were coming from so far away.
46
[ "The firemen", "The police" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Frank was upset with Tom because the toaster he had bought from him didn't work.
he
45
he had bought
45
[ "Frank", "Tom" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Frank was upset with Tom because the toaster he had sold him didn't work.
he
45
he had sold
45
[ "Frank", "Tom" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Jim yelled at Kevin because he was so upset.
he
28
he was so upset.
28
[ "Jim", "Kevin" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
Jim comforted Kevin because he was so upset.
he
28
he was so upset.
28
[ "Jim", "Kevin" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
The sack of potatoes had been placed above the bag of flour, so it had to be moved first.
it
64
it had to be moved first.
64
[ "The sack of potatoes", "The bag of flour" ]
0 (0)
Hector Levesque
The sack of potatoes had been placed below the bag of flour, so it had to be moved first.
it
64
it had to be moved first.
64
[ "The sack of potatoes", "The bag of flour" ]
1 (1)
Hector Levesque
Pete envies Martin although he is very successful.
he
28
he is very successful.
28
[ "Pete", "Martin" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Pete envies Martin because he is very successful.
he
27
he is very successful.
27
[ "Pete", "Martin" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
The older students were bullying the younger ones, so we punished them .
them
66
we punished them
54
[ "The older students", "The younger students" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
The older students were bullying the younger ones, so we rescued them .
them
65
we rescued them
54
[ "The older students", "The younger students" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I poured water from the bottle into the cup until it was empty.
it
50
it was empty
50
[ "the bottle", "the cup" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I poured water from the bottle into the cup until it was full.
it
50
it was full
50
[ "the bottle", "the cup" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Susan knows all about Ann's personal problems because she is nosy.
she
54
she is nosy
54
[ "Susan", "Ann" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Susan knows all about Ann's personal problems because she is indiscreet.
she
54
she is indiscreet
54
[ "Susan", "Ann" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Sid explained his theory to Mark but he couldn't convince him.
he
37
he couldn't convince him.
37
[ "Sid", "Mark" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Sid explained his theory to Mark but he couldn't understand him.
he
37
he couldn't understand him.
37
[ "Sid", "Mark" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Susan knew that Ann's son had been in a car accident, so she told her about it.
she
57
she told
57
[ "Susan", "Ann" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Susan knew that Ann's son had been in a car accident, because she told her about it.
she
62
she told
62
[ "Susan", "Ann" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Joe's uncle can still beat him at tennis, even though he is 30 years younger.
he
54
he is 30 years younger.
54
[ "Joe", "Joe's uncle" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Joe's uncle can still beat him at tennis, even though he is 30 years older.
he
54
he is 30 years older.
54
[ "Joe", "Joe's uncle" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
The painting in Mark's living room shows an oak tree. It is to the right of the bookcase.
It
54
It is to the right
54
[ "The painting", "The oak tree" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
The painting in Mark's living room shows an oak tree. It is to the right of a house.
It
54
It is to the right
54
[ "The painting", "The oak tree" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
There is a gap in the wall. You can see the garden through it .
it
59
through it
51
[ "The gap", "The wall" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
There is a gap in the wall. You can see the garden behind it .
it
58
behind it
51
[ "The gap", "The wall" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
The drain is clogged with hair. It has to be cleaned.
It
32
It has to be cleaned.
32
[ "The drain", "The hair" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
The drain is clogged with hair. It has to be removed.
It
32
It has to be removed.
32
[ "The drain", "The hair" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
My meeting started at 4:00 and I needed to catch the train at 4:30, so there wasn't much time. Luckily, it was short, so it worked out.
it
104
it was short
104
[ "The meeting", "The train" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
My meeting started at 4:00 and I needed to catch the train at 4:30, so there wasn't much time. Luckily, it was delayed, so it worked out.
it
104
it was delayed
104
[ "The meeting", "The train" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
There is a pillar between me and the stage, and I can't see around it .
it
67
see around it
56
[ "The pillar", "The stage" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
There is a pillar between me and the stage, and I can't see it .
it
60
see it
56
[ "The pillar", "The stage" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
They broadcast an announcement, but a subway came into the station and I couldn't hear it .
it
87
hear it
82
[ "The announcement", "The subway" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
They broadcast an announcement, but a subway came into the station and I couldn't hear over it .
it
92
hear over it
82
[ "The announcement", "The subway" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
In the middle of the outdoor concert, the rain started falling, but it continued until 10.
it
68
it continued
68
[ "The concert", "The rain" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
In the middle of the outdoor concert, the rain started falling, and it continued until 10.
it
68
it continued
68
[ "The concert", "The rain" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I used an old rag to clean the knife, and then I put it in the trash.
it
53
put it in the trash.
49
[ "The rag", "The knife" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I used an old rag to clean the knife, and then I put it in the drawer.
it
53
put it in the drawer.
49
[ "The rag", "The knife" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Ann asked Mary what time the library closes, because she had forgotten.
she
53
she had forgotten.
53
[ "Ann", "Mary" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Ann asked Mary what time the library closes, but she had forgotten.
she
49
she had forgotten.
49
[ "Ann", "Mary" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I took the water bottle out of the backpack so that it would be handy.
it
52
it would be handy
52
[ "The water bottle", "The backpack" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I took the water bottle out of the backpack so that it would be lighter.
it
52
it would be lighter
52
[ "The water bottle", "The backpack" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I couldn't put the pot on the shelf because it was too tall.
it
44
it was too tall.
44
[ "The pot", "The shelf" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I couldn't put the pot on the shelf because it was too high.
it
44
it was too high.
44
[ "The pot", "The shelf" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I'm sure that my map will show this building; it is very good.
it
46
it is very good
46
[ "The map", "The building" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I'm sure that my map will show this building; it is very famous.
it
46
it is very famous
46
[ "The map", "The building" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Bob paid for Charlie's college education. He is very generous.
He
42
He is very generous.
42
[ "Bob", "Charlie" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Bob paid for Charlie's college education. He is very grateful.
He
42
He is very grateful.
42
[ "Bob", "Charlie" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Bob paid for Charlie's college education, but now Charlie acts as though it never happened. He is very hurt.
He
92
He is very hurt.
92
[ "Bob", "Charlie" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Bob paid for Charlie's college education, but now Charlie acts as though it never happened. He is very ungrateful.
He
92
He is very ungrateful.
92
[ "Bob", "Charlie" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Bob was playing cards with Adam and was way ahead. If Adam hadn't had a sudden run of good luck, he would have won.
he
97
he would have won.
97
[ "Bob", "Adam" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Bob was playing cards with Adam and was way ahead. If Adam hadn't had a sudden run of good luck, he would have lost.
he
97
he would have lost.
97
[ "Bob", "Adam" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Adam can't leave work here until Bob arrives to replace him. If Bob had left home for work on time, he would be gone by this time.
he
100
he would be gone
100
[ "Adam", "Bob" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Adam can't leave work here until Bob arrives to replace him. If Bob had left home for work on time, he would be here by this time.
he
100
he would be here
100
[ "Adam", "Bob" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
If the con artist has succeeded in fooling Sam, he would have gotten a lot of money.
he
48
he would have gotten a lot of money.
48
[ "The con artist", "Sam" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
If the con artist has succeeded in fooling Sam, he would have lost a lot of money.
he
48
he would have lost a lot of money.
48
[ "The con artist", "Sam" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
It was a summer afternoon, and the dog was sitting in the middle of the lawn. After a while, it got up and moved to a spot under the tree, because it was hot.
it
147
it was hot
147
[ "The dog", "The spot under the tree" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
It was a summer afternoon, and the dog was sitting in the middle of the lawn. After a while, it got up and moved to a spot under the tree, because it was cooler.
it
147
it was cooler
147
[ "The dog", "The spot under the tree" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
The cat was lying by the mouse hole waiting for the mouse, but it was too impatient.
it
63
it was too impatient.
63
[ "The cat", "The mouse" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
The cat was lying by the mouse hole waiting for the mouse, but it was too cautious.
it
63
it was too cautious.
63
[ "The cat", "The mouse" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Anne gave birth to a daughter last month. She is a very charming woman.
She
42
She is a very charming woman.
42
[ "Anne", "Anne's daughter" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Anne gave birth to a daughter last month. She is a very charming baby.
She
42
She is a very charming baby.
42
[ "Anne", "Anne's daughter" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
Alice tried frantically to stop her daughter from chatting at the party, leaving us to wonder why she was behaving so strangely.
she
98
she was behaving so strangely.
98
[ "Alice", "Alice's daughter" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
Alice tried frantically to stop her daughter from barking at the party, leaving us to wonder why she was behaving so strangely.
she
97
she was behaving so strangely.
97
[ "Alice", "Alice's daughter" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I saw Jim yelling at some guy in a military uniform with a huge red beard. I don't know why he was, but he looked very unhappy.
he
92
why he was
88
[ "Jim", "the guy in uniform" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I saw Jim yelling at some guy in a military uniform with a huge red beard. I don't know who he was, but he looked very unhappy.
he
92
who he was
88
[ "Jim", "the guy in uniform" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
The fish ate the worm. It was hungry.
It
23
It was hungry.
23
[ "The fish", "The worm" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
The fish ate the worm. It was tasty.
It
23
It was tasty.
23
[ "The fish", "The worm" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
I was trying to open the lock with the key, but someone had filled the keyhole with chewing gum, and I couldn't get it in.
it
116
I couldn't get it in.
101
[ "The key", "The chewing gum" ]
0 (0)
Ernest Davis
I was trying to open the lock with the key, but someone had filled the keyhole with chewing gum, and I couldn't get it out.
it
116
I couldn't get it out.
101
[ "The key", "The chewing gum" ]
1 (1)
Ernest Davis
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for The Winograd Schema Challenge

Dataset Summary

A Winograd schema is a pair of sentences that differ in only one or two words and that contain an ambiguity that is resolved in opposite ways in the two sentences and requires the use of world knowledge and reasoning for its resolution. The schema takes its name from a well-known example by Terry Winograd:

The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they [feared/advocated] violence.

If the word is feared'', then they'' presumably refers to the city council; if it is advocated'' then they'' presumably refers to the demonstrators.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

From the official webpage:

A contest, entitled the Winograd Schema Challenge was run once, in 2016. At that time, there was a cash prize offered for achieving human-level performance in the contest. Since then, the sponsor has withdrawn; therefore NO CASH PRIZES CAN BE OFFERED OR WILL BE AWARDED FOR ANY KIND OF PERFORMANCE OR ACHIEVEMENT ON THIS CHALLENGE.

Languages

The dataset is in English.

Translation of 12 WSs into Chinese (translated by Wei Xu).

Translations into Japanese, by Soichiro Tanaka, Rafal Rzepka, and Shiho Katajima
**Translation changing English names to Japanese **PDF     HTML
Translation preserving English names PDF     HTML

Translation into French, by Pascal Amsili and Olga Seminck

Winograd Schemas in Portuguese by Gabriela Melo, Vinicius Imaizumi, and Fábio Cozman.

Mandarinograd: A Chinese Collection of Winograd Schemas by Timothée Bernard and Ting Han, LREC-2020.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Each instance contains a text passage with a designated pronoun and two possible answers indicating which entity in the passage the pronoun represents. An example instance looks like the following:

{
  'label': 0,
  'options': ['The city councilmen', 'The demonstrators'],
  'pronoun': 'they',
  'pronoun_loc': 63,
  'quote': 'they feared violence',
  'quote_loc': 63,
  'source': '(Winograd 1972)',
  'text': 'The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they feared violence.'
}

Data Fields

  • text (str): The text sequence
  • options (list[str]): The two entity options that the pronoun may be referring to
  • label (int): The index of the correct option in the options field
  • pronoun (str): The pronoun in the sequence to be resolved
  • pronoun_loc (int): The starting position of the pronoun in the sequence
  • quote (str): The substr with the key action or context surrounding the pronoun
  • quote_loc (int): The starting position of the quote in the sequence
  • source (str): A description of the source who contributed the example

Data Splits

Only a test split is included.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

The Winograd Schema Challenge was proposed as an automated evaluation of an AI system's commonsense linguistic understanding. From the webpage:

The strengths of the challenge are that it is clear-cut, in that the answer to each schema is a binary choice; vivid, in that it is obvious to non-experts that a program that fails to get the right answers clearly has serious gaps in its understanding; and difficult, in that it is far beyond the current state of the art.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

This data was manually written by experts such that the schemas are:

  • easily disambiguated by the human reader (ideally, so easily that the reader does not even notice that there is an ambiguity);

  • not solvable by simple techniques such as selectional restrictions;

  • Google-proof; that is, there is no obvious statistical test over text corpora that will reliably disambiguate these correctly.

Who are the source language producers?

This dataset has grown over time, and so was produced by a variety of lingustic and AI researchers. See the source field for the source of each instance.

Annotations

Annotation process

Annotations are produced by the experts who construct the examples.

Who are the annotators?

See above.

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset has grown over time, and so was produced by a variety of lingustic and AI researchers. See the source field for the source of each instance.

Licensing Information

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Citation Information

The Winograd Schema Challenge including many of the examples here was proposed by Levesque et al 2012:

@inproceedings{levesque2012winograd,
  title={The winograd schema challenge},
  author={Levesque, Hector and Davis, Ernest and Morgenstern, Leora},
  booktitle={Thirteenth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning},
  year={2012},
  organization={Citeseer}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @joeddav for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on winograd_wsc