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question_id (string)question (string)document_title (string)answer (string)label (class label)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of Africa .
0 (0)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
The term African in the scope of this article refers to geographical or national origins rather than racial affiliation.
0 (0)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
From the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 to 2007, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans immigrated to the United States, accounting for roughly 3.3% of total immigration to the United States during this period.
0 (0)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
African immigrants in the United States come from almost all regions in Africa and do not constitute a homogeneous group.
0 (0)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
They include people from different national, linguistic, ethnic, racial, cultural and social backgrounds.
0 (0)
Q0
HOW AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE IMMIGRATED TO THE US
African immigration to the United States
As such, African immigrants are to be distinguished from African American people, the latter of whom are descendants of mostly West and Central Africans who were involuntarily brought to the United States by means of the historic Atlantic slave trade .
1 (1)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
A prison (from Old French prisoun), also known as gaol or jail, is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms .
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime .
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
Other terms used are penitentiary, correctional facility, remand centre, detention centre, and gaol or jail.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
In some legal systems some of these terms have distinct meanings.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
A criminal suspect who has been charged with or is likely to be charged with criminal offense may be held on remand in prison if he or she is denied or unable to meet conditions of bail , or is unable or unwilling to post bail.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
A criminal defendant may also be held in prison while awaiting trial or a trial verdict .
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
If found guilty, a defendant will be convicted and may receive a custodial sentence requiring imprisonment.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
As well as convicted or suspected criminals, prisons may be used for internment of those not charged with a crime.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners , prisoners of conscience , and " enemies of the state ", particularly by authoritarian regimes.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in prisons.
0 (0)
Q3
how large were early jails
Prison
A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons.
0 (0)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
A small, electrically powered pump
0 (0)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
A large, electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee , Germany .
0 (0)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
A pump is a device that moves fluids ( liquids or gases ), or sometimes slurries , by mechanical action.
0 (0)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.
0 (0)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary ), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid.
1 (1)
Q4
how a water pump works
Pump
Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines , or wind power .
0 (0)
Q20
how old was sue lyon when she made lolita
Lolita (1962 film)
Lolita is a 1962 comedy-drama film by Stanley Kubrick based on the classic novel of the same title by Vladimir Nabokov , centres around a middle-aged man who becomes obsessed with a teenage girl.
0 (0)
Q20
how old was sue lyon when she made lolita
Lolita (1962 film)
The film stars James Mason as Humbert Humbert, Sue Lyon as Dolores Haze (Lolita) and Shelley Winters as Charlotte Haze with Peter Sellers as Clare Quilty.
0 (0)
Q20
how old was sue lyon when she made lolita
Lolita (1962 film)
Due to the MPAA 's restrictions at the time , the film toned down the more provocative aspects of the novel, sometimes leaving much to the audience's imagination.
0 (0)
Q20
how old was sue lyon when she made lolita
Lolita (1962 film)
The actress who played Lolita, Sue Lyon , was fourteen at the time of filming.
1 (1)
Q20
how old was sue lyon when she made lolita
Lolita (1962 film)
Kubrick later commented that, had he realized how severe the censorship limitations were going to be, he probably never would have made the film.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Each antibody binds to a specific antigen ; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses .
1 (1)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen .
1 (1)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision.
1 (1)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival).
1 (1)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system .
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Antibodies are secreted by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell .
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR).
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
The BCR is only found on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells , or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily ; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Antibodies are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains .
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
This region is known as the hypervariable region.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region.
0 (0)
Q33
how are antibodies used in
antibody
This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Alicia Augello Cook (born January 25, 1981), known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American R&B singer-songwriter , musician, record producer and actress.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Keys released her debut album with J Records , having had previous record deals first with Columbia and then Arista Records .
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Keys' debut album, Songs in A Minor , was a commercial success, selling over 12 million copies worldwide.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
She became the best-selling new artist and best-selling R&B artist of 2001.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
The album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002, including Best New Artist and Song of the Year for " Fallin' " becoming the second American recording artist to win five Grammys in one night.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Her second studio album, The Diary of Alicia Keys , was released in 2003 and was also another success worldwide, selling eight million copies.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in 2005.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Later that year, she released her first live album, Unplugged , which debuted at number one in the United States.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
She became the first female to have an MTV Unplugged album to debut at number one and the highest since Nirvana in 1994.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Keys made guest appearances on several television series in the following years, beginning with Charmed .
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
She made her film debut in Smokin' Aces which included Ben Affleck, Andy Garcia, Chris Pine, Ryan Reynolds, Taraji P. Henson, Jeremy Piven and also went on to appear in The Nanny Diaries which starred Scarlett Johansson, Laura Linney, Paul Giamitti and Chris Evan in 2007.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Her third studio album, As I Am , was released in the same year and sold five million copies worldwide, earning Keys an additional three Grammy Awards.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
The following year, she appeared in The Secret Life of Bees with Eva Longoria, Jennifer Hudson, Paul Bettany, Dakota Fanning, Queen Latifah which earned her a nomination at the NAACP Image Awards .
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
She released her fourth album, The Element of Freedom , in December 2009, which became Keys' first chart-topping album in the United Kingdom.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
She released her fifth album, Girl on Fire , in November 2012, which became Keys' fifth chart-topping album in the United States.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Throughout her career, Keys has won numerous awards and has sold over 35 million albums and 30 million singles worldwide.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Billboard magazine named her the top R&B songs artist of the 2000s decade.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
In 2010, VH1 included Keys on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Billboard magazine placed her number ten on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
BlackBerry (formerly RIM) named her as its Global Creative Director at the Blackberry 10 Experience event in New York City on January 30, 2013.
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
Keys then opened Super Bowl XLVII in New Orleans, Louisiana on February 3, 2013, by singing the U.S. National Anthem .
0 (0)
Q47
how old is alicia in 2009
Alicia Keys
At the 55th annual Grammy Awards, Keys performed with Maroon 5 singing a duet with their songs Daylight and Girl On Fire
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
Sectioning a township .
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
Perfectly square full sections of farmland cover Central Indiana .
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
Satellite image of crops growing in Kansas , mainly using center pivot irrigation .
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
The primary grid pattern is of quarter sections (0.5 mi x 0.5 mi).
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
In U.S. land surveying under the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a section is an area nominally one square mile , containing , with 36 sections making up one survey township on a rectangular grid.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
The legal description of a tract of land under the PLSS includes the name of the state , name of the county , township number, range number, section number, and portion of a section.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
Sections are customarily surveyed into smaller squares by repeated halving and quartering.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
A quarter section is 160 acres and a "quarter-quarter section" is .
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
In 1832 the smallest area of land that could be acquired was reduced to the 40 acre quarter-quarter section, and this size parcel became entrenched in American mythology.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
After the Civil War Freedmen (freed slaves) were reckoned to be self-sufficient with " 40 acres and a mule ."
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
In the 20th century real estate developers preferred working with 40 acre parcels.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
The phrases "front 40" and "back 40," referring to farm fields, indicate quarter-quarter sections of land.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
One of the reasons for creating sections of 640 acres was the ease of dividing into halves and quarters while still maintaining a whole number of acres.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
A section can be halved seven times in this way, down to a parcel, or half of a quarter-quarter-quarter section—an easily surveyed 50 square chain area.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
This system was of great practical value on the American frontier, where surveyors often had a shaky grasp of mathematics and were required to work quickly.
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
A description of a quarter-quarter section in standard abbreviated form, might look like "NW 1/4, NE 1/4, Sec. 34, T.3S, R.1W, 1st P.M.".
0 (0)
Q49
how big is a land section generally
Section (United States land surveying)
In expanded form this would read "the Northwest quarter of the Northeast quarter of Section 34 of Township 3 South, Range 1 West, first Principal Meridian".
0 (0)
Q54
how old was shakespeare's juliet
Juliet
Juliet is one of the title characters in William Shakespeare 's romantic love tragedy Romeo and Juliet , the other being Romeo .
0 (0)
Q54
how old was shakespeare's juliet
Juliet
She serves as the play's female protagonist .
0 (0)
Q54
how old was shakespeare's juliet
Juliet
Juliet is the only daughter of Capulet , the patriarch of the Capulet family.
0 (0)
Q54
how old was shakespeare's juliet
Juliet
The story has a long history that precedes Shakespeare himself.
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
Refractory bricks in a torpedo car used for hauling molten iron
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces , kilns , fireboxes , and fireplaces .
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
A refractory brick is built primarily to withstand high temperature, but will also usually have a low thermal conductivity for greater energy efficiency.
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
Usually dense firebricks are used in applications with extreme mechanical, chemical, or thermal stresses, such as the inside of a wood-fired kiln or a furnace, which is subject to abrasion from wood , fluxing from ash or slag, and high temperatures.
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
In other, less harsh situations, such as in an electric or natural gas fired kiln , more porous bricks, commonly known as "kiln bricks" are a better choice.
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
They are weaker, but they are much lighter, easier to form, and insulate far better than dense bricks.
0 (0)
Q57
how are fire bricks made
Fire brick
In any case, firebricks should not spall under rapid temperature change, and their strength should hold up well during rapid temperature changes.
0 (0)
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "wiki_qa"

Dataset Summary

Wiki Question Answering corpus from Microsoft

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

default

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 6.77 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 6.10 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 12.87 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
    "answer": "Glacier caves are often called ice caves , but this term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice.",
    "document_title": "Glacier cave",
    "label": 0,
    "question": "how are glacier caves formed?",
    "question_id": "Q1"
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

default

  • question_id: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • document_title: a string feature.
  • answer: a string feature.
  • label: a classification label, with possible values including 0 (0), 1 (1).

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 20360 2733 6165

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information

@InProceedings{YangYihMeek:EMNLP2015:WikiQA,
       author = {{Yi}, Yang and {Wen-tau},  Yih and {Christopher} Meek},
        title = "{WikiQA: A Challenge Dataset for Open-Domain Question Answering}",
      journal = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
         year = 2015,
          doi = {10.18653/v1/D15-1237},
        pages = {2013–2018},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @patrickvonplaten, @mariamabarham, @lewtun, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

Update on GitHub
Papers with Code