Datasets:
wiki_hop

Task Categories: question-answering
Languages: en
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10K<n<100K
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: crowdsourced
Source Datasets: original
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id (string)question (string)answer (string)candidates (json)supports (json)annotations (json)
WH_train_0
participant_of juan rossell
1996 summer olympics
[ "1996 summer olympics", "olympic games", "sport" ]
[ "The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto \"Welcome Home.\" 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the games to the city where they began.", "The Pan-American or Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games. The only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. The Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter.", "A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement. Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, NOCs are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games. They may nominate cities within their respective areas as candidates for future Olympic Games. NOCs also promote the development of athletes and training of coaches and officials at a national level within their geographies.", "Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net. It has been an Olympic discipline since the 1996 Games.", "A multi-sport event is an organized sports event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.", "The 14th Pan American Games were held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, from August 1 until August 17, 2003. The successful bid for the games was made in the mid-1990s, when Dominican Republic had one of the highest growth rates in Latin America.", "The 1996 Summer Olympics, known officially as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially as the Centennial Olympic Games, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, from July 19 to August 4, 1996. A record 197 nations, all current IOC member nations, took part in the Games, comprising 10,318 athletes. The International Olympic Committee voted in 1986 to separate the Summer and Winter Games, which had been held in the same year since 1924, and place them in alternating even-numbered years, beginning in 1994. The 1996 Summer Games were the first to be staged in a different year from the Winter Games. Atlanta became the fifth American city to host the Olympic Games and the third to hold a Summer Olympic Games. ", "Juan Miguel Rossell Milanes ( born December 28 , 1969 in Jiguani , Granma ) is a beach volleyball player from Cuba , who won the gold medal in the men 's beach team competition at the 2003 Pan American Games in Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic , partnering Francisco Alvarez . He represented his native country at the 1996 and the 2004 Summer Olympics ." ]
[]
WH_train_1
languages_spoken_or_written john osteen
english
[ "english", "greek", "koine greek", "nahuatl", "spanish" ]
[ "A Christian (or ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. \"Christian\" derives from the Koine Greek word \"Christós\" (), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term \"mashiach\".", "Lakewood Church is a nondenominational charismatic Christian megachurch located in Houston, Texas. It is the largest congregation in the United States, averaging about 52,000 attendees per week. The 16,800-seat Lakewood Church Central Campus, home to four English-language services and two Spanish-language services per week, is located at the former Compaq Center. Joel Osteen is the senior pastor of Lakewood Church with his wife, Victoria, who serves as co-pastor. Lakewood Church is a part of the Word of Faith movement.", "Mexico (, modern Nahuatl ), officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million, it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world while being the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is also its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.", "John Hillery Osteen ( August 21 , 1921 -- January 23 , 1999 ) was the founder and first pastor of Lakewood Church in Houston , Texas , from its beginnings in 1959 until his death in 1999 . His son Joel Osteen then succeeded him as pastor .", "Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States after Chicago, located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 2.239 million within an area of , it also is the largest city in the Southern United States, as well as the seat of Harris County. It is the principal city of HoustonThe WoodlandsSugar Land, which is the fifth-most populated metropolitan area in the United States of America." ]
[]
WH_train_2
parent_taxon proaigialosaurus
lepidosauria
[ "alligatoridae", "amphibia", "amphisbaenia", "animal", "bipes", "crocodile", "crocodilia", "diapsid", "dibamidae", "dinosaur", "gavialidae", "gymnophiona", "homo", "human", "lepidosauria", "lissamphibia", "lizard", "modern birds", "mya", "reptile", "rhynchocephalia", "tetrapoda", "tomistoma", "toxicofera" ]
[ "Reptiles are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology.", "Binomial nomenclature (also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just \"binomial\"), a binomen or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus \"Homo\" and within this genus to the species \"Homo sapiens\". The \"formal\" introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work \"Species Plantarum\" in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book \"Pinax theatri botanici\" (English, \"Illustrated exposition of plants\") many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus.", "The skull is a bony structure that forms the head of the skeleton in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisationhousing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. In the human these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton.", "Herpetology (from Greek \"\"herpein\"\" meaning \"to creep\") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras). Batrachology is a further subdiscipline of herpetology concerned with the study of amphibians alone.", "Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand. Although resembling most lizards, they are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia. Their name derives from the Mori language, and means \"peaks on the back\". The single species of tuatara is the only surviving member of its order, which flourished around 200 million years ago. Their most recent common ancestor with any other extant group is with the squamates (lizards and snakes). For this reason, tuatara are of great interest in the study of the evolution of lizards and snakes, and for the reconstruction of the appearance and habits of the earliest diapsids, a group of amniote tetrapods that also includes dinosaurs, birds, and crocodilians.", "Diapsids (\"two arches\") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. The diapsids are extremely diverse, and include all crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles, and dinosaurs (both avian and non-avian). Although some diapsids have lost either one hole (lizards), or both holes (snakes and turtles), or have a heavily restructured skull (modern birds), they are still classified as diapsids based on their ancestry. At least 7,925 species of diapsid reptiles exist in environments around the world today (nearly 18,000 when birds are included).", "The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya. The name \"Carboniferous\" means \"coal-bearing\" and derives from the Latin words \"carb\" (\"coal\") and \"fer\" (\"I bear, I carry\"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian.", "Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, all of whose members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily. A broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae that includes \"Tomistoma\", is not used in this article. The term crocodile here applies only to the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae. The term is sometimes used even more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia, which includes \"Tomistoma\", the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae), the gharials (family Gavialidae), and all other living and fossil Crocodylomorpha.", "The superclass Tetrapoda (Ancient Greek s tetrapods, \"four-footed\"), or the tetrapods , comprises the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants, including the living and extinct amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles and some ancient, exclusively aquatic creatures such as the Acanthostega. Tetrapods evolved from the lobe-finned fishes around 390 million years ago in the middle Devonian Period, with modern tetrapod groups having appeared by the late Devonian, 367.5 million years ago. The specific aquatic ancestors of the tetrapods, and the process by which land colonization occurred, remain unclear, and are areas of active research and debate among palaeontologists at present.", "A genus ( genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.", "Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group, traditionally recognized as the suborder Lacertilia, is defined as all extant members of the Lepidosauria (reptiles with overlapping scales) that are neither sphenodonts (i.e., tuatara) nor snakes they form an evolutionary grade. While the snakes are recognized as falling phylogenetically within the Toxicofera clade from which they evolved, the sphenodonts are the sister group to the squamates, the larger monophyletic group, which includes both the lizards and the snakes.", "Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca.", "Proaigialosaurus is an extinct genus of semi-aquatic diapsid reptile . The genus was erected by Kuhn ( 1958 ) , based upon skull fragments , which have since been lost . Generally considered the oldest specimen of the lizard family Aigialosauridae , others have considered it to be a pleurosaurid , a marine sphenodontian ( the order to which the extant Tuatara belongs ) . Proaigialosaurus was discovered in the Solnhofen limestone formation of Bavaria , Germany . It was small ( less than a metre long ) .", "Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed. With their complex reproductive needs and permeable skins, amphibians are often ecological indicators; in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations for many species around the globe.", "Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria that first appeared during the Triassic. Although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research, the current scientific consensus places their origin between 231 and 243 million years ago. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the TriassicJurassic extinction event 201 million years ago. Their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and ended when the CretaceousPaleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups 66 million years ago.", "In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic scale and are thus loosely described as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.", "Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species. Amphisbaenians are characterized by their long bodies, the reduction or loss of the limbs, and rudimentary eyes. As many species have a pink body and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms. While the genus \"Bipes\" retains forelimbs, all other genera are limbless. Although superficially similar to the snakes and Dibamidae, recent phylogenetic studies suggest that they are most closely related to the Lacertidae. Amphisbaenians are widely distributed, occurring in North America, Europe, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean. Most species are less than long. Little is known of them outside of their anatomy, and even that is difficult to study due to the mechanics of dissecting such small animals.", "The Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) are an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic reptiles. They appeared 83.5 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period (Campanian stage) and are the closest living relatives of birds, as the two groups are the only known survivors of the Archosauria. Members of the order's total group, the clade Pseudosuchia, appeared about 250 million years ago in the Early Triassic period, and diversified during the Mesozoic era. The order Crocodilia includes the true crocodiles (family Crocodylidae), the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae), and the gharial and false gharial (family Gavialidae). Although the term 'crocodiles' is sometimes used to refer to all of these, a less ambiguous vernacular term for this group is crocodilians." ]
[]
WH_train_3
parent_taxon australosuchus
crocodilia
[ "animal", "area", "crocodile", "crocodilia", "homo", "mekosuchinae", "plant", "tomistoma" ]
[ "Mekosuchinae was a subfamily of crocodiles from Australia and the South Pacific that have now become extinct. They first appear in the fossil record in the Eocene in Australia, and survived until the Pleistocene in Australia and until the arrival of humans in the Pacific islands of Fiji, New Caledonia and Vanuatu. There is however disagreement on whether or not Mekosuchinae is a subfamily within Crocodylidae, or a distinct family, Mekosuchidae, on its own within the superfamily Crocodyloidea.", "Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney.", "In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic scale and are thus loosely described as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.", "Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, all of whose members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily. A broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae that includes \"Tomistoma\", is not used in this article. The term crocodile here applies only to the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae. The term is sometimes used even more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia, which includes \"Tomistoma\", the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae), the gharials (family Gavialidae), and all other living and fossil Crocodylomorpha.", "A genus ( genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.", "Binomial nomenclature (also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just \"binomial\"), a binomen or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus \"Homo\" and within this genus to the species \"Homo sapiens\". The \"formal\" introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work \"Species Plantarum\" in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book \"Pinax theatri botanici\" (English, \"Illustrated exposition of plants\") many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus.", "Australosuchus is an extinct genus of crocodylian belonging to the subfamily Mekosuchinae . The type and only known species Australosuchus clarkae lived during the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene of southern Australia . The generic name Australosuchus means `` Southern crocodile '' . It was described in 1991 from fossil material discovered at Lake Palankarinna in South Australia ." ]
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WH_train_4
occupation cao chong
physicist
[ "academic", "builder", "chancellor", "classics", "confucian scholar", "designer", "duke", "emperor", "engineer", "engineering", "father", "founder", "general", "king", "leader", "major", "mathematician", "military", "official", "peasant", "physicist", "physics", "politician", "prior", "rebel", "research", "ruler", "science", "script", "social reformer", "socialist", "sovereign", "taiwan" ]
[ "Wu (222280), commonly known as Eastern Wu or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220280). It previously existed from 220222 as a vassal kingdom nominally under Cao Wei, its rival state, but declared independence from Wei and became a sovereign state in 222. It became an empire in 229 after its founding ruler, Sun Quan, declared himself 'Emperor'. Its name was derived from the place it was based in the Jiangnan (Yangtze River Delta) region, which was also historically known as \"Wu\". It was referred to as \"Eastern Wu\" or \"Sun Wu\" by historians to distinguish it from other Chinese historical states with similar names which were also located in that region, such as the Wu state in the Spring and Autumn period and the Wuyue kingdom in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was called \"Eastern Wu\" because it occupied most of eastern China in the Three Kingdoms period, and \"Sun Wu\" because the family name of its rulers was \"Sun\". During its existence, Wu's capital was at Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu), but at times it was also at Wuchang (present-day Ezhou, Hubei).", "Cao Huan (246-303), courtesy name Jingming, was the fifth and last emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. In 265, he abdicated the throne in favour of Sima Yan (later Emperor Wu of the Jin dynasty), and brought an end to the Wei regime. After his abdication, Cao Huan was granted the title \"Prince of Chenliu\" and held it until his death, after which he was posthumously honoured as \"Emperor Yuan (of Cao Wei)\".", "The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt in China against the Han dynasty. The uprising broke out in the year 184 during the reign of Emperor Ling. It took 21 years until the uprising was suppressed in the year 205. The rebellion, which got its name from the color of the cloths that the rebels wore on their heads, marked an important point in the history of Taoism due to the rebels' association with secret Taoist societies. The revolt was also used as the opening event in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel \"Romance of the Three Kingdoms\".", "Japan (\"Nippon\" or \"Nihon\" ; formally \"\" or \"Nihon-koku\", means \"State of Japan\") is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, It is lying off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland (east of China, Korea, Russia) and stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and near Taiwan in the southwest. ", "The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. Named for its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Gansu and Shaanxi, the dynasty was formed after the conquest of six other states by the Qin state, and its founding emperor named Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of Qin. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC, during the Warring States period. In the mid and late third century BC, the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States to gain control over the whole of China. It is also the shortest dynasty in Chinese history, lasting only 15 years with two emperors.", "Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. It was formulated by Archimedes of Syracuse.", "Cao Chong ( 196 -- 208 ) , courtesy name Cangshu , was a son of Cao Cao , a warlord who rose to power towards the end of the Han dynasty and laid the foundation of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period . A child prodigy , Cao Chong is best known for his ingenious method of weighing an elephant using the principle of buoyancy . He was considered by his father as a possible successor but died prematurely at the age of 12 .", "Sun Quan (182252), courtesy name Zhongmou, formally known as Emperor Da of Wu (lit. \"Great Emperor of Wu\"), was the founder of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. He inherited control of the warlord state founded by his elder brother Sun Ce in 200. He declared formal independence and ruled from 222 to 229 as \"King of Wu\" and from 229 to 252 as the \"Emperor of Wu\". Unlike his rivals Cao Cao and Liu Bei, Quan governed his empire mostly separate of politics and ideology, he is sometimes portrayed as neutral considering he accommodated the wills of both his rivals but only when it benefited his state of Wu and never fully attempted to conquer his rivals, although most of historians would cite his lack of logistical resources to do so.", "Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC June 1, 195 BC), born Liu Bang, was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 195 BC. He was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history with humble origin from the peasant class.", "The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is generally the most often cited and popularly accepted one. The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, though the Chinese sovereign, known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states.", "Cao Pi (187 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period. He was born in Qiao (; present-day Bozhou, Anhui) as the second son of Cao Cao, a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. However, he was the eldest son among all the children born to Cao Cao by his concubine (later wife) Lady Bian. Of all his brothers, Cao Pi was the shrewdest. Instead of focusing on academic studies or administering military affairs, he was always in the presence of court officials in order to gain their support. He was mostly in charge of defence at the start of his career. After the defeat of Cao Cao's rival Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu, he took the widow of Yuan Shao's son Yuan Xi, Lady Zhen, as a concubine, but in 221 Lady Zhen died and Guo Nüwang became empress.", "In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer. Child prodigies are rare; and, in some domains, there are no child prodigies at all. Prodigiousness in childhood does not always predict adult eminence.", "Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the area under a parabola.", "Shu or Shu Han (221263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as \"Shu\" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu. Shu Han's founder Liu Bei had named his state \"Han\" as he considered it the legitimate successor to the Han dynasty, while \"Shu\" is added to the name as a geographical prefix to differentiate it from the many \"Han\" states throughout Chinese history.", "The Three Kingdoms (AD 220280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu, following the Han dynasty and preceding the Jin dynasty. The term \"Three Kingdoms\" itself is something of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han dynasty. Nevertheless, the term \"Three Kingdoms\" has become standard among sinologists. To further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of similar names, historians have added a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei, Shu is also known as Shu Han, and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu.", "In science, buoyancy (or ; also known as upthrust) is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid.", "Dong Zhuo (died 22 May 192), courtesy name Zhongying, was a politician and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He seized control of the capital Luoyang in 189 when it was in a state of turmoil following the death of Emperor Ling and a clash between the eunuch faction and some court officials led by General-in-Chief He Jin. Dong Zhuo subsequently deposed Emperor Shao and instated Emperor Xian.", "The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history. It was fought in the winter of AD 208/9 between the allied forces of the southern warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan and the numerically superior forces of the northern warlord Cao Cao. Liu Bei and Sun Quan successfully frustrated Cao Cao's effort to conquer the land south of the Yangtze River and reunite the territory of the Eastern Han dynasty. The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, gave them control of the Yangtze , and provided a line of defence that was the basis for the later creation of the two southern states of Shu Han and Eastern Wu. The battle has been called the largest naval battle in history in terms of numbers involved.", "In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.", "Wang Mang (c. 45 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun (), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning \"renewed\") Dynasty (), ruling 923 AD. The Han dynasty was restored after his overthrow, and his rule marks the separation between the Western Han Dynasty (before Xin) and Eastern Han Dynasty (after Xin). Some historians have traditionally viewed Wang as a usurper, while others have portrayed him as a visionary and selfless social reformer. Though a learned Confucian scholar who sought to implement the harmonious society he saw in the classics, his efforts ended in chaos.", "Cao Rui (204 or 206 22 January 239), courtesy name Yuanzhong, was the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. His parentage is in dispute: his mother, Lady Zhen, was Yuan Xi's wife, but she later remarried Cao Pi, the first ruler of Wei. Based on conflicting accounts of his age, Pei Songzhi calculated that, in order to be Cao Pi's son, Cao Rui could not have been 36 (by East Asian age reckoning) when he died as recorded, so the recorded age was in error; Lu Bi and Mou Guangsheng argued instead that Cao Rui was Yuan Xi's son.", "The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD. It interrupted the Han dynasty, dividing it into the periods of the Western Han and the Eastern Han.", "Cao Wei (220265) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220280). With its capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. The name \"Wei\" first became associated with Cao Cao when he was named the Duke of Wei by the Eastern Han government in 213, and became the name of the state when Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor in 220. Historians often add the prefix \"Cao\" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as \"Wei\", such as Wei of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family gradually weakened after the death of the second Wei emperor, Cao Rui, and eventually fell into the hands of Sima Yi, a Wei regent, and his family, in 249. Cao Rui's successors remained as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan, forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty.", "A courtesy name (\"zi\"), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in East Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.", "The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the \"Han people\" and the Chinese script is referred to as \"Han characters\".\nIt was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (923 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25220 AD).", "Cao Cao (155  15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously honoured as \"Emperor Wu of Wei\". Although he is often portrayed as a cruel and merciless tyrant in subsequent literature, Cao Cao has also been praised as a brilliant ruler and military genius who treated his subordinates like his family. During the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty, Cao Cao was able to secure the most populated and prosperous cities of the central plains and northern China. Cao had much success as the Han chancellor, but his handling of the Han emperor Liu Xie was heavily criticized and resulted in a continued and then escalated civil war. Opposition directly gathered around warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan, whom Cao was unable to quell. Cao was also skilled in poetry and martial arts and wrote many war journals.", "Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 90.5 million inhabitants , it is the world's 14th-most-populous country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976.", "Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.", "Korea is a historical state in East Asia, since 1945 divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the \"Democratic People's Republic of Korea\") and South Korea (officially the \"Republic of Korea\"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the East Sea.", "China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China, and its capital is Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.", "The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian. During this period, the country was thrown into turmoil by the Yellow Turban Rebellion (184-205). Meanwhile, the Han Empire's institutions were destroyed by the warlord Dong Zhuo, and fractured into regional regimes ruled by various warlords, some of whom were nobles and officials of the Han imperial court. Eventually, one of those warlords, Cao Cao, was able to gradually reunify the empire, ostensibly under Emperor Xian's rule, but the empire was actually controlled by Cao Cao himself. Cao Cao's efforts to completely reunite the Han empire were rebuffed at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 / 209, when his armies were defeated by the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei. The Han dynasty formally ended in 220 when Cao Cao's son and heir, Cao Pi, pressured Emperor Xian into abdicating in his favour. Cao Pi became the emperor of a new state, Cao Wei. A year later, in response to Cao Pi's usurpation of the Han throne, Liu Bei declared himself emperor of Shu Han; and in 229, Sun Quan followed suit, declaring himself emperor of Eastern Wu. The period from Emperor Xian's abdication in 220 to the partial reunification of China under the Jin dynasty in 265 was known as the Three Kingdoms era in Chinese history.", "FLUID (Fast Light User Interface Designer) is a graphical editor and GUI builder that is used to produce FLTK source code. FLUID edits and saves its state in text .fl files, which can be edited in a text editor for finer control over display and behavior.", "Liu Bei (161 10 June 223), courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler. Despite early failings compared to his rivals and lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, he gathered support along disheartened Han loyalists who objected to Cao Cao's reign over the emperor and relied heavily on this support. Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, which at its peak spanned present-day Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, parts of Hubei, and parts of Gansu.", "Sima Yi (179 7 September 251), courtesy name Zhongda, was a general and politician of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period. He is perhaps best known for defending Wei from Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions. His success and subsequent rise in prominence paved the way for his grandson Sima Yan's founding of the Jin dynasty, which would eventually bring an end to the Three Kingdoms era. In 265 after the Jin dynasty was established, Sima Yi was posthumously honoured as Emperor Xuan of Jin with the temple name of Gaozu.", "In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity. Weight is a vector whose magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter \"W\", is the product of the mass \"m\" of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration \"g\"; thus: . The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a body can be weightless only if it is far away (in principle infinitely far away) from any other mass. Although weight and mass are scientifically distinct quantities, the terms are often confused with each other in everyday use (i.e. comparing and converting force weight in pounds to mass in kilograms and vice versa)." ]
[]
WH_train_5
occupation johnny rod
bassist
[ "band", "bassist", "commercial", "construction", "diversity", "drummer", "guitarist", "king", "lead vocalist", "luthier", "major", "member", "musician", "singer", "songwriter", "speaker", "vocalist" ]
[ "King Kobra is a hard rock band founded by drummer Carmine Appice after his tenure with Ozzy Osbourne from 1983 to 1984. During the time of their first two albums, the band included four relatively unknown musicians that included vocalist Mark Free, guitarist David Michael-Philips, guitarist Mick Sweda, and bassist Johnny Rod. After two albums on Capitol records\"Ready to Strike\" (November 9, 1985) and \"Thrill of a Lifetime\" (1986)and an independent release entitled \"King Kobra III\" in 1988, Appice decided to dissolve the band and join guitarist John Sykes on his Blue Murder project in 1989.", "Bernardo Chavez Rico (born October 13, 1941 December 3, 1999) was an American luthier specializing in guitars. Known as Bernie Rico Sr. or simply B.C., Rico was born in East Los Angeles California. Working with his father, Rico began his career building Flamenco, Classical guitars, banjos, and ukuleles in the 1950s. Rico's original instruments were acoustic guitars made under the name B.C. Rico. These acoustic guitars are very rare with approximately 300 surviving.", "Great White is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles in 1977. The band gained popularity during the 1980s and early 1990s. The band released several albums in the late 1980s and gained airplay on MTV with music videos for songs like \"Once Bitten, Twice Shy\". The band reached their peak popularity with the album \"...Twice Shy\" in 1989.", "John Michael \"Ozzy\" Osbourne (born 3 December 1948) is an English singer, songwriter, and actor. He rose to prominence in the early 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath. He was fired from Black Sabbath in 1979 and went on to have a successful solo career, releasing 11 studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the US. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions, recording the album \"13\" in 2013. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of \"Godfather of Heavy Metal\". ", "Dokken are an American metal band formed in 1979. They split up in 1989 and reformed four years later. They had three charting singles (\"Alone Again\", \"In My Dreams\" and \"Burning Like a Flame\") and have sold more than 10 million albums worldwide. \"Beast from the East\" was nominated for the inaugural Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance in 1989.", "Van Halen is an American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California, in 1972. From 1974 until 1985, the band consisted of guitarist Eddie Van Halen, vocalist David Lee Roth, drummer Alex Van Halen, and bassist Michael Anthony.", "Mötley Crüe was an American glam metal band formed in Los Angeles, California on January 17, 1981. The group was founded by bass guitarist Nikki Sixx and drummer Tommy Lee, lead singer Vince Neil and lead guitarist Mick Mars. Mötley Crüe has sold more than 100 million records worldwide including 25 million in the US, making them one of the world's best-selling bands of all time.", "L.A. Guns are an American hard rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1983. As of 2014, the lineup consists of Phil Lewis (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Steve Riley (drums, percussion, backing vocals), Kenny Kweens (bass guitar, backing vocals), and Michael Grant (lead guitar, backing vocals). The first incarnation of the group was formed by Tracii Guns in 1983 and merged with fellow Los Angeles group Hollywood Rose to form Guns N' Roses in 1984. In 1985, the group was reformed by Guns and singer Paul Black adding Mick Cripps and Nickey Alexander. Black would soon be replaced by former Girl singer Phil Lewis while former Faster Pussycat bassist Kelly Nickels was added to the group. Later, Alexander would be replaced by former W.A.S.P. drummer Steve Riley with this being known as the \"classic lineup\" of L.A. Guns. They achieved moderate chart success in the late 1980s and early 1990s. However, the group went through numerous lineup changes (with Riley being the most consistent member) and failed to regain mainstream attention.", "Johnny Rod ( born John Tumminello on December 8 , 1957 ) is an American bass guitar player . One of the early bands he was active in was King Kobra , from 1983 to 1986 . In 1986 he joined the heavy metal band W.A.S.P. . Johnny Rod used both Fender ( the Fender Precision bass is his all time favorite ) and B.C. Rich basses during his career . His main bass with W.A.S.P. was a yellow B.C. Rich Ironbird bass . In 2010 , he reunited with King Kobra .", "Mick Sweda is a songwriter, guitarist and singer born in Gowanda, NY on April 18, 1960.", "The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a hollow wooden or plastic and wood box (for an acoustic guitar), or through electrical amplifier and a speaker (for an electric guitar). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, thumb and/or fingernails of the right hand or with a pick while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.", "Guns N' Roses is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles formed in 1985. The lineup, when first signed to Geffen Records in 1986, consisted of vocalist Axl Rose, lead guitarist Slash, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin, bassist Duff McKagan, and drummer Steven Adler. The current lineup consists of Rose, Slash, McKagan, keyboardists Dizzy Reed and Melissa Reese, guitarist Richard Fortus and drummer Frank Ferrer. The band has released six studio albums, accumulating sales of more than 100 million records worldwide, including shipments of 45 million in the United States, making Guns N' Roses one of the world's best-selling bands of all time.", "W.A.S.P. is an American heavy metal band formed in 1982 by Blackie Lawless, who is the only remaining original member of the band. They emerged from the same Los Angeles scene that spawned Van Halen, Mötley Crüe, Dokken, Ratt, Quiet Riot, Guns N' Roses, Great White, L.A. Guns, Leatherwolf and others. The band's popularity peaked in the 1980s, yet they continue to record and tour, making them one of the most enduring of the West Coast heavy metal bands. W.A.S.P. gained notoriety for their shock rock themed image, lyrics and live performances. They have sold over 12 million copies of their albums.", "Blackie Lawless (born Steven Edward Duren; September 4, 1956) is an American songwriter and musician best known as the lead singer and rhythm guitarist (formerly bassist) for the heavy metal band W.A.S.P.", "B.C. Rich is an American brand of acoustic and electric (bass) guitars founded by Bernardo Chavez Rico in 1969. The company started to make electric guitars in the 1970s that were notable for their atypical body shapes. In the following decade B.C. Rich gained a broader exposure with the popularity of heavy metal and has since often been linked to that music scene. The company briefly switched owners in the 1990s before being acquired in the 2000s by Hanser Music Group, a distribution company based in Hebron , Kentucky. B.C Rich has since been acquired by Praxis Musical based in Orange, California. The high-end B.C. Rich instruments are custom-made in the USA whereas the mid and low budget models are produced in different countries in Asia.", "Ready to Strike is the first album by the band King Kobra. It was released on November 9, 1985.", "Quiet Riot is an American heavy metal band, best known for their hit singles \"Metal Health\" and \"Cum on Feel the Noize.\" The band was founded in 1973, by guitarist Randy Rhoads and bassist Kelly Garni under the name Mach 1. They then changed the name to Little Women, before settling on Quiet Riot in May 1975. The band's name was inspired by a conversation with Rick Parfitt of the British band Status Quo, in which Parfitt said he'd like to name a band \"Quite Right,\" and his thick English accent made it sound like he was saying \"Quiet Riot.\" The band is ranked at No. 100 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock.", "Los Angeles (Spanish for \"The Angels\"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the second-most populous city in the United States (after New York City), the most populous city in California and the county seat of Los Angeles County. Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, sprawling metropolis, and as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over .", "King Kobra III, released in 1988 on New Renaissance Records, was the first and last album by the Edwards, Michael-Phillips, Northrup, Hart and Appice line-up of King Kobra. After the demise of the original line-up, remaining members Carmine Appice and David Michael-Phillips teamed up with Johnny Edwards, Jeff Northrup and Larry Hart, all 3 members of the Sacramento, CA band Northrup at the time.", "Ratt (stylized as RATT) is an American heavy metal band that had significant commercial success in the 1980s, with their albums having been certified as gold, platinum, and multi-platinum by the RIAA. The group is perhaps best known for hit singles such as \"Round and Round\" and \"Lay It Down\", tracks that ranked on Billboard's top 40 at No. 12 and No. 40, respectively, as well as other songs such as \"Wanted Man\", \"You're in Love\" and \"Dance\". Along with groups such as friendly rivals Mötley Crüe, Ratt has been recognized as instrumental in the formation of the early 1980s Los Angeles glam metal scene, also known as \"hair metal\" or \"pop metal\".", "Carmine Appice (born December 15, 1946) is an American drummer and percussionist most commonly associated with the rock genre of music. He has received classical music training, and was influenced early-on by the work of jazz drummers Buddy Rich and Gene Krupa. Appice is best known for his associations with Vanilla Fudge, Cactus, the power trio Beck, Bogert & Appice, Rod Stewart, King Kobra, and Blue Murder, which also featured John Sykes of Thin Lizzy fame, and Tony Franklin of The Firm. He was inducted into the \"Classic Drummer\" Hall of Fame in 2013, and the \"Modern Drummer\" Hall of Fame in 2014.", "John James Sykes (born 29 July 1959) is an English rock guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter who has played with Streetfighter, Tygers of Pan Tang, John Sloman's Badlands, Thin Lizzy, Whitesnake, and Blue Murder. Sykes co-wrote the majority of the songs on Whitesnake's 1987 self-titled album with David Coverdale. Sykes is also a successful solo artist.", "Leatherwolf is an American heavy metal band that formed in Huntington Beach, California in 1981. They split up in 1991, but reunited in 1999. The group is also nicknamed the \"Triple Axe Attack\" for pioneering the use of a 3-guitar line-up in heavy metal. Currently comprising vocalist and guitarist Michael Olivieri, guitarists Rob Math and Joey Tafolla, bassist Patrick Guyton, and drummer Dean Roberts, the band has released five studio albums. Leatherwolf has gone through many line-up changes, leaving Roberts as the only constant member. Though the band continues to perform live, they have not released any studio material since their 2007 album \"New World Asylum\"." ]
[]
WH_train_6
record_label method man
loud records
[ "1995", "1996", "album", "english", "epic", "epic records", "ghostface killah", "island", "label", "labels", "loud records", "pop", "raekwon", "rca", "rca records", "record", "studio album", "universal" ]
[ "Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) is the debut studio album by the American hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan, released November 9, 1993, on Loud Records and distributed through RCA Records. Recording sessions for the album took place during 1992 to 1993 at Firehouse Studio in New York City, and it was mastered at The Hit Factory. The album's title originates from the martial arts film \"The 36th Chamber of Shaolin\" (1978). The group's \"de facto\" leader RZA, also known as Prince Rakeem, produced the album entirely, utilizing heavy, eerie beats and a sound largely based on martial-arts movie clips and soul music samples.", "`` Method Man '' is the B - side to the single `` Protect Ya Neck '' from critically acclaimed debut album by the Wu - Tang Clan titled Enter the Wu - Tang ( 36 Chambers ) . It was a solo track for the first successful solo star of the Wu - Tang Clan , Method Man . The song was chosen for The Source magazine 100 best rap singles . The refrain of the song ( M - E - T - H - O - D ) draws from the 1984 Hall & Oates hit `` Method of Modern Love '' from Big Bam Boom . It is featured on The RZA Hits compilation . The remix is featured on Method Man 's debut album , Tical .", "Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. In the southwest of the city, Staten Island is the southernmost part of both the city and state of New York, with Conference House Park at the southern tip of the island and the state. The borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull, and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With a 2015 Census-estimated population of 474,558, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in area at .\nThe borough is coextensive with Richmond County, and until 1975 was the Borough of Richmond. Its flag was later changed to reflect this. Staten Island has been sometimes called \"the forgotten borough\" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government.", "Clifford Smith (born March 2, 1971), better known by his stage name Method Man, is an American rapper, record producer, and actor. He is known as a member of the East Coast hip hop collective Wu-Tang Clan. He is also one half of the hip hop duo Method Man & Redman. He took his stage name from the 1979 film \"Method Man\". In 1996, he won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group, for \"I'll Be There for You/You're All I Need to Get By\", with American R&B singer-songwriter Mary J. Blige.", "\"Method of Modern Love\" is a single by the American duo Hall & Oates. It was released as the second single from their 1984 album, \"Big Bam Boom\". The song reached number five on the \"Billboard\" Hot 100 in February 1985 and is included in numerous compilation albums except on the album: .", "Dennis Coles (born May 9, 1970), better known by his stage name Ghostface Killah, is an American rapper and prominent member of the Wu-Tang Clan. After the group achieved breakthrough success in the aftermath of \"Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)\", the members went on to pursue solo careers to varying levels of success. Ghostface Killah debuted his solo-career with \"Ironman\" in 1996, which was well received by music critics. He has continued his success over the following years with critically acclaimed albums such as \"Supreme Clientele\" (2000) and \"Fishscale\" (2006). His stage name was taken from one of the characters in the 1979 kung fu film \"Mystery of Chessboxing\". He is the founder of his own label Starks Enterprises.", "Mary Jane Blige (born January 11, 1971) is an American singer, songwriter, model, record producer and actress. Starting her career as a background singer on Uptown Records in 1989, Blige released her first album, \"What's the 411?\", in 1992, and has released 12 studio albums since and made over 150 guest appearances on other albums and soundtracks.", "\"Out of Touch\" is a 1984 song by Hall & Oates. The lead single from their 1984 album \"Big Bam Boom\", it was their last \"Billboard\" Hot 100 number one, topping the chart for two weeks in December 1984. It became the duo's fourteenth consecutive top 40 hit since 1980.", "\"Protect Ya Neck\" is the debut single by hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan. The song is from the group's critically acclaimed first album \"Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)\". It is produced by RZA (then known as Prince Rakeem) and features eight of the original nine Wu-Tang members.", "Wu-Tang Clan is an American hip hop group from New York City, originally composed of East Coast rappers RZA, GZA, Ol' Dirty Bastard, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God and Masta Killa. Cappadonna later became an official member of the group. The group was formed in and is associated with the New York City borough of Staten Island. ", "Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre that originated in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States; where record labels such as Motown, Atlantic and Stax were influential in the civil rights era. Soul also became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa.", "Loud Records is a record label founded by Steve Rifkind and Rich Isaacson in 1991.", "John William Oates (born April 7, 1948) is an American rock, R&B and soul guitarist, musician, songwriter and record producer best known as half of the rock and soul duo, Hall & Oates (with Daryl Hall).", "RCA Records is an American major record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment (SME). It is one of SME's flagship record labels alongside sister labels Columbia Records and Epic Records. The label has released multiple genres of music, including pop, rock, hip hop, R&B, blues, jazz, and country. The company's name is derived from the initials of the label's former parent company, Radio Corporation of America (RCA). It is the second oldest recording company in U.S. history, after sister label Columbia Records. RCA's Canadian unit (formerly Berliner Gramophone Canada) is Sony's oldest label in Canada. It was one of only two Canadian record companies to survive the Great Depression.", "Lamont Jody Hawkins (born October 11, 1970), better known as U-God (short for Universal God), is an American rapper and member of the hip hop collective, Wu-Tang Clan. He has been with the group since its inception, and is known for having a deep, rhythmic flow that can alternate between being gruff or smooth.", "A Grammy Award (originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards (television), the Tony Awards (stage performance), and the Academy Awards (motion pictures).", "Big Bam Boom is the twelfth studio album by Daryl Hall & John Oates, released by RCA Records late in 1984. It marked the end of one of the most successful album runs by a duo of the 1980s. RCA issued a remastered version in July 2004 with four bonus tracks. The song \"Out of Touch\" (the first single) was a #1 pop hit, and charted in several other areas (#24 Hot Black Singles, #8 on the Adult Contemporary charts and #1 on the dance charts, #48 in the UK). Another song taken from the album, the Daryl Hall and Janna Allen-penned \"Method of Modern Love\" reached a high point of #5.", "Russell Tyrone Jones (November 15, 1968  November 13, 2004), better known under his stage name Ol' Dirty Bastard (or ODB), was an American rapper and producer. He was one of the founding members of the Wu-Tang Clan, a rap group primarily from Staten Island, New York which first rose to mainstream prominence with their 1993 debut album \"Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)\".", "Corey Quontrell Woods (born January 12, 1970), better known by the stage name Raekwon, is an American rapper and a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. He released his solo debut, \"Only Built 4 Cuban Linx...\" in 1995, and has since recorded numerous solo albums, as well as continuing to work with Wu-Tang and providing an extensive number of guest contributions to other hip hop artists' works. He is the founder of his own label ICEH20 Records." ]
[]
WH_train_7
located_in_the_administrative_territorial_entity naya raipur
raipur district
[ "bangladesh", "bhopal", "bhutan", "canada", "center", "central", "central province", "centre", "chennai", "chhattisgarh", "district", "hyderabad", "india", "indian ocean", "italy", "kolkata", "madhya pradesh", "michigan", "most", "mumbai", "nepal", "new delhi", "normal", "northwest", "of", "pakistan", "post", "raipur district", "rajasthan", "roman empire", "south", "thailand", "united kingdom", "uttar pradesh" ]
[ "A province is almost always an administrative division, within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman \"provincia\", which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries, and in those with no actual provinces, it has come to mean \"outside the capital city\". While some provinces were produced artificially by colonial powers, others were formed around local groups with their own ethnic identities. Many have their own powers independent of federal authority, especially in Canada. In other countries, like China, provinces are the creation of central government, with very little autonomy.", "Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steel's base metal is iron, which is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.", "A municipality is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws, to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets. The term \"municipality\" may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French \"municipalité\" and Latin \"municipalis\".", "A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction.", "Raipur is a city in the Raipur district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is the capital city of the state of Chhattisgarh and is the administrative headquarters of Raipur district. It is also the largest city in Chhattisgarh. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000. Naya Raipur is the upcoming business hub in Chhattisgarh promoted by the state government.", "The seat of government is (as defined by \"Brewer's Politics\") \"the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority\".", "Naya Raipur is the new capital city of Chhattisgarh , a state in Central India . Naya Raipur is located between National Highways NH - 6 and NH - 43 , about 17 km south - east of the current capital Raipur ; Swami Vivekananda Airport separates the old and new cities . Naya Raipur is serving as the administrative capital of the State and also caters to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region . Naya Raipur is surrounded by the cities of Raipur , Arang , Mahasamund , Rajim and Abhanpur . Naya Raipur covers an area of about 8000 hectares . It includes 41 villages out of which 27 villages form the core of Naya Raipur . During the renovation of villages for the construction of Naya Raipur , it displaced the population of one village . About half of the total acquired land is being used for afforestation , roads , parks , public conveniences , water facilities - canals , green belts etc. ; twenty three percent ( 23 % ) of the land would be reserved for educational institutions , government offices and public auditoriums etc. ; and thirty percent ( 30 % ) of the land will be used for residential and economical purposes . Naya Raipur is India 's fifth planned capital city after Gandhinagar ( Gujarat ) , Chandigarh ( Punjab & Haryana ) , Bhubaneshwar ( Orissa ) , and Navi Mumbai ( Maharashtra ) . The city is expected to house about 4.5 lakh ( 450,000 ) people within a decade . Provisions have been made for its expansion and to upgrade infrastructure in the future .", "Chhattisgarh (literally 'Thirty-Six Forts') is a state in central India. It is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of . With a population of 28 million, Chhattisgarh is the 17th most-populated state of the nation. It is a source of electricity and steel for India, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced in the country. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.", "Jurisdiction (from the Latin \"ius, \" meaning \"law\" and \"\" meaning \"to speak\") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In the federations like USA, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law.", "India, officially the Republic of India (\"Bhrat Gaarjya\"), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.", "Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.", "Raipur district is a district in the Chhattisgarh state of India. Raipur is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district is rich in mineral resources. There are many wild life sanctuaries and sight seeing places worth visiting. The district has the population of 30 lakhs.", "Madhya Pradesh (MP) (, meaning Central Province) is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and the largest city is Indore. Nicknamed the \"heart of India\" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second-largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the fifth-largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,245 km². Before 2000, When Chattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km.", "A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.", "A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. \"constitute\", what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a \"written\" constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a \"codified\" constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties.", "Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for ) and atomic number 50, is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is -tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey -tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air." ]
[]
WH_train_8
country_of_citizenship dan clark
united kingdom
[ "british", "london", "united kingdom", "writer" ]
[ "BBC Choice was a BBC TV station which launched on 23 September 1998 and closed on 28 February 2003. It was the first British TV channel to broadcast exclusively in digital format, as well as the BBC's second non-terrestrial channel launch (following on from the BBC News channel in 1997).", "BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming catchup television and radio service in the United Kingdom. The service is available on a wide range of devices, including mobile phones and tablets, personal computers, and smart televisions. Neither the iPlayer services nor the individual TV programmes display any commercial advertising. The terms BBC iPlayer, iPlayer, and BBC Media Player all refer to the same services.", "A British sitcom is a situation comedy programme produced for British television. Although styles of sitcom have changed over the years they tend to be based on a family, workplace or other institution, where the same group of contrasting characters is brought together in each episode. British sitcoms are typically produced in one or more series of six episodes. Most such series are conceived and developed by one or two writers.", "BBC Three (stylised as BBC II!) is a British digital publisher and broadcaster operated by the BBC. It launched on 16 February 2016, having previously been a broadcast channel since 9 February 2003. BBC Three was originally intended as a replacement for BBC Choice. The service's remit was to provide \"innovative\" programming to a target audience of viewers between 16 and 34 years old, leveraging technology as well as new talent.", "Daniel Gregory `` Dan '' Clark ( born 3 July 1976 ) is an English actor , comedian , writer , director and singer . He is best known for playing Don Danbury on the BBC Three sitcom How Not to Live Your Life , which he also wrote , co-produced , and directed various episodes of . He has been a regular on the British comedy scene as both a sketch and stand - up comedian .", "The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation, and is the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, with over 20,950 staff in total, of whom 16,672 are in public sector broadcasting; including part-time, flexible as well as fixed contract staff, the total number is 35,402.", "How Not to Live Your Life (styled in the opening credits as \"how NOT to live your life\") was a British sitcom, written by and starring Dan Clark that aired between 27 September 2007 and 22 December 2011 on BBC Three, about a neurotic twenty-nine-year-old man who is trying to navigate his way through life but is not helped by his bad instincts. After a pilot, the show debuted in 2008 with moderate ratings but grew over the course of the three series, doubling its ratings each series because of its cult following. The third series got viewing figures of 1.5 million across the week and was the second most watched show on BBC iPlayer. When BBC Three controller Danny Cohen left the channel, new controller Zai Bennett cancelled several comedies, including \"How Not to Live Your Life\"." ]
[]
WH_train_9
occupation will kidman
singer
[ "accounting", "artist", "band", "barber", "canada", "commercial", "indie pop", "manufacturer", "marketing", "scouting", "singer", "united kingdom" ]
[ "Canada (French: ) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest city is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.", "Justin Rutledge (born January 3, 1979) is a Toronto-based alternative country singer-songwriter signed to Outside Music.", "Jill Barber (born February 6, 1980) is a Canadian singer-songwriter. Originally associated with the folk-pop genre, she has performed vocal jazz on her more recent albums.", "Matthew Barber (born January 10, 1977) is a Canadian singer-songwriter. His music has been classified as indie pop and pop rock with folk and alternative country influences.", "Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Indie rock encapsulates indie pop and lo-fi, among others. Originally used to describe record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. As grunge and punk revival bands in the US, and then Britpop bands in the UK, broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term.", "Outside Music is a Canadian record label and distributor, founded by Lloyd Nishimura in 1995. In 2007, it expanded to include an artist management division which counts Jill Barber, Matthew Barber, Aidan Knight, Justin Rutledge as management clients.", "A record label or record company is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists (\"artists and repertoire\" or \"A&R\"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term \"record label\" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information.", "Guelph (Canada 2011 Census population 121,688) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Known as \"The Royal City\", Guelph is roughly east of Waterloo and west of Downtown Toronto at the intersection of Highway 6 and Highway 7. It is the seat of Wellington County, but is politically independent of it.", "Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province by a large margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto.", "Will Kidman is a Canadian rock musician , best known as the keyboard player for the Constantines . He has also released two acoustic solo albums under the name Woolly Leaves , the first entitled Dew Dab , recorded in 2001 , before joining the Constantines . His second record , entitled Quiet Waters , was released in 2006 on Outside Music .", "Constantines is an indie rock band from Guelph, Ontario, Canada." ]
[]
WH_train_10
occupation s. p. y. reddy
politician
[ "academic", "actor", "bank", "canada", "collector", "construction", "engineering", "general", "king", "major", "minister", "ministry", "mountain", "official", "physics", "politician", "president", "research", "sanskrit", "science", "socialist", "sovereign", "taiwan" ]
[ "Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South East Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. About one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 miles), forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 miles) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi) in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).", "Telangana is one of the 29 states in India, located in southern India. Telangana has an area of , and a population of 35,193,978 (2011 census). making it the twelfth largest state in India, and the twelfth most populated state in India. Its major cities include Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Karimnagar and Ramagundam. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Karnataka to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.", "Telugu Desam Party (\"Party of the Telugu Land\"), abbreviated as TDP, is a regional political party active in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The party was founded by N. T. Rama Rao on 29 March 1982. Since 1995, the party is headed by Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the incumbent Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. The party's headquarters is located at NTR Bhavan in Hyderabad.", "In Italy, the Iaurea is the main post-secondary academic degree. The name originally referred literally to the laurel wreath, since ancient times a sign of honor and now often worn by Italian students right after their official graduation ceremony and sometimes during the graduation party. A graduate is known as a \"laureato\", literally \"crowned with laurel.\"", "Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering, physics, and materials science for the design, analysis, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines.", "The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all except a small number of adult citizens (or subjects). As minors are generally excluded, the concept is frequently described as \"universal adult suffrage\". Many countries make an exception for small numbers of adults that are considered mentally incapable of voting. Other countries also exclude people convicted of serious crimes or people in jail, but this is considered a violation of a basic human right in an increasing number of countries. In some countries, including the United States, it is very difficult and expensive for convicted criminals to regain this right even after having served their jail sentence. In any case, where universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by race, sex, belief, wealth, or social status.", "The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the Lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the Upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.", "Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923  18 January 1996), popularly known as NTR, was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms.", "Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is a metropolitan area in Maharashtra state, consisting of the state capital Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of nine municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. The entire area is overseen by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), a Maharashtra State Government organisation in charge of town planning, development, transportation and housing in the region. The MMRDA was formed to address the challenges in planning and development of integrated infrastructure for the metropolitan region. The areas outside of Brihan Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) and Navi Mumbai have lacked organised development. Navi Mumbai, developed as one of the largest planned cities in the world, was promoted by a Maharashtra Government-owned company, City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). The region has had problems related to haphazard and illegal development as a result of rapid urbanisation. Villages along the NH3 in Bhiwandi Taluka are examples of haphazard developments in the MMR, with some of the largest warehousing areas in India. Government agencies such as the Town Planner and Collector of Thane have had challenges in addressing unorganised development.", "Andhra Pradesh() is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of . As per 2011 Census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants.", "Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, with an estimated city population of 18.4 million. Along with the neighbouring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world and the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 20.7 million . Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2009, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, or Central Asia. Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. ", "China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China, and its capital is Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.", "The Rajya Sabha or \"Council of States\" is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, and current laws have provision for 245 members. Most of the members of the House are indirectly elected by state and territorial legislatures using single transferable votes, while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. Members sit for staggered six-year terms, with one third of the members retiring every two years.", "The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica. It is named after the country of India. The Indian Ocean is known as \"Ratnkara\", \"\"the mine of gems\"\" in ancient Sanskrit literature, and as \"Hind Mahsgar\", \"\"the great Indian sea\"\", in Hindi.", "The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India's premier nuclear research facility based in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra. BARC is a multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development covering the entire spectrum of nuclear science, engineering and related areas.", "Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state. Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and largest city. It is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language. ", "Indonesia (or ; Indonesian: ), officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At , Indonesia is the world's 14th-largest country in terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area. It has an estimated population of over 260 million people and is the world's fourth most populous country, the most populous Austronesian nation, as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of the country's population.", "The Maldives (, or ), officially the Republic of Maldives (\"\"), is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of India and Sri Lanka. The chain of twenty-six atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly , the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by both land area and population, with a little over 393,500 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the \"King's Island\" for its central location.", "Physics (from , from \"phúsis\" \"nature\") is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves.", "Bhutan ('), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan ('), is a landlocked country and the smallest state in Asia to be located entirely within the Himalaya mountain range. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by China in the north and India in the south. Bhutan lacks a border with nearby Nepal due to the Indian state of Sikkim and with Bangladesh due to the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center. ", "Engineering is the application of mathematics and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to invent, innovate, design, build, maintain, research, and improve structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, processes, solutions, and organizations.", "S. P. Y. Reddy ( born 4 June 1950 ) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India . He represents the Nandyal constituency of Andhra Pradesh and is a member of the Indian National Congress . ( He is no more in congress . joining YSR Congress Party ) He is also an entrepreneur and heads the Andhra Pradesh - based Nandi Group of Industries . Reddy was born on 4 June 1950 in the Ankalammagudur village from Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh . He graduated with a Bachelor 's degree in Mechanical Engineering from NIT Warangal and joined the Mumbai - based Bhabha Atomic Research Centre , India 's premium nuclear facility . He quit the position of a Scientific Officer in 1977 and set up a plastic containers manufacturing plant in 1979 . Thereafter , he diversified his company 's operations into PVC pipes manufacturing in 1984 under the name of Nandi Pipes . SPY Reddy is well known in Nandyal area through his frequent noble acts . He began his political career with BJP . He contested to Nandyal Loksabha constituency in 1991 elections on behalf of BJP but was defeated by huge margin . In 1999 Assembly elections he contested to both Nandyal and Giddalur assembly constituencies as an independent candidate . This time he was defeated narrowly by NMD Farooq in Nandyal . In 2000 , he procured the ticket for municipal chairman candidacy for congress and won with record majority . In 2004 he contested as an MP candidate from Nandyal and won with 1 lakh majority . In 2009 , once again won from the same constituency . In 2014 , he won for the third time as MP from Nandyal by defeating NMD Farooq with 1.08 lakh majority . Defections with YSR Congress Party : MP SPY Reddy joins TDP.MP SPY Reddy , who was elected to Lok Sabha from Nandyal on YSR Congress Party ticket , has joined the Telugu Desam Party on 25 May 2014 , which is set to form the Government in the residual state of Andhra Pradesh .", "India, officially the Republic of India (\"Bhrat Gaarjya\"), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.", "A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin \"baccalaureus\") or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin \"baccalaureatus\") is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline). In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework (sometimes two levels where non-honours and honours bachelor's degrees are considered separately), although some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels (e.g. MBBS) and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be classified as bachelor's degrees (e.g. the Scottish MA and Canadian MD).", "Kolkata (, also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. In 2011, the city had population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. In 2008 its gross domestic product (adjusted for purchasing power parity) was estimated to be 104 billion, which was the third highest among Indian cities, behind Mumbai and Delhi.", "Sri Lanka (or ; Sinhalese: ', Tamil: \"Ilakai\"), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon), is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. Sri Lanka has maritime borders with India to the northwest and the Maldives to the southwest.", "A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.", "Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns). Design has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases, the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, coding, and graphic design) is also considered to be design.", "An upper house, sometimes called a Senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller, and often has more restricted power, than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the UK's House of Lords, Canada's Senate, India's Rajya Sabha, Russia's Federation Council, Ireland's Seanad, Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate.", "The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times, . It has been conducted every 10 years, beginning in 1872, however the first complete census was taken in the year 1881. Post 1949, it has been conducted by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. All the census since 1951 are conducted under 1948 Census of India Act.", "Delhi (Dilli) , officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. It is the most expansive city in Indiaabout . It has a population of about 25 million, making it the second most populous city after Mumbai and most populous urban agglomeration in India and 3 largest urban area in the world. Urban expansion in Delhi has caused it to grow beyond the NCT to incorporate towns in neighbouring states. At its largest extent, there is a population of about 25 million residents . According to data released by Oxford Economics, Delhi NCR urban agglomeration has replaced Mumbai Metropolitan Region urban agglomeration as the economic capital of India. However the comparison of the figures specific to the Metropolis of Delhi and Metropolis of Mumbai was not provided by this institution. These figures however did not match with those revealed by the reserve bank of India, The economic survey of India, The economic survey of Delhi and Maharashtra.", "The interdisciplinarity field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study. \nMany of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limits of the materials that are available. Thus, breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly.", "An academic degree is a qualification awarded on successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, typically including bachelor's, masters and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates, and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees (e.g. associate degrees in the US or foundation degrees in the UK) while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual." ]
[]
WH_train_11
director forward march hare
chuck jones
[ "chuck jones", "friz freleng", "robert mckimson", "variety" ]
[ "Foghorn J. Leghorn is a character that appears in the \"Looney Tunes\" and \"Merrie Melodies\" cartoons for Warner Bros. Pictures. He was created by Robert McKimson and writer Warren Foster, and starred in 28 cartoons from 1946 to 1963 in the Golden Age of American Animation. All 28 of these cartoons were directed by McKimson.", "Looney Tunes is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 during the golden age of American animation, alongside its sister series \"Merrie Melodies\". It was known for introducing such famous cartoon characters as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil and many others. These characters themselves are commonly referred to as the \"Looney Tunes\".", "An animated series is a set of animated works with a common series title, usually related to one another. These episodes typically share the same main characters, some different secondary characters and a basic theme. Series can have either a finite number of episodes like a miniseries, a definite end, or be open-ended, without a predetermined number of episodes. They can be broadcast on television, shown in movie theatres, released direct-to-video or on the internet. Like animated films, animated series can be of a wide variety of genres and can also have different target audiences, from children to adults.", "Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character; created in 1940 by Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons) and voiced originally by the legendary vocal artist, Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the \"Looney Tunes\" and \"Merrie Melodies\" series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. during the golden age of American animation. His popularity during this era led to his becoming an American cultural icon, as well as the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment.", "Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. was the in-house division of Warner Bros. Pictures during the Golden Age of American animation. One of the most successful animation studios in American media history, Warner Bros. Cartoons was primarily responsible for the \"Looney Tunes\" and \"Merrie Melodies\" theatrical cartoon short subjects. The characters featured in these cartoons, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Speedy Gonzales, Sylvester and Tweety, Wile E. Coyote and The Road Runner, are among the most famous and recognizable characters in the world. Many of the creative staff members at the studio, including directors and animators such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson, Tex Avery, Robert Clampett and Frank Tashlin, are considered major figures in the art and history of traditional animation.", "Forward March Hare is an animated Looney Tunes cartoon released in 1953 featuring Bugs Bunny . Bugs , accidentally drafted into the Army , causes havoc with his sergeant at basic training . The title relates to the March Hare . This cartoon was released during the final months of the Korean War ." ]
[]
WH_train_12
occupation carol speed
actor
[ "actor", "author", "bassist", "book", "detective", "diversity", "drummer", "editor", "founder", "game", "literary", "major", "manager", "opera", "personal assistant", "producer", "publicist", "r", "sales", "science", "writer" ]
[ "The double feature, also known as a double bill, was a motion picture industry phenomenon in which theatre managers would exhibit two films for the price of one, supplanting an earlier format in which one feature film and various short subject reels would be shown.\nEarly opera use.\nOpera houses staged two operas together for the sake of providing long performance for the audience. This was related to one-act or two-act short operas that were otherwise commercially hard to stage alone. A prominent example is the double-bill of \"Pagliacci\" with \"Cavalleria rusticana\" first staged on 22 December 1893 by the Met. The two operas have since been frequently performed as a double-bill, a pairing referred to in the operatic world colloquially as \"Cav and Pag\". ", "James Harvey Nicholson (September 14, 1916 December 10, 1972) was an American film producer. He is best known as the co-founder, with Samuel Z. Arkoff, of American International Pictures.", "The supernatural (Medieval Latin: \"superntrlis\": \"supra\" \"above\" + \"naturalis\" \"natural\", first used: 15201530 AD) includes all that cannot be explained by science or the laws of nature, including things characteristic of or relating to ghosts, gods, or other supernatural beings, or to things beyond nature.", "Abraham \"Bram\" Stoker (8 November 1847  20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel \"Dracula\". During his lifetime, he was better known as the personal assistant of actor Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.", "American International Pictures (AIP) was a film production company formed in April 2, 1954 from American Releasing Corporation (ARC) by James H. Nicholson, former Sales Manager of Realart Pictures, and Samuel Z. Arkoff, an entertainment lawyer. It was dedicated to releasing independently produced, low-budget films packaged as double features, primarily of interest to the teenagers of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Nicholson and Arkoff formed ARC in 1954; their first release was the 1955 \"The Fast and the Furious\".", "Carol Speed ( born Carolyn Stewart ; March 14 , 1945 ) is an American actress , singer and author . She is best known for her roles in films of the 1970s blaxploitation era , Most notably starring as Abby Williams in the American International Pictures 1974 blaxploitation horror film Abby . Speed has appeared in sixteen films since 1970 and has since authored some books including Inside Black Hollywood which was published in 1980 .", "A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film or TV show; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.", "Horror film is a film genre that seeks to elicit a negative emotional reaction from viewers by playing on their fears. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, and Mary Shelley, horror films have existed for more than a century. The macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction and thriller genres.", "Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809  October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre. He is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole, and he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career.", "Blaxploitation or blacksploitation is an ethnic subgenre of the exploitation film, emerging in the United States during the early 1970s. Blaxploitation films were originally made specifically for an urban black audience, but the genre's audience appeal soon broadened across racial and ethnic lines. The Los Angeles National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) head and ex-film publicist Junius Griffin coined the term from the words \"black\" and \"exploitation.\" Blaxploitation films were the first to regularly feature soundtracks of funk and soul music and primarily black casts. \"Variety\" credited \"Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song\" and the less radical Hollywood-financed film \"Shaft\" (both released in 1971) with the invention of the blaxploitation genre.", "Los Angeles (Spanish for \"The Angels\"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the second-most populous city in the United States (after New York City), the most populous city in California and the county seat of Los Angeles County. Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, sprawling metropolis, and as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over .", "Supernatural fiction or supernaturalist fiction is a genre of literary and media fiction exploiting or requiring as plot devices or themes some contradictions of the commonplace natural world and materialist assumptions about it. ", "Samuel Zachary Arkoff (12 June 1918 16 September 2001) was an American producer of B movies.", "A film genre (or ) is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film (namely, serious, comic, etc.). Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism. The basic genres include fiction and documentary, from which subgenres have emerged, such as docufiction and docudrama. Other subgenres include the courtroom and trial-focused drama known as the legal drama. Types of fiction which may seem unrelated can also be combined to form hybrid subgenres, such as the melding of horror and comedy in the \"Evil Dead\" films. Other popular combinations are the romantic comedy and the action comedy film.", "Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid- 1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B). Funk de-emphasizes melody and chord progressions used in other related genres and brings a strong rhythmic groove of a bass line played by an electric bassist and a drum part played by a drummer to the foreground. Funk songs are often based on an extended vamp on a single chord, distinguishing them from R&B and soul songs, which are built on complex chord progressions. Funk uses the same richly-colored extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths." ]
[]
WH_train_13
instance_of sally lunn bun
pastry
[ "1", "1937", "archipelago", "bay", "body of water", "border", "bread", "butter", "channel", "continent", "cornwall", "country", "county", "dairy product", "definition", "dough", "downland", "england", "food", "geographic region", "geography", "holiday", "island", "jurisdiction", "liquid", "lying", "marginal sea", "may", "name", "ocean", "part", "pastry", "peninsula", "people", "plain", "population", "product", "region", "saint", "scholarship", "sea", "sovereign state", "state", "temperature" ]
[ "Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Some borderssuch as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Areaare often open and completely unguarded. Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Mostly contentious, borders may even foster the setting up of buffer zones. A difference has also been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries.", "Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of . Wales has over of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.", "A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction.", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "The Isles of Scilly (or \"\") are an archipelago off the south western tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. It is the southernmost location in England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most westerly in England.", "The English Channel (\"the Sleeve\" [hence ] \"Sea of Brittany\" \"British Sea\"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the rest of the Atlantic Ocean.", "Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture.", "Great Britain, also known as Britain , is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , Great Britain is the largest European island and the ninth-largest in the world. In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, comprise the British Isles archipelago.", "The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric (or \"shelf\") sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than long and wide, with an area of around .", "Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe, or, by Europeans, simply the Continent, is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding surrounding islands.", "The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is located in the English Channel, about 4 miles (6 km) off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines.", "Brioche is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content give it a rich and tender crumb. Chef Joel Robuchon describes it as \"light and slightly puffy, more or less fine, according to the proportion of butter and eggs.\" It has a dark, golden, and flaky crust, frequently accentuated by an egg wash applied after proofing.", "The Irish Sea (, , , Ulster-Scots: \"Airish Sea\"), separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the North Channel. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the Manx Sea.", "Scotland (Scots: ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.", "A Sally Lunn is a large bun or teacake made with a yeast dough including cream , eggs , and spice , similar to the sweet brioche breads of France . Served warm and sliced , with butter , it was first recorded in 1780 in the spa town of Bath in southwest England . The same name has been applied to various unrelated breads in the US since the early 20th century .", "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain (the name of which is also loosely applied to the whole country), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign statethe Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of , the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union.", "Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk, to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter.", "The Celtic Sea (; ) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany. The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of small islands in the sea." ]
[]
WH_train_14
instance_of snuggle hitch
hitch knot
[ "area", "binding knot", "diameter", "four", "hitch knot", "knot", "line", "mathematics", "may", "method", "object", "reef", "three", "two", "will", "work" ]
[ "A knot is a method of fastening or securing linear material such as rope by tying or interweaving. It may consist of a length of one or several segments of rope, string, webbing, twine, strap, or even chain interwoven such that the line can bind to itself or to some other object (the \"load\"). Knots have been the subject of interest for their ancient origins, their common uses, and the area of mathematics known as knot theory.", "The clove hitch is a type of knot. Along with the bowline and the sheet bend, it is often considered one of the most important knots and is commonly referred to as a Double Hitch. A clove hitch is two successive half-hitches around an object. It is most effectively used as a crossing knot. It can be used as a binding knot, but is not particularly secure in that role. A clove hitch made around the rope's own standing part is known as either two half-hitches or buntline hitch, depending on whether the turns of the clove hitch progress away from or towards the hitched object.", "The sheet bend (also known as becket bend, weaver's knot and weaver's hitch) is a bend, that is, a knot that joins two ropes together. Doubled, it is effective in binding lines of different diameter or rigidity securely together, although it has a tendency to work loose when not under load.", "The bowline (or ) is an ancient and simple knot used to form a fixed loop at the end of a rope. It has the virtues of being both easy to tie and untie; most notably, it is easy to untie after being subjected to a load. The bowline is sometimes referred as \"King of the knots\" because of its importance. It is one of the four basic maritime knots (the other three are figure-eight knot, reef knot and clove hitch).", "The two half-hitches is a type of knot, specifically a binding knot or hitch knot. It consists of an overhand knot tied around a post, followed by a half-hitch. Equivalently, it consists of a half-turn around a post followed by a clove hitch of the running end around the standing part.", "The buntline hitch is a knot used for attaching a rope to an object. It is formed by passing the working end around an object, then making a clove hitch around the rope's standing part, taking care that the turns of the clove hitch progress \"towards\" the object rather than away from it. Secure and easily tied, the buntline hitch will jam when subjected to extreme loads. Given the knot's propensity to jam, it is often made in slipped form.", "The snuggle hitch is a modification of the clove hitch , and is stronger and more secure . Owen K. Nuttall of the International Guild of Knot Tyers came up with this unique hitch , and it was first documented in the Guild 's Knotting Matters magazine issue of January , 1987 . Generally , hitches are used to attach a line to another rope or spar , pole , etc. , and are usually temporary . Thus , they should be relatively easy to untie ." ]
[]
WH_train_15
genre the chinese lake murders
crime novel
[ "book", "crime novel", "culture", "detective", "detective novel", "family", "government", "hardboiled", "historical fiction", "historical mysteries", "historical novel", "history", "japanese", "law", "literary genre", "music", "musical", "mystery", "mystery fiction", "narrative", "news magazine", "novel", "opera", "prose", "television", "variety", "visual arts" ]
[ "A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.", "The historical mystery or historical whodunit is a subgenre of two literary genres, historical fiction and mystery fiction. These works are set in a time period considered historical from the author's perspective, and the central plot involves the solving of a mystery or crime (usually murder). Though works combining these genres have existed since at least the early 20th century, many credit Ellis Peters's \"Cadfael Chronicles\" (1977-1994) for popularizing what would become known as the historical mystery. The increasing popularity and prevalence of this type of fiction in subsequent decades has spawned a distinct subgenre recognized by the publishing industry and libraries. \"Publishers Weekly\" noted in 2010 of the genre, \"The past decade has seen an explosion in both quantity and quality. Never before have so many historical mysteries been published, by so many gifted writers, and covering such a wide range of times and places.\" Editor Keith Kahla concurs, \"From a small group of writers with a very specialized audience, the historical mystery has become a critically acclaimed, award-winning genre with a toehold on the \"New York Times\" bestseller list.\"", "The guqin is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favoured by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote \"a gentleman does not part with his \"qin\" or \"se\" without good reason,\" as well as being associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius. It is sometimes referred to by the Chinese as \"the father of Chinese music\" or \"the instrument of the sages\". The \"guqin\" is not to be confused with the \"guzheng\", another Chinese long zither also without frets, but with moveable bridges under each string.", "The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the \"Han people\" and the Chinese script is referred to as \"Han characters\".\nIt was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (923 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25220 AD).", "Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a credible motive and a reasonable opportunity for committing the crime. The central character must be a detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. \"Mystery fiction\" can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle or suspense element and its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and gritty realism.", "Robert Hans van Gulik (August 9, 1910 September 24, 1967) was an orientalist, diplomat, musician (of the guqin), and writer, best known for the Judge Dee historical mysteries, the protagonist of which he borrowed from the 18th-century Chinese detective novel \"Dee Goong An\".", "Publishers Weekly (PW) is an American weekly trade news magazine targeted at publishers, librarians, booksellers and literary agents. Published continuously since 1872, it has carried the tagline, The International News Magazine of Book Publishing and Bookselling\". With 51 issues a year, the emphasis today is on book reviews.", "Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government. Tokyo is in the Kant region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former and the .", "Xi'an, formerly romanized as Sian, and also known as Chang'an before the Ming dynasty, is the capital of Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China. One of the oldest cities in China, Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.", "The Chinese Lake Murders is a gong'an historical mystery novel written by Robert van Gulik and set in Imperial China ( roughly speaking the Tang Dynasty ) . It is a fiction based on the real character of Judge Dee ( Ti Jen - chieh or Di Renjie ) , a magistrate and statesman of the Tang court , who lived roughly 630 -- 700 . This book was originally written by Robert van Gulik sometime between 1953 and 1956 . Like its predecessor , The Chinese Maze Murders it was intended for a Japanese or Chinese audience but he later choose to publish it in English . The Chinese Lake Murder was written at roughly the same time as The Chinese Bell Murders but remained unpublished for some years .", "Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Historical fiction can be an ambiguous term: frequently it is used as a synonym for describing the historical novel; however, the term can be applied to works in other narrative formats, such as those in the performing and visual arts like theatre, opera, cinema, television, comics, and graphic novels.", "Judge Dee (also, Judge Di) is a semi-fictional character based on the historical figure Di Renjie, county magistrate and statesman of the Tang court. The character appeared in the 18th-century Chinese detective and \"gong'an\" crime novel \"Di Gong An\". After Robert van Gulik came across it in an antiquarian book store in Tokyo, he translated the novel into English and then used the style and characters to write his own original Judge Dee historical mystery stories.", "The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a \"magistratus\" was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales), magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters.", "The Tang dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world.", "Jurisdiction (from the Latin \"ius, \" meaning \"law\" and \"\" meaning \"to speak\") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In the federations like USA, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law.", "Chang'an is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means \"Perpetual Peace\" in Classical Chinese. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed \"Constant Peace\"; yet after its fall in AD 23, the old name was restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, the name was again changed to Xi'an, meaning \"Western Peace\", which has remained its name to the present day." ]
[]
WH_train_16
instance_of thomas pitt
fictional character
[ "character", "crime", "fiction", "fictional character", "five", "literary work", "monk", "mother", "murder", "name", "october", "protagonist", "series", "year" ]
[ "Anne Perry (born 28 October 1938 as Juliet Marion Hulme) is an English author of historical detective fiction, best known for her Thomas Pitt and William Monk series. At the age of fifteen she was convicted of participating in the murder of her friend's mother, in 1954. She changed her name after serving her five-year sentence.", "A protagonist is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama.", "Thomas Pitt is the protagonist in a series of detective novels by Anne Perry . Pitt is from a working - class background in Victorian London . His father was a gamekeeper on a landed estate and Pitt was educated alongside the son of the house . He was prompted to enter the police force after his father was wrongly accused of poaching game and transported to Australia . At the beginning of the series , Pitt is a police inspector , but was promoted to superintendent . Later he is removed from his job as a result of investigating the `` wrong people '' , i.e. those with sufficient influence and power , and joins the Special Branch , in which he becomes an inspector . Later he is promoted to commander as Head of Special Branch . His wife , Charlotte ( née Ellison ) , is from an upper - class family . Her sister Emily 's first husband was a viscount and her second husband is a rising politician . Charlotte frequently uses Emily 's connections to the landed gentry and aristocracy to assist Pitt in his investigations . Charlotte relies on her maid , Gracie , to take care for her children , Jemima and Daniel , when she is investigating a mystery . Charlotte 's well - intentioned interference in her husband 's investigations gives Pitt access to information which enables him to solve the case . Vespasia Cumming - Gould , the elderly aunt of Emily 's first husband , becomes a friend to both Emily and Charlotte and eases their way into society . The first novel , The Cater Street Hangman , was adapted for TV in 1998 ; it starred Eoin McCarthy and Keeley Hawes and featured Hannah Spearritt in her acting debut .", "Inspector William Monk is a fictional character created by the writer Anne Perry and hero of a series of books.", "Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detectiveeither professional or amateurinvestigates a crime, often murder." ]
[]
WH_train_17
date_of_death alphonse-fortunat martin
1889
[ "1", "10", "13", "1858", "1889", "1905", "1920", "1933", "1949", "196", "1999", "2", "2011", "2015", "253", "291", "36", "4", "41", "457", "may 2015" ]
[ "Saskatchewan (or ) is a prairie and boreal province in west-central Canada, the only province without natural borders. It has an area of , nearly 10 percent of which is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes.", "Canada (French: ) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest city is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.", "Nunavut (from Inuktitut: ) is the newest, largest, northernmost, and least populous territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been contemplatively drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949.", "The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Lieutenant Governor form the legislature of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected to this assembly in provincial general elections, all in single-member constituencies with first-past-the-post voting. The Manitoba Legislative Building is located in central Winnipeg, at the meeting point of the Wolseley and Fort Rouge constituencies.", "Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is one of the three prairie provinces (with Alberta and Saskatchewan) and Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers with a widely varied landscape. The province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and Northwest Territories to the northwest, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south.", "The Northwest Territories (also known as NWT; French: \"les Territoires du Nord-Ouest\", \"TNO\"; Athabaskan languages: \"Denendeh\"; Inuinnaqtun: \"Nunatsiaq\"; Inuktitut: ) is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2011 population of 41,462, it is the second largest and most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada. Its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission.", "Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1, 2015, it is Canada's fourth-most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about . Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015.", "Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province by a large margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto.", "The Manitoba Legislative Building is the meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, in central Winnipeg. It was originally named the Manitoba Parliament Building, not Legislative. The neoclassical building was completed in 1920 and stands seventy-seven metres tall (253 ft). It was designed and built by Frank Worthington Simon (18621933) and Henry Boddington III, along with other masons and many skilled craftsmen. The building is famous for the Golden Boy, a gold covered bronze statue based on the style of the Roman god Mercury, or the Greek god Hermes, at the top of the cupola, or domed ceiling.", "North Dakota (locally ) is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.", "Alphonse - Fortunat Martin ( May 14 , 1849 -- February 1905 ) was a land surveyor and political figure in Manitoba . He represented Ste. Agathe from 1874 to 1879 and Morris from 1886 to 1896 in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba as a Liberal and then as an Independent member . He was born in Rimouski , Canada East , the son of Henri Martin and Marie - Louise Dessein , dit Saint - Pierre , and educated at the college there and the Quebec military school . From 1868 to 1870 , Martin served as a Papal zouave . He qualified as a provincial land surveyor in 1871 . In 1874 , he married Louise Radiger . Martin was editor of Le Courrier du Nord ( Ouest ) . He came to Manitoba in 1872 as a surveyor for the federal government and settled in West Lynn . In 1875 , he was chosen to be opposition leader in the Manitoba assembly . Martin was defeated when he ran for reelection in 1879 and 1883 before being elected again in Morris . He was unsuccessful in bids for reelection in 1896 and 1899 . After he retired from politics , Martin returned to surveying . He died in Winnipeg , Manitoba at the age of 55 . His brother Édouard - Onésiphore Martin served in the Quebec assembly .", "Minnesota (locally ) is a state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan \"Land of 10,000 Lakes\". Its official motto is \"L'Étoile du Nord\" (French: \"Star of the North\").\nMinnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 21st most populous of the U.S. states; nearly 60 percent of its residents live in the MinneapolisSaint Paul metropolitan area (known as the \"Twin Cities\"), the center of transportation, business, industry, education, and government and home to an internationally known arts community. The remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture; deciduous forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed and settled; and the less populated North Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation.\nMinnesota is known for its progressive political orientation and its high rate of civic participation and voter turnout. Until European settlement, Minnesota was inhabited by the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the large majority of the European settlers emigrated from Scandinavia and Germany, and the state remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, and Latin America has broadened its historic demographic and cultural composition. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, and the state is also among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation." ]
[]
WH_train_18
continent easter island
oceania
[ "antarctica", "asia", "australia", "eurasia", "europe", "oceania", "south america", "the americas" ]
[ "The Polynesian Triangle is a region of the Pacific Ocean with three island groups at its corners: Hawaii, Easter Island (\"Rapa Nui\") and New Zealand (\"Aotearoa\"). It is often used as a simple way to define Polynesia.", "The Rapa Nui are the native Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. The easternmost Polynesian culture, the Rapa Nui people currently make up 60% of Easter Island's population and have a significant portion of their population residing in mainland Chile. They speak both the traditional Rapa Nui language and the primary language of the island, Spanish. At the 2002 census there were 3,304 island inhabitantsalmost all living in the village of Hanga Roa on the sheltered west coast.", "Antarctica (US English , UK English or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At , it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.", "The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.\nIt is the heir of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.", "The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a continuous range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about long, about wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about . The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.", "Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.", "The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.", "South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is the model used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).", "Peru , officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.", "The Drake Passage or Mar de HocesSea of Hocesis the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea) with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean.", "Bolivia (; ), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, located on the Altiplano. Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries (the other is Paraguay) that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is the largest landlocked country in the Americas.", "New Zealand is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmassesthat of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Mui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamuand numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.", "Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbor Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of , Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (singular \"provincia\") and one autonomous city (\"ciudad autónoma\"), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress.\nThe provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system.", "Polynesia ( from \"poly\" \"many\" + \"nsos\" \"island\") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language family, culture, and beliefs. Historically, they were experienced sailors and used stars to navigate during the night.", "Easter Island ( Rapa Nui : Rapa Nui , Spanish : Isla de Pascua ) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean , at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle . Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues , called moai , created by the early Rapa Nui people . In 1995 , UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site , with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park . Polynesian people most likely settled on Easter Island sometime between 700 to 1100 CE , and created a thriving and industrious culture as evidenced by the island 's numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts . However , human activity , the introduction of the Polynesian rat and overpopulation led to gradual deforestation and extinction of natural resources which severely weakened the Rapa Nui civilization . By the time of European arrival in 1722 , the island 's population had dropped to 2,000 -- 3,000 from an estimated high of approximately 15,000 just a century earlier . European diseases and Peruvian slave raiding in the 1860s further reduced the Rapa Nui population , to a low of only 111 inhabitants in 1877 . Easter Island is one of the most remote inhabited islands in the world . The nearest inhabited land ( around 50 residents in 2013 ) is Pitcairn Island , 2,075 kilometres ( 1,289 mi ) away ; the nearest town with a population over 500 is Rikitea , on the island of Mangareva , 2,606 km ( 1,619 mi ) away ; the nearest continental point lies just in central Chile , 3,512 kilometres ( 2,182 mi ) away . Easter Island is a special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888 . Administratively , it belongs to the Valparaíso Region , and , more specifically , it is the only commune of the Province Isla de Pascua . According to the 2012 Chilean census , the island has about 5,800 residents , of whom some 60 percent are descendants of the aboriginal Rapa Nui .", "Oceania (or ), also known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from its three subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia to, more broadly, the entire insular region between Southeast Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago.", "The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, \"La Société des Nations\" abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members." ]
[]
WH_train_19
given_name muhammad bashir
muhammad
[ "africa", "an", "april", "are", "asia", "china", "della", "el", "emilia", "france", "home", "india", "iran", "islam", "june", "many", "marine", "marino", "muhammad", "pierre", "roma", "roman", "summer", "urban" ]
[ "Mohammad Bashir ( Urdu : ) ( 10 March 1935 in Lahore -- ? ) was a wrestler from Pakistan , who won the bronze medal in freestyle wrestling in the welterweight class ( 73 kg ) at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome . Bashir is the only Pakistani wrestler to have won a medal at the Olympic Games . Mohammad Bashir was one of Pakistan 's most celebrated wrestlers in their history . He won three gold medals in the Commonwealth Games and also four medals in the Asian Games -- a gold at 1966 Bangkok , two silver medals at 1962 Jakarta , one in freestyle and the other in Greco - Roman style , in addition to a bronze medal in 1958 Tokyo . His Commonwealth Games gold medals were earned at the 1958 ( Cardiff ) , 1962 ( Perth ) and 1966 ( Kingston ) Commonwealth Games . At the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo , Mohammad Bashir competed in the lightweight class ( 70 kg ) but only went up to the third round . Mohammad Bashir received the Tamgha - i - Imtiaz medal in 1962 and the Pride of Performance Award in 1968 from the Government of Pakistan .", "Vatican City , officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of 842, it is the smallest State in the world by both area and population, but formally it is not sovereign, sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world.", "Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as \"lo Stivale\" (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state.", "Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari: , \"Afnistn\"), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers , making it the 41st largest country in the world.", "Rome is a city and special \"comune\" (named \"Roma Capitale\") in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. With 2,870,336 residents in , it is also the country's largest and most populated \"comune\" and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of 4.3 million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of Tiber river. The Vatican City is an independent country geographically located within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states. ", "The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Makran or Sea of Oman (\"aldj Umn\"; in Balochi: in \"Khaleej Oman\") is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf. It borders Pakistan and Iran on the north, Oman on the south, and the United Arab Emirates on the west.", "Iran (, also , ; ' ), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (' ), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the \"de facto\" Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of , it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic center.", "A multi-sport event is an organized sports event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.", "The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of , and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.", "Islam (' ;) is a religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God ('), and, for the vast majority of adherents, the teachings and normative example (called the \"sunnah\", composed of accounts called \"hadith\") of Muhammad (5708 June 632 CE). It is the world's second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population, known as Muslims. Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion that upholds that God is one and incomparable and that the purpose of existence is to worship God. Muslims consider Muhammad to be the last prophet of God.", "A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.", "Mount Vesuvius ( also \"Vesevus\" or \"Vesaevus\" in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.", "The Wakhan Corridor (alternatively Vakhan Corridor, or Wakhan) is the narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan. The corridor, wedged between the Pamirs to the north and the Karakoram range to the south, is about long and wide.", "An Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it in 1992 (in 19962001 the Taliban was ruling as an Islamic emirate (monarchy)) upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.", "The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India. Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Erythraean Sea and the Persian Sea. Its total area is and its maximum depth is . The Gulf of Aden is in the southwest, connecting the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.", "The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: \"Giochi della XVII Olimpiade\"), was an international multi-sport event held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. Rome had been awarded the organization of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but after the 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, was forced to decline and pass the honors to London.", "India, officially the Republic of India (\"Bhrat Gaarjya\"), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.", "Pakistan (or ), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people. It is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area with an area covering . Pakistan has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.", "Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians. It was located on the left bank (east and south) of the Tiber river, extending northward to the Anio river (a left-bank tributary of the Tiber) and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus (Pontine Marshes, now the Pontine Fields) as far south as the Circeian promontory. The right bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii, and the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and then its Italic neighbors, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast. The modern descendant, the Italian \"Regione\" of Lazio, also called \"Latium\" in Latin, and occasionally in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium.", "Tajikistan (, or ), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (\"Çumhuriji Toçikiston\"), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of . It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.", "China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China, and its capital is Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.", "Oman (; ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the nation is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest, and shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz (which it shares with Iran) and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries.", "The Tiber (Latin \"Tiberis\", Italian \"\") is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the Aniene river, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino. It drains a basin estimated at . The river has achieved lasting fame as the main watercourse of the city of Rome, founded on its eastern banks.", "Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or Near East), the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics.", "Central Asia or Middle Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as \"the 'stans\" (as the six countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix \"-stan\", meaning \"land of\") and is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent.", "The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, England from 27 April to 31 October 1908. These games were originally scheduled to be held in Rome, but were re-located on financial grounds following a disastrous eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906. They were the fourth chronological modern Olympic Games in keeping with the now-accepted four-year cycle as opposed to the proposed Intercalated Games alternate four-year cycle. The IOC president for these Games was Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Lasting a total of 187 days, or 6 months and 4 days, these games were the longest in modern Olympics history.", "South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land (clockwise, from west) by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia." ]
[]
WH_train_20
narrative_location hustle
los angeles
[ "1992", "2013", "arkansas", "charlotte", "europe", "france", "hollywood", "los angeles", "louisiana", "mexico", "new orleans", "paris", "phoenix", "poland", "rhine", "rome", "san fernando valley", "spain", "united kingdom" ]
[ "The Dirty Dozen is a 1967 American war film directed by Robert Aldrich, released by MGM, and starring Lee Marvin. The picture was filmed in the United Kingdom and features an ensemble supporting cast including Ernest Borgnine, Charles Bronson, Jim Brown, John Cassavetes, Telly Savalas, Robert Webber, and Donald Sutherland. The film is based on E. M. Nathanson's novel of the same name that was inspired by a real-life group called the \"Filthy Thirteen\". In 2001, the American Film Institute placed the film at number 65 on their 100 Years... 100 Thrills list.", "Louisiana (or ; Louisiana Creole: \"Léta de la Lwizyàn\") is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, and the largest by total area is Plaquemines. Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.", "Roman Holiday is a 1953 American romantic comedy film directed and produced by William Wyler. It stars Gregory Peck as a reporter and Audrey Hepburn as a royal princess out to see Rome on her own. Hepburn won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance; the screenplay and costume design also won.", "Eileen Brennan (September 3, 1932  July 28, 2013) was an American actress of film, television, and theater. Brennan was known for her role as Doreen Lewis in \"Private Benjamin\", for which she received an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress. She reprised the role for the TV adaptation, winning both a Golden Globe and Emmy for her performance. She received Emmy nominations for her guest starring roles on \"Newhart\", \"Thirtysomething\", \"Taxi\" and \"Will & Grace\".", "Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.", "France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans and had a total population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic with the capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux.", "Rajmund Roman Thierry Polaski (born 18 August 1933), known professionally as Roman Polanski, is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor. Having made films in Poland, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, he is considered one of the few \"truly international filmmakers\". Born in Paris to Polish parents, he moved with his family back to Poland (Second Polish Republic) in 1937, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. He survived the Holocaust although his father was Jewish and mother of Jewish descent, was educated in Poland (People's Republic of Poland), and became a director of both art house and commercial films.", "The César Award is the national film award of France. It is delivered in the \"\" ceremony and was first awarded in 1976. The nominations are selected by the members of twelve categories of filmmaking professionals and supported by the French Ministry of Culture. The nationally televised award ceremony is held in the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris each year in February. It is an initiative from the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma which was founded in 1975.", "Catherine Deneuve (born 22 October 1943) is a French actress as well as an occasional singer, model and producer. She gained recognition for her portrayal of aloof, mysterious beauties for various directors, including Luis Buñuel, Francois Truffaut and Roman Polanski. In 1985, she succeeded Mireille Mathieu as the official face of Marianne, France's national symbol of liberty. A 14-time César Award nominee, she won for her performances in Truffaut's \"The Last Metro\" (1980) and Régis Wargnier's \"Indochine\" (1992). She is also noted for her support for a variety of liberal causes.", "Boogie Nights is a 1997 American drama film written, produced and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. It is set in Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley and focuses on a young nightclub dishwasher, who becomes a popular star of pornographic films, chronicling his rise in the Golden Age of Porn of the 1970s through to his fall during the excesses of the 1980s. The film is an expansion of Anderson's mockumentary short film \"The Dirk Diggler Story\" (1988). It stars Mark Wahlberg, Julianne Moore, Burt Reynolds, Don Cheadle, John C. Reilly, William H. Macy and Heather Graham.", "Burton Leon \"Burt\" Reynolds (born February 11, 1936) is an American actor, director and producer. He has starred in many films, such as \"Deliverance\", \"The Longest Yard\", \"Smokey and the Bandit\" and \"Boogie Nights\", in which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.", "Robert Burgess Aldrich (August 9, 1918 December 5, 1983) was an American film director, writer and producer, notable for such films as \"Vera Cruz\" (1954), \"Kiss Me Deadly\" (1955), \"The Big Knife\" (1955), \"What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?\" (1962), \"Hush Hush, Sweet Charlotte\" (1964), \"The Flight of the Phoenix\" (1965), \"The Dirty Dozen\" (1967) and \"The Longest Yard\" (1974). Film critic John Patterson summarized his career in 2012: \"He was a punchy, caustic, macho and pessimistic director, who depicted corruption and evil unflinchingly, and pushed limits on violence throughout his career. His aggressive and pugnacious film-making style, often crass and crude, but never less than utterly vital and alive, warrants and will richly reward your immediate attention.\"", "Hush Hush, Sweet Charlotte is a 1964 American psychological thriller film directed and produced by Robert Aldrich, and starring Bette Davis, Olivia de Havilland, Joseph Cotten, and Agnes Moorehead, as well as Mary Astor in her final film.", "Paul Edward Winfield (May 22, 1941 March 7, 2004) was an American television, film and stage actor. He was known for his portrayal of a Louisiana sharecropper who struggles to support his family during the Great Depression in the landmark film \"Sounder\", which earned him an Academy Award nomination. He portrayed Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1978 television miniseries \"King\", for which he was nominated for an Emmy Award. Winfield was also known to science fiction fans for his roles in \"The Terminator, \", and \"\".", "Edward Albert Heimberger (April 22, 1906 May 26, 2005), known professionally as Eddie Albert, was an American actor and activist. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1954 for his performance in \"Roman Holiday\", and in 1973 for \"The Heartbreak Kid\".", "Hustle is a 1975 American neo-noir crime film directed by Robert Aldrich , and stars Burt Reynolds , Catherine Deneuve , Ben Johnson , Paul Winfield , Eileen Brennan , Eddie Albert and Ernest Borgnine .", "Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly such that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is generally regarded as extending from the early 1940s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression.", "Régis Wargnier (born 18 April 1948) is a French film director, film producer, screenwriter and film score composer. His 1992 film \"Indochine\" won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 65th Academy Awards. His 1995 \"A French Woman\" was entered into the 19th Moscow International Film Festival where he won the Silver St. George for the Direction.", "Neo-noir (English: \"New-black\"; from the Greek \"neo\", new; and the French \"noir\", black) is a style often seen in modern motion pictures and other forms that prominently use elements of \"film noir\", but with updated themes, content, style, visual elements or media that were absent in \"film noir\" of the 1940s and 1950s." ]
[]
WH_train_21
license haml
mit license
[ "free software license", "gnu general public license", "mit license", "open source" ]
[ "A wiki is a website that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language (known as \"wiki markup\") and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may also be imposed to organize content. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users.", "PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team. PHP originally stood for \"Personal Home Page\", but it now stands for the recursive acronym \"PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor\".", "The MIT License is a permissive free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). As a permissive license, it puts only very limited restriction on reuse and has, therefore, an excellent license compatibility. The MIT license permits reuse within proprietary software provided that all copies of the licensed software include a copy of the MIT License terms and the copyright notice. The MIT license is also compatible with many copyleft licenses, such as the GNU General Public License (GPL); MIT licensed software can be integrated into GPL software, but not the other way around.", "Haml ( HTML Abstraction Markup Language ) is a templating system to avoid writing the inline code in a web document and make HTML easy and clean . Haml gives the flexibility to have some dynamic content in HTML . Similar to other web languages like PHP , ASP , JSP and template systems like eRuby , Haml also embeds some code that gets executed during runtime and generates HTML code in order to provide some dynamic content . In order to run Haml code , files need to have . haml extension . These files are similar to . erb or eRuby files which also help to embed Ruby code while developing a web application . While parsing coding comments Haml uses the same rules as Ruby 1.9 or later . Haml understands only ASCII compatible encodings like UTF - 8 but does not understand UTF - 16 or UTF - 32 , since these are not compatible with ASCII . Haml can be used in command line , as a separate Ruby module or can be used in a Ruby on Rails application making Haml suitable for a wide range of applications .", "Ruby on Rails, or simply Rails, is a server-side web application framework written in Ruby under the MIT License. Rails is a modelviewcontroller (MVC) framework, providing default structures for a database, a web service, and web pages. It encourages and facilitates the use of web standards such as JSON or XML for data transfer, and HTML, CSS and JavaScript for display and user interfacing. In addition to MVC, Rails emphasizes the use of other well-known software engineering patterns and paradigms, including convention over configuration (CoC), don't repeat yourself (DRY), and the active record pattern.", "Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web engineering, web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. Among web professionals, \"web development\" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Most recently Web development has come to mean the creation of content management systems or CMS. These CMS can be made from scratch, proprietary or open source. In broad terms the CMS acts as middleware between the database and the user through the browser. A principle benefit of a CMS is that it allows non-technical people to make changes to their web site without having technical knowledge.", "In computing, a web application or web app is a clientserver software application in which the client (or user interface) runs in a web browser. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis, instant messaging services and many other functions." ]
[]
WH_train_22
educated_at jim witherspoon
ohio state university
[ "new york", "ohio state university", "today" ]
[ "Los Angeles (Spanish for \"The Angels\"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the second-most populous city in the United States (after New York City), the most populous city in California and the county seat of Los Angeles County. Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, sprawling metropolis, and as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over .", "Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six players each: one goaltender, and five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team.", "In ice hockey, the goaltender is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the \"goal crease\" (often referred to simply as \" the crease\" or \"the net\"). Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles, butterfly and hybrid (hybrid is a mix of the traditional stand-up style and butterfly technique). Because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. Only one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time.", "The Ohio State Buckeyes are the athletic teams that represent The Ohio State University, named after the colloquial term for people from the state of Ohio and after the state tree, the Ohio Buckeye. The Buckeyes participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Division I in all sports and the Big Ten Conference in most sports. The Ohio State women's ice hockey team competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA). The school colors are scarlet and gray. Ohio State's mascot is Brutus Buckeye.", "James Witherspoon ( born October 3 , 1951 ) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman who played for the Ohio State Buckeyes in the collegiate level , and played 2 games for the Los Angeles Kings in the National Hockey League ( NHL ) .", "Brutus Buckeye is the athletics mascot of The Ohio State University. Brutus is a student dressed in Buckeye colors with a headpiece resembling an Ohio Buckeye nut. Brutus made his debut in 1965, with periodic updates to design and wardrobe occurring in the years since. As a member of the spirit squad, Brutus Buckeye travels to many events around the university and often makes appearances around Columbus.", "The Los Angeles Kings are a professional ice hockey team based in Los Angeles. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The team was founded on June 5, 1967, after Jack Kent Cooke was awarded an NHL expansion franchise for Los Angeles on February 9, 1966, becoming one of the six teams that began play as part of the 1967 NHL expansion. The Kings called The Forum in Inglewood, California (a suburb of Los Angeles), their home for thirty-two years until they moved to the Staples Center in Downtown Los Angeles to start the 19992000 season.", "The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over a land area of just , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York City exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace defining the term \"New York minute\". Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.", "The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional ice hockey league currently composed of 31 member clubs. Of the 30 clubs currently playing, 23 are in the United States and 7 in Canada. Headquartered in New York City, the NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season." ]
[]
WH_train_23
shares_border_with gatineau
pontiac
[ "alberta", "arctic ocean", "as", "bow river", "british columbia", "canada", "central region", "edmonton", "elbow river", "england", "front", "gatineau", "hull", "laval", "legal", "major", "manitoba", "masson", "mercier", "montreal", "montréal", "most", "mount royal", "mountain", "national capital region", "nevada", "north", "north america", "north saskatchewan river", "ottawa", "outaouais", "pontiac", "province of canada", "province of quebec", "quebec", "quebec city", "sami", "saskatchewan", "south", "south bank", "toronto", "trans", "united kingdom", "vancouver", "westminster" ]
[ "The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the Province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs (Members of the National Assembly). The Lieutenant Governor, and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems.", "Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; the two form the core of the OttawaGatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). The 2011 census reported a population of 883,391, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada; and 1,236,324 within the CMA, making it the fourth-largest CMA in Canada. The City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015.", "Montreal officially Montréal in both Canadian English and French, is the most populous municipality in Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada. Originally called \"Ville-Marie\", or \"City of Mary,\" it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold snowy winters.", "The Gatineau River is a river in western Quebec, Canada, which rises in lakes north of the Baskatong Reservoir and flows south to join the Ottawa River at the city of Gatineau, Quebec. The river is long and drains an area of 23,700 km².", "Quebec (pronounced or ) is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language.", "In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term \"tundra\" comes through Russian (\"tûndra\") from the Kildin Sami word \"tndâr\" \"uplands\", \"treeless mountain tract\". There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.", "A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are \"run\" in some parts of the United States, \"burn\" in Scotland and northeast England, and \"beck\" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague.", "An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since \"the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law\", the term \"official language\" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.", "FOREST (short for \"Freedom Organisation for the Right to Enjoy Smoking Tobacco\") is a United Kingdom political pressure group which campaigns against tobacco control activity.", "Outaouais; (also commonly called The Outaouais) is a region of western Quebec, Canada. It includes the city of Gatineau (Hull, Aylmer, Gatineau, Masson-Angers, Buckingham), the Pontiac region, and the town of Maniwaki, and is located on the north side of the Ottawa River opposite Canada's capital, Ottawa. It has a land area of and a 2011 census population of 372,000 inhabitants.", "Toronto is the most populous city in Canada, the provincial capital of Ontario, and the centre of the Greater Toronto Area, the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. Growing in population, the 2011 census recorded a population of 2,615,060. As of 2015, the population is now estimated at 2,826,498, making Toronto the fourth-largest city in North America based on the population within its city limits. Toronto trails only Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles by this measure, while it is the fifth-largest (behind also Chicago) if ranked by the size of its metropolitan area . An established global city, Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and widely recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.", "The Ottawa River (Algonquin: \"Kitchissippi\"), is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces. It is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River.", "The Baskatong Reservoir is a man-made lake in western Quebec, Canada. It was formed following the construction of the Mercier Dam in 1927 and has an area of 413 km. Since 2007, a 55 MW generating station is in operation at the site of the dam, the reservoir also being used to control the flow of the Gatineau River for several hydroelectric generating stations downstream.", "Quebec City (pronounced or ) officially Québec) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. In 2015 the city had a population estimate of 545,485, and the metropolitan area had a population of 806,400, making it Canada's seventh-largest metropolitan area and Quebec's second-largest city after Montreal, which is about to the southwest. ", "The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada which all lie further to the west.", "Canada (French: ) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest city is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.", "Gatineau, officially \"Ville de Gatineau\", is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City, and Laval. It is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2011 Gatineau had a population of 265,349, and a metropolitan population of 314,501. The OttawaGatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,236,324.", "Maniwaki is a town north of Gatineau and located north-west of Montreal, in the province of Quebec, Canada. The town is situated on the Gatineau River, at the crossroads of Route 105 and Route 107, not far south of Route 117 (Trans-Canada Highway). It is the administrative centre for La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Regional County Municipality, Quebec.", "Gatineau is a provincial electoral district in the Outaouais region of Quebec , Canada which elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec . It includes most of the area surrounding the Gatineau River , as well as portions of the Gatineau sector of the city of Gatineau north and west of Autoroute 50 and east of the Gatineau River . It was created for the 1931 election . In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map , it gained Val - des - Monts from Papineau electoral district , but lost some territory to Chapleau electoral district .", "Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, which is surrounded by Alberta's central region.", "Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers.", "Vancouver, officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.", "Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. In the 2011 census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 and a metropolitan population of 1,214,839, making it the largest city in Alberta, and the third-largest municipality and fifth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada." ]
[]
WH_train_24
date_of_birth raffaele riario
3 may 1461
[ "1", "100", "110", "14", "1444", "1461", "1467", "1475", "1489", "15", "1513", "1519", "1521", "1527", "170", "18", "1897", "19", "1954", "1958", "1970", "1988", "2", "20", "2013", "27", "3", "3 may 1461", "336", "510", "6", "6 august 1978", "61", "842", "870" ]
[ "The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming \"emperor\" in English, it reflects his taking of the title \"Augustus\" or \"Caesar\". Another title often used was \"imperator\", originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title \"princeps\" (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably \"Princeps Senatus\", \"Consul\" and \"Pontifex Maximus\".", "Raffaele Sansoni Galeoti Riario ( May 3 , 1461 -- July 9 , 1521 ) was an Italian Cardinal of the Renaissance , mainly known as the constructor of the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the person who invited Michelangelo to Rome . He was a patron of the arts . He was also the first adolescent to be elevated in the College of Cardinals in the history of the Holy See .", "The pope (from \"pappas\", a child's word for \"father\") is the Bishop of Rome and, therefore, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the traditional successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is supposed to have given the keys of Heaven and the powers of \"binding and loosing\", naming him as the \"rock\" upon which the church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.", "Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as \"lo Stivale\" (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state.", "The 1st century was the century that lasted from AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is often written as the or to distinguish it from the 1st century BC (or BCE) which preceded it. The 1st century is considered part of the \"Classical era, epoch, or historical period\".", "The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of , and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.", "Rione (plural: \"rioni\") is the name given to a neighbourhood in several Italian cities. A \"rione\" is just a territorial subdivision. The administrative subdivisions in Rome are the Municipi. The word derives from the , the 14 subdivisions of Rome imposed by Augustus. The term has been adopted as a synonym of quartiere in the Italian comuni.", "Lazio (; ) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the central peninsular section of the country. With almost 5.9 million residents and a GDP of more than 170 billion euros, Lazio is the second most populated region of Italy (having approximately the same in population as Campania), and has the second largest economy of the nation. Its capital is Rome, capital and largest city of Italy.", "The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.27 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history of Western civilisation. Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, its doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments.", "Vatican City , officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of 842, it is the smallest State in the world by both area and population, but formally it is not sovereign, sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world.", "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal.", "The College of Cardinals, formerly styled Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.\nFunctions.\nA function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory, a term derived from the Roman Emperor's crown council. It also attends various functions as a matter of protocol, for example, during the canonization process.\nIt also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor, but is then restricted to eligible Cardinals under the age limit, which was set for the first time in 1970 by Pope Paul VI at 80.", "Rome is a city and special \"comune\" (named \"Roma Capitale\") in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. With 2,870,336 residents in , it is also the country's largest and most populated \"comune\" and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of 4.3 million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of Tiber river. The Vatican City is an independent country geographically located within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states. ", "The Holy See is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. It traces its origin to the 1st century during the apostolic era, when Saint Peter arrived in Rome to evangelise and formed a significant early Christian community of believers there. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes.", "The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Italian for \"Palace of the Chancellery\", meaning the Papal Chancellery) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione. It was built between 14891513 by Donato Bramante (14441514) as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and is regarded as the earliest Renaissance palace in Rome. The palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, is an extraterritorial property of the Holy See and is designated as a World Heritage Site. ", "Donato Bramante (1444  11 March 1514), born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was allegedly crucified.\nLife.\nUrbino.\nBramante was born under the name Donato d'Augnolo, Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio, or Donato Pascuccio d'Antonio in Fermignano near Urbino. Here, in 1467, Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other Renaissance features to Federico da Montefeltro's ducal palace. Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forlì and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna's painting. ", "Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since been described as one of the greatest artists of all time. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow Florentine Medici client, Leonardo da Vinci.", "Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (26 September 1897 6 August 1978), reigned as Pope from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding Pope John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, and fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestants, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. Montini served in the Vatican's Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State, Montini and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential colleagues of Pope Pius XII, who in 1954 named him Archbishop of Milan, the largest Italian diocese. Montini later became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, and after the death of John XXIII, Montini was considered one of his most likely successors.", "In art history, High Renaissance is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. The High Renaissance period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo's fresco of the Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, and to have ended in 1527 with the sacking of Rome by the troops of Charles V. This term was first used in German (Hochrenaissance) in the early nineteenth century, and has its origins in the \"High Style\" of painting and sculpture described by Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Over the last twenty years, use of the term has been frequently criticized by academic art historians for oversimplifying artistic developments, ignoring historical context, and focusing only on a few iconic works.", "The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church is an office of the Papal household that administrates the property and revenues of the Holy See. Formerly, his responsibilities included the fiscal administration of the Patrimony of St. Peter. As regulated in the Apostolic Constitution \"Pastor Bonus\" (1988), the Camerlengo is always a Cardinal, though this was not the case prior to the 15th century. His heraldic arms are ornamented with two keysone gold, one silverin saltire surmounted by an ombrellino, a canopy or umbrella of alternating red and yellow stripes. These are also the arms of the Holy See during a Papal interregnum.", "Raffaele Sansoni Galeoti Riario (3 May 1461 9 July 1521) was an Italian Cardinal of the Renaissance, mainly known as the constructor of the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the person who invited Michelangelo to Rome. He was a patron of the arts. He was also the first adolescent to be elevated in the College of Cardinals in the history of the Holy See." ]
[]
WH_train_25
located_in_the_administrative_territorial_entity key center south tower
new york
[ "buffalo", "center", "erie", "erie county", "fountain", "new york", "north", "south" ]
[ "Key Center North Tower is a high-rise located in Buffalo, New York, USA. It is the eighth tallest building in Buffalo at 275 feet (85 m) and 17 stories tall. The building has a twin tower next door. The Key Center South Tower which is four stories shorter and connected by a two-story glass atrium encompassing 18,800 square feet of retail space. The complex is known as the Key Center at Fountain Plaza. Both buildings have distinctive pyramid tops that are trimmed with bright green neon lighting which is illuminated at night. In the front of the two towers is a large fountain in the summer. In the winter, it serves as an outdoor ice rink that is free to the public.", "Buffalo is a city in western New York state and the county seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. , Buffalo is New York state's 2nd-most populous city after New York City, with 258,703 residents. The metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million.", "Key Center South Tower is a high - rise located in Buffalo , NY . It stands 225 feet ( 69 m ) and 13 stories tall . The building has a twin tower next door . The Key Center North Tower , which is four stories taller , and connected by a two - story glass atrium encompassing 18,800 square feet of retail space . The complex is known as the Key Center at Fountain Plaza . Both buildings have distinctive pyramid tops that are trimmed with bright green neon lighting which is illumined at night . In the front of the two towers is a large fountain and reflecting pool in the summer . In the winter , it serves as an outdoor ice rink that is free to the public ." ]
[]
WH_train_26
date_of_birth lone scherfig
2 may 1959
[ "17", "19", "19 may 1969", "1944", "1956", "1957", "1959", "1969", "1971", "1995", "2", "2 march 1947", "2 may 1959", "2001", "2005", "2009", "2010", "22", "28", "30", "5", "7", "95", "april 1957", "march 1947", "may 1944", "may 1959", "may 1969" ]
[ "John Peter Sarsgaard (born March 7, 1971) is an American actor. He landed his first feature role in the movie \"Dead Man Walking\" in 1995. He then appeared in the 1998 independent films \"Another Day in Paradise\" and \"Desert Blue\". That same year, Sarsgaard received a substantial role in \"The Man in the Iron Mask\" (1998), playing Raoul, the ill-fated son of Athos. Sarsgaard later achieved critical recognition when he was cast in \"Boys Don't Cry\" (1999) as John Lotter. He landed his first leading role in the 2001 film \"The Center of the World\". The following year, he played supporting roles in \"Empire\", \"The Salton Sea\", and \"\".", "Thomas Vinterberg (born 19 May 1969) is a Danish film director who, along with Lars von Trier, co-founded the Dogme 95 movement in filmmaking, which established rules for simplifying movie production.", "An Education is a 2009 coming-of-age drama film based on a memoir of the same name by British journalist Lynn Barber. The film was directed by Lone Scherfig from a screenplay by Nick Hornby. It stars Carey Mulligan as Jenny, a bright schoolgirl, and Peter Sarsgaard as David, the charming con man who seduces her. The film was nominated for three Academy Awards in 2010: Best Picture and Writing (Adapted Screenplay) for Nick Hornby, and Best Actress for Carey Mulligan.", "Lars von Trier (Lars Trier, 30 April 1956) is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He has a prolific and controversial career spanning almost four decades. His work is known for its genre and technical innovation, confrontational examination of existential, social, and political issues, and treatment of subjects like mercy, sacrifice and mental health. His political and humanitarian work was honored in 2004 with the Cinema for Peace awareness award.", "Søren Kragh-Jacobsen (born 2 March 1947 in Copenhagen) is a Danish film director, musician, and song writer. He was one of the founders and practitioners of the Dogme95 project, for creating films without artificial technology or techniques.", "Lynn Barber (born 22 May 1944) is an English journalist who has worked for various publications and now writes for \"The Sunday Times\".", "Lone Scherfig (born 2 May 1959) is a Danish director, writer and producer who has been involved with the Dogme 95 film movement and who has been widely critically acclaimed for several of her movies, including the Oscar-nominated film \"An Education\" (2009). Scherfig's movies are generally romantic comedies, including her film \"One Day\" (2011), based on the David Nicholls novel. Through both experimenting with creative constraints and her astute attention to detail, she has come to be recognized as a blossoming talent in the film industry.", "Carey Hannah Mulligan (born 28 May 1985) is an English actress and singer. She made her acting debut on stage in London in the Kevin Elyot play \"Forty Winks\" in 2004. Her feature film debut was as Kitty Bennet in the 2005 film adaptation of \"Pride & Prejudice\". She had early roles on British television in such programmes as \"Bleak House\", and \"Doctor Who\". In 2008, she made her Broadway debut in a revival of Chekhov's \"The Seagull\" to critical acclaim.", "Dogme 95 was a filmmaking movement started in 1995 by the Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, who created the \"Dogme 95 Manifesto\" and the \"Vows of Chastity\". These were rules to create filmmaking based on the traditional values of story, acting, and theme, and excluding the use of elaborate special effects or technology. It was an attempt to take back power for the director as artist, as opposed to the studio. They were later joined by fellow Danish directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, forming the Dogme 95 Collective or the Dogme Brethren. \"Dogme\" is the Danish word for dogma.", "Nicholas Peter John \"Nick\" Hornby (born 17 April 1957) is an English novelist, essayist, lyricist, and screenwriter. He is best known for his memoir \"Fever Pitch\" and novels \"High Fidelity\" and \"About a Boy\", all of which were adapted into feature films. Hornby's work frequently touches upon music, sport, and the aimless and obsessive natures of his protagonists. His books have sold more than 5 million copies worldwide as of 2013.", "Lone Scherfig ( born May 2nd , 1959 ) is a Danish director , writer and producer who has been involved with the Dogme 95 film movement and who has been widely critically acclaimed for several of her movies , including the Oscar - nominated film An Education ( 2009 ) . Scherfig 's movies are generally romantic comedies , including her film One Day ( 2011 ) , based on the David Nicholls novel . Through both experimenting with creative constraints and her astute attention to detail , she has come to be recognized as a blossoming talent in the film industry .", "Kristian Levring (born May 9, 1957) is a Danish film director. He was the fourth signatory of the Dogme95 movement. His feature films as director include \"Et skud fra hjertet\", \"The King is Alive\", \"The Intended\", \"Fear Me Not\", and \"The Salvation\"." ]
[]
WH_train_27
manner_of_death joe don looney
accident
[ "accident", "knockout" ]
[ "The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference (four division winners and two wild card teams) advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, played between the champions of the NFC and AFC.", "A single-elimination tournamentalso called an Olympic system tournament, a knockout (or, knock-out), single penetration, or sudden death tournamentis a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event.", "John Don Looney (September 2, 1916 April 5, 2015) was a professional American football end in the National Football League. He was born in Sulphur Springs, Texas. He played three seasons for the Philadelphia Eagles (1940) and the Pittsburgh Steelers (19411942). He was the first receiver in NFL history to have over 100 yards receiving in each of his first two games, a feat which was not equaled until the 2008 NFL season by another Eagles wide receiver, DeSean Jackson. At the time of his death, Looney was the second oldest living former NFL player. He was the father of NFL running back Joe Don Looney, who later died in a one-person motorcycle accident after his NFL career ended.", "Joe Don Looney ( October 10 , 1942 -- September 24 , 1988 ) was an American football running back in the National Football League for the New York Giants , Baltimore Colts , Detroit Lions , Washington Redskins , and the New Orleans Saints . He attended Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg , Florida and Paschal High School in Ft. Worth , Texas for high school ." ]
[]
WH_train_28
member_of_political_party joice mujuru
zimbabwe african national union – patriotic front
[ "independence", "military", "movement for democratic change – tsvangirai", "patriotic front", "republic", "the river", "union", "zimbabwe african national union", "zimbabwe african national union – patriotic front" ]
[ "Solomon Mujuru (5 May 1945 15 August 2011), also known by his nom-de-guerre, Rex Nhongo, was a Zimbabwean military officer and politician who led Robert Mugabe's guerrilla forces during the Rhodesian Bush War. He was from the Zezuru clan. In post-independence Zimbabwe, he went on to become army chief before leaving government service in 1995. After leaving his post in the Zimbabwe National Army, he got into politics becoming Member of Parliament for Chikomba on a Zanu PF ticket. He was generally regarded as one of the most feared men in Zimbabwe. His wife, Joice Mujuru, became Vice-President of Zimbabwe in 2004.", "South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded on the south by of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans, on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, and on the east and northeast by Mozambique and Swaziland, and surrounding the kingdom of Lesotho. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area, and with close to 56 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. It is the only country that borders both the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (white), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (coloured) ancestry.", "Joice Mujuru ( born Runaida Mugari ; 15 April 1955 ) is a Zimbabwean politician who served as Vice-President of Zimbabwe from 2004 to 2014 . Previously she served as a government minister for years , beginning at independence in 1980 . She also served as Vice-President of ZANU - PF . She was married to Solomon Mujuru until his death in 2011 and was long considered a potential successor to President Robert Mugabe , but in 2014 she was denounced for allegedly plotting against Mugabe . As a result of the accusations against her , Mujuru lost both her post as Vice-President and her position in the party leadership . She was expelled from the party a few months later .", "The Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) is the primary branch of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces responsible for land-oriented military operations. It is the largest service branch under the Zimbabwean Joint Operations Command (JOC). The modern army has its roots in the Rhodesian Army, which was raised between 1963 and 1964 after the breakup of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. A \"Joint High Command\" created in March 1980 to oversee integration of the formerly belligerent Rhodesian Security Forces, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) officially established the Zimbabwe National Army in late 1980, nearly a year after the end of the Rhodesian Bush War.", "Botswana , officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as \"Batswana\" (singular: \"Motswana\"). Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections.", "Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west and southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east and northeast. Although it does not border Namibia, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates it from that country. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly 13 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used.", "Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who has governed the Republic of Zimbabwe as its President since 1987, having previously governed as its Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he has led the Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANUPF) party since 1975.", "Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German: ), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, a part of less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations.", "The Zimbabwe African National Union was a militant organization that fought against the white minority government in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU). ZANU won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and seven years later merged with Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU to form ZANU-PF.", "Mozambique (or ), officially the Republic of Mozambique (or \"\") is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. It is separated from Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and largest city is Maputo (known as \"Lourenço Marques\" before independence).", "The Rhodesian Bush Waralso known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberationwas a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).\nThe conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, under Ian Smith (later the Zimbabwe Rhodesian government of Bishop Abel Muzorewa); the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, the military wing of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union; and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union.", "The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country.", "The Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANUPF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980. The party has been led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and then as President from 1988 after merger with the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and retaining the name ZANUPF. In the 2008 parliamentary election, the ZANUPF lost sole control of parliament for the first time in party history and brokered a difficult power-sharing deal with the Movement for Democratic Change Tsvangirai (MDC), but subsequently won the 2013 election and gained a two-thirds majority.", "The Limpopo River rises in central southern Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean. The term Limpopo is the modified version of the original Sepedi name \"diphororo tša meetse\", meaning gushing strong waterfalls\". The river is approximately long, with a drainage basin in size. The mean discharge measured over a year is 170 m/s (6,200 cu ft/s) at its mouth. The Limpopo is the second largest river in Africa that drains to the Indian Ocean, after the Zambezi River." ]
[]
WH_train_29
occupation don schiff
musician
[ "band", "bassist", "book", "carabinier", "creator", "designer", "drummer", "founder", "guitarist", "member", "musician", "official", "page", "singer", "speaker", "vocalist" ]
[ "A carabinier (also sometimes spelled carabineer or carbineer) is in principle a soldier armed with a carbine. A carbine is a shorter version of a musket or rifle. Carabiniers were first introduced during the Napoleonic wars in Europe. The word is derived from the identical French word \"carabinier\".", "The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a hollow wooden or plastic and wood box (for an acoustic guitar), or through electrical amplifier and a speaker (for an electric guitar). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, thumb and/or fingernails of the right hand or with a pick while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.", "The Chapman Stick (\"The Stick\") is an electric musical instrument devised by Emmett Chapman in the early 1970s. A member of the guitar family, the Chapman Stick usually has ten or twelve individually tuned strings and has been used on music recordings to play bass lines, melody lines, chords, or textures. Designed as a fully polyphonic chordal instrument, it can also cover several of these musical parts simultaneously.", "Jón Þór \"Jónsi\" Birgisson (born 23 April 1975) is the guitarist and vocalist for the Icelandic post-rock band Sigur Rós. He is known for his use of a cello bow on guitar and his falsetto or countertenor voice. He is blind in his right eye from birth as a result of a broken optic nerve from the brain. He is openly gay. Apart from Sigur Rós, Jónsi also performs together with his partner Alex Somers as an art collaboration called Jónsi & Alex. They released their self-titled first book in November 2006, which was an embossed hardcover limited to 1000 copies, along with their first album, \"Riceboy Sleeps\", in July 2009. \nOn 1 December 2009, Jónsi's official website, jonsi.com, was launched in anticipation of his debut solo album, \"Go\", which was released the week of 5 April 2010. After the release of the album, Jónsi promptly started a worldwide tour across North America and Europe, featuring songs from the album plus a few other selections, planning to tour from March to September.", "James Patrick \"Jimmy\" Page, (born 9 January 1944) is an English musician, songwriter, and record producer who achieved international success as the guitarist and founder of the rock band Led Zeppelin.", "Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist and keyboardist John Paul Jones, and drummer John Bonham. The band's heavy, guitar-driven sound, rooted in blues and psychedelia on their early albums, has earned them recognition as one of the progenitors of heavy metal, though their unique style drew from a wide variety of influences, including folk music.", "Ned Steinberger (b. Princeton, New Jersey, 1948) is an American creator of innovative musical instruments. He is most notable for his design of guitars and basses without a traditional headstock, which are called Steinberger instruments. He also has a line of electric basses and string instruments through his company called NS Design and was also the designer of the first ever Spector bass, the NS.", "A carabiner or karabiner is a specialized type of shackle, a metal loop with a spring-loaded gate used to quickly and reversibly connect components, most notably in safety-critical systems. The word is a shortened form of \"Karabinerhaken\", a German phrase for a \"spring hook\" used by a carbine rifleman, or carabinier, to attach items to a belt or bandolier.", "The NS/Stick is an 8 string tapping instrument designed by Emmett Chapman and Ned Steinberger. It incorporates design ideas from both the original Stick and from Ned Steinberger's instruments such as the Stick's tapping fretboard and the Steinberger Bass' knee bar and headless design. The player can position the instrument upright for tapping or lower it to a horizontal position for picking, slapping, or strumming.", "Emmett Chapman (born September 28, 1936) is a jazz musician best known as the inventor of the Chapman Stick and maker of Chapman Stick family of instruments.", "Bowed guitar is a method of playing a guitar, acoustic or electric, in which the guitarist uses a bow to play the instrument, similar to playing a viola da gamba. Unlike other bowed instruments, the guitar has a flat bridge, making it difficult to bow individual notes on the middle strings. The technique is most closely associated with Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin, The Yardbirds, and Jónsi of Sigur Ros.", "Don Schiff ( born November 9 , 1955 ) is a bass guitar , Chapman Stick , NS / Stick , and bowed guitar player on recordings , TV , and film sessions . He is one of the earliest Stick , NS / Stick , and bowed guitar players . He helped popularize the NS / Stick and a technique of using a carabiner as a slide and tapping device . A native of Wilmington , Delaware , Schiff moved to Las Vegas , Nevada immediately after high school in 1974 . At age 19 he quickly developed a reputation and within five months got his first break when hired to be the ' house bassist ' for the Flamingo Las Vegas and Hilton Hotel Showrooms . There , he played for such artists as Elvis Presley , Tina Turner , Peggy Lee , Sammy Davis , Jr. , Ann - Margret , Perry Como , and The 5th Dimension , as well as others . Schiff purchased his first Chapman Stick in 1975 and quickly adapted to it , creating his own style of playing . Gradually , around the time he was making the move to Los Angeles in 1977 , he began using it during live dates and recording sessions for various artists including Eddie Money , Lana Lane , Dwight Yoakam , Erik Norlander and Sheryl Crow . He met screenwriter and director Patrick Sean Duncan who hired him to score the films Live From Death Row and Family Values . He can be seen briefly in both of those films since Pat Duncan cast him in films he directed , placing him in odd scenes . In 2000 , Emmett Chapman and Ned Steinberger developed the first prototype NS / Stick . Schiff was given one of the first two prototypes to try out . He developed many new techniques on it including `` tapping while plucking '' and `` slide technique '' using a carabiner while tapping . The song `` Cerebral Man '' , which he wrote along with Tully Winfield , was recorded by Pat Benatar on her album entitled Wide Awake in Dreamland for which he received a gold album in 1988 . The song `` With Every Word '' recorded by Nia Peeples on her self - titled album was also written by Schiff and Winfield . Schiff currently plays NS / Stick in the band Rocket Scientists . He also scores music for and wrote the theme for the web series `` The Guild '' ." ]
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WH_train_30
sport ferrari 643
motorsport
[ "auto racing", "bandy", "formula one", "motorsport", "sport" ]
[ "The Williams FW14 was a Formula One car designed by Adrian Newey, used by the Williams team during the 1991 and 1992 Formula One seasons.", "Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1 and officially the FIA Formula One World Championship) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the premier form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950, although other Formula One races were regularly held until 1983. The \"formula\", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, to which all participants' cars must conform. The F1 season consists of a series of races, known as \"Grands Prix\" (from French, meaning grand prizes), held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads.", "Steve Nichols (born 20 February 1947 in Salt Lake City, Utah) is an American engineer who is best known as a car designer for many Formula One teams from the mid-1980s until .", "Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing or automobile racing) is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. ", "Michael Schumacher (born 3 January 1969) is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice. He won two titles with Benetton in and before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between and .", "Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo (; 24 June 1911  17 July 1995), nicknamed \"El Chueco\" (\"the bowlegged one\", also commonly translated as \"bandy legged\") or \"El Maestro\" (\"The Master\"), was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers' Championship five times.", "Adrian Newey (born 26 December 1958) is a British Formula One engineer. He is currently the chief technical officer of the Red Bull Racing Formula One team.", "Sebastian Vettel (born 3 July 1987) is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in , , , and with Red Bull Racing. He is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of only four drivers to have won four or more drivers' titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017.", "The 2001 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 September 2001 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. The race was the 14th race of the 2001 Formula One season, and the penultimate European round of the season. The race is notable for the accident of Brazilian Luciano Burti who crashed into a tyre barrier at the \"Blanchimont\" corner following a collision with Eddie Irvine and for Michael Schumacher overtaking Alain Prost's previous record of 51 Grand Prix victories. He also eclipsed Prost's record for the most total career points, scoring 10 more points to bring his career total to 769, beating Prost's 768 1/2.", "The 1991 Formula One season was the 42nd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship, which commenced on 10 March 1991 and ended on 3 November after sixteen races. Ayrton Senna won his third and last Drivers' World Championship and McLaren-Honda won the Constructors' Championship. Senna's main title challenger was Nigel Mansell at Williams, who won five races on his return to the team compared to Senna's seven. Senna's fierce rival Alain Prost failed to win a race with Ferrari in stark contrast to his title challenge the year before and left the team even before the end of the season. 1991 also saw the debuts of future world champions Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen.", "The Ferrari 643 was a Formula One car designed by Steve Nichols and Jean - Claude Migeot and was built by Scuderia Ferrari for use in the 1991 Formula One season . Built during May and introduced at the French Grand Prix it initially looked to have potential to run at the front . Alain Prost qualified on the front row and took the lead , and although he was eventually passed by Nigel Mansell in his Renault powered Williams FW14 , a second place in the car 's first race looked promising . Aside from almost always being on the front part of the grid , it was not to be however . The chassis of the 643 was a total redesign over the 642 which suffered inconsistent handling issues , and was designed to allow for a more softer suspension travel , as per Prost 's request . The car also featured Ferrari 's first ' raised nose ' design which allowed better airflow underneath the car . The V12 engine was upgraded six major times during 1991 , with the final evolution used from Portugal to the end of the season . The chassis itself had two revisions , the first after the French Grand Prix -- which saw a relocation of the exhaust exits from underneath the car , and Belgium which saw minor alterations to the body cover . Although arguably one of the prettier cars in the field , the car was not as competitive a car as the Williams FW14 and McLaren MP4 / 6 cars ; A big problem with the car lay with a lack of correct data gathering due to the team 's turbulent management structure at the time . The car 's results ( or lack thereof ) was one of the main reasons for the falling out between Prost and Ferrari , with the Frenchman eventually saying that `` a truck would be easier to drive than this car '' . Following the Japanese Grand Prix , Prost was fired for the second time in his F1 career by a works team . The team replaced him in Australia with test driver Gianni Morbidelli . The car scored 39.5 points of the teams 55.5 points in 1991 ( the 642 model was used to score 16 points in the first 6 races of the season ) with 8 podiums and finished third in the constructors championship . The 643 was tested in early 1992 by Ivan Capelli for being replaced at the start of the 1992 season by the Ferrari F92A .", "Nigel Ernest James Mansell, (born 8 August 1953) is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship (1992) and the CART Indy Car World Series (1993). Mansell was the reigning F1 champion when he moved over to CART, becoming the first person to win the CART title in his debut season, and making him the only person to hold both the World Drivers Championship and the American open-wheel National Championship simultaneously.", "Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer, Ferrari, and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season.", "Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (born 24 February 1955) is a French former racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers' Champion, only Sebastian Vettel (four championships), Juan Manuel Fangio (five championships), and Michael Schumacher (seven championships) have equalled or surpassed his number of titles. From 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prost's total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix. In 1999, Prost received the \"World Sports Awards of the Century\" in the motor sport category.", "The 1950 Formula One season included the inaugural FIA World Championship of Drivers which was contested over a seven race series which commenced on 13 May and ended on 3 September. The championship consisted of six Grand Prix races, held in Europe and open to Formula One cars, plus the Indianapolis 500, which was run to AAA National Championship regulations. Giuseppe Farina won the championship from Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli.", "A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events. The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship. The Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the racing teams themselves, though the design and manufacture can be outsourced.", "Ayrton Senna da Silva (21 March 1960  1 May 1994) was a Brazilian racing driver who won three Formula One world championships for McLaren in 1988, 1990 and 1991 and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was killed in an accident while leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix for Williams.", "Mika Pauli Häkkinen (born 28 September 1968), nicknamed \"\"the Flying Finn\"\", is a Finnish former professional racing driver. He was the 1998 and 1999 Formula One World Champion, driving for McLaren and has been ranked among the greatest Formula One drivers in various motorsport polls. Häkkinen currently works in driver management and is a brand ambassador for various companies.", "The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the \"Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus\" (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is mostly known as the governing body for many auto racing events. The FIA also promotes road safety around the world." ]
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WH_train_31
sport louisiana icegators
ice hockey
[ "hockey", "ice hockey" ]
[ "Professional ice hockey has existed since the early 1900s (decade). The professional game originated in the United States in 1904 and became prominent in Canada during the early 20th century before expanding back into the United States and eventually to many other countries. In addition to the United States and Canada, high-level professional hockey is present in Germany, Russia, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Finland and Switzerland; professional hockey is also played in many other countries, as diverse as Ukraine, the United Kingdom, Austria, Australia and Japan.", "The Louisiana IceGators is a team of the Southern Professional Hockey League who began play in the 2009 - 10 season . Like the original IceGators which played from 1995 until folding in 2005 , they are based out of Lafayette , Louisiana . The IceGators were brought back and owned by local businessman Danny Smith . In August 2010 , Smith sold the team to two local businessmen , E.C. `` Chuck '' Anselmo , Jr. and E.C. `` Chuck '' Anselmo , III.", "The Southern Professional Hockey League (SPHL) is a professional ice hockey league based in Huntersville, North Carolina, with teams located primarily in the southeastern United States as well as Illinois and Indiana in the midwestern United States." ]
[]
WH_train_32
occupation ron schock
ice hockey player
[ "accounting", "canada", "canadian football", "entertainment", "fashion", "game", "governor", "ice hockey player", "major", "member" ]
[ "The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over a land area of just , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York City exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace defining the term \"New York minute\". Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.", "The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional ice hockey league currently composed of 31 member clubs. Of the 30 clubs currently playing, 23 are in the United States and 7 in Canada. Headquartered in New York City, the NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season.", "Daniel Patrick Schock (born December 30, 1948 in Terrace Bay, Ontario) is a retired professional ice hockey player who played 20 regular season games and one playoff game in the National Hockey League. He played with the Boston Bruins and Philadelphia Flyers. He won the Stanley Cup in 1970 with the Boston Bruins while playing only one game in the playoffs.", "Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province by a large margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto.", "Ronald Lawrence Schock ( born December 19 , 1943 ) is a Canadian retired National Hockey League centre from 1964 to 1978 . His younger brother , Danny Schock , also played briefly in the NHL . Ron retired following 909 games , recording a total of 166 goals , 351 assists , and 517 points . While playing with the St. Louis Blues , Schock attended a hockey dinner and was asked where he would least like to be traded . He responded , either the New York Rangers or Pittsburgh Penguins . Two days later he was traded to the Pittsburgh Penguins . Ron Shock is perhaps most famous for his double overtime `` Midnight Goal '' that won game 7 for the Blues over the Minnesota North Stars on May 3 , 1968 , and sent the Blues to the Stanley Cup finals in the first year of the NHL expansion . ( ; ) Arguably , this was a major contribution to the early popularity of the St. Louis Blues franchise ( . )", "The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in the United States and Canada. The four leagues universally included in the definition are Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Other prominent leagues include Major League Soccer (MLS) and the Canadian Football League (CFL).", "The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) playoff winner. Originally commissioned in 1892 as the \"Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup\", the trophy is named for Lord Stanley of Preston, thenGovernor General of Canada, who awarded it to Canada's top-ranking amateur ice hockey club, which the entire Stanley family supported, with the sons and daughters playing and promoting the game. The first Cup was awarded in 1893 to Montreal HC, and subsequent winners from 1893 to 1914 were determined by challenge games and league play. Professional teams first became eligible to challenge for the Stanley Cup in 1906. In 1915, the two professional ice hockey organizations, the National Hockey Association (NHA) and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA), reached a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other annually for the Stanley Cup. After a series of league mergers and folds, it was established as the \"de facto\" championship trophy of the NHL in 1926 and then the \"de jure\" NHL championship prize in 1947." ]
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WH_train_33
instance_of beerschoten
village
[ "1", "capital", "constituent country", "country of the kingdom of the netherlands", "hill", "island", "january", "municipality", "part", "province", "seat", "seat of government", "three", "town", "village" ]
[ "Leersum is a town in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug, and lies about 7 km east of Doorn and 9 km west of Veenendaal.", "Maarn is a town in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug, and is located about 10 km east of Zeist.", "Amerongen is a village in the central Netherlands (Utrecht province) on the border of the Utrecht Hill Ridge. It lies about 7 km south west of Veenendaal (10.5 km by road).", "Doorn is a town in the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. On 1 January 2008 the town had 10,052 inhabitants.", "The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government and parliament. The name \"Holland\" is used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands.", "Beerschoten is a hamlet in the municipality Utrechtse Heuvelrug , in the Dutch province Utrecht . Beerschoten lies on the edge of a forest between the towns of Zeist ( to the northwest ) and Driebergen - Rijsenburg ( to the southeast ) . Just north of the hamlet lies the railway station Driebergen - Zeist . The hamlet grew around the estate Beerschoten - Willinkshof .", "Driebergen-Rijsenburg is a town in the municipality Utrechtse Heuvelrug in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht.", "Utrechtse Heuvelrug is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. It was formed on 1 January 2006 by merging the former municipalities of Amerongen, Doorn, Driebergen-Rijsenburg, Leersum, and Maarn." ]
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WH_train_34
noble_family onela
yngling
[ "scylding", "yngling" ]
[ "Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king , the son of Ongentheow and the brother of Ohthere . He usurped the Swedish throne , but was killed by his nephew Eadgils , who won by hiring foreign assistance . In Scandinavian mythology a Norwegian king by the same name exists , Áli ( the Old Norse form of Onela , also rendered as Ole , Åle or Ale ) , who had the cognomen hinn Upplenzki ( `` from Oppland '' ) .", "The Skjöldunga saga was an Old Norse Legendary saga. Dating from c. 1180 1200, the saga was lost in its original form. The saga focused on the Danish dynasty of Scylding (Old Norse \"Skjöldung\", plural \"Skjöldungar\"), the same semi-legendary dynasty featured in the Old English poem \"Beowulf\". The fragmentary Icelandic text known as \"Sögubrot af nokkrum fornkonungum\" are believed to be based on the \"Skjöldunga saga\", perhaps deriving from a late version of that work.", "Eadgils, \"Adils\", \"Aðils\", \"Adillus\", \"Aðísl at Uppsölum\", \"Athisl\", \"Athislus\" or \"Adhel\" was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.\n\"Beowulf\" and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) dynasty. These sources also deal with his war against Onela, which he won with foreign assistance: in \"Beowulf\" he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (\"Skáldskaparmál\" and \"Skjöldunga saga\"), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king." ]
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WH_train_35
father perses
kreios
[ "apollo", "include", "jupiter", "koios", "kreios", "odin", "perses", "saturn", "thor", "uranus", "zeus" ]
[ "Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: , \"Apolln\"; Doric: , \"Apelln\"; Arcadocypriot: , \"Apeiln\"; Aeolic: , \"Aploun\") is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the \"kouros\" (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as \"Apulu\".", "In ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, Demeter (Attic: \"Dmtr\"; Doric: \"Dmtr\") is the goddess of the harvest and agriculture, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito, \"she of the Grain\", as the giver of food or grain, and Thesmophoros (\"thesmos\": divine order, unwritten law \"phoros\": bringer, bearer), \"Law-Bringer,\" as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society.", "Hecate or Hekate (Greek ) is a goddess in Ancient Greek religion and mythology, most often shown holding two torches or a key and in later periods depicted in triple form. She was variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, light, magic, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, ghosts, necromancy, and sorcery. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's \"Theogony\", where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.\nIn the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth, sea and sky, as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira), Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. \nRegarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, \"she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.\"", "In Norse mythology, Thor (from Old Norse Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing and fertility. The cognate deity in wider Germanic mythology and paganism was known in Old English as Þunor and in Old High German as Donar (runic þonar ), stemming from a Common Germanic *Þunraz (meaning \"thunder\").", "In Greek mythology, Crius , Kreios or Krios () was one of the Titans in the list given in Hesiod's \"Theogony\", a son of Uranus and Gaia. The least individualized among the Titans he was overthrown in the Titanomachy. M. L. West has suggested how Hesiod filled out the complement of Titans from the core groupadding three figures from the archaic tradition of Delphi, Coeus, and Phoibe, whose name Apollo assumed with the oracle, and Themis. Among possible further interpolations among the Titans was Crius, whose interest for Hesiod was as the father of Perses and grandfather of Hecate, for whom Hesiod was, according to West, an \"enthusiastic evangelist\". ", "Zeus (\"Zeús\", ; Modern , \"Días\" ) was the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical to those of the Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, and Odin.", "In Greek mythology, Coeus (Koios, \"query, questioning\") was one of the Titans, the giant sons and daughters of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). His equivalent in Latin poetrythough he scarcely makes an appearance in Roman mythologywas Polus, the embodiment of the celestial axis around which the heavens revolve. The etymology of Coeus' name provided several scholars the theory that Coeus was also the Titan god of intellect, who represented the inquisitive mind.", "In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Old Norse Óðinn) is a widely revered god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most of the information about the god, Odin is associated with healing, death, royalty, the gallows, knowledge, battle, sorcery, poetry, frenzy, and the runic alphabet, and is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, Odin was known in Old English as Wden, in Old Saxon as Wdan, and in Old High German as Wuotan or Wtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym wanaz.", "Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of 2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.", "Perses ( / prsz / ; Greek : ) was the son of the Titan siblings , Crius and Eurybia . He was described as the Titan god of destruction in mythology . He was wed to Asteria , his cousin , daughter of Titans Phoebe and Coeus . They had one child noted in mythology , Hecate , honoured by Zeus above all others as the goddess of wilderness , childbirth , witchcraft and magic ." ]
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WH_train_36
ethnic_group armenak yekarian
armenians
[ "ancient egypt", "arab", "armenia", "armenians", "asia", "british", "bulgaria", "europe", "european", "europeans", "greece", "greek", "hashemite", "latin", "middle east", "muslim", "romania", "russia", "saudi arabia", "tunisia", "uganda" ]
[ "Abdul Hamid II (\"`Abdül-amd-i sânî\" 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Ottoman Empire, including widespread pogroms and government-sanctioned massacres of Armenians and Bulgarians, as well as an assassination attempt, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, on 27 April 1909. In accordance with an agreement made with the republican Young Ottomans, he promulgated the first Ottoman constitution of 1876 on 23 December 1876, which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule. Soon, however, he claimed Western influence on Ottoman affairs and citing disagreements with Parliament, Abdul Hamid suspended both the short-lived constitution and Parliament in 1878 and seized absolute power, ending the first constitutional era of the Ottoman Empire. Abdul Hamid's 1909 removal from the throne was hailed by most Ottoman citizens, who welcomed the return to constitutional rule after three decades.", "Lake Urmia (\"Daryche-ye Ormiye\" \"Urmiya gölü\") is an endorheic salt lake in Iranian Azerbaijan, Iran and near Iran's border with Turkey. The lake is between the provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan in Iran, and west of the southern portion of the Caspian Sea. At its full size, it was the largest lake in the Middle East and the sixth-largest saltwater lake on Earth with a surface area of approximately , length, width, and depth. The lake has shrunk to 10% of its former size due to damming of the rivers that flow into it and pumping of groundwater from the area.", "Cairo (; ', ') is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by Jawhar al-Siqilli (\"the Sicilian\") of the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is nicknamed \"the city of a thousand minarets\" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture.", "Iran (, also , ; ' ), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (' ), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the \"de facto\" Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of , it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic center.", "Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents. Located primarily in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and by Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean to the south. The division between Europe and Asia as two different continents is a historical and cultural construct, with no clear physical separation between them; thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia is recognized as the largest of five or six continents. In geology, Eurasia is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia is debated based on the paleomagnet data.", "Armenakis Yekarian ( Armenian : ; 1870 -- 1926 ) was an Armenian fedayee . Yekarian was born in Van , Ottoman Empire . He joined the Armenian national liberation movement through the ranks of the Armenakans in 1888 . His early education was at Varagavank monastery . In 1896 , during the defense of Van , he obtaining weapons from Persia to organize self - defense in the city . He was imprisoned with 40 of his comrades and then released at the end of the conflict . Thereafter , he left the Ottoman Empire as required by the Sultan . He took refuge in Urmia in Persia . After the deposition of the Sultan by the Young Turk Revolution , he returned to Van in 1908 . He joined the Van resistance in 1915 . After the Armenian victory , they set up an Armenian provisional government , with Aram Manukian at its head . Armenak Yekarian became the police chief . Aram Manoukian , Armenak Yekarian and others tried to give a national - civil character to the exclusively militarized administration . In 1922 , he emigrated with his family to Cairo , Egypt , where he died in 1926 . His family moved to Soviet Armenia in 1947 .", "The Arab world ('; formally: '), also known as the Arab nation (\"\"), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million people, over half of whom are under 25 years of age.", "Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having an 8 km border with Turkey in the north west.", "The Armenian Highlands (also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland, or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus. To its west is the Anatolian plateau which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and converges with the Armenian Highlands to the east of Cappadocia. To its southeast is the Iranian plateau, where the elevation drops rapidly by about to above sea level. The Caucasus extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands. To the southwest of the Armenian Highlands is Upper Mesopotamia.", "The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, \"Dashnak\"), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. The party operates in Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh and in countries where the Armenian diaspora is present, notably in Lebanon, where the party is represented in the parliament as part of the March 8 alliance.", "Israel , officially known as the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's financial and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over the city of Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized.", "The Nile ( \"en-Nl\",  \"an-Nl\" \"P(h)iaro\"; Ancient Egyptian: \"'p\" and \"Iteru\"; Biblical Hebrew: , \"Ha-Ye'or\") is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, however other conflicting sources cite a 2007 study that gave the title to the Amazon River in South America. The Nile, which is 6,853 km (4,258 miles) long, is an \"international\" river as its water resources are shared by eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.", "Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europea concept dating back to classical antiquityare arbitrary. The primarily physiographic term \"continent\" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.", "Mehmed II (\"Memed-i sn\"; Modern ; 30 March 1432 3 May 1481), best known as Mehmed the Conqueror, was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Eastern Roman Empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia. Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him.", "A minaret (', ,), from ', \"lighthouse\", also known as \"Goldaste\", is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques. Generally a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown, usually either free-standing or taller than associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery. Styles vary regionally and by period. Minarets provide a visual focal point and are traditionally used for the Muslim call to prayer.", "Libya (\"\") is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost , Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world.", "Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe. Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements as well as vast barely populated regions within the continent of 4.4 billion people.", "Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: ), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece to the west; Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.", "Bey (/Bey, / \"Beye\", / \"Beg\" or \"Beyg\") is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders (for men) of small tribal groups. \nThe feminine equivalent title was Begum.\nThe regions or provinces where \"beys\" ruled or which they administered were called \"beylik\", roughly meaning \"khanate\", \"emirate\" or \"principality\" in the first case, \"province\" or \"governorate\" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe).\nToday, the word is still used informally as a social title for men (somewhat like the English word \"mister\" and the French word \"monsieur\", which literally means \"my lord\"). Unlike \"mister\" however, it follows the name and is used generally with first names and not with last names.", "The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal). The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley.", "Egypt (; ', , \"Kimi\"), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and Saudi Arabia do not share a land border with Egypt. It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation.", "Jordan ('), officially The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan ('), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north, Israel, Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.", "Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (3301204 and 12611453), and also of the brief Latin (12041261), and the later Ottoman (14531923) empires. It was reinaugurated in 324 AD from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330 AD.", "The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical ), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.", "The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai ('; ', ; \"\") is a peninsula in Egypt, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia and Africa. It is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia. Sinai has a land area of about and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. The bulk of the peninsula is divided administratively into two of Egypt's 27 governorates (with three more straddling the Suez Canal area).", "Russia (from the Rus'), also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. At , Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 140 million people at the end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern, about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other major urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.", "Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or Near East), the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics.", "The Armenian national liberation movement (\"Hay azgayin-azatagrakan sharzhum\") aimed at the establishment of an Armenian state. It included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years.", "Anatolia (from Greek , ' \"east\" or \"(sun)rise\"; in modern ), in geography known as Asia Minor (from ' \"small Asia\"; in modern ), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.", "Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.", "Urmia (() is the second largest city in the Iranian Azerbaijan and the capital of West Azerbaijan Province. Urmia is situated at an altitude of 1,330 m above sea level, and is located along the Shahar Chay river (City River) on the Urmia Plain. Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest salt lakes, lies to the east of the city and the mountainous Turkish border area lies to the west.", "The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both \"Byzantine Empire\" and \"Eastern Roman Empire\" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the \"Roman Empire\" (tr. ), or \"Romania\", and to themselves as \"Romans\".", "World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.", "Aram Manukian (classical ), also referred to as simply Aram (19 March 187929 January 1919), was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party. He is widely regarded as the founder of the First Republic of Armenia.", "An empire is defined as \"an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Brazilian Empire, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire.\" An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire.", "The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament. More than 3 decades earlier in 1876, constitutional monarchy had been established under Sultan Abdul Hamid II during a period of time known as the First Constitutional Era, which only lasted for two years before Abdul Hamid suspended it and restored autocratic powers to himself. On 24 July 1908, Abdul Hamid capitulated and announced the restoration of Constitution, which established the Second Constitutional Era.", "The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is \"Middle-Eastern\" and the derived noun is \"Middle-Easterner\". The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to Far East) beginning in the early 20th century.", "Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately , Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert or barren landforms.", "The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the \"Kanûn- Esâsî\" (meaning \"Basic Law\" or \"Fundamental Law\" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878. These Young Ottomans were dissatisfied by the Tanzimat and instead pushed for a constitutional government similar to that in Europe. The constitutional period started with the dethroning of Sultan Abdülaziz. Abdulhamid II took his place as Sultan. The era ended with the suspension of the Ottoman parliament and the constitution by sultan Abdülhamid II, with which he restored his own absolute monarchy.", "The Balkan Peninsula, or the Balkans, is a peninsula and a cultural area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe with various and disputed borders. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the Serbia-Bulgaria border to the Black Sea.", "The Gulf of Aqaba (\"Khalij al-Aqabah\") or Gulf of Eilat (\"Mifrats Eilat\") is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland. Its coastline is divided between four countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.", "The Ottoman Empire ('; Modern Turkish: ' or '), also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.", "Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer (commonly referred to as Menes). The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.", "Armenia ( tr. \"Hayastan\"), officially the Republic of Armenia (tr. \"Hayastani Hanrapetutyun\"), is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the \"Armenian Highlands\", it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Russia and Georgia to the north and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south." ]
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WH_train_37
main_subject hello mary lou: prom night ii
supernatural
[ "actor", "film", "francis", "mary", "supernatural", "television" ]
[ "Ricky Nelson (born Eric Hilliard Nelson, also known as Rick Nelson; May 8, 1940 December 31, 1985) was an American actor, musician and singer-songwriter. He starred alongside his family in the television series \"The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet\" (195266) as well as co-starring alongside John Wayne and Dean Martin in Howard Hawks's western feature film \"Rio Bravo\" (1959). He placed 53 songs on the \"Billboard\" Hot 100 between 1957 and 1973 including \"Poor Little Fool\", which holds the distinction of being the first #1 song on \"Billboard\" magazine's then-newly created Hot 100 chart. He recorded 19 additional Top 10 hits and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on January 21, 1987. In 1996, he was ranked #49 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time.", "Hell, in many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in an afterlife. It is viewed by most Abrahamic traditions as punishment. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as eternal destinations. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory, Paradise, and Limbo.", "The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the concept of a realm, or the realm itself (whether physical or transcendental), in which an essential part of an individual's identity or consciousness continues to exist after the death of the body. According to various ideas about the afterlife, the essential aspect of the individual that lives on after death may be some partial element, or the entire soul or spirit, of an individual, which carries with it and may confer personal identity or, on the contrary, may not, as in Indian nirvana. Belief in an afterlife, which may be naturalistic or supernatural, is in contrast to the belief in oblivion after death.", "Gene Francis Alan Pitney (February 17, 1940 April 5, 2006) was an American singer-songwriter, musician, and sound engineer.", "\"Hello Mary Lou\" is a song written by U.S. singer Gene Pitney first recorded by Johnny Duncan in 1960, and later by Ricky Nelson in 1961.", "Hello Mary Lou : Prom Night II is a 1987 film , the second installment in the Prom Night saga . It introduced the killer ghost Mary Lou Maloney , who returned in 1989 's Prom Night III : The Last Kiss ." ]
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WH_train_38
endemic_to whistling fruit dove
kadavu island
[ "australia", "europe", "french guiana", "french polynesia", "kadavu island", "new caledonia", "new zealand", "pacific ocean" ]
[ "New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and east of Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as \"\" (\"the pebble\").", "Vanuatu (or ; Bislama ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (Bislama: \"Ripablik blong Vanuatu\"), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is some east of northern Australia, northeast of New Caledonia, east of New Guinea, southeast of the Solomon Islands, and west of Fiji.", "The North Island or Te Ika-a-Mui (\"Mori\") is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the slightly larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is , making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of ", "Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (and ; or ', Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: '), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian, Wallis and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia.", "The whistling fruit dove ( Ptilinopus layardi ) , also known as the velvet dove or yellow - headed dove , is a small fruit dove from Fiji . The species is endemic to the islands of Kadavu and Ono in the Kadavu Group in the south of Fiji .", "The Kadavu Group is an archipelago south of Viti Levu, one of Fiji's two main islands. Dominated by Kadavu Island, the fourth largest island in Fiji, the group also includes Ono, Dravuni, Galoa and a number of islets in the Great Astrolabe Reef.", "Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania (and occasionally Australasia) extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.", "France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans and had a total population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic with the capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux.", "New Zealand is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmassesthat of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Mui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamuand numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.", "Fiji ((), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north.", "Tuvalu (or ), formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji. It comprises three reef islands and six true atolls spread out between the latitude of 5° to 10° south and longitude of 176° to 180°, west of the International Date Line. Tuvalu has a population of 10,640 (2012 census). The total land area of the islands of Tuvalu is .", "Tonga (or ; Tongan: \"Puleanga Fakatui o Tonga\"), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about scattered over of the southern Pacific Ocean. It has a population of 103,000 people of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.", "The Kermadec Islands are a subtropical island arc in the South Pacific Ocean northeast of New Zealand's North Island, and a similar distance southwest of Tonga. The islands are part of New Zealand, in total area and nowadays uninhabited, except for the permanently manned Raoul Island Station, the northernmost outpost of New Zealand." ]
[]
WH_train_39
subclass_of disinfectant
chemical substance
[ "animal", "area", "atom", "bacteria", "charge", "chemical substance", "habitat", "ion", "length", "life", "material", "medicine", "metre", "natural", "natural environment", "noun", "number", "object", "planet", "plant", "population", "power", "research", "species", "symbol", "technology", "term", "via", "water", "world", "writer" ]
[ "The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: m) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 1×10 of a metre (SI standard prefix \"micro-\" = 10); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch). The symbol m is sometimes rendered as um if the symbol cannot be used, or if the writer is not aware of the distinction.", "Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment.", "A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population.", "Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects . Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms , especially resistant bacterial spores ; it is less effective than sterilization , which is an extreme physical and / or chemical process that kills all types of life . Disinfectants are different from other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics , which destroy microorganisms within the body , and antiseptics , which destroy microorganisms on living tissue . Disinfectants are also different from biocides -- the latter are intended to destroy all forms of life , not just microorganisms . Disinfectants work by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with the metabolism . Sanitizers are substances that simultaneously clean and disinfect . Disinfectants are frequently used in hospitals , dental surgeries , kitchens , and bathrooms to kill infectious organisms . Bacterial endospores are most resistant to disinfectants , but some viruses and bacteria also possess some tolerance . In wastewater treatment , a disinfection step with chlorine , ultra-violet ( UV ) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater , for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses . An alternative term used in the sanitation sector for disinfection of waste streams , sewage sludge or fecal sludge is sanitisation or sanitization .", "An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.", "Earth, otherwise known as the world, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets.", "A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses a slightly different definition for biocides as \"a diverse group of poisonous substances including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants, and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products\". When compared, the two definitions roughly imply the same, although the US EPA definition includes plant protection products and some veterinary medicines.", "Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals." ]
[]
WH_train_40
country_of_citizenship mattia gavazzi
italy
[ "argentina", "brazil", "colombia", "ecuador", "france", "italy", "peru", "switzerland", "united kingdom" ]
[ "Aigle (French for \"eagle\") is a historic town and a municipality and the capital of the district of Aigle in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.", "The Tour de San Luis is a road cycling race held in San Luis Province, Argentina. The race consists of a competition over an individual time trial, and six stages. The competition carries a UCI rating of 2.1, and is part of the UCI America Tour, which is one of five UCI Continental Circuits sponsored by the Union Cycliste Internationale, the sport's international governing body.", "South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is the model used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).", "Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter. The name \"noradrenaline,\" derived from Latin roots meaning \"at/alongside the kidneys,\" is more commonly used in the United Kingdom; in the United States, \"norepinephrine,\" derived from Greek roots having that same meaning, is usually preferred. \"Norepinephrine\" is also the international nonproprietary name given to the drug. Regardless of which name is used for the substance itself, parts of the body that produce or are affected by it are referred to as noradrenergic.", "The Union Cycliste Internationale, commonly known by the acronym UCI, is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events. The UCI is based in Aigle, Switzerland.", "Peruvians are the citizens of the Republic of Peru or their descendants abroad. Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries, so people in Peru usually treat their nationality as a citizenship rather than an ethnicity. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; according to historian David N. Cook their population decreased from an estimated 59 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. During the Republic, there has been a gradual immigration of European people (specially from Spain and Italy, and in a less extent from France, the Balkans, Great Britain and Germany). Japanese and Chinese arrived in large numbers at the end of nineteenth century.", "Peru , officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.", "Mattia Gavazzi ( born 14 June 1983 ) is an Italian road cyclist , who rides as a member of the Danish cycling team Christina Watches - Dana . In April 2010 , Gavazzi was suspended by the Union Cycliste Internationale following a positive doping control for cocaine . He made his comeback in the Tour de San Luis in 2013 . He is a specialist sprinter .", "Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled, or injected into the veins. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.\nCocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk that dependence will occur. Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be very physically tired.\nCocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. It can easily cross the bloodbrain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the \"coca\" plant which are mostly grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally. It is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to 500 billion USD each year. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine.\nAfter cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013 cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990. The leaves of the \"coca\" plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime." ]
[]
WH_train_41
occupation margot mifflin
journalist
[ "activist", "advertising", "author", "cartoonist", "commercial", "composer", "computer", "entertainment", "essayist", "faculty", "fashion", "film critic", "general", "journalism", "journalist", "major", "multimedia", "music critic", "novelist", "platform", "poet", "public service", "rapping", "science", "student", "teacher", "television", "travel", "writer" ]
[ "James Lewis Hoberman (born March 14, 1949), also known as J. Hoberman, is an American film critic. He began at \"The Village Voice\" during the 1970s, became a full-time staff writer in 1983, and was the senior film critic from 1988 to 2012. He is also the author of several books.", "Time Inc. is an American mass media company founded on November 28, 1922 by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden and based in New York City. It owns and publishes over 100 magazine brands, most notably its flagship \"Time\". Other magazines include \"Sports Illustrated\", \"Travel + Leisure\", \"Food & Wine\", \"Fortune\", \"People\", \"InStyle\", \"Life\", \"Golf Magazine\", \"Southern Living\", \"Essence\", \"Real Simple\", and \"Entertainment Weekly\". It also owns the UK magazine house Time Inc. UK, whose major titles include \"What's on TV\", \"NME\", \"Country Life\", \"Wallpaper\" and \"InStyle\". Time Inc. also operates over 60 websites and digital-only titles including \"MyRecipes\", \"TheSnug\", HelloGiggles and \"MIMI\".", "A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles (listed below) about politics, sports, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. The journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print. The online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly. News magazines are also weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news. The news includes political events and personalities, business and finance, crime, weather, and natural disasters; health and medicine, science, and computers and technology; sports; and entertainment, society, food and cooking, clothing and home fashion, and the arts. ", "Popular culture or pop culture is the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society. The most common pop culture categories are: entertainment (movies, music, television, games), sports, news (as in people/places in news), politics, fashion/clothes, technology, and slang. Popular culture has a way of influencing an individual's attitudes towards certain topics.", "The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over a land area of just , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York City exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace defining the term \"New York minute\". Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.", "A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects.", "The Village Voice is an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly. Founded in 1955 by Dan Wolf, Ed Fancher and Norman Mailer, the \"Voice\" began as a platform for the creative community of New York City. Since its founding, \"The Village Voice\" has received three Pulitzer Prizes, the National Press Foundation Award and the George Polk Award. Among news sources, \"The Village Voice\" is known for its combination of in-depth news reporting and arts & culture coverage, with a particular focus on the arts communities of New York City. \"The Village Voice\" has hosted a broad variety of writers and artists, including writer Ezra Pound, cartoonist Lynda Barry, and art critics Robert Christgau and J. Hoberman. In addition to daily coverage through its website and a weekly print edition that circulates in New York City, the \"Voice\" issues a weekly digital edition of its magazine.", "Student affairs, student support, or student services is the department or division of services and support for students at institutions of higher education to enhance student growth and development in the United States and abroad. People who work in this field are known as student affairs practitioners or student affairs professionals. These student affairs practitioners work to provide services and support for students at institutions of higher education.", "Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, essayist, playwright, film-maker, actor, and political activist. His novel \"The Naked and the Dead\" was published in 1948. His best-known work was widely considered to be \"The Executioner's Song\", which was published in 1979, and for which he won one of his two Pulitzer Prizes. In addition to the Pulitzer Prize, his book \"Armies of the Night\" was awarded the National Book Award.", "Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence, which exist in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the \"color\" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek (\"mousike\"; \"art of the Muses\"). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as \"the harmony of the spheres\" and \"it is music to my ears\" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, \"There is no noise, only sound.\"", "The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 starting in 2017). The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.", "Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated as EW) is an American magazine, published by Time Inc., that covers film, television, music, Broadway theatre, books and popular culture.", "Margot Mifflin is an author who has written for The New York Times , ARTnews , Entertainment Weekly , The Chronicle of Higher Education , The Believer , The Village Voice , Elle Magazine and Salon.com . Mifflin holds an M.A. in journalism from New York University and a B.A. in English from Occidental College in Los Angeles , where she was friends with Barack Obama , an experience she has written about in her New York Times op - ed , `` The Occidental Tourist . '' She is a professor in the English Department of Lehman College ( City University of New York ) and co-director of the Arts and Culture program at CUNY 's Graduate School of Journalism . Her book Bodies of Subversion : A Secret History of Women and Tattoo , became the first history of women 's tattoo art when it was released in 1997 . A third edition was published in 2013 . She has lectured on tattoo history at colleges , universities and museums nationally , and appeared in the documentaries `` Women and Tattoo '' ( MSNBC , 2001 ) and `` Women of the Ink '' ( CNN , 1998 ) .", "Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black-and-white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. It can refer to a television set, a television program (\"TV show\"), or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium, for entertainment, education, news, and advertising.", "A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.", "Robert Thomas Christgau (born April 18, 1942) is an American essayist, music journalist, and self-proclaimed \"Dean of American Rock Critics\". One of the earliest professional rock critics, he spent 37 years as the chief music critic and senior editor for \"The Village Voice\", during which time he created the annual Pazz & Jop poll. He has also covered popular music for \"Esquire\", \"Creem\", \"Newsday\", \"Playboy\", \"Rolling Stone\", \"Billboard\", NPR, \"Blender\", and \"MSN Music\", and is a visiting arts teacher at New York University.", "The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators). A subscription is required to read some articles.", "Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885  1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision and economy of language. His best-known works include \"Ripostes\" (1912), \"Hugh Selwyn Mauberley\" (1920) and the unfinished 120-section epic, \"The Cantos\" (19171969).", "The National Press Foundation (NPF) is an American journalism organization focused on educational programs for journalists and issuing awards for accomplishment. All programs are free for accepted fellows with expenses covered; all awards carry cash awards. The National Press Foundation is affiliated with the Council of National Journalism Organizations.", "Lynda Barry (born Linda Jean Barry; January 2, 1956) is an American cartoonist and author.", "Broadway theatre, commonly known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world." ]
[]
WH_train_42
date_of_death james bramston
1744
[ "100", "14", "14 march 2014", "15", "1540", "1556", "1572", "16", "1610", "1632", "1637", "1668", "1688", "1703", "1704", "1710", "1744", "1748", "1788", "18 january 1882", "1812", "1868", "19", "1925", "1956", "1970", "20", "20 may 1970", "2014", "21", "23", "25", "25 july 1887", "264", "27", "28", "29", "30", "31 january 1956", "35", "4 february 1747", "52", "6 august 1637", "6 june 1832", "7", "8", "800", "960", "august 1637", "january 1882", "june 1832", "march 2004", "may 1970" ]
[ "John Locke (29 August 1632  28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the \"Father of Liberalism\". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.", "Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse, as well as for his translation of Homer. Famous for his use of the heroic couplet, he is the second-most frequently quoted writer in \"The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations\" after Shakespeare.", "Robert Hooke FRS (  3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.", "Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace (or ), was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian). The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his \"Odes\" as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: \"He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words.\"", "Westminster School is an English independent day and boarding school located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. It has the highest Oxford and Cambridge university acceptance rates of any secondary school or college in the world. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as AD 960, in line with the Abbey's history. The school's alumni include Ben Jonson, John Dryden, Robert Hooke, Sir Christopher Wren, Louis Theroux, John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, Edward Gibbon, Henry Mayhew, A. A. Milne, Peter Ustinov, Tony Benn and seven Prime Ministers. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the senior school at age thirteen; girls are admitted at age sixteen into the Sixth Form. The school has around 750 pupils; around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends, after Saturday morning school. It is one of the original nine British public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK.", "The Public Schools Act 1868 was enacted by the British Parliament to reform and regulate seven of the leading English boys' schools of the time, most of which had grown out of ancient charity schools for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were then, as they do today, also educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis.", "Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, \"The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire\", was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its open criticism of organised religion.", "Louis Sebastian Theroux (; born 20 May 1970) is a British-American documentary filmmaker, and broadcaster. He is best known for his documentary series, including \"Louis Theroux's Weird Weekends\", \"When Louis Met...\", and his BBC Two specials. His career started in journalism and bears influences of notable writers in his family, such as his father Paul Theroux and brother Marcel. He works with the BBC producing his documentaries and television series. He has received two British Academy Television Awards and a Royal Television Society Television Award for his work.", "Benjamin \"Ben\" Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic of the 17th century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours. He is best known for the satirical plays \"Every Man in His Humour\" (1598), \"Volpone, or The Fox\" (c. 1606), \"The Alchemist\" (1610) and \"Bartholomew Fair\" (1614) and for his lyric poetry; he is generally regarded as the second most important English playwright during the reign of James I after William Shakespeare.", "Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician who was a Member of Parliament (MP) for 47 years between the 1950 and 2001 general elections and a Cabinet minister in the Labour governments of Harold Wilson and James Callaghan in the 1960s and 1970s. Originally a \"moderate\", he was identified as being on the party's hard left from the early 1980s, and was widely seen as a key proponent of democratic socialism within the party.", "Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 [O.S. 4 February 1747] 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.", "Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England \"Royal Peculiar\"a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the original abbey church.", "Peter Ustinov (or ; 16 April 192128 March 2004), born Peter Alexander von Ustinov, was an English actor, writer, dramatist, filmmaker, theatre and opera director, stage designer, screenwriter, comedian, humorist, newspaper and magazine columnist, radio broadcaster, and television presenter. He was a fixture on television talk shows and lecture circuits for much of his career. A respected intellectual and diplomat, he held various academic posts and served as a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF and President of the World Federalist Movement.", "Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35 c. 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is usually referred to as Quintilian, although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are occasionally seen, the latter in older texts.", "James Bramston ( circa 1694 - 1743 ) , satirist , educated at Westminster School and Oxford , took orders and was later Vicar of Harting . His poems are The Art of Politics ( 1729 ) , in imitation of Horace , and The Man of Taste ( 1733 ) , in imitation of Alexander Pope . He also parodied Phillips 's Splendid Shilling in The Crooked Sixpence . His verses have some liveliness .", "Sir Christopher Wren PRS ( ) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.\nHe was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710.", "Augustus (23 September 63 BC 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.", "John Dryden ( ) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668. ", "Alan Alexander Milne (18 January 1882 31 January 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems. Milne was a noted writer, primarily as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work. Milne served in both World Wars, joining the British Army in World War I, and was a captain of the British Home Guard in World War II.", "Henry Mayhew (25 November 1812 25 July 1887) was an English social researcher, journalist, playwright and advocate of reform. He was one of the co-founders of the satirical and humorous magazine \"Punch\" in 1841, and was the magazine's joint-editor, with Mark Lemon, in its early days. He is also known for his work as a social researcher, publishing an extensive series of newspaper articles in the \"Morning Chronicle\" that was later compiled into the book series \"London Labour and the London Poor\" (1851), a groundbreaking and influential survey of the city's poor." ]
[]
WH_train_43
located_on_terrain_feature cinnamon bay
saint john
[ "atlantic ocean", "caribbean", "caribbean sea", "lesser antilles", "saint john", "saint thomas" ]
[ "Cinnamon Bay is a body of water and a beach on St. John island , within Virgin Islands National Park , in the United States Virgin Islands .", "The Virgin Islands National Park is a United States National Park, covering approximately 60% of the island of Saint John in the United States Virgin Islands, over 5,500 acres of adjacent ocean, plus nearly all of Hassel Island, just off the Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas harbor. It became the 29th U.S. national park in 1956.", "The Leeward Islands are a group of islands in the West Indies. In English, the term refers to the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles chain. As a group they start east of Puerto Rico and reach southward to Dominica. They are situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. The more southerly part of the Lesser Antilles chain are called the Windward Islands.", "The Lesser Antilles (also known as the Caribbees) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. Most form a long, partly volcanic island arc between the Greater Antilles to the north-west and the continent of South America. The islands form the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. Together, the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles compose the Antilles (or the Caribbean in its narrowest definition). When combined with the Lucayan Archipelago, all three are known as the West Indies.", "The Caribbean (or ) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.", "The United States Virgin Islands (U.S.V.I.; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, are a group of islands in the Caribbean that are an insular area of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles." ]
[]
WH_train_44
occupation james f. bell
astronomer
[ "academic", "accounting", "acting", "advocacy", "astronomer", "author", "chief executive officer", "communicator", "computer", "engineer", "executive officer", "explorer", "faculty", "founder", "model", "mountain", "peer", "physics", "pioneer", "president", "president and chief executive officer", "research", "science", "science communicator", "science fiction writer", "spokesperson", "television", "writer" ]
[ "The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASAs partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space.", "Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed \"Curiosity\", a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. The overall objectives include investigating Mars' habitability, studying its climate and geology, and collecting data for a manned mission to Mars. The rover carries a variety of scientific instruments designed by an international team.", "Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. The 2016 university ratings by \"U.S. News & World Report\" rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the second year in a row.", "Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; while the phenomena include supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole.", "Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those physical laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the development in 1915 of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s: first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains a huge number of external galaxies beyond our own Milky Way; then, work by Vesto Slipher and others showed that the universe is expanding. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed the establishment of the Big Bang Theory, by Georges Lemaitre, as the leading cosmological model. A few researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, most cosmologists agree that the Big Bang theory explains the observations better.", "Louis Dill Friedman (born July 7, 1941) is an American astronautics engineer and space spokesperson. He was born in New York and raised in the Bronx. Dr. Friedman was a co-founder of The Planetary Society with Carl Sagan and Bruce C. Murray.", "Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to as the \"Red Planet\" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.", "Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs 126,000 people worldwide. Marillyn Hewson is the current President and Chief Executive Officer.", "James ( Jim ) F. Bell III ( born 1965 ) is a Professor of Astronomy at Arizona State University , specializing in the study of planetary geology , geochemistry and mineralogy using data obtained from telescopes and from various spacecraft missions . Dr. Bell 's active research has involved the NASA Mars Pathfinder , Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous ( NEAR ) , Comet Nucleus Tour ( CONTOUR ) , 2001 Mars Odyssey , Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter , Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter , and the Mars Science Laboratory missions . His book Postcards from Mars includes many images taken by the Mars rovers . Dr. Bell is currently an editor of the space science journal Icarus and president of The Planetary Society . He has served as the lead scientist in charge of the Panoramic camera ( Pancam ) color imaging system on Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity .", "A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that\nThe term \"planet\" is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Several planets in the Solar System can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. Although eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain \"planets\" under the modern definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta (each an object in the solar asteroid belt), and Pluto (the first trans-Neptunian object discovered), that were once considered planets by the scientific community, are no longer viewed as such.", "The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in La Cañada Flintridge, California and Pasadena, California, United States.", "Physics (from , from \"phúsis\" \"nature\") is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves.", "The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.<ref name=\"doi10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040012\"></ref> It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.\nAbout three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.", "Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named \"Sojourner\", which became the first rover to operate outside \nthe Earth-Moon system.", "Arizona (O'odham: \"Al onak\" [ai onak]) is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western United States and the Mountain West states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, and Mexico, and one point in common with the southwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona's border with Mexico is 389 miles (626 km) long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California.", "A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to evolve gasses, a process called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. The coma may be up to 15 times the Earth's diameter, while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit. If sufficiently bright, a comet may be seen from the Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtend an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky. Comets have been observed and recorded since ancient times by many cultures.", "A robot is a machineespecially one programmable by a computercapable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look.", "The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.", "Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.", "Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words \"r\", which means \"air\", and \"nautik\" which means \"navigation\", i.e. \"navigation into the air\") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of \"aeronautical Art, Science and Engineering\" and \"the profession of Aeronautics (which expression includes Astronautics).\" ", "Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics). Aerospace organisations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft and/or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.", "The Planetary Society is an American internationally active non-governmental, nonprofit foundation. It is involved in research, public outreach, and political advocacy for engineering projects related to astronomy, planetary science, and space exploration. It was founded in 1980 by Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman, and has over 40,000 members from more than one hundred countries around the world.", "Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences. He is best known for his work as a science popularizer and communicator. His best known scientific contribution is research on extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation. Sagan assembled the first physical messages sent into space: the Pioneer plaque and the Voyager Golden Record, universal messages that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial intelligence that might find them. Sagan argued the now accepted hypothesis that the high surface temperatures of Venus can be attributed to and calculated using the greenhouse effect.", "In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating path around a body, although it may occasionally be used for a non recurring trajectory or a path around a point in space. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptical orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion.", "Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December 1917  19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.", "A research university is a university that expects all its tenured and tenure-track faculty to continuously engage in research, as opposed to merely requiring it as a condition of an initial appointment or tenure. Such universities can be recognized by their strong focus on innovative research and the prestige of their brand names. On the one hand, research universities strive to recruit faculty who are the most brilliant minds in their disciplines in the world, and their students enjoy the opportunity to learn from such experts. On the other hand, new students are often disappointed to realize their undergraduate courses at research universities are overly academic and fail to provide vocational training with immediate \"real world\" applications; but many employers value degrees from research universities because they know that such coursework develops fundamental skills like critical thinking. ", "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. The spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin under the supervision of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The mission is managed by the California Institute of Technology, at the JPL, in La Cañada Flintridge, California, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. It was launched August 12, 2005, and attained Martian orbit on March 10, 2006. In November 2006, after five months of aerobraking, it entered its final science orbit and began its primary science phase. As MRO entered orbit, it joined five other active spacecraft that were either in orbit or on the planet's surface: \"Mars Global Surveyor\", \"Mars Express\", \"2001 Mars Odyssey\", and the two Mars Exploration Rovers (\"Spirit\" and \"Opportunity\"); at the time, this set a record for the most operational spacecraft in the immediate vicinity of Mars. \"Mars Global Surveyor\" and the \"Spirit\" rover have since ceased to function; the remainder remain operational as of September 2016.", "A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and lower risk factors. In addition, some planetary destinations such as Venus or the vicinity of Jupiter are too hostile for human survival, given current technology. Outer planets such as Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are too distant to reach with current crewed spaceflight technology, so telerobotic probes are the only way to explore them.", "Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on observational and empirical evidence. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances.", "In physics, a wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through a medium (space or mass). Frequency refers to the addition of time. \"Wave motion\" transfers energy from one point to another, which displace particles of the transmission mediumthat is, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations (of a physical quantity), around almost fixed locations.", "2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. The project was developed by NASA, and contracted out to Lockheed Martin, with an expected cost for the entire mission of US$297 million. Its mission is to use spectrometers and a thermal imager to detect evidence of past or present water and ice, as well as study the planet's geology and radiation environment. It is hoped that the data Odyssey obtains will help answer the question of whether life has ever existed on Mars and create a risk-assessment of the radiation future astronauts on Mars might experience. It also acts as a relay for communications between the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Science Laboratory, and previously the Phoenix lander to Earth. The mission was named as a tribute to Arthur C. Clarke, evoking the name of \"\"." ]
[]
WH_train_45
occupation carole-marie allard
politician
[ "bank", "canada", "founder", "lawyer", "major", "minister", "ministry", "monarch", "mountain", "politician", "united kingdom" ]
[ "The Meech Lake Accord is the term for a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers. It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to symbolically endorse the 1982 constitutional amendments by providing for some decentralization of the Canadian federation.", "Quebec City (pronounced or ) officially Québec) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. In 2015 the city had a population estimate of 545,485, and the metropolitan area had a population of 806,400, making it Canada's seventh-largest metropolitan area and Quebec's second-largest city after Montreal, which is about to the southwest. ", "Vancouver, officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.", "Martin Brian Mulroney PC, CC, GOQ (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993. His tenure as prime minister was marked by the introduction of major economic reforms, such as the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the Goods and Services Tax, and the rejection of constitutional reforms such as the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord. Prior to his political career, he was a prominent lawyer and businessman in Montreal.", "The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was formed by Members of Parliament who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative Party and Liberal Party during the collapse of the Meech Lake Accord. Founder Lucien Bouchard was a cabinet minister in the federal Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney. ", "Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign. The term indicates that the minister serves \"at His/Her Majesty's pleasure\", and advises the monarch, or viceroy, on how to exercise the Crown prerogatives relative to the minister's department or ministry.", "Canada (French: ) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest city is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.", "Carole - Marie Allard ( born September 6 , 1949 ) was a Liberal member of Canada 's House of Commons . She was in the House of Commons from 2000 to 2004 and represented the riding of Laval East . She was Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Canadian Heritage , and a member of the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights and the Vice-Chair of the Special Committee on Non-medical use of drugs . She lost the 2004 election to Robert Carrier of the Bloc Québécois in the riding of Alfred - Pellan . She is a lawyer , former press attaché , former designer , organizer and presenter of media management training programs , a former spokesperson for a corporation , and she is a former journalist , writer and producer . She is the stepmother of Mélanie Joly who is a member of the House of Commons of Canada representing Ahuntsic - Cartierville and also serves as the Minister of Canadian Heritage in the government of Justin Trudeau .", "Montreal officially Montréal in both Canadian English and French, is the most populous municipality in Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada. Originally called \"Ville-Marie\", or \"City of Mary,\" it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold snowy winters.", "Lucien Bouchard, (born December 22, 1938) is a French Canadian lawyer, diplomat, politician and former Minister of the Environment of the Canadian Federal Government. He was the founder of the Bloc Québécois, Leader of the Opposition in the Canadian House of Commons from 1993 to 1996, and the 27th Premier of Quebec from January 29, 1996, to March 8, 2001. He became a central figure for the \"Yes\" side in the 1995 Quebec referendum.", "Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers.", "The Department of Canadian Heritage, or simply Canadian Heritage, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for policies and programs regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, official languages, status of women, sports, and multiculturalism.", "Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois people are an independent nation, separate from the rest of Canada, and promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.", "The Minister of Canadian Heritage is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who heads the Department of Canadian Heritage, the federal government department responsible for culture, media, sports, and the arts in Canada.", "FOREST (short for \"Freedom Organisation for the Right to Enjoy Smoking Tobacco\") is a United Kingdom political pressure group which campaigns against tobacco control activity.", "In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term \"tundra\" comes through Russian (\"tûndra\") from the Kildin Sami word \"tndâr\" \"uplands\", \"treeless mountain tract\". There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.", "Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. In the 2011 census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 and a metropolitan population of 1,214,839, making it the largest city in Alberta, and the third-largest municipality and fifth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada.", "Toronto is the most populous city in Canada, the provincial capital of Ontario, and the centre of the Greater Toronto Area, the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. Growing in population, the 2011 census recorded a population of 2,615,060. As of 2015, the population is now estimated at 2,826,498, making Toronto the fourth-largest city in North America based on the population within its city limits. Toronto trails only Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles by this measure, while it is the fifth-largest (behind also Chicago) if ranked by the size of its metropolitan area . An established global city, Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and widely recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.", "Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; the two form the core of the OttawaGatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). The 2011 census reported a population of 883,391, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada; and 1,236,324 within the CMA, making it the fourth-largest CMA in Canada. The City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015.", "The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada which all lie further to the west." ]
[]
WH_train_46
place_of_death joe stydahar
beckley
[ "alabama", "allegheny", "beckley", "cairo", "california", "canada", "central", "charleston", "chicago", "cleveland", "columbus", "delaware", "great lakes", "home", "ireland", "jersey", "kentucky", "keyser", "los angeles", "march", "maryland", "mississippi", "mississippi river", "missouri", "montgomery", "montgomery , west virginia", "morgantown", "most", "newfoundland", "north america", "ohio", "ontario", "parish", "pennsylvania", "philadelphia", "pittsburgh", "port", "potomac", "puerto rico", "roman", "state college", "thebes", "united states of america", "valley", "west virginia", "york" ]
[ "American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada, and also known as gridiron, is a sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team with control of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the team without control of the ball, the defense, aims to stop their advance and take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team; if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.", "West Virginia University Institute of Technology is a four-year college currently transitioning from Montgomery, West Virginia, to Beckley, West Virginia United States. It is the largest regional campus of West Virginia University and is governed by the WVU Board of Governors. Locals generally call the school WVU Tech, West Virginia Tech, or simply Tech. The new Beckley campus is also called \"WVU Beckley\" but this name is unofficial.", "Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. The Combined Statistical Area (CSA) population of 2,659,937 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania after Philadelphia and the 20th-largest in the U.S. Located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, which form the Ohio River, Pittsburgh is known as both \"the Steel City\" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses, and as the \"City of Bridges\" for its 446 bridges. The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclines, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest. The mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Virginia, Whiskey Rebels, and Civil War raiders.", "West Virginia University (WVU) is a public, land-grant, space-grant, research-intensive university in Morgantown, West Virginia, United States. Its other campuses include the West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery and Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a second clinical campus for the University's medical and dental schools at Charleston Area Medical Center in Charleston. WVU Extension Service provides outreach with offices in all of West Virginia's 55 counties. Since 2001, WVU has been governed by the West Virginia University Board of Governors.", "West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north (and, slightly, east), and Maryland to the northeast. West Virginia is the 41st largest by area, the 38th most populous, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston.", "St. Louis is an independent city and major U.S. port in the State of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, on the border with Illinois. The city has an estimated 2015 population of 315,685, and is the cultural and economic center of the Greater St. Louis area (home to 2,916,447 people), making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri and the 19th-largest in the United States.", "Potomac State College of West Virginia University is a two-year junior college affiliated as a division of West Virginia University. West Virginia's only residential junior college, it is located in Keyser, approximately away from WVU's main campus in Morgantown, West Virginia. Potomac State acts largely as a feeder for the WVU main campus, granting associate's degrees while allowing other students to begin the first two years of their college studies before transferring to the main campus.", "The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL), the highest level of professional American football in the world. The game is the culmination to a season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Normally, Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 15, 1967, following the 1966 regular season. The single exception to this rule is Super Bowl 50, which was played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season. The next game, Super Bowl LI, scheduled for February 5, 2017, will follow the 2016 regular season.", "Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location on the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, and biomedical. Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.", "The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) North division. The Bears have won nine NFL Championships and one Super Bowl and hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the most retired jersey numbers. The Bears have also recorded more regular season and overall victories than any other NFL franchise.", "Charleston Area Medical Center (CAMC) is the name of a complex of hospitals in Charleston, West Virginia, formed via a merger of previously independent facilities. It is the state's largest hospital.", "The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. At the confluence, the Ohio is considerably bigger than the Mississippi (Ohio at Cairo: 281,500 cu ft/s (7,960 m/s); Mississippi at Thebes: 208,200 cu ft/s (5,897 m/s)) and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream.", "A U.S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody).", "Joseph Lee `` Jumbo Joe '' Stydahar ( born Joseph Lee Stajduhar ; March 17 , 1912 -- March 23 , 1977 ) was an American football tackle for the Chicago Bears from 1936 to 1942 and 1945 to 1946 and is a member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame . He was born and raised about 70 miles ( 110 km ) east of Pittsburgh in the small mining community of Kaylor , Pennsylvania in Armstrong County , Pennsylvania . Stydahar attended West Virginia University , and was the head coach of the Los Angeles Rams during the 1950 and 1951 seasons , and the Chicago Cardinals during 1953 and 1954 . Stydahar died on March 23 , 1977 . Stydahar was the first player drafted by George Halas 's Chicago Bears ; he was the sixth overall pick in the 1936 NFL draft , the first ever NFL draft .", "Ohio is an Eastern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.", "A combined statistical area (CSA) is composed of adjacent metropolitan (MSA) and micropolitan statistical areas (µSA) in the United States and Puerto Rico that can demonstrate economic or social linkage. The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a CSA as consisting of various combinations of adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan areas with economic ties measured by commuting patterns. These areas that combine retain their own designations as metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas within the larger combined statistical area.", "The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 18th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States. It is entirely located in the southern portion of the U.S. State of California.", "The Allegheny Mountain Range also spelled Alleghany, Allegany and, informally, the Allegheniesis part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada where it posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. It is a barrier range that has a northeastsouthwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles (640 km) from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia.", "The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies which became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.", "The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team based in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Rams compete in the National Football League (NFL), as a member club of the National Football Conference (NFC) West division. The Rams franchise has won three NFL championships, and is the only franchise to win championships while representing three different cities (Cleveland in 1945, Los Angeles in 1951, and St. Louis in 1999).", "Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle (Newfoundland and Labrador) in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in Alabama, the cultural region of Appalachia typically refers only to the central and southern portions of the range. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to approximately 25 million people.", "Morgantown is a city in and the county seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia. Situated along the banks of the Monongahela River, Morgantown is the largest city in North-Central West Virginia, and the base of the Morgantown, West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. It has a permanent population of 29,660 per the 2010 census, with West Virginia University adding several thousand seasonal residents to the city and surrounding area from September through May. Morgantown is best known as the home of West Virginia University and the Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit system.", "A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Canada, Romania, China and Taiwan. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function.", "Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: \"Pennsylvaani\"), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The commonwealth borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.", "Armstrong County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 68,941. The county seat is Kittanning. The county was organized on March 12, 1800, from parts of Allegheny, Westmoreland and Lycoming Counties. It was named in honor of John Armstrong, who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress and served as a major general during the Revolutionary War.", "The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference (four division winners and two wild card teams) advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, played between the champions of the NFC and AFC.", "Point State Park (locally known as The Point) is a Pennsylvania state park on in Downtown Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, forming the Ohio River.", "Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the fifth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,442 and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, . Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valleya region located in the Northeastern United States at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers with 7.2 million people residing in the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States." ]
[]
WH_train_47
publication_date sailors
1927
[ "14", "1588", "16", "18", "1849", "1890", "1892", "1914", "1927", "1951", "1957", "23", "24", "25", "february 1965" ]
[ "A short film is any film not long enough to be considered a feature film. Although no consensus exists as to where that boundary is drawn, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as \"an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits\". The term featurette originally applied to a film longer than a short subject, but shorter than a standard feature film.", "Herman Northrop Frye (July 14, 1912 January 23, 1991) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century.", "Laurel and Hardy were a comedy double act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema. The team was composed of thin Englishman Stan Laurel (18901965) and heavyset American Oliver Hardy (18921957). They became well known during the late 1920s through the mid-1940s for their slapstick comedy, with Laurel playing the clumsy and childlike friend of the pompous Hardy. The duo's signature tune is known variously as \"The Cuckoo Song\", \"Ku-Ku\", or \"The Dance of the Cuckoos\". It was played over the opening credits of their films and has become as emblematic of the duo as their bowler hats.", "The desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people or the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem is called public opinion. \nThe English term \"public opinion\" dates back to the seventeenth century work by John Locke, \"An Essay Concerning Human Understanding\", which contains an early consideration of the importance of public opinion in the ordering of politics. The term was derived from the French word \"l'opinion\", which was first used in 1588 by Michel de Montaigne.", "The bowler hat, also known as a bob hat, bombín or derby (USA), is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown, created originally during 1849. The bowler, a protective and durable hat style, was popular with the British and American working classes during the remaining 19th century, and later with the middle and upper classes in the United Kingdom and the eastern United States.", "Oliver Norvell \"Babe\" Hardy (born Norvell Hardy; January 18, 1892 August 7, 1957) was an American comic actor famous as one-half of Laurel and Hardy, the classic double act that began in the era of silent films and lasted 25 years, from 1927 to 1951. He appeared with his comedy partner Stan Laurel in 107 short films, feature films, and cameo roles. He was credited with his first film, \"Outwitting Dad\", in 1914. In some of his early works, he was billed as \"Babe Hardy\", using his nickname.", "Featurette is a term used in the American film industry to designate a film usually of three reels in length, or about 2440 minutes in running time, thus longer than a two-reel short subject but shorter than a feature film. Hence, it is a \"small feature\" (the ending \"-ette\" is a common diminutive suffix derived from French). The term was commonly used from before the start of the sound era into the 1960s, when films of such length as the Hal Roach's Streamlinersand several French films of that lengthceased being made, or were made as experimental or art films and subsumed under the more general rubric of short. Its use outside the USA is unknown, although it was as commonly applied to foreign imports as to domestic productions within that country.", "In a modern sense, comedy (from the , \"kmidía\") refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, and stand-up comedy. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a \"Society of Youth\" and a \"Society of the Old\". A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.", "Outwitting Dad is a 1914 American comedy film that features Oliver Hardy's first onscreen appearance.", "Sailors , Beware ! is a silent comedy short film starring Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy prior to their official billing as the duo Laurel and Hardy . The team appeared in a total of 107 films between 1921 and 1951 .", "Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson; 16 June 1890 23 February 1965) was an English comic actor, writer, and film director, most famous for his role in the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy. He appeared with his comedy partner Oliver Hardy in 107 short films, feature films, and cameo roles. " ]
[]
WH_train_48
country_of_origin tobi
spain
[ "argentina", "greece", "mediterranean sea", "moscow", "roman empire", "spain", "united kingdom" ]
[ "Tobi ( or Tobi el niño con alas ) is a 1978 Spanish comedy written by Horacio Varcarcel and Antonio Mercero . Directed by Antonio Mercero , it stars Lolo Garcia , Francisco Vidal , Norma Aleandro , Antonio Ferrandis and Walter Vidarte . In the film a young boy , Tobi , grows wings on his back which give him the appearance of an angel . This phenomenon draws attention to his community , which includes doctors , scientists and schoolmates . After Tobi 's wings are surgically removed , they grow back .", "Agon (Classical Greek ) is an ancient Greek term for a struggle or contest. This could be a contest in athletics, in chariot or horse racing, or in music or literature at a public festival in ancient Greece.", "Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.", "Cama adentro is a 2004 Argentine-Spanish drama historical film written and directed by Jorge Gaggero. In Spain it is also known as Señora Beba. It was executive produced by Aqua Films' Verónica Cura. It stars Norma Aleandro, Norma Argentina and Marcos Mundstock.", "In a modern sense, comedy (from the , \"kmidía\") refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, and stand-up comedy. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a \"Society of Youth\" and a \"Society of the Old\". A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.", "A Time for Defiance (literally \"The Hour of the Brave\") is a 1998 Spanish war drama film directed by Antonio Mercero about the Spanish Civil War. Adriana Ozores won a Goya Award as Best Supporting Actress. It was also entered into the 21st Moscow International Film Festival where it won the Special Silver St. George.", "The Official Story is a 1985 Argentine drama historical film directed by Luis Puenzo and written by Puenzo and Aída Bortnik. It stars Norma Aleandro, Héctor Alterio, Chunchuna Villafañe and Hugo Arana. In the United Kingdom, it was released as \"The Official Version\".", "Antonio Mercero (born 7 March 1936) is a Spanish director of the series Verano azul and later Farmacia de guardia. He is best known as the director of a 1972 surrealist short horror film titled \"La cabina\", that won an Emmy Award. His 1998 film \"A Time for Defiance\" was entered into the 21st Moscow International Film Festival where it won the Special Silver St. George. In 2010 he was awarded a Honorary Goya Award (Goya de Honor).", "Norma Aleandro Robledo (born May 2, 1936) is an Argentine actress, screenwriter and theatre director. Recognised as a local film icon, Aleandro starred in the Oscar-winning 1985 film, \"The Official Story\", a role that earned her the Cannes Award for best actress. She has also performed in other successful films like \"The Truce\" (1974), \"Cousins\" (1989), \"Autumn Sun\" (1996), \"The Lighthouse\" (1998), \"Son of the Bride\" (2001) and \"Cama Adentro\" (2005). For her performance as Florencia Sánchez Morales in the 1987 film \"\", she received a Golden Globe nomination and a Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress." ]
[]
WH_train_49
place_of_birth magnus johansson
gothenburg
[ "central", "gothenburg", "of", "sweden", "örgryte" ]
[ "Ullevi, sometimes known as Nya Ullevi (\"New Ullevi\"), is a multi-purpose stadium in Gothenburg, Sweden. It was built for the 1958 FIFA World Cup, but since then Ullevi has also hosted the World Allround Speed Skating Championships six times, the 1995 World Championships in Athletics and the 2006 European Athletics Championships, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup finals in 1983 and 1990, the UEFA Euro 1992 final, the UEFA Cup final in 2004, and annually hosted the opening ceremony of the Gothia Cupthe world's largest football tournament in terms of the number of participants. IFK Göteborg has also played two UEFA Cup finals at the stadium, in 1982 and 1987, but then as \"home game\" in a home and away final. The stadium hosted several events, like football, ice hockey, boxing, racing, athletics and concerts.", "Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna (English: Sporting Society Comrades), usually abbreviated IFK, is a central organisation for a large number of sports clubs in Sweden. There are also eight IFK clubs in Finland but they are organised separately. It was founded 1 February 1895 and has 164 member clubs with around 100,000 members as of 2004.", "Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Göteborg, commonly known as IFK Göteborg or simply Göteborg, is a Swedish professional football club based in Gothenburg. Founded on 4 October 1904, it is the only club in the Nordic countries that has won a pan-European competition, as the club won the UEFA Cup in 1982 and 1987. IFK is affiliated with Göteborgs Fotbollförbund and play all their home games at Gamla Ullevi since the start of the 2009 season. The club colours are blue and white, colours shared both with the sports societyIdrottsföreningen Kamraternawhich the club originated from, and with the home town of Gothenburg.", "Magnus `` Lill - Tidan '' Johansson ( born October 5 , 1964 ) is a Swedish football coach and former footballer that played for IFK Göteborg , Brann and Västra Frölunda .", "Gamla Ullevi is a football stadium in Gothenburg, Sweden, that opened on 5 April 2009. The stadium replaced the city's previous main football stadium, also called Gamla Ullevi, and is the home ground of GAIS, IFK Göteborg and Örgryte IS. It is also the national stadium for the Sweden women's national football team. The new stadium was built on the ground of the now-demolished old stadium. The construction of the stadium was surrounded by controversy, regarding the cost of the project, the supposedly low standard of the finished stadium, as well as the name of the stadium.", "Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated by the Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, the city has a population of approximately 550,000 in the urban area and 990,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area." ]
[]
WH_train_50
instance_of uss vixen
steamship
[ "air force", "airbase", "aircraft", "armed forces", "army", "boat", "body of water", "cabinet", "capital", "class", "coast guard", "code", "collection", "combat", "combustion", "corps", "cost", "council", "deck", "definition", "designation", "direction", "environment", "fighter", "fleet", "fluid", "history", "identity", "machine", "military", "motion", "naval warfare", "navy", "operation", "paddle", "principal", "range", "result", "sea", "security", "service", "seven", "ship", "size", "steamboat", "steamship", "ten", "three", "time", "tradition", "two", "war", "warship" ]
[ "A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, plane, work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found on inland waterways (e.g., rivers and lakes) or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel (a ship). Another less restrictive definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water. Some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats. For reasons of naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as 'boats' rather than 'ships', regardless of their size and shape. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on their larger size, shape and cargo or passenger capacity. ", "An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.", "An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Aircraft carriers are expensive to build and are critical assets. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighter planes, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. ", "Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.", "A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by either or both Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law. A marine propeller of this type is sometimes colloquially known as a screw propeller or screw, however there is a different class of propellers known as cycloidal propellers - they are characterized by the higher propulsive efficiency averaging 0.72 compared to the screw propellers average of 0.6 and the ability to throw thrust in any direction at any time. Their disadvantages are higher mechanical complexity and higher cost.", "A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S.S. or S/S (for 'Screw Steamer') or PS (for 'Paddle Steamer'), however these designations are most often used for Steamships.", "The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The President of the United States is the military's overall head, and helps form military policy with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out.\nFrom the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force. It played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U.S. military framework; the Act merged previously Cabinet-level Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (renamed the Department of Defense in 1949), headed by the Secretary of Defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and National Security Council.", "The United States of America has seven federal uniformed services that commission officers as defined by Title 10, and subsequently structured and organized by Title 10, Title 14, Title 32 and Title 42 of the United States Code.", "A reserve fleet is a collection of naval vessels of all types that are fully equipped for service but are not currently needed, and thus partially or fully decommissioned. A reserve fleet is informally said to be \"in mothballs\" or \"mothballed\"; an equivalent expression in unofficial modern U.S. naval usage is \"ghost fleet\". In earlier times, and especially in British usage, these ships were said to be \"laid up in ordinary\".", "A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is an ocean faring seaworthy vessel that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically drive (turn) propellers or paddlewheels. The first steamships came into practical usage during the early 1800s; however, there were exceptions that came before. Steamships usually use the prefix designations of \"PS\" for \"paddle steamer\" or \"SS\" for \"screw steamer\" (using a propeller or screw). As paddle steamers became less common, \"SS\" is assumed by many to stand for \"steam ship\". Ships powered by internal combustion engines use a prefix such as \"MV\" for \"motor vessel\", so it is not correct to use \"SS\" for most modern vessels.", "The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage. The U.S. Navy has the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on active duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 aircraft in active service .", "The third USS Vixen was a steamboat in the United States Navy during the Mexican - American War ." ]
[]
WH_train_51
educated_at john auer
johns hopkins university
[ "johns hopkins university", "medicine", "new york", "university school" ]
[ "Rochester (or ) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in the western portion of the U.S. state of New York, and the seat of Monroe County.", "The Johns Hopkins University (commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequestof which half financed the establishment of The Johns Hopkins Hospitalwas the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States at that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States.", "John Auer ( March 30 , 1875 , Rochester , New York -- 1948 ) was an American physiologist and pharmacologist . He was a graduate of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine ( 1902 ) , and was son - in - law to physiologist Samuel James Meltzer ( 1851 -- 1920 ) , with whom he closely worked at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research . The eponymous Auer rods are named after him , defined as rod - shaped inclusions in the cytoplasm of myeloblasts , myelocytes and monoblasts . These were described by Auer in a 21 - year - old patient suffering from a nosebleed and a sore throat . He performed a number of studies with his father - in - law involving the correlation between bronchial asthma and foreign substances , and also with Meltzer , he investigated the effects of magnesium on tetany . The term `` Auer 's phenomena '' is named for allergic inflammations caused by exposure to xylene , about which he first described in experimentation on laboratory rabbits . He is credited with ventilation of the lungs with anaesthesia during open thorax surgery . His technique of intra-tracheal intubation is used to give continuous respiration to patients without respiratory lung movement . He also gave the first account on the physiological occurrences associated with anaphylaxis ; his research involving experiments with guinea pigs .", "The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., is the academic medical teaching and research arm of Johns Hopkins University. Johns Hopkins has consistently been among the nation's top medical schools in the number of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. Its major teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the #1 hospital in the United States for 22 years by \"U.S. News & World Report\".", "The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore City, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Hospital and the school of medicine are the founding institutions of modern American medicine and the birthplace of numerous medical traditions including rounds, residents and housestaff. Many medical specialties were formed at the hospital including neurosurgery, by Harvey Cushing; cardiac surgery by Alfred Blalock; and pediatrics and child psychiatry, by Leo Kanner.", "Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot (Huron) language, \"ontarío\" means Lake of Shining Waters. Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River." ]
[]
WH_train_52
production_company 100 mexicanos dijeron
fremantlemedia
[ "cbs", "fremantlemedia", "nbc" ]
[ "100 mexicanos dijeron ( Spanish for A hundred Mexicans said ) is a Mexican version of the Goodson - Todman game show from the 1970s , Family Feud , produced in Mexico City by the Canal de las Estrellas . Its host was Marco Antonio Regil from 2001 to 2006 and is currently hosted by `` El Vítor '' ( Adrian Uribe ) since 2009 . The program is also seen in the United States on the Telefutura television network . On June 12 , 2006 , the show changed its location ( from Mexico City to Miami , USA ) , its name to ¿ Qué dice la gente ? , the survey group from only Mexicans to Latin Americans , and contestants to Spanish speakers in the United States . Everything else remains unchanged . Since 2013 , the show was later remade as 100 Latinos Dijeron ( Spanish for A hundred Latins said ) for MundoFox ( later MundoMax since 2015 ) .", "Marco Antonio Regil (born December 27, 1969) is a television personality, public speaker and activist. As the host of the Spanish versions of Family Feud, The Price is Right, and Mexicos hit show, Generation Gap (Recuerda y Gana), Regil is a constant fixture in Latin households.", "Richard Dawson (born Colin Lionel Emm; 20 November 1932 2 June 2012) was a British-American actor and comedian, and a game show host and panelist in the United States. Dawson was well known for playing Corporal Peter Newkirk on \"Hogan's Heroes\", being the original host of the \"Family Feud\" game show from 197685, and from 199495, and a regular panelist on the 1970s version of \"Match Game\" on CBS from 197378. In 1984, he became an American citizen while retaining his British citizenship.", "Match Game is an American television panel game show that premiered on NBC in 1962 and was revived several times over the course of the next few decades. The game featured contestants trying to come up with answers to fill-in-the-blank questions, with the object being to match answers given by celebrity panelists.", "Family Feud is an American television game show created by Mark Goodson where two families compete to name the most popular responses to survey questions in order to win cash and prizes. It is considered a spin-off of \"Match Game\", whose panel included original host Richard Dawson.", "The Price Is Right is a television game show franchise originally produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, and created by Bob Stewart, and is currently produced and owned by FremantleMedia (Endemol in Netherlands). The franchise centers on television game shows, but also includes merchandise such as video games, printed media and board games. The franchise began in 1956 as a television game show hosted by Bill Cullen and was revamped in 1972. This version was originally hosted by Bob Barker. Since 2007, Drew Carey has hosted the program." ]
[]
WH_train_53
located_in_the_administrative_territorial_entity fanefjord church
vordingborg municipality
[ "atlantic ocean", "centre", "denmark", "earth", "east", "england", "estonia", "europe", "finland", "flint", "gdańsk", "gulf", "helsingborg", "helsinki", "livonia", "most", "north", "northern", "northwest", "norway", "of", "petersburg", "plain", "pomeranian voivodeship", "riga", "river", "rock", "saint petersburg", "salt", "scandinavia", "scania", "seen", "south", "southern region", "sweden", "vordingborg municipality", "west" ]
[ "The North European Plain (or ), or Middle European Plain is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France.", "Zealand is the largest (7,031 km) and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659 (39% of Denmark's total as of January 2016).", "The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.", "Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint (a type of chert unique to chalk) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is often deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified (i.e. replaced molecule by molecule by flint).", "Møn is an island in south-eastern Denmark. Until 1 January 2007, it was a municipality in its own right but it is now part of the municipality of Vordingborg, after merging with the former municipalities of Langebæk, Præstø, and Vordingborg. This has created a municipality with an area of and a total population of 46,307 (2005). It belongs to the Region Sjælland (\"Zealand Region\"). Møn is one of Denmark's most popular destinations for tourists with its white chalk cliffs, countryside, sandy beaches and the market town of Stege.", "A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, \"the sea\" is the interconnected system of Earth's salty, oceanic watersconsidered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic divisions. The sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory, the modern scientific study of the seaoceanographydates broadly to the British \"Challenger\" expedition of the 1870s. The sea is conventionally divided into up to five large oceanic sectionsincluding the International Hydrographic Organization's four named oceans (the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic) and the Southern Ocean; smaller, second-order sections, such as the Mediterranean, are known as \"seas\".", "The Gulf of Bothnia is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It is situated between Finland's west coast and Sweden's east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland Islands, between the Sea of Åland and the Archipelago Sea.", "Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which also includes Scandinavia. Finland's population is 5.5 million (2014), staying roughly on the same level over the past two decades. The majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union.", "Præstø is a town with a population of 3,821 (1 January 2015) and a former municipality (Danish, \"kommune\") in Vordingborg Municipality in Region Sjælland on the east coast of the island of Zealand (\"Sjælland\") near its southwestern tip in south Denmark. The former Præstø municipality included the islands of \"Maderne\", \"Storeholm\", and \"Lilleholm\" which lie in Præstø Fjord. The former municipality covered an area of 107 km², and had a total population of 7,608 (2005). Its last mayor was Ole Møller Madsen, a member of the Venstre (Liberal Party) political party.", "Gdask (German: ) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. It is the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland's principal seaport and is also the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.", "Longitude (or , Australian and British also ), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (). Meridians (lines running from the North Pole to the South Pole) connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of zero degrees longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and 180° westward. Specifically, it is the angle between a plane containing the Prime Meridian and a plane containing the North Pole, South Pole and the location in question. (This forms a right-handed coordinate system with the axis (right hand thumb) pointing from the Earth's center toward the North Pole and the axis (right hand index finger) extending from Earth's center through the equator at the Prime Meridian.)", "Scandinavia is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.", "The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg (including Primorsk). As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf.", "The Kattegat or Kattegatt is a sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east. The Baltic Sea drains into the Kattegat through the Danish Straits. The sea area is a continuation of the Skagerrak and may be seen as a bay of the Baltic Sea or the North Sea or, as in traditional Scandinavian usage, neither of these.", "Fanefjord Church , is a church on the Danish island of Møn . It is located in an open setting overlooking the Baltic Sea inlet of Fanefjord between Store Damme and Hårbølle . Standing majestically on the top of a small hill , the church 's red - tiled roof and whitewashed walls can be seen from considerable distances , whatever the direction . The interior is of particular historical interest , in view of the many frescos dating back to the 13th and 16th centuries and Fanefjord Church is considered the most famous attraction on Møn .", "The Great Belt,, is a strait between the major islands of Zealand (\"Sjælland\") and Funen (\"Fyn\") in Denmark. It is one of the three Danish Straits.", "Øresund or Öresund is a strait which forms the DanishSwedish border,\nseparating Sjælland (Denmark) from Skåne (Sweden). \nThe strait has a length of and the width varies from to . It is wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden. ", "The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about . It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the \"Old World\" from the \"New World\".", "The Baltic Sea ( ; ) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the Bay of Gdask. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt.", "In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the northsouth position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run eastwest as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth.\nApproximations employed.\nTwo levels of abstraction are employed in the definition of these coordinates. In the first step the physical surface is modelled by the geoid, a surface which approximates the mean sea level over the oceans and its continuation under the land masses. The second step is to approximate the geoid by a mathematically simpler reference surface. The simplest choice for the reference surface is a sphere, but the geoid is more accurately modelled by an ellipsoid. The definitions of latitude and longitude on such reference surfaces are detailed in the following sections. Lines of constant latitude and longitude together constitute a graticule on the reference surface. The latitude of a point on the \"actual\" surface is that of the corresponding point on the reference surface, the correspondence being along the normal to the reference surface which passes through the point on the physical surface. Latitude and longitude together with some specification of height constitute a geographic coordinate system as defined in the specification of the ISO 19111 standard.", "Langebæk is a town with a population of 242 (1 January 2015) and a former municipality (Danish, \"kommune\") in Region Sjælland on the southeastern tip of the island of Zealand (\"Sjælland\") in south Denmark. The municipality included the islands of Langø, Tærø and Lilleø, and it covered an area of 101 km². It had a total population of 6,332 (2005). Its last mayor was Henrik Holmer, a member of the Social Democrats (\"Socialdemokraterne\") political party.", "Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is HO, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, that are connected by covalent bonds. Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity.", "The Little Belt is a strait between the island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark. It is one of the three Danish Straits that drain and connect the Baltic Sea to the Kattegat strait, which drains west to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean.", "Riga is the capital and the largest city of Latvia. With 696,593 inhabitants (2015), Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states and home to one third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Riga's territory covers and lies between above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain." ]
[]
WH_train_54
publisher fable ii
microsoft studios
[ "22cans", "box", "century", "electronic arts", "english", "europe", "harmony", "ibm", "illusion", "lionhead studios", "microsoft", "microsoft studios", "microsoft windows", "nintendo", "samsung", "sony", "sony computer entertainment" ]
[ "Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence, which exist in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the \"color\" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek (\"mousike\"; \"art of the Muses\"). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as \"the harmony of the spheres\" and \"it is music to my ears\" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, \"There is no noise, only sound.\"", "Redmond is a city in King County, Washington, United States, located east of Seattle, within the Seattle metropolitan area. The population is 60,560 in 2016, an increase from the 2010 census, up from 45,256 in 2000 census. Redmond is commonly recognized as the home of Microsoft and Nintendo of America. With an annual bike race on city streets and the state's only velodrome, Redmond is also known as the \"Bicycle Capital of the Northwest\".", "Peter Douglas Molyneux, OBE (born 5 May 1959) is an English video game designer and programmer. He created the god games \"Populous\", \"Dungeon Keeper\" and \"Black & White\" as well as \"Theme Park\", the \"Fable\" series and \"Curiosity What's Inside the Cube?\" His new studio 22Cans currently works on \"Godus\" and the brand new hiking resource-gathering game, The Trail-A Frontier.", "Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a discontinued series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows.", "Microsoft Corporation (commonly referred to as Microsoft or MS) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, Microsoft Office office suite, and Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup. As of 2016, it was the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies.", "Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo then developed into a video game company in the 1970s, ultimately becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most-valuable company with a market value of over $85 billion. From 1992 until 2016, Nintendo was also the majority shareholder of Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners.", "A sequel is a narrative, documental, or other work of literature, film, theatre, television, music, or video game that continues the story of, or expands upon, some earlier work. In the common context of a narrative work of fiction, a sequel portrays events set in the same fictional universe as an earlier work, usually chronologically following the events of that work.", "Lionhead Studios Ltd. was a British video game developer, formerly led by Peter Molyneux. It was acquired by Microsoft Studios in April 2006. Lionhead started as a breakaway from developer Bullfrog Productions, which was also founded by Molyneux. Lionhead's first game was \"Black & White\", a god game with elements of artificial life and strategy games. \"Black & White\" was published by Electronic Arts in 2001. Lionhead Studios is named after Mark Webley's hamster, which died not long after the naming of the studio.", "The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others. , the Wii leads its generation over PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold; in December 2009, the console broke the sales record for a single month in the United States.", "The original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000. The PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history.", "Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic or digital equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment (flatscreen TVs, DVD players, DVD movies, iPods, video games, remote control cars, etc.), communications (telephones, cell phones, e-mail-capable laptops, etc.), and home-office activities (e.g., desktop computers, printers, paper shredders, etc.). In British English, they are often called brown goods by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from \"white goods\" such as washing machines and refrigerators. In the 2010s, this distinction is not always present in large big box consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy, which sell both entertainment, communications, and home office devices and kitchen appliances such as refrigerators. Consumer electronics stores differ from professional audio stores in that the former sells consumer-grade electronics for private use, whereas the latter sells professional-grade electronics designed for use by audio engineers and audio technicians.", "Microsoft Studios is the video game production wing for Microsoft, responsible for the development and publishing of games for the Xbox, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Games for Windows, Steam, Windows Store, and Windows Phone platforms. They were established in 2002 as Microsoft Game Studios to coincide with the already released Xbox, before being re-branded in 2011. The subsidiary had also been known as Microsoft Game Division and simply Microsoft Games before 2002. Microsoft Studios develops and publishes games in conjunction with first and third party development studios under their publishing label.", "Microsoft Windows (or simply Windows) is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. It consists of several families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x; Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile.", "Fable II is an action role - playing open world video game in the Fable game series developed by Lionhead Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios for Xbox 360 . It is the sequel to Fable and Fable : The Lost Chapters , it was originally announced in 2006 and released in October 2008 . A compilation of the game , and its two downloadable content packs , was released on 24 October 2009 , titled the `` Game of the Year '' edition . The game takes place in the fictional land of Albion , five hundred years after Fable 's original setting , in a colonial era resembling the time of highwaymen or the Enlightenment . Guns are still primitive , and large castles and cities have developed in the place of towns . Unlike the original , the player may choose to be either male or female . Creative Director Peter Molyneux played a major role in presenting this game to the public , as he did in the lead - up to the release of the original Fable .", "The PlayStation 3 (abbreviated as PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, and is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles. It competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006 in North America, and March 27, 2007 in Europe and Australia.", "Microsoft Office is an office suite of applications, servers, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on 1 August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On 10 July 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide.", "Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its four operating components electronics (video games, network services and medical business), motion pictures, music and financial services. These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. Sony's principal business operations include Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Mobile (formerly Sony Ericsson) and Sony Financial. Sony is among the Semiconductor sales leaders by year and as of 2013, the fourth-largest television manufacturer in the world, after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics and TCL.", "A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects.", "Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. Founded and incorporated on May 28, 1982 by Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. As of 2014, Electronic Arts was the world's fourth-largest gaming company by revenue after Tencent, Sony and Microsoft \nThe company sparked controversies over its advertising efforts, and acquisition of other studios.", "The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the second console in the Xbox series. The Xbox 360 competed with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. The Xbox 360 was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged later that month at the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3)." ]
[]
WH_train_55
original_language_of_work the secret magdalene
english
[ "arabic", "aramaic", "biblical aramaic", "biblical hebrew", "english", "greek", "hebrew", "instrumental", "koine greek", "latin" ]
[ "Magdala (Aramaic: / \"Magdala\", meaning \"elegant\", \"great\", or \"tower\" (viz. \"great place\"); Hebrew: / \"Migdal\", meaning \"tower\"; Arabic: / \"Qariyat al-Majdal\") is the name of at least two places in Galilee, mentioned in the Jewish \"Talmud\" and one place that may be mentioned in the Christian \"New Testament\".", "The New Testament (Koine Greek: , \"H Kain Diathk\") is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament (in whole or in part) has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Both extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are also incorporated (along with readings from the Old Testament) into the various Christian liturgies. The New Testament has influenced religious, philosophical, and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature, art, and music.", "Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the \"Tanakh\", the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others).", "The Secret Magdalene , American Ki Longfellow 's third book , was published in 2005 . The historical novel challenges the traditional view of events chronicled in the New Testament , specifically the ministry of Jesus Christ and his relationship to Mary Magdalene . It is told entirely in the first - person voice of Mariamne . A hardback edition was published by Random House in 2006 , followed by a trade paperback edition published by Three Rivers Press , a Random House imprint , in December 2007 . It has been translated into several languages , including Spanish , Czech , Chinese , French and Icelandic . It is a tale of Mariamne 's quest to understand the gnosis she experienced as a child . Longfellow said she based the book on her studies of translations of historic Jewish and Arabic texts , as well as on modern Biblical scholarship . A selected bibliography is included .", "Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. More restrictively, it is writing considered as an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root \"literatura\"/\"litteratura\" (derived itself from \"littera\": \"letter\" or \"handwriting\") was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction and whether it is poetry or prose; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre).", "The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God. It is the counterpart to the New Testament, the second portion of the Christian Bible. The Old Testament canon varies between Christian Churches. Protestants have a version with 39 books. Catholics have a version with 46 books, and Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches choose the Old Testament version with 49 books.", "Mary Magdalene (, original Biblical ), literally translated as Mary the Magdalene or Mary of Magdala, is a figure in Christianity who, according to the Bible, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, more than most of the apostles. Based on texts of the early Christian era in the third century, it seems that her status as an apostle\" rivals even Peter's.", "Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence, which exist in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the \"color\" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek (\"mousike\"; \"art of the Muses\"). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as \"the harmony of the spheres\" and \"it is music to my ears\" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, \"There is no noise, only sound.\"", "Vivian Stanshall (born Victor Anthony Stanshall; 21 March 1943 5 March 1995) was an English singer-songwriter, musician, author, poet and wit, best known for his work with the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, for his exploration of the British upper classes in \"Sir Henry at Rawlinson End\" (as a radio series for John Peel, as an audio recording, as a book and as a film), and for acting as Master of Ceremonies on Mike Oldfield's album \"Tubular Bells\".", "Ki Longfellow (born 'Baby Kelly', later named Pamela, December 9, 1944) is an American novelist, playwright, theatrical producer, theater director and entrepreneur with dual citizenship in Britain. She is best known in the United States for her novel \"The Secret Magdalene\" (2005). This is among her recent works exploring the divine feminine. In England, she is likely best known as the widow of Vivian Stanshall, the late musician, lead singer of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, songwriter, author, radio broadcaster and wit." ]
[]
WH_train_56
languages_spoken_or_written kim scott
australian english
[ "australian english", "coptic", "english", "latin" ]
[ "Kim Scott ( born 18 February 1957 ) is an Australian novelist of Indigenous Australian ancestry . He is a descendant of Western Australian Noongar people .", "The Noongar (alternatively spelt Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, or Noonga) are an Indigenous Australian people who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. Traditionally, they inhabit the region from Jurien Bay to the southern coast of Western Australia, and east to what is now Ravensthorpe and Southern Cross, south west of the circumcision line separating those Aboriginal groups of central Australia that practised male circumcision upon initiation from those who did not. Noongar country, according to Norman Tindale, was occupied by 14 different groups: and . The Noongar traditionally spoke dialects of the Noongar language, a member of the large Pama-Nyungan language family, but generally today speak Australian Aboriginal English (a dialect of the English language) combined with Noongar words and grammar. Although Noongar today still recognise the existence of these groups, most Noongar today trace their ancestry to more than one of these groups.", "Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis. In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans. After that, the circumcision device (if used) is placed, and then the foreskin is cut off. Topical or locally injected anesthesia is occasionally used to reduce pain and physiologic stress. For adults and children, general anesthesia is an option, and the procedure may be performed without a specialized circumcision device. The procedure is most often an elective surgery performed on babies and children for religious and cultural reasons. In other cases it may be done as a treatment for a condition or for preventative reasons. Medically, it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is contraindicated in cases of certain genital structure abnormalities or poor general health.\nThe positions of the world's major medical organizations range from considering elective circumcision of babies and children as having no benefit and significant risks to having a modest health benefit that outweighs small risks. No major medical organization recommends either universal circumcision for all males (aside from the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for areas with high rates of HIV), or banning the procedure. Ethical and legal questions regarding informed consent and human rights have been raised over the circumcision of babies and children for non-medical reasons, and for that reason the procedure is controversial.\nEvidence supports that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the WHO recommends considering circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV, such as Sub Saharan Africa. Evidence for a health benefit against HIV for men who have sex with men is less clear. Additionally, the effectiveness of using circumcision to prevent HIV in the developed world is also unclear. Circumcision in general is associated with reduced rates of cancer causing forms of HPV and risk of both UTIs and cancer of the penis. Prevention of those conditions is not a justification for routine circumcision of infants. Studies of its potential protective effects against other sexually transmitted infections have been unclear. A 2010 review of literature found circumcisions performed by medical providers to have a typical complication rate of 1.5% for babies and 6% for older children, with few cases of severe complications. Bleeding, infection and the removal of either too much or too little foreskin are the most common complications cited. Complication rates are higher when the procedure is performed by an inexperienced operator, in unsterile conditions, or when the child is at an older age. Circumcision does not appear to have a negative impact on sexual function.\nAn estimated one-third of males worldwide are circumcised. The procedure is most common in the Muslim world and Israel (where it is near-universal for religious reasons), the United States, and parts of Southeast Asia and Africa. It is relatively rare in Europe, Latin America, parts of Southern Africa, and most of Asia. The origin of circumcision is not known with certainty; the oldest documented evidence for it comes from ancient Egypt. Various theories have been proposed as to its origin, including as a religious sacrifice and as a rite of passage marking a boy's entrance into adulthood. It is part of religious law in Judaism and is an established practice in Islam, Coptic Christianity, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The word circumcision is from Latin \"circumcidere\", meaning \"to cut around\". ", "Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) refers to a dialect of Australian English used by a large section of the Indigenous Australian population. It is made up of a number of varieties which developed differently in different parts of Australia. These varieties are generally said to fit along a continuum ranging from light forms, close to Standard Australian English, to heavy forms, closer to Kriol. There are generally distinctive features of accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use. AAE is not to be confused with Kriol, which is a separate language from English spoken by over 30,001 people in Australia. Speakers have been noted to tend to change between different forms of AAE depending on who they are speaking to, e.g. striving to speak more like Australian English when speaking to a non-Indigenous English speaking person." ]
[]
WH_train_57
original_language_of_work atomic ed and the black hole
english
[ "basic", "english", "french" ]
[ "Laura Phillips \"Laurie\" Anderson (born June 5, 1947) is an American avant-garde artist, composer, musician and film director whose work spans performance art, pop music, and multimedia projects. Initially trained in violin and sculpting, Anderson pursued a variety of performance art projects in New York during the 1970s, making particular use of language, technology, and visual imagery. She became widely more known outside the art world in 1981 when her single \"O Superman\" reached number two on the UK pop charts. She also starred in and directed the 1986 concert film \"Home of the Brave\".", "The avant-garde (from French, \"advance guard\" or \"vanguard\", literally \"fore-guard\") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox, with respect to art, culture, and society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, and it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer.", "Karen Bernstein (born May 25, 1969) is a Canadian voice actress who is best known to many in North America as the original voice of Sailor Mercury in the American dubbing of the first two seasons of \"Sailor Moon\".", "The 18 manga volumes have been adapted into an anime series titled \"Sailor Moon\" which was produced by Toei Animation. The series was broadcast from 1992 to 1997 in Japan over the course of five seasons along with three feature films, a television special, and three short films produced during the same period. A live-action television adaptation titled \"Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon\" aired from 2003 to 2004 and a reboot of the anime series titled \"Sailor Moon Crystal\" began simulcasting in 2014. Several companies have developed merchandising based on the series, including light novels, collectible trading card games, action figures, musical theater productions, several collections of soundtracks and a large number of video games. The manga series was licensed for an English language release by Kodansha Comics USA in North America, and in Australia and New Zealand by Random House Australia. The entire anime series has been licensed by Viz Media for an English language release in North America and by Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand.", "Atomic Ed and the Black Hole is a documentary released in 2001 by filmmaker , Ellen Spiro . The documentary was made for HBO 's Cinemax Reel Life Series . Sheila Nevins served as Executive Producer and Lisa Heller served as Supervising Producer . Karen Bernstein served as Producer . Laurie Anderson provided her song , Big Science , for the soundtrack . Ed Grothus ( `` Atomic Ed '' ) is a machinist - turned - atomic junk collector who more than 30 years ago quit his job of making atomic bombs and began collecting non-radioactive high - tech nuclear waste discarded from the Los Alamos National Laboratory . Atomic Ed is the proprietor of the `` The Black Hole '' , a second - hand shop and , next door , curator of the unofficial museum of the nuclear age . His collection reveals and preserves the history of government waste that was literally thrown in a trash heap .", "Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or via media; the performer can be present or absent. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any type of venue or setting and for any length of time. The actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work." ]
[]
WH_train_58
headquarters_location better choice parking
hythe
[ "alliance", "bordeaux", "cambridgeshire", "canterbury", "dover", "east sussex", "eastleigh", "england", "essex", "europe", "flint", "forest", "france", "great britain", "greater london", "guildford", "hampshire", "hard", "hastings", "havant", "hertfordshire", "hythe", "indonesia", "internet", "italy", "kent", "kingston upon thames", "london", "lyon", "maidstone", "middlesex", "nottingham", "oxfordshire", "pacific", "paris", "portsmouth", "reading", "rochester", "rock", "south bank", "south east england", "southampton", "split", "surrey", "united kingdom", "van", "venice", "wales", "waltham", "waterside", "west sussex", "westminster", "wiltshire", "windsor" ]
[ "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain (the name of which is also loosely applied to the whole country), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign statethe Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of , the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union.", "Southampton, on the south coast of England, is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire. It is south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest. It lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water at the confluence of the Rivers Test and Itchen, with the River Hamble joining to the south of the urban area. The city, which is a unitary authority, has an estimated population of 253,651. The city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to \"So'ton\" or \"Soton\", and a resident of Southampton is called a .", "The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and forest in the heavily populated south east of England. It covers southwest Hampshire and extends into southeast Wiltshire and towards east Dorset.", "South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex. As with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government.", "Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) was a county in southeast England that is now mostly part of Greater London, with small sections in neighbouring counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official unit until 1965. The historic county included land stretching north of the River Thames from east to west of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest by area in 1831.", "The English Channel (\"the Sleeve\" [hence ] \"Sea of Brittany\" \"British Sea\"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the rest of the Atlantic Ocean.", "Calais (, traditionally ) is a town and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only wide here, and is the closest French town to England. The White Cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, and since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail.", "The Mayor of London is an elected politician who, along with the London Assembly of 25 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Greater London. The current mayor is Sadiq Khan, who took up office on 9 May 2016. The position had been held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000 until he was defeated in 2008 by Boris Johnson, who served two terms before being succeeded by Khan.", "Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England. It faces France across the strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, and lies south-east of Canterbury; east of Kent's county town Maidstone; and north-east along the coastline from Dungeness and Hastings. The town is the administrative centre of the Dover District and home of the Dover Calais ferry through the Port of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover.", "The River Hamble is a river in Hampshire, England. It rises near Bishop's Waltham and flows for some 7.5 miles (12 km) through Botley, Bursledon and Swanwick before entering Southampton Water near Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash.", "The White Cliffs of Dover are cliffs that form part of the English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. The cliffs are part of the North Downs formation. The cliff face, which reaches up to , owes its striking appearance to its composition of chalk accentuated by streaks of black flint. The cliffs stretch along the coastline for eight miles (13 km), spreading east and west from the town of Dover in the county of Kent, an ancient and still important English port.", "A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate regular return services. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.", "Maidstone is the county town of Kent, England, south-east of London. The River Medway runs through the centre of the town, linking it with Rochester and the Thames Estuary. Historically, the river was a source and route for much of the town's trade as the centre of the agricultural county of Kent, known as the Garden of England. There is evidence of a settlement in the area dating back to before the Stone Age.", "Hertfordshire (often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region.", "The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of , and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.", "Londinium was a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around  43. Its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century.", "London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most populous city proper in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it \"Londinium\". London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, \"London\" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.", "Great Britain, also known as Britain , is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , Great Britain is the largest European island and the ninth-largest in the world. In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, comprise the British Isles archipelago.", "The London Assembly is an elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies. The assembly was established in 2000 and meets at City Hall on the South Bank of the River Thames, close to Tower Bridge. The assembly is also able to investigate other issues of importance to Londoners (transport, environmental matters, etc.), publish its findings and recommendations, and make proposals to the Mayor.", "Surrey is a county in the south east of England and also one of the home counties bordering Greater London. Surrey shares borders with Kent to the east, East Sussex to the south-east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west and south-west and Berkshire to the north-west. The county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames, administered as part of Greater London since 1965. With a resident population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the most densely populated and third most populated county in the South East region, after Kent and Hampshire.", "BCP , formerly Better Choice Parking , is an airport parking operator in the UK , also offering parking at Dover and Southampton ports . BCP also sells pre-bookable central London parking .", "Southampton Water is a tidal estuary north of the Solent and the Isle of Wight in England. The city of Southampton lies at its most northerly point. Along its salt marsh-fringed western shores lie the New Forest villages of Hythe and \"the waterside\", Dibden Bay, and the Esso oil refinery at Fawley. On the slightly steeper eastern shore are the Southampton suburb of Weston, the villages of Netley and Hamble-le-Rice, and the Royal Victoria Country Park.", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "Portsmouth is a port city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England. Located mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton, it is the United Kingdom's only island city. It has a population of 205,400, and is the only city in the British Isles with a greater population density than London. The city forms part of the South Hampshire built-up area, which also covers Southampton and the towns of Havant, Waterlooville, Eastleigh, Fareham, and Gosport.", "Wi-Fi or WiFi is a technology for wireless local area networking with devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. \"Wi-Fi\" is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term \"Wi-Fi Certified\" to products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing.", "Dover is a local government district in Kent, England. Dover is its administrative centre. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the boroughs of Deal, Dover, and Sandwich along with Dover Rural District and most of Eastry Rural District. There are three towns within the district: Deal, Dover and Sandwich; and the parishes below:", "Hastings is a historic town and borough in the county of East Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex, on the south coast of England. The town is located east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London, and has an estimated population of 90,254, which makes it the 66th largest settlement in the United Kingdom.", "AirPort is the name given to a series of products by Apple Inc. using the (Wi-Fi) protocols (802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac). These products comprise a number of wireless routers and wireless cards. The AirPort Extreme name was originally intended to signify the addition of the 802.11g protocol to these products.", "Hampshire (; abbreviated Hants, archaically known as the County of Southampton) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the former capital city of England. Hampshire is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom (excluding the metropolitan counties) with almost half of the county's population living within the South Hampshire conurbation which includes the cities of Southampton and Portsmouth. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000. Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, and West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight.", "A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router and also includes the functions of a wireless access point. It is used to provide access to the Internet or a private computer network. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network), in a wireless-only LAN (WLAN), or in a mixed wired/wireless network, depending on the manufacturer and model.", "The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (, \"Strait of Calais\"; or \"Straat van Dover\"), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait, 33.3 kilometres (20.7 miles), is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the county of Kent, England, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French \"\" of Pas-de-Calais, France. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers.", "Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north west, Surrey to the west, East Sussex to the south west, and Essex across the Thames Estuary to the north. The county town is Maidstone. ", "The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn. It also flows through Oxford (where it is called Isis), Reading, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London. ", "The Port of Dover is the cross-channel port situated in Dover, Kent, south-east England. It is the nearest English port to France, at just away, and is the world's busiest passenger port, with 16 million travellers, 2.1 million lorries, 2.8 million cars and motorcycles and 86,000 coaches passing through it each year, with an annual turnover of £58.5 million a year.", "A County town is usually the location of administrative or judicial functions within the county, or it has been established over time as the \"de facto\" main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its original meaning of where the county administration or county hall is based. In fact, many county towns are no longer part of the administrative county. For example, Nottingham is administered by a unitary authority entirely separate from the rest of Nottinghamshire. Many county towns are classified as cities, but all are referred to as county towns regardless of whether city status is held or not.", "The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London; however, the City of London is not a London borough, a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster). ", "Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint (a type of chert unique to chalk) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is often deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified (i.e. replaced molecule by molecule by flint).", "The AirPort Extreme is a residential gateway product from Apple Inc. combining the functions of a router, network switch, wireless access point and NAS as well as varied other functions, and one of Apple's AirPort products. The latest model, the 6th generation, supports 802.11ac networking in addition to older standards. Versions of the same system with a built-in network-accessible hard drive are known as the AirPort Time Capsule.", "Canterbury (, or ) is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour.", "France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans and had a total population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic with the capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux." ]
[]
WH_train_59
genre soozie tyrell
rock music
[ "americana", "history", "musical", "play", "rock", "rock and roll", "rock music", "various" ]
[ "Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.", "The violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused in the 2010s. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato). Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition and in many varieties of folk music. They are also frequently used in genres of folk including country music and bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins are used in some forms of rock music; further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music. The violin is sometimes informally called a fiddle, particularly in Irish traditional music and bluegrass, but this nickname is also used regardless of the type of music played on it.", "Soozie Tyrell , ( born May 4 , 1957 ) , formerly known as Soozie Kirschner , is an American violinist and vocalist , most known for her work with Bruce Springsteen in the E Street Band and formerly The Sessions Band .", "The Sessions Band is an American musical group that has periodically recorded and toured with American rock singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen in various formations since 1997.", "Americana are artifacts, or a collection of artifacts, related to the history, geography, folklore and cultural heritage of the United States. Many kinds of material fall within the definition of \"Americana\": paintings, prints and drawings; license plates or entire vehicles, household objects, tools and weapons; flags, plaques and statues, and so on. Patriotism and nostalgia play defining roles in the subject. The things involved need not be old, but need to have the appropriate associations. \"The Atlantic\" described the term as \"slang for the comforting, middle-class ephemera at your average antique storethings like needle-pointed pillows, Civil War daguerreotypes, and engraved silverware sets.\" The term may be used to describe the theme of a museum or collection, or of goods for sale.", "Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter. He is best known for his work with the E Street Band. Nicknamed \"The Boss\", Springsteen is widely known for his brand of poetic lyrics, Americana, working class and sometimes political sentiments centered on his native New Jersey, his distinctive voice, and his lengthy and energetic stage performanceswith concerts from the 1970s to the present decade running at up to four hours in length.", "The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is a hall of fame and museum located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Atlantic Records founder and chairman Ahmet Ertegun to recognize and archive the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll. In 1986, Cleveland was chosen as the hall of fame's permanent home. Since opening in September 1995, the \"Rock Hall\" part of the city's redeveloped North Coast Harbor has hosted more than 10 million visitors and had a cumulative economic impact estimated at more than $1.8 billion.", "The E Street Band is an American rock band, and has been musician Bruce Springsteen's primary backing band since 1972. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014." ]
[]
WH_train_60
headquarters_location g-funk entertainment
los angeles
[ "agoura hills", "best", "born", "brand", "california", "canada", "el segundo", "germany", "hale", "inglewood", "jersey", "los angeles", "marion", "new jersey", "rock", "street", "warren", "weehawken , new jersey", "young" ]
[ "In The Mid-Nite Hour is the fifth studio album by Warren G, released on the label Lightyear Entertainment on October 11, 2005. His first single was \"Get U Down\" featuring Ice Cube, B-Real, and Snoop Dogg, and his follow up single was \"I Need A Light\" featuring Nate Dogg. Neither single was able to make the Billboard charts for music and the album peaked at number 80 on the \"Billboard\" 200 album chart selling 14,800 in its first week. It is notable for having a laid back feel to it and featuring rapper Bishop Lamont on seven tracks.", "El Segundo is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. El Segundo, from Spanish, means The Second in English. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, and part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments. The population was 16,654 at the 2010 census, up from 16,033 at the 2000 census.", "G - Funk Entertainment ( formerly known as G - Funk Records and later renamed G - Funk 2000 : The New Millennium ) is a vanity label founded by West Coast hip hop artist Warren G. It was a subsidiary of Def Jam , where it was dropped off and signed to Restless Records in 1998 under a new name to finally arrive to Hawino Records as G - Funk Entertainment in 2005 , where Warren G released his latest album In the Mid-Nite Hour .", "The Billboard\" charts tabulate the relative weekly popularity of singles or albums in the United States and elsewhere. The results are published in \"Billboard\" magazine. Billboard\" biz, the online extension of the \"Billboard\" charts, provides additional weekly charts. There are also Year End charts. The charts may be dedicated to specific genre such as R&B, country or rock, or they may cover all genres. The charts can be ranked according to sales, streams or airplay, and for main song charts such as the Hot 100 song chart, all three pools of data are used to compiled the charts. For the \"Billboard\" 200 album chart, streams and track sales are included in addition to album sales.", "Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr. (born October 20, 1971), known professionally as Snoop Dogg (formerly called Snoop Doggy Dogg and Snoop Lion), is an American rapper and actor from Long Beach, California. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre of N.W.A, and as a result was prominently featured throughout Dr. Dre's solo debut album, \"The Chronic\" (1992). He has since sold over twenty-three million albums in the United States and thirty-five million albums worldwide.", "Metal Blade Records is a heavy metal record label founded by Brian Slagel in 1982. The U.S. corporate office for Metal Blade is located in Agoura Hills, California. It also has offices in Germany, Japan, Canada, and the UK. The label is distributed in the U.S. by RED Distribution, and in Canada by Sony Music Entertainment. It was distributed by Warner Bros. Records in the United States from 1988 to 1993.", "Restless Records was started in El Segundo, California in 1986 by Enigma Records and primarily released alternative, metal and punk records. Restless also licensed and released records from Bar/None Records, Metal Blade Records and Mute Records. And Restless had a fully owned subsidiary Pink Dust Records.", "A vanity label (see related topic on vanity press) is an informal name given sometimes to a record label founded as a wholly or partially owned subsidiary of another, larger and better established (at least at the time of the vanity label's founding) record label, where the subsidiary label is (at least nominally) controlled by a successful recording artist, designed to allow this artist to release music by other artists they admire. The parent label handles the production and distribution and funding of the vanity label, but the album is usually released with the vanity label brand name prominent. Usually, the artist/head of the vanity label is signed to the parent label, and this artist's own recordings will be released under the vanity label's brand name. Creating a vanity label can be an attractive idea for the parent label primarily as a \"perk\" to keep a successful artist on the label's roster happy and a venue to bring fellow artists to the public's attention.", "Death Row Records is a record company founded in 1991 by Dr. Dre, The D.O.C., Dick Griffey and Suge Knight. Many west coast artists were on the label such as Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Tupac Shakur, The Outlawz, The Lady of Rage, MC Hammer, Young Soldierz, Sam Sneed, LBC Crew, RBX, Michel'le, Jewell, Danny Boy, DJ Quik, O.F.T.B., Nate Dogg, Warren G, and the rap group Tha Dogg Pound consisting of rappers Kurupt, Daz Dillinger, Soopafly, and many others. Death Row Records was making $100 million a year in 1996 when most of the aforementioned artists departed from the label after the death of Tupac (2Pac). The company filed for bankruptcy in 2006 and on January 15, 2009, was auctioned to entertainment development company WIDEawake Entertainment Group, Inc. for $18 million.", "Philip Martin (born October 31, 1978 in Inglewood, California), better known as Bishop Lamont, is an American rapper from Carson, California. He was signed to Dr. Dre's Aftermath Entertainment record label, but left in 2010.", "Lightyear Entertainment, headquartered in Studio City, California, is a distributor of independent motion pictures on DVD, Video On Demand, as well as a distributor of music and music videos on CD, DVD, and digital distribution.", "A record label or record company is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists (\"artists and repertoire\" or \"A&R\"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term \"record label\" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information.", "Nathaniel Dwayne Hale (August 19, 1969 March 15, 2011), better known by his stage name Nate Dogg, was an American rapper, singer, and actor. He was known as one of the pioneers of West Coast hip hop. He was noted for his membership in rap trio 213 and his solo career in which he collaborated with Dr. Dre, Eminem, Warren G, Tupac Shakur, Westside Connection, Snoop Dogg, 50 Cent, Ludacris, Xzibit, and Shade Sheist on many hit releases. He released three solo albums, \"G-Funk Classics, Vol. 1 & 2\" in 1998, \"Music & Me\" in 2001, and \"Nate Dogg\" as a bootlegged album in 2003 and on CD in 2014.", "West Coast hip hop is a hip hop music subgenre that encompasses any artists or music that originates in the West Coast region of the United States. The gangsta rap subgenre of West Coast hip hop began to dominate from a radio play and sales standpoint during the early 1990s with the birth of G-funk and the emergence of Suge Knight & Dr. Dre's Death Row Records.", "Louis Freese (born June 2, 1970), better known by his stage name B-Real, is an American rapper and actor. He is best known for being the lead rapper in the hip hop group Cypress Hill.", "Marion Hugh \"Suge\" Knight Jr. (born April 19, 1965) is an American record producer, music executive, and a former American football defensive end for the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League (NFL). He is the co-founder and former CEO of Death Row Records. Death Row Records rose to dominate the rap charts after Dr. Dre's breakthrough album \"The Chronic\" in 1992. After several years of chart successes for artists including Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Outlawz and Tha Dogg Pound, Death Row Records stagnated after Knight's incarceration on probation violation charges in September 1996 and went bankrupt in 2006.", "Enigma Records (also known as Enigma Entertainment Corporation) was a popular rock and alternative American record label in the 1980s. ", "Gangsta rap or gangster rap is a subgenre of hip hop music with themes and lyrics that generally emphasize the \"gangsta\" lifestyle. The genre evolved from hardcore hip hop into a distinct form, pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups like N.W.A. After the national attention that Ice-T and N.W.A attracted in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. Many (if not most) gangsta rap artists openly boast of their associations with various active street gangs as part of their artistic image, with the Bloods and Crips being the most commonly represented. Gangsta rap is closely related to other indigenous gang and crime-oriented forms of music, such as the narcocorrido genre of northern Mexico.", "Warren Griffin III (born November 10, 1970) better known by his stage name Warren G, is an American West Coast rapper and hip hop producer.", "Bar/None Records is an independent record label based in Weehawken, New Jersey.", "Andre Romelle Young (born February 18, 1965), better known by his stage name Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. He is the founder and current CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics. Dre was previously the co-owner of, and an artist on, Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, The D.O.C., Snoop Dogg, Eminem, Xzibit, Knoc-turn'al, 50 Cent, The Game and Kendrick Lamar. He is credited as a key figure in the popularization of West Coast G-funk, a style of rap music characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. In 2014, Dr. Dre was ranked as the second richest figure in the American hip hop scene by \"Forbes\" with a net worth of $550 million; he is at the top of the 2015 \"Forbes\" list, with an estimated pre-tax take of $620 million in 2014." ]
[]
WH_train_61
record_label swallow my pride
homestead records
[ "album", "australia", "homestead records", "island", "pop", "record", "record label", "studio album", "sub pop", "warner music group" ]
[ "Rehab Doll is the first and only studio album by the American rock band Green River. It was released in June 1988 through Sub Pop Records.", "Lake Washington is a large freshwater lake adjacent to the city of Seattle. It is the largest lake in King County and the second largest natural lake in the state of Washington, after Lake Chelan. It borders the cities of Seattle on the west, Bellevue and Kirkland on the east, Renton on the south and Kenmore on the north, and encloses Mercer Island. The lake is fed by the Sammamish River at its north end and the Cedar River at its south.", "Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U.S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de FucaAdmiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Flow through Deception Pass is approximately equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends approximately from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south. Its average depth is and its maximum depth, off Point Jefferson between Indianola and Kingston, is . The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is approximately .", "Homestead Records was a Long Island, New York-based sublabel of music distributor Dutch East India Trading. It was founded in 1984 by Sam Berger, who was the American independent buyer for Dutch East India Trading. Berger was finding that many bands who had perhaps released their own first 45 were having difficulty coming up with the finances to press followups. He was able to convince the owner of the company to press and distribute records for bands that already had recorded an album, and have the bands supply the artwork. It is considered instrumental in launching the post-hardcore and noise rock genres. When Berger left to work with Midnight Records, he recommended 18-year-old Gerard Cosloy, whom he knew from Boston and who published a fanzine that Homestead distributed. Cosloy went on to sign many of the notable acts. Cosloy was succeeded by Ken Katkin and later by Steven Joerg. The label's last release was Ivo Perelman's \"Cama de terra\" in 1996.", "Sub Pop is a record label founded in 1986 by Bruce Pavitt. In 1988, Sub Pop Records LLC was formed by Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman in Seattle, Washington. Sub Pop achieved fame in the late 1980s for first signing Nirvana, Soundgarden, Mudhoney and many other bands from the Seattle alternative rock scene. They are often credited with taking the first steps toward popularizing grunge music, and have continued to achieve critical and commercial success in the new millennium, with bands such as Fleet Foxes, Foals, Beach House, The Postal Service, Flight of the Conchords, Sleater-Kinney, Blitzen Trapper, No Age, Wolf Parade and The Shins on their roster. In 1995 the owners of Sub Pop sold a 49% stake of the label to the Warner Music Group.", "`` Swallow My Pride '' is a song by the Seattle , Washington - based rock band Green River . Featuring lyrics written by frontman Mark Arm and music written by guitarist Steve Turner , the song is the third track on the band 's debut EP , Come on Down ( 1985 ) . It was later re-recorded by Green River and appeared on the band 's sole studio album , Rehab Doll ( 1988 ) .", "The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.", "Mark Arm (born Mark Thomas McLaughlin, February 21, 1962) is the vocalist for the grunge band Mudhoney. His former group, Green River, is one of the first grunge bands, along with Malfunkshun, Soundgarden, Skin Yard, the U-Men, and others. He is also the manager of the Sub Pop warehouse and previously worked at Fantagraphics Books.", "Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 684,451 residents , Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about south of the CanadaUnited States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling .", "Come on Down is the debut EP by the American rock band Green River. It was released in May 1985 through Homestead Records. It is widely considered to be the first grunge record.", "Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound) is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged during the in the American state of Washington, particularly in Seattle. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop, but by the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge acts in California and other parts of the U.S. building strong followings and signing major record deals." ]
[]
WH_train_62
country_of_citizenship william vansittart bowater
united kingdom
[ "american", "british", "london", "united kingdom" ]
[ "William Vansittart Bowater ( 15 March 1838 -- 28 April 1907 ) was the founder of Bowater , which became one of the world 's largest producers of newspaper print . Today it had been broken up into a series of market - leading paper - based products business , including packaging business Rexam .", "Rexam Inc. is a British-based American-owned multinational consumer packaging company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is a leading manufacturer of beverage cans. It has 55 plants in over 20 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and South America. In June 2016, the final regulatory hurdle was cleared for the purchase of Rexam by the American company Ball Corporation.", "Bowater was a British pulp and paper company, which after post-World War II expansion, through a 30-year period of consolidation now forms the core of a number of globally leading worldwide paper products companies.", "Ball Corporation is an American company headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado, that is best known for its early production of glass jars, lids, and related products used for home canning. Since its founding in Buffalo, New York, in 1880, when it was known as the Wooden Jacket Can Company, the Ball company has expanded and diversified into other business ventures, including aerospace technology, and became the world's largest manufacturer of recyclable metal beverage and food containers." ]
[]
WH_train_63
sport gillingham town f.c.
association football
[ "association football", "football", "united kingdom" ]
[ "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "The County Football Associations are the local governing bodies of association football in England and the Crown dependencies. County FAs exist to govern all aspects of football in England. They are responsible for administering club and player registration as well as promoting development amongst those bodies and referees .", "The Dorset County Football Association is the County Football Association for Dorset. The Dorset County FA traces its root back to the South Hants and Dorset Football Association which was founded in 1884. Three years later in 1887, due to the growth of football in the area, the South Hants and Dorset FA split into the Dorset County Football Association and the Hampshire Football Association. They run a number of cups for member clubs of all levels across the county.", "A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom and Australia. It was first used in Wessex from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement, and spread to most of the rest of England in the tenth century.", "Dorset (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the non-metropolitan county, which is governed by Dorset County Council, and the unitary authority areas of Poole and Bournemouth. Covering an area of , Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, and Hampshire to the east. The county town is Dorchester which is in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is largely rural with a low population density.", "Gillingham Town Football Club is a football club based in Gillingham , Dorset , England . The club is affiliated to the Dorset County Football Association and is a FA chartered Standard club . As of the 2014 -- 15 season , they are members of the Western Football League Premier Division .", "Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of . Wales has over of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.", "Hampshire (; abbreviated Hants, archaically known as the County of Southampton) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the former capital city of England. Hampshire is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom (excluding the metropolitan counties) with almost half of the county's population living within the South Hampshire conurbation which includes the cities of Southampton and Portsmouth. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000. Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, and West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight.", "The Hampshire Football Association, also known as \"Hampshire FA\", is the governing body of football in the county of Hampshire. It also oversees the Isle of Wight Football Association. It was formed in 1887.", "The Isles of Scilly (or \"\") are an archipelago off the south western tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. It is the southernmost location in England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most westerly in England.", "Scotland (Scots: ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.", "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain (the name of which is also loosely applied to the whole country), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign statethe Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of , the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union." ]
[]
WH_train_64
record_label ruthless for life
ruthless records
[ "1995", "1996", "a & m records", "album", "amaru", "amaru entertainment", "angel", "ashanti", "death row records", "epic", "epic records", "funk", "ice cube", "interscope geffen a & m", "interscope records", "label", "loud records", "morgan creek", "morgan creek productions", "record", "reissue", "ruthless records", "sony music entertainment", "studio album", "tupac shakur", "uptown records" ]
[ "Thug on da Line is the second studio album by American rapper Krayzie Bone. It was released August 24, 2001 on Thugline Records, Ruthless Records and Loud Records (under distribution from Columbia Records and Sony Music). The first and only single of the album single was \"Hard Time Hustlin'\" featuring Sade. ", "\"Panic Zone\" is the 1987 debut single by American hip hop group N.W.A, whose songs were later featured on the compilation \"N.W.A. and the Posse\", which was a reissue of 12\" EPs and singles released by Macola Records, the then manufacturer and distributor of Ruthless Records, N.W.A's label. Despite its independent release, the tape has sold over 1,000 copies. The single introduced rap artists Eazy-E, Ice Cube, and Dr. Dre.", "Lorenzo Jerald Patterson (born June 14, 1969), better known by his stage name MC Ren, is an American rapper from Compton, California. He is the founder and owner of the record label Villain Entertainment. His moniker is derived from the middle letters in his first name (Lorenzo) .", "Morgan Creek Productions is an American film studio that has released box-office hits including \"Young Guns\", \"Dead Ringers\", \"Major League\", \"True Romance\", \"\", \"The Crush\", \"\" and \"The Last of the Mochicans\". The studio was co-founded in 1988 by James Robinson and Joe Roth. Robinson leads the company as chairman and CEO. He has two sons Brian Robinson and David C. Robinson who run the day to day operations.", "Epic Records is an American record company. A division of Sony Music Entertainment, Inc., Epic was founded predominantly as a jazz and classical music label in 1953. It later expanded its scope to include diverse musical genres including pop, R&B, rock and hip hop. Historically, the label has housed popular acts such as Boston, Celine Dion, Dave Clark Five, Gloria Estefan, Pearl Jam, Shakira, and Sly & the Family Stone.", "A Thin Line Between Love and Hate is a 1996 American dark comedy-romance film that was directed and co-written by Martin Lawrence, who also stars in the film. Lawrence co-wrote the screenplay alongside Kenny Buford and Bentley Kyle Evans, who has also written for Lawrence's hit television sitcom, \"Martin\", and Kim Bass. Along with Lawrence, the film features a cast of actors that include Lynn Whitfield, Regina King, Bobby Brown and Della Reese. The film tells the story of Darnell Wright, a ladies' man who finds himself targeted by one of his obsessed lovers.", "Bone Thugs-N-Harmony is an American hip hop group from Cleveland, Ohio. It consists of rappers Bizzy Bone, Wish Bone, Layzie Bone, Krayzie Bone & Flesh-N-Bone . American West Coast rapper Eazy-E, former member of rap group N.W.A, signed Bone Thugs-N-Harmony to Ruthless Records in late 1993, when Bone Thugs debuted with their EP \"Creepin on ah Come Up\". The EP included their breakout hit single \"Thuggish Ruggish Bone\".", "Ruthless for Life is the third album by rapper MC Ren, released June 30, 1998, on Ruthless Records and distributed by Epic Records.", "Interscope Records is an American record company. A division of Interscope Geffen A&M Records, its parent company is the Universal Music Group, a subsidiary of Vivendi S.A.", "BTNHResurrection is the fourth studio album by rap group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony. The album was released on February 29, 2000 on Ruthless Records. It reached Platinum status within a month, but sales declined afterwards. Flesh-n-Bone was heavily featured on this album, appearing in 14 of the 15 tracks (not including the bonus track) which was rarely seen on previous albums due to him not being signed to Ruthless Records with the rest of the group. This was Flesh-n-Bone's last appearance on a Bone Thugs-n-Harmony album for 10 years because he was convicted for assault with a firearm and criminal possession of a weapon in June 2000. Pleading guilty, Flesh was sentenced to 11 years in prison, and was released in July 2008, re-appearing on the group's album in 2010.", "Thug World Order is the fifth studio album by Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, released on October 29, 2002. This was the group's final album under Ruthless Records and have now created their own label Bone Thugs Records. Bone Thugs Records started off promoting their first two artist set for solo albums, LaReece (of ThugLine Records) and Bruce Hathcock. Tomica and the group met in Miami to record the album, as well as get on better terms. The group recorded five tracks while they were there.", "Antoine Carraby (born December 11, 1967), better known by his stage name DJ Yella, is an American DJ, record producer and film director from Compton, California. He was a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru along with Dr. Dre. He later became a founding member of the pioneering gangsta rap group N.W.A (composed of DJ Yella, Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, MC Ren, Arabian Prince, and Eazy-E).", "Eric Lynn Wright (September 7, 1964  March 26, 1995), better known by his stage name Eazy-E, was an American rapper who performed solo and in the hip hop group N.W.A. Wright is affectionately called \"The Godfather of Gangsta Rap\". He was born to Richard and Kathie Wright in Compton, California. After dropping out of high school in the tenth grade, he supported himself primarily by selling drugs before founding Ruthless Records and becoming a rapper. Arabian Prince, Eazy-E, Dr. Dre and Ice Cube formed N.W.A. After DJ Yella and MC Ren joined the group, N.W.A released their debut single \"Panic Zone\". In 1988, they released their most controversial album, \"Straight Outta Compton\". The group released two more albums and then disbanded after Eazy released Dr. Dre from his contract.", "B2K was an American R&B boy band that was active from 1998 to 2004. In 1998, the group was formed by American record producer Chris Stokes. They released their self-titled debut album on March 12, 2002. The album peaked at #2 on the \"Billboard\" 200 and #1 on the U.S. Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs albums chart. ", "Andre Romelle Young (born February 18, 1965), better known by his stage name Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. He is the founder and current CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics. Dre was previously the co-owner of, and an artist on, Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, The D.O.C., Snoop Dogg, Eminem, Xzibit, Knoc-turn'al, 50 Cent, The Game and Kendrick Lamar. He is credited as a key figure in the popularization of West Coast G-funk, a style of rap music characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. In 2014, Dr. Dre was ranked as the second richest figure in the American hip hop scene by \"Forbes\" with a net worth of $550 million; he is at the top of the 2015 \"Forbes\" list, with an estimated pre-tax take of $620 million in 2014.", "Villain Entertainment is a record label, founded by gangsta rapper MC Ren, in Palm Springs, California in 1999. The label's focus was gangsta rap genre of West Coast hip hop.", "Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969), also known by his stage names Puff Daddy, P. Diddy and Diddy, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actor, record producer and entrepreneur. He was born in Harlem and was raised in Mount Vernon, New York. He worked as a talent director at Uptown Records before founding his label Bad Boy Entertainment in 1993. His debut album \"No Way Out\" (1997) has been certified seven times platinum and was followed by successful albums such as \"Forever\" (1999), \"The Saga Continues...\" (2001), and \"Press Play\" (2006). In 2009 Combs formed the musical group Diddy  Dirty Money and released the critically well-reviewed and commercially successful album \"Last Train to Paris\" (2010).", "Tupac Amaru Shakur (; born Lesane Parish Crooks; June 16, 1971September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac and Makaveli, was an American rapper, record producer, actor, and poet. As of 2007, Shakur has sold over 75 million records worldwide. His double disc albums \"All Eyez on Me\" and his \"Greatest Hits\" are among the best-selling albums in the United States with \"All Eyez on Me\" selling 10,000,000 copies and \"Greatest Hits\" selling 10,200,000 units. He has been listed and ranked as one of the greatest artists of all time by many publications, including \"Rolling Stone\", which ranked him 86th on its list of The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. He is consistently ranked as one of the greatest and most influential rappers of all time. On April 7, 2017, Shakur will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility.", "Day26 is an American male R&B music group formed in August 2007 by Sean \"Diddy\" Combs in a handpicked selection at the end of MTV's \"Making the Band 4.\" The group consists of Robert Curry, Brian Angel, Willie Taylor, Qwanell Mosley and Michael McCluney. The moniker is a tribute to the day when Angel, McCluney, Mosely, Curry, and Taylor went from unknowns to stars. The group released their first album, Day26, on March 25, 2008, one week after their \"then\" labelmates and \"Making the Band 3\" winners Danity Kane released \"Welcome to the Dollhouse\". The album's first single, \"Got Me Going\", was released on the finale of \"Making the Band 4.\" The album went on to debut at number one on the billboard charts. Subsequent seasons of Making the Band 4 featured the group on tour and making their second album \"Forever in a Day\" which also topped the Billboard charts.", "Ruthless is an American record label, founded by Jerry Heller and gangsta rapper Eazy-E. The record label was in Torrance, California and it was founded in 1987. The label's acts over the years have earned RIAA certifications of Platinum or higher on 15 of its released albums, including releases by N.W.A, Eazy-E, MC Ren, The D.O.C., Michel'le, J.J.Fad and Bone-Thugs-n-Harmony.", "An ice cube is a small, roughly cube-shaped piece of ice (frozen water), conventionally used to cool beverages. Ice cubes are sometimes preferred over crushed ice because they melt more slowly; they are standard in mixed drinks that call for ice, in which case the drink is said to be \"on the rocks.\"", "Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr. (born October 20, 1971), known professionally as Snoop Dogg (formerly called Snoop Doggy Dogg and Snoop Lion), is an American rapper and actor from Long Beach, California. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre of N.W.A, and as a result was prominently featured throughout Dr. Dre's solo debut album, \"The Chronic\" (1992). He has since sold over twenty-three million albums in the United States and thirty-five million albums worldwide.", "Shawntae Harris (born April 14, 1974), better known by her stage name Da Brat, is an American rapper and actress from Joliet, Illinois. Beginning her career in 1991, Harris debut album \"Funkdafied\" (1994) sold one million copies, making her the first female solo rap act to receive a platinum certification, and the second overall female rap act (solo or group) after Salt N Pepa. She has received two Grammy Award nominations.", "The Declaration is the fourth studio album by American R&B/pop singer Ashanti. It was released on June 3, 2008.", "`` Ruthless for Life '' is the first single from rapper MC Ren 's third studio album , Ruthless for Life . The song is dedicated to late rapper and former N.W.A. groupmate , Eazy - E. `` Ruthless for Life '' charted at 13 on U.S. Rap and 61 on the U.S. R&B . It is produced by L.T. Hutton .", "Pac's Life is the tenth studio album and sixth posthumous album by the late rapper 2Pac. The album was released on November 21, 2006, in the United States, on Amaru Entertainment. Its 2006 release date was designed to commemorate the tenth anniversary of his murder.", "Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1969 or 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. In 1990, she rose to fame with the release of \"Vision of Love\" from her eponymous debut album. The album produced four chart-topping singles in the US and began what would become a string of commercially successful albums which solidified the singer as Columbias highest selling act. Carey and Boyz II Men spent a record sixteen weeks atop the \"Billboard\" Hot 100 in 19951996 with \"One Sweet Day\", which remains the longest-running number-one song in US chart history. Following a contentious divorce from Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey adopted a new image and traversed towards hip hop with the release of \"Butterfly\" (1997). In 1998, she was honored as the world's best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the World Music Awards and subsequently named the best-selling female artist of the millennium in 2000.", "Death Row Records is a record company founded in 1991 by Dr. Dre, The D.O.C., Dick Griffey and Suge Knight. Many west coast artists were on the label such as Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Tupac Shakur, The Outlawz, The Lady of Rage, MC Hammer, Young Soldierz, Sam Sneed, LBC Crew, RBX, Michel'le, Jewell, Danny Boy, DJ Quik, O.F.T.B., Nate Dogg, Warren G, and the rap group Tha Dogg Pound consisting of rappers Kurupt, Daz Dillinger, Soopafly, and many others. Death Row Records was making $100 million a year in 1996 when most of the aforementioned artists departed from the label after the death of Tupac (2Pac). The company filed for bankruptcy in 2006 and on January 15, 2009, was auctioned to entertainment development company WIDEawake Entertainment Group, Inc. for $18 million.", "Straight Outta Compton is the debut studio album by American hip hop group N.W.A, released August 8, 1988 on group member Eazy-E's record label Ruthless Records. Production for the album was handled by Dr. Dre with DJ Yella giving co-production. The album has been viewed as the pioneering record of gangsta rap with its ever-present profanity and violent lyrics. It has been considered to be one of the greatest and most influential hip-hop records by music writers and has had an enormous impact on the evolution of West Coast hip hop.", "L.T. Hutton, born Lenton Terrell Hutton, was born on January 6, 1974 in Chicago to Patrica and LT Hutton. He is an American record producer, Entrepreneur and currently owns his own movie company Program Pictures in conjunction with Morgan Creek Pictures. He has worked on several projects with Death Row Records, became the head of A&R at Ruthless Records, Interscope Records. He has worked on several projects. Starting out only working on Death Row Records projects, then branching off on his own to work with the likes of Lost Boyz, Lloyd, Immature, B2K, Daz from the Dogg Pound, Snoop Dogg's Solo projects, Soopafly, Mariah Carey, Ray J, Da Brat, MC Ren, Eazy-E and the list continues. LT has songs placed on movies like \"A Thin Line Between Love and Hate\" featuring Martin Lawrence, Lynn Whitfield, and Regina King; and \"Juwanna Mann\" featuring Miguel Núñez, Vivica A. Fox, Kevin Polk, and Tommy Davidson. His latest productions appear on rapper 2Pac's album, \"Pac's Life\". He did production for BTNHResurrection and Thug World Order for the rap group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony. And for Krayzie Bone's \"Thug on da Line\" and \"\". He is currently working with Ashanti on her fourth studio album \"The Declaration\" to be released in early 2008 as well as producing new songs for the upcoming Bone Thugs-n-Harmony reunion album. He is also working on Sean Combs making the Bad group Day26 album. He co-owns an indie record label \"The Program\" with Philadelphia 76ers basketball player Elton Brand. On April 14 -- Morgan Creek Productions has entered into a first-look deal with the newly formed Program Pictures. The announcement was made jointly by David Robinson, Senior Vice President of Production at Morgan Creek, and LT Hutton, CEO of Program Pictures. Morgan Creek and Program Pictures have produced the Tupac Shakur's movie \"All Eyez on Me\"." ]
[]
WH_train_65
publisher international organization
university of cambridge
[ "cambridge university press", "century", "europe", "oxford university press", "university of cambridge" ]
[ "Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review. He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau. At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence, as the first Secretary.", "Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century.", "International Organization is a peer - reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international affairs . Subject areas include : foreign policies , international relations , international and comparative political economy , security policies , environmental disputes and resolutions , European integration , alliance patterns and war , bargaining and conflict resolution , economic development and adjustment , and international capital movements . It is published by the Cambridge University Press on behalf of the International Organization Foundation . Its current editor is Jon Pevehouse , Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin -- Madison . In a 2005 survey , 1,084 international relations scholars were asked `` which journals publish articles that have the greatest impact on the way international relations scholars think about their subject and their work '' and to make a nominal list of their top four . Of the 749 scholars who replied , 521 ( 70 % ) listed IO . International Studies Quarterly was second with 371 ( 50 % ) responses . According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 3.019 , ranking it 3rd out of 85 journals in the category `` International Relations '' .", "Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world (after Oxford University Press). It also holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer.", "An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to the first editor of the world's oldest academic journal Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to \"impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences.\"" ]
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WH_train_66
country moonhole
saint vincent and the grenadines
[ "atlantic ocean", "grenada", "saint vincent and the grenadines", "trinidad and tobago" ]
[ "Grenada is an island country consisting of Grenada itself and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela, and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.", "Moonhole is a private community on the island of Bequia ( Bek - way ) in the Grenadines . Moonhole derives its name from a massive arch formed in volcanic substrate through which the setting moon is sometimes visible . Founded by Thomas and Gladys Johnston in the 1960s , Moonhole is now a private nature preserve . In the late 1960s , the Johnstons retired from the advertising business in New York and founded the Moonhole community on the narrow western tip of the island . Tom and `` Gladdie '' began building a house beneath the arch with the aid of local masons from the nearby village of Paget Farm . Using whalebones , native hardwoods , and objects recovered from the sea , they built large open rooms with magnificent views of the sea . Without wells or electricity , they collected rainwater from the roofs and stored it in cisterns for bathing and washing . The master bath had a large tree that grew right up through a large hole in the roof . Large windows facing the prevailing trade winds had plexiglass panes that could be lowered into place . The bedrooms surrounded a central dining room , veranda and large bar made from a humpback whale 's jaw bone . In the early years there was not even a road to Moonhole . People from Paget Farm walked in daily to bring in fresh fruit and freshly baked bread and to do any necessary cooking . Tom and Gladdie later formed Moonhole Company Limited and contributed the approximately 30 acre property to the company . Tom bequeathed his controlling interest in Moonhole Company Limited to a trust for the protection and preservation of Moonhole for posterity . The Thomas and Gladys Johnston Moonhole Conservation Trust Limited is dedicated to preserving the unique architecture , lifestyle , and vision of the Johnstons and to protecting the birds , wildlife and marine life on the peninsula at the western end of Bequia . There are now eleven privately owned homes at Moonhole and four houses owned by Moonhole Company Limited . In 2004 The New York Times described Moonhole : `` It is a quirky 19 - home ecologically oriented development built of native stone , with whalebone accents , on the steep hills of the island 's southern tip. The name comes from a soaring natural arch on the shore through which the moon can be seen at times . The whalebones , remnants of aboriginal whaling by the islanders , are big enough to work as elements like stair railings . The houses , which rely on solar electricity , rainwater and propane tanks , are mostly fanciful open - air affairs with lines blurred between indoors and out . ''", "Kingstown is the capital, chief port, and main commercial centre of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. With a population of 16,500 (2010), Kingstown is the most populous settlement in the country. It is the centre for the island's agricultural industry and a port of entry for tourists. The city lies within the parish of Saint George in the south-west corner of Saint Vincent. ", "Carriacou is an island of the Grenadine Islands located in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, northeast of Grenada and the north coast of South America. The name is derived from the Carib language \"Kayryouacou.\"", "Bequia (or ) is the second largest island in the Grenadines at (the largest being Carriacou, a dependency of Grenada). It is part of the country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and is approximately from the nation's capital, Kingstown, on the main island, Saint Vincent. Bequia means \"island of the clouds\" in the ancient Arawak. The island's name was also 'Becouya' as part of the Granadilles. The island's unofficial anthem is considered to be 'Only in Bequia' by island native Raphael \"Socony\" Holder.", "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island country in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lie at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean. The country is also known simply as Saint Vincent.", "The Grenadines is an island chain that is part of St.Vincent and Grenada. There are 32 islands and cays that make up St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG). Nine are inhabited, including the mainland St. Vincent and the Grenadines islands: Young Island, Bequia, Mustique, Canouan, Union Island, Mayreau, Petit St Vincent and Palm Island." ]
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WH_train_67
political_ideology christian democratic movement
christian democracy
[ "christian democracy", "democracy", "liberal", "right", "third way" ]
[ "A European political party (formally, a political party at European level; informally a Europarty) is a type of political party organisation operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up of national parties, not individuals. Europarties have the exclusive right to campaign during the European elections and express themselves within the European Parliament by their affiliated political groups and their MEPs. Europarties, through coordination meetings with their affiliated heads of state and government, influence the decision-making process of the European Council. Europarties also work closely and co-ordinate with their affiliated members of the European Commission and, according to the Lisbon Treaty the Europarty that wins the European elections has the right to nominate to the European Council its candidate for President of the European Commission.", "Christian democracy is a political ideology which emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism. It was originally conceived as a combination of traditional Catholic beliefs and modern democratic ideas, and it grew to incorporate the social teaching of other Christian denominations, such as the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church. After World War II, the Protestant and Catholic movements of the Social Gospel and Neo-Thomism, respectively, played a role in shaping Christian democracy. Christian democracy continues to be influential in Europe and Latin America, although it is present in other parts of the world too.", "The European People's Party (EPP) is a European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.", "The Christian Democratic Movement ( Slovak : Kresanskodemokratické hnutie , KDH ) is a Christian democratic political party in Slovakia . KDH is a member of the European People 's Party ( EPP ) and observer of the Centrist Democrat International . The party was established in 1990 . In the 1990s it was led by Ján arnogurský and then since 2000 by Pavol Hrušovský . Currently , it is led by Ján Fige . The KDH is represented in the parliament . It was also member of the government coalition , but it left that coalition on 7 February 2006 due to disputes over an international treaty between Slovakia and the Holy See dealing with the Conscientious objection on religious grounds . In the parliamentary election of 17 June 2006 , the party won 8.3 % of the popular vote and 14 out of 150 seats . Four prominent parliamentary members ( František Mikloško , Vladimír Palko , Rudolf Bauer and Pavol Minárik ) left the party on 21 February 2008 due to their dissatisfaction with the party , its leadership and its policies , and founded the Conservative Democrats of Slovakia in July . In the 2012 parliamentary election , KDH received 8.82 % of the vote , placing it the second - largest party in the National Council with 16 deputies , leaving it the largest opposition party to the ruling Direction -- Social Democracy . In the 2014 European elections , KDH came second place nationally , receiving 13.21 % of the vote and electing 2 MEPs .", "The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international alliance of centre-right political parties. Headquartered in Oslo, Norway, the IDU comprises 71 full and associate members from 63 different countries. It is chaired by John Key, former Prime Minister of New Zealand.", "The Centrist Democrat International is Christian Democrat political international. Until 2001 it was known as the Christian Democrat International (CDI) and before that the \"Christian Democrat and People's Parties International\" (until 1999) (this earlier name is, since October 2000, still sometimes used colloquially). It was formed in 1961 in Santiago, Chile as the \"Christian Democrat World Union\", building on the legacy of other Christian Democrat internationals who tried to create a Christian-inspired third way alternative to the socialist internationals; in 1982 it was renamed for the first time Christian Democrat International. The name officially changed due to the participation of groups of various faiths. It is the global international political group dedicated to the promotion of Christian democracy. Although it gathers parties from around the globe, its members are drawn principally from Europe and Latin America. Some of them are also members of the International Democrat Union (IDU), although the CDI is closer to the political centre and more communitarian than the IDU." ]
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WH_train_68
country_of_origin new philosophers
france
[ "england", "france", "london", "massachusetts", "switzerland" ]
[ "The New Philosophers ( French : nouveaux philosophes ) is a term which refers to a generation of French philosophers who broke with Marxism in the early 1970s . They include André Glucksmann , Pascal Bruckner , Bernard - Henri Lévy , Jean - Marie Benoist , Christian Jambet , Guy Lardreau , Claude Gandelman , Jean - Paul Dollé and Gilles Susong . They criticized Jean - Paul Sartre and post-structuralism , as well as the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger .", "Bernard-Henri Lévy (born 5 November 1948) is a French public intellectual, media personality, and author. Often referred to in France simply as BHL, he was one of the leaders of the \"Nouveaux Philosophes\" (New Philosophers) movement in 1976. In 2010, \"The Jerusalem Post\" named Lévy 45th on a list of the world's 50 most influential Jews. \"The Boston Globe\" has said that he is \"perhaps the most prominent intellectual in France today\". ", "Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.", "The University of Basel (German: \"Universität Basel\") is located in Basel, Switzerland. Founded in 1460, it is Switzerlands oldest university and is counted among the leading institutions of the country. ", "Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844  25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869, at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother (until her death in 1897), and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, and died in 1900.", "The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1872 by Charles H. Taylor, it was privately held until 1973, when it went public as Affiliated Publications. The company was acquired in 1993 by The New York Times Company; two years later Boston.com was established as the newspaper's online edition. In 2011, a BostonGlobe.com subscription site was launched. In 2013, the newspaper and websites were purchased by John W. Henry, a businessman whose other holdings include the Boston Red Sox and Liverpool F.C.", "Karl Marx (5 May 1818 14 March 1883) was a German-born scientist, philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy. As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet \"The Communist Manifesto\". His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history.", "Friedrich Engels (or 28 November 1820 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, and businessman. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx. In 1845, he published \"The Condition of the Working Class in England\", based on personal observations and research in Manchester." ]
[]
WH_train_69
conflict charles r. stimpson
world war ii
[ "cold war", "first barbary war", "second barbary war", "world war", "world war ii" ]
[ "The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The President of the United States is the military's overall head, and helps form military policy with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out.\nFrom the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force. It played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U.S. military framework; the Act merged previously Cabinet-level Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (renamed the Department of Defense in 1949), headed by the Secretary of Defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and National Security Council.", "The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage. The U.S. Navy has the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on active duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 aircraft in active service .", "Charles R. Stimpson ( 24 August 1919 - 20 August 1983 ) was a United States Navy fighter ace in the Second World War ." ]
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WH_train_70
inception jetlink express
2006
[ "10", "100", "1858", "1891", "1946", "1964", "1967", "1977", "20", "2006", "2014", "22", "30", "50", "635", "7", "7 july 2000", "july 2000", "july 2014", "may 2014" ]
[ "Jomo Kenyatta International Airport is an international airport in Nairobi, the capital of and largest city in Kenya. Located in the Embakasi suburb southeast of Nairobi's central business district, the airport has scheduled flights to destinations in over 50 countries. The airport is named after Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's first president and prime minister. The airport served 6,348,635 passengers in 2014, making it the ninth-busiest airport in Africa by total passengers. It is the hub for flag carrier Kenya Airways, Jambojet, as well as Fly540 and African Express Airways.", "Nairobi National Park is a national park in Kenya. Established in 1946, the national park was Kenya's first. It is located approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi) south of the centre of Nairobi, Kenya's capital city, with an electric fence separating the park's wildlife from the metropolis. Nairobi's skyscrapers can be seen from the park. The proximity of urban and natural environments has caused conflicts between the animals and local people and threatens animals' migration routes.", "The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica. It is named after the country of India. The Indian Ocean is known as \"Ratnkara\", \"\"the mine of gems\"\" in ancient Sanskrit literature, and as \"Hind Mahsgar\", \"\"the great Indian sea\"\", in Hindi.", "Five Forty Aviation Ltd, trading as Fly540, is a low-cost airline which commenced operations in 2006 and is based in Nairobi, Kenya, that operates domestic and international passenger and freight services. The airline had two subsidiary airlines, Fly540 Ghana (suspended in May 2014 and since sold) and Fly540 Angola (suspended in May 2014), but has since focused its business expansion plans on East Africa.", "JetLink Express was a Kenyan regional airline with its head office in the Freight Complex in Embakasi , Nairobi . It operated out of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport . All flight activities have been stopped since 16 November 2012 , due to financial problems . On 28 January 2013 Fastjet announced that it had signed a Memorandum of Understanding ( `` MoU '' ) with Jetlink . Under the terms of the MoU , Fastjet and Jetlink were to create a joint venture which would lead to the launch of the Fastjet brand in Kenya . The MoU is subject to a number of conditions precedent , including Board and any other necessary approvals .", "Embakasi is a division of Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. It is located east of the central business district. As a residential estate it houses mostly lower middle income citizens. It is also a host to informal settlements like 'Mukuru Kwa Njenga'.", "The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. John Magufuli, the president of Tanzania, is the EAC's chairman. The organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and revived on 7 July 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three organizations. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community.", "Lake Victoria (' in Luo; ' in Luganda; \"\" in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, the first Briton to document it. Speke accomplished this in 1858, while on an expedition with Richard Francis Burton to locate the source of the Nile River.", "Jomo Kenyatta (c. 1891 22 August 1978) was a Kenyan politician and the first President of Kenya. Kenyatta was the leader of Kenya from independence in 1963 to his death in 1978, serving first as Prime Minister (196364) and then as President (196478). He is considered the founding father of the Kenyan nation. Kenyatta was a well-educated intellectual who authored several books, and is remembered as a Pan-Africanist. He is also the father of Kenya's fourth and current President, Uhuru Kenyatta.", "The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa. The EAR began developing around the onset of the Miocene, 2225 million years ago. In the past, it was considered to be part of a larger Great Rift Valley that extended north to Asia Minor.", "Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community (EAC). Its capital and largest city is Nairobi. Kenya's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and further south-east to the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers , and had a population of approximately 45 million people in July 2014.", "Kenya Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Kenya Airways, is the flag carrier of Kenya. The company was founded in 1977, after the dissolution of East African Airways. The carrier's head office is located in Embakasi, Nairobi, with its hub at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport.", "The lion (\"Panthera leo\") is one of the big cats in the genus \"Panthera\" and a member of the family Felidae. The commonly used term African lion collectively denotes the several subspecies in Africa. With some males exceeding in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in sub-Saharan Africa and in India (where an endangered remnant population resides in Gir Forest National Park). In ancient historic times, their range was in most of Africa, including North Africa, and across Eurasia from Greece and southeastern Europe to India. In the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans: \"Panthera leo spelaea\" lived in northern and western Europe and \"Panthera leo atrox\" lived in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru. The lion is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), having seen a major population decline in its African range of 3050% over two decades during the second half of the twentieth century. Lion populations are untenable outside designated reserves and national parks. Although the cause of the decline is not fully understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are the greatest causes of concern. Within Africa, the West African lion population is particularly endangered.", "Ethiopia ('), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia\"' ( , \"yetiyoya Fdralaw Dmokirasyaw Rpebilk\" ), is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With nearly 100 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world, as well as the second-most populous nation on the African continent after Nigeria. It occupies a total area of , and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa.", "Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya. It is famous for having the Nairobi National Park, the world's only game reserve found within a major city. The city and its surrounding area also form Nairobi County, whose current governor is Evans Kidero and Deputy Governor is Jonathan Mueke.", "The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The Equator is about long; some 78.7% lies across water and 21.3% over land." ]
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WH_train_71
distributor ninaithen vandhai
geetha arts
[ "geetha arts", "history", "lifetime" ]
[ "Ninaithen Vandhai ( English : I Thought of You , Then You Came ) is a 1998 Tamil romance film directed by K. Selva Bharathy and produced by Allu Aravind . The film features Vijay , Rambha and Devayani in the lead roles with Manivannan , Charle and Ranjith amongst others in supporting roles . The film , a remake of the Telugu film Pelli Sandadi directed by Kovelamudi Raghavendra Rao , starring Srikanth , Deepti Bhatnagar and Ravali , released on 10 April 1998 to positive reviews and was successful at the box office .", "Geetha Arts (Telugu: ) is an Indian film production and distribution company established in 1972 by Allu Aravind, brother-in-law of Chiranjeevi. The company is based in Hyderabad and had produced films in Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Hindi languages.", "Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, based in the Hyderabad neighbourhood of Film Nagar in the Indian states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Since 1909, filmmaker Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema's history, like producing short films and travelling to different regions in Asia to promote film work. In 1921, he produced the first Telugu silent film, \"Bhishma Pratigna\". He is cited as the father of Telugu cinema.", "Allu Aravind (born 10 January 1949) is an Indian film producer and distributor in Tollywood and political candidate. He produces films under his production banner Geetha Arts with his brother-in-law, actor Chiranjeevi.", "K. Raghavendra Rao (born Kovelamudi Raghavendra Rao), popularly known as \"Darshakendra\", is an Indian film director, screenwriter and choreographer, known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema, few Bollywood and Kannada films. He has garnered seven state Nandi Awards, four Filmfare Awards South, and two CineMAA Awards. Rao has directed films across multiple genres like romantic comedy, fantasy, melodrama, action and romance films.He achieved national fame when he directed 2 superhit Hindi films with Rajesh Khanna in the lead - Naya Kadam and Masterji.", "The Nandi Awards is the highest award ceremony for excellence in Telugu cinema, Telugu theatre, Telugu Television, and Lifetime achievements in Indian cinema, presented annually by the Governments of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. \"Nandi\" means \"bull\", the award being named after the big granite bull at Lepakshi a cultural and historical symbol of the Telugu people.\nNandi Awards are presented in four categories: Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Copper. A variant, the Nandi Natakotsavam Awards for Theater, is also given every year by the government for social, mythological and poetic dramas." ]
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WH_train_72
languages_spoken_or_written sidney mintz
english
[ "english", "latin", "nahuatl", "romance languages", "spanish", "turkish" ]
[ "Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island, in area, lies about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola (the island containing the nation-states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean, by area.", "Sidney Wilfred Mintz ( November 16 , 1922 -- December 27 , 2015 ) was an anthropologist best known for his studies of the Caribbean , creolization , and the anthropology of food . Mintz received his PhD at Columbia University in 1951 and conducted his primary fieldwork among sugar - cane workers in Puerto Rico . Later expanding his ethnographic research to Haiti and Jamaica , he produced historical and ethnographic studies of slavery and global capitalism , cultural hybridity , Caribbean peasants , and the political economy of food commodities . He taught for two decades at Yale University before helping to found the Anthropology Department at Johns Hopkins University , where he remained for the duration of his career . Mintz ' history of sugar , Sweetness and Power , is considered one of the most influential publications in cultural anthropology and food studies .", "Mexico (, modern Nahuatl ), officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million, it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world while being the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is also its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.", "Slavery is, the strictest sense of the term, any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a \"de jure\" form of property. A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, \"de jure\" slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is \"de facto\" forced to work against his or her will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour, to refer to such situations. However and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word slaves may have some rights and/or protections, according to laws and/or customs. ", "Puerto Rico, (Spanish for \"Rich Port\") officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (\"Free Associated State of Puerto Rico\") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.", "South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is the model used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).", "De jure (adjective, adverb) (; Classical Latin: de iure ; (lit. 'concerning law') means 'a state of affairs that is in accordance with law', i.e. that is officially designated. In contrast, \"de facto\" (lit. 'concerning fact'), means 'a state of affairs that is true in fact, but that is not officially designated'. In law, and in government, the terms \"de jure\" and \"de facto\" are used instead of 'in law' and 'in practice', respectively. In a legal context, \"de jure\" (laws) are contrasted to \"de facto\" practices, where, for example, the people obey a contract as though there were a law enforcing it, yet there is no such law. A process known as 'desuetude' may allow \"de facto\" practices to replace \"de jure\" laws that have fallen out of favour locally.", "De facto is a Latin expression that means \"in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact\" (literally \"of fact\"). In law, it often means \"in practice but not necessarily ordained by law\" or \"in practice or actuality, but not officially designated or established\". It is commonly used in contrast to \"\" (which means \"according to law\"; literally \"from law\"), when referring to matters of law, governance, or technique (such as standards) that are found in the common experience as created or developed without or contrary to a regulation. When discussing a legal situation, \"de jure\" designates what the law says, while \"de facto\" designates what happens in practice.", "Hispaniola (Spanish: \"La Española\"; Latin: \"Hispaniola\"; Taíno: \"Haiti\") is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, and the tenth most populous island in the world.", "In English law, a fee simple or fee simple absolute is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership. It is a way that real estate may be owned in common law countries, and is the highest possible ownership interest that can be held in real property. Allodial title is reserved to governments under a civil law structure. The rights of the fee simple owner are limited by government powers of taxation, compulsory purchase, police power, and escheat, and it could also be limited further by certain encumbrances or conditions in the deed, such as, for example, a condition that required the land to be used as a public park, with a reversion interest in the grantor if the condition fails; this is a fee simple conditional.", "Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europea concept dating back to classical antiquityare arbitrary. The primarily physiographic term \"continent\" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.", "A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.", "The Caribbean (or ) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.", "Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that creolization also is the mixing of the \"old\" and \"traditional\" with the \"new\" and \"modern\". Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that creolization is a condition in which \"the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures,\" and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms." ]
[]
WH_train_73
instance_of pars pro toto
phrase
[ "alphabet", "behavior", "bengali", "branch", "butter", "century", "change", "collective", "complex", "concept", "emphasis", "family", "figure of speech", "language", "language family", "law", "legislature", "limited", "may", "metonymy", "name", "part", "phrase", "population", "process", "race", "rat", "representative", "running", "science", "script", "single", "speech", "state", "suffix", "system", "term", "tradition", "understanding", "vice", "word", "writing" ]
[ "The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, which was itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Etruscans who ruled early Rome adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet which was modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet.", "Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by a metonym, the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept. The words \"metonymy\" and \"metonym\" come from the , , \"a change of name\", from , , \"after, beyond\" and , , a suffix used to name figures of speech, from , or , , \"name\".", "Pars pro toto , Latin for `` a part ( taken ) for the whole '' , is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object , place , or concept represents its entirety . It is distinct from a merism , which is a reference to a whole by an enumeration of parts ; metonymy , where an object , place , or concept is called by something or some place associated with the object , place , or concept ; or synecdoche , which can refer both to this and its inverse of the whole representing a part . In the context of language , pars pro toto means that something is named after a part of it , or after a limited characteristic , in itself not necessarily representative for the whole . For example , `` glasses '' is a pars pro toto name for something that consists of more than just two pieces of glass . Pars pro toto is a common device in iconography , where a particular icon can stand for a complete set of characteristics . James George Frazer used `` pars pro toto '' to explain his concept of contagious magic . Examples of common pars pro toto usage in political geography include `` Russia '' or `` Russians '' , for the entire former Russian Empire or former Soviet Union or its people , Taiwan or Taipei ( `` Chinese Taipei '' ) for Republic of China , Holland for the Netherlands , and , particularly in languages other than English , using the translation of `` England '' in that language for `` United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland '' . Among English - speakers `` Great Britain '' is a common pars pro toto shorthand for the entire United Kingdom . Switzerland 's name ( in German Schweiz ) comes from its central Canton of Schwyz . The inverse of a pars pro toto is a totum pro parte , in which the whole is used to describe a part , such as widespread use of `` America '' ( which originally named the entire western hemisphere to place it geographically , with alliteration , alongside Asia , Africa , `` Europa , '' and ultimately Arctica , Antarctica and Australia ) in place of `` United States of America '' , `` United States '' or `` USA '' . The term synecdoche is used for both , as well as similar metaphors , though in Greek it literally means `` simultaneous understanding '' . Pars pro toto ( and totum pro parte ) can be imprecise , controversial or even offensive . In the UK , for instance , substituting `` Great Britain '' or using the terms `` British '' or `` English '' for countries or provinces ( that choice of terms is a point of contention all its own ) which are neither British nor English can be a hot button issue and divide along sectarian lines , from a grand political perspective down to an individual level of personal preference of how one wishes to self - identify . In Northern Ireland especially , many Unionists may wish to be referred to as British or even English and may prefer to call the region Ulster , whereas Irish Republicans are not offended by the `` Irish '' identifier but may well take umbrage to being called English or referring to an incomplete Ulster or declare it part of Britain when referring to the province to emphasize its subjugation and divided nature .", "The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by \"Ethnologue\", with over two-thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch. The most widely spoken Indo-European languages by native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Persian and Punjabi, each with over 100 million speakers. Today, 46% of the human population speaks an Indo-European language natively, by far the highest of any language family.", "In law, a merism is a figure of speech by which a single thing is referred to by a conventional phrase that enumerates several of its parts, \"or\" which lists several synonyms for the same thing.", "A synecdoche (; from Greek , \"synekdoche\", . \"simultaneous understanding\") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something or vice versa. A synecdoche is a class of metonymy, often by means of either mentioning a part for the whole or conversely the whole for one of its parts. Examples from common English expressions include \"bread and butter\" (for \"livelihood\"), \"suits\" (for \"businesspeople\"), and \"boots\" (for \"soldiers\") (Pars pro toto), or conversely \"America\" (for \"the United States of America\") (Totum pro parte). ", "Totum pro parte is Latin for \"the whole for a part\"; it refers to a kind of synecdoche. The plural is tota pro partibus, \"wholes for parts\". When used in a context of language it means that something is named after something of which it is only a part (or only a limited characteristic, in itself not necessarily representative for the whole). A \"pars pro toto\" (in which a part is used to describe the whole) is the opposite of a \"totum pro parte\".", "A classical language is a language with a literature that is \"classical\". According to UC Berkeley linguist George L. Hart, \"it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature.\"", "Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.", "The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.", "In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning). This contrasts deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not necessarily stand on its own. A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: \"oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect\"), or several (\"rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected\"), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are \"-s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed\").\nA complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (\"rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed\"), or more than one root in a compound (\"black-board, rat-race\"). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (\"a red rock\"), clauses (\"I threw a rock\"), and sentences (\"He threw a rock too, but he missed\").", "A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase. It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation.", "Latin (Latin: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets." ]
[]
WH_train_74
part_of torsa
inner hebrides
[ "18th century", "1937", "1960s", "20th century", "24", "animals", "atlantic ocean", "back", "bay", "boat", "bridge", "country", "england", "european union", "farm", "geography", "hebrides", "industry", "inner hebrides", "ireland", "irish sea", "islands", "japan", "java", "lead", "local government", "may", "mesolithic", "name", "north sea", "norwegian", "norwegian sea", "ocean", "physical geography", "political geography", "population", "river", "road", "shetland", "sovereign state", "state", "track" ]
[ "The Slate Islands are an island group in the Inner Hebrides, lying immediately off the west coast of Scotland, north of Jura and southwest of Oban. The main islands are Seil, Easdale, Luing, Lunga, Shuna, Torsa and Belnahua. Scarba and Kerrera which lie nearby, are not usually included.", "The Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: \"Innse Gall\"; Old Norse: \"Suðreyjar\") comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic, and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse, and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times.", "Scarba is a small island, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland, just north of the much larger island of Jura. The island was owned by Richard Hill, 7th Baron Sandys and has not been permanently inhabited since the 1960s. It is now covered in heather and used for grazing animals. Kilmory Lodge is used seasonally as a shooting lodge, the island having a flourishing herd of red deer.", "Lochgilphead is a town and former burgh in Argyll, Scotland, with a population of around 2,300 people. It is the administrative centre of Argyll and Bute. The village lies at the end of Loch Gilp (a branch of Loch Fyne) and lies on the banks of the Crinan Canal. Lochgilphead sits on the A83 road, with Ardrishaig 2 miles to the south and Inveraray 24 miles to the north-east; Oban lies 37 miles north on the A816.", "A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.", "Belnahua is one of the Slate Islands, in the Firth of Lorn in Scotland, known for its slate quarries", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "Easdale is one of the Slate Islands, in the Firth of Lorn, Scotland. Once the centre of the Scottish slate industry, there has been some recent island regeneration.", "The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about . It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the \"Old World\" from the \"New World\".", "Oban (; \"An t-Òban\" in Scottish Gaelic meaning \"The Little Bay\") is a resort town within the Argyll and Bute council area of Scotland. Despite its small size, it is the largest town between Helensburgh and Fort William. During the tourist season, the town can play host to up to 25,000 people. Oban occupies a setting in the Firth of Lorn. The bay is a near perfect horseshoe, protected by the island of Kerrera; and beyond Kerrera, the Isle of Mull. To the north, is the long low island of Lismore, and the mountains of Morvern and Ardgour.", "Great Britain, also known as Britain , is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , Great Britain is the largest European island and the ninth-largest in the world. In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, comprise the British Isles archipelago.", "Scotland (Scots: ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.", "The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: \"Na h-Eileanan a-staigh\", \"the inner isles\") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate. The Inner Hebrides comprise 35 inhabited islands as well as 44 uninhabited islands with an area greater than . The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about , and had a population of 18,948 in 2011. The population density is therefore about 4.6 per km (12 per square mile).", "A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction.", "The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric (or \"shelf\") sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than long and wide, with an area of around .", "Argyll and Bute is both one of 32 unitary authority council areas and a lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the council area is in Lochgilphead.", "The Northern Isles is an archipelago comprising a chain of islands off the north coast of mainland Scotland. The climate is cool and temperate and much influenced by the surrounding seas. There are two main island groups: Shetland and Orkney. There are a total of 26 inhabited islands with landscapes of the fertile agricultural islands of Orkney contrasting with the more rugged Shetland islands to the north, where the economy is more dependent on fishing and the oil wealth of the surrounding seas. Both have a developing renewable energy industry. They also share a common Pictish and Norse history. Both island groups were absorbed into the Kingdom of Scotland in the 15th century and remained part of the country following the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, and later the United Kingdom after 1801. The islands played a significant naval role during the world wars of the 20th century.", "An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, e.g. the Philippines.", "The Irish Sea (, , , Ulster-Scots: \"Airish Sea\"), separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the North Channel. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the Manx Sea.", "Kerrera (Scottish Gaelic: \"Cearara\" or \"Cearrara\") is an island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, close to the town of Oban. In 2016 it had a population of 45 divided into two communities in the North and South of the island. The island is linked to the mainland by passenger ferry from the Gallanach Road (about 3 km SW of Oban) from where tracks lead to the scattered settlements in the centre and south of the island. The northern tip of the island, centred round a boat yard, is served by two smaller ferries which berth at a bay near Ardentrive Farm, and is linked by a rough track to the rest of the island. The island is around 7 km (4 miles) long and around 2 km wide, and is separated from the mainland by the Sound of Kerrera, about 500 metres wide.", "One of the Slate Islands, Seil is a small island on the east side of the Firth of Lorn, southwest of Oban, in Scotland. Seil has been linked to the mainland by bridge since the late 18th century.", "Luing (Gaelic: \"Luinn\") is one of the Slate Islands, Firth of Lorn, in the west of Argyll in Scotland, about south of Oban. The island has an area of and is bounded by several small skerries and islets. It has a population of around 200 people, mostly living in Cullipool, Toberonochy (\"Tobar Dhonnchaidh\"), and Blackmillbay.", "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain (the name of which is also loosely applied to the whole country), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign statethe Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of , the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union.", "Torsa ( occasionally Torsay ) is one of the Slate Islands in Argyll and Bute , Scotland . Lying east of Luing and south of Seil , the island was inhabited until the 1960s . There is now only one house on the island , which is used for holiday lets . Its main industry is farming , with cattle brought over from the neighbouring island of Luing . The Luing cattle were bred for their hardiness . The island is connected to its smaller partner , Torsa Beag ( Gaelic for little Torsa ) . In the bay beyond is a suspected crannog . The island is best known for the ruined sixteenth century hunting lodge Caisteal nan Con . This is known locally as the Castle of the Dogs . It is doubtful that the castle would have originally been built as a hunting lodge , as it is in a very fine defensive position built upon a sheer rocky outcrop overlooking the sea on three sides . However , over time this may have become the final use of the building before falling into disrepair ." ]
[]
WH_train_75
occupation robert edmond jones
lighting designer
[ "artist", "computer", "costume designer", "designer", "lighting designer", "profession", "television" ]
[ "A theatre lighting designer (or LD) works with the director, choreographer, set designer, costume designer, and sound designer to create the lighting, atmosphere, and time of day for the production in response to the text, while keeping in mind issues of visibility, safety, and cost. The LD also works closely with the stage manager or show control programming, if show control systems are used in that production. Outside of stage lighting the job of a Lighting Designer can be much more diverse and they can be found working on rock and pop tours, corporate launches, art installation and on massive celebration spectaculars, for example the Olympic Games opening and closing ceremonies.", "A costume designer is a person who designs costumes for a film, stage production or television. The role of the costume designer is to create the characters and balance the scenes with texture and colour, etc. The costume designer works alongside the director, scenic, lighting designer, sound designer, and other creative personnel. The costume designer may also collaborate with hair stylist, wig master, or makeup artist. In European theatre, the role is different, as the theatre designer usually designs both costume and scenic elements.", "Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch.", "Robert Edmond `` Bobby '' Jones ( December 12 , 1887 -- November 26 , 1954 ) was an American scenic , lighting , and costume designer . He is credited with incorporating the new stagecraft into the American drama . His designs sought to integrate the scenic elements into the storytelling instead of having them stand separate and indifferent from the play 's action . His visual style , often referred to as simplified realism , combined bold vivid use of color and simple , yet dramatic , lighting .", "A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects." ]
[]
WH_train_76
occupation mar awgin
monk
[ "hermit", "major", "member", "monk", "nun", "official", "religious" ]
[ "A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society.", "The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties itself into the Persian Gulf.", "Mesopotamia (\"[land] between rivers\"; from Ancient Armenian (Mijagetq); \"bild ar-rfidayn\" \"miyn rodn\"; \"Beth Nahrain\" \"land of rivers\") is a name for the area of the TigrisEuphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and IranIraq borders.", "The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia. From sources in the Taurus mountains of eastern Turkey they flow by/through Syria through Iraq into the Persian Gulf. The system is part of the Palearctic TigrisEuphrates ecoregion, which includes Iraq and parts of Turkey, Syria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Jordan.", "Mar Awgin ( died 363 AD ) , also known as Awgin of Clysma or Saint Eugenios , founded the first cenobitic monastery of Asia and is regarded as the founder of monasticism in Mesopotamia .", "Iraq (, or ; '; '), officially known as the Republic of Iraq ('; ') is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.", "A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, and may also serve as an oratory.", "A monk (from , \"monachos\", \"single, solitary\" and Latin \"monachus\") is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decided to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy.", "A temple (from the Latin word ) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not generally used in English. These include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion.", "A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. She may have decided to dedicate her life to serving all other living beings, or she might be an ascetic who voluntarily chose to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. The term \"nun\" is applicable to Catholics (eastern and western traditions), Orthodox Christians, Anglicans, Lutherans, Jains, Buddhists, Taoists, Hindus and some other religious traditions." ]
[]
WH_train_77
composer come blow your horn
nelson riddle
[ "benny carter", "broadcast", "duke ellington", "isham jones", "morgan", "nelson riddle" ]
[ "The swing era (also frequently referred to as the \"big band era\") was the period of time (around 19351946) when big band swing music was the most popular music in the United States. Though this was its most popular period, the music had actually been around since the late 1920s and early 1930s, being played by black bands led by such artists as Duke Ellington, Jimmie Lunceford, Bennie Moten, Cab Calloway, and Fletcher Henderson, and white bands from the 1920s led by the likes of Russ Morgan and Isham Jones. The era's beginning is sometimes dated from the King of Swing Benny Goodman's performance at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles on August 21, 1935, bringing the music to the rest of the country. 1930s also became the era of other great soloists: the tenor saxist Coleman Hawkins and Chu Berry; the alto saxists Benny Carter and Johnny Hodges; the drummers Gene Krupa, Cozy Cole and Sid Catlett; the pianists Fats Waller and Teddy Wilson; the trumpeters Roy Eldridge, Bunny Berigan, and Rex Stewart.", "Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the \"bobby soxers\". He released his debut album, \"The Voice of Frank Sinatra\", in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known performers as part of the Rat Pack. His career was reborn in 1953 with the success of \"From Here to Eternity\" and his subsequent Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including \"In the Wee Small Hours\" (1955), \"Songs for Swingin' Lovers!\" (1956), \"Come Fly with Me\" (1958), \"Only the Lonely\" (1958) and \"Nice 'n' Easy\" (1960).", "Norman Milton Lear (born July 27, 1922) is an American television writer and producer who produced such 1970s sitcoms as \"All in the Family\", \"Sanford and Son\", \"One Day at a Time\", \"The Jeffersons\", \"Good Times\", and \"Maude\". As a political activist, he founded the advocacy organization People for the American Way in 1981 and has supported First Amendment rights and progressive causes.", "All in the Family is an American sitcom that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network for nine seasons, from January 1971 to April 1979. The following September, it was replaced by \"Archie Bunker's Place\", which picked up where \"All in the Family\" had ended and ran for four more seasons.", "In the Wee Small Hours is the ninth studio album by American vocalist Frank Sinatra. It was released in April 1955 on Capitol Records, produced by Voyle Gilmore with arrangements by Nelson Riddle. All the songs on the album deal with specific themes such as loneliness, introspection, lost love, failed relationships, depression and night-life; as a result, \"In the Wee Small Hours\" has been called one of the first concept albums. The cover artwork reflects these themes, portraying Sinatra on an eerie and deserted street awash in blue-tinged street lights. He had been developing this idea since 1946 with his first album release, \"The Voice\"; he would successfully continue this \"concept\" formula with later albums such as \"Songs for Swingin' Lovers!\" and \"Only the Lonely\".", "Come Blow Your Horn is a 1963 American comedy film starring Frank Sinatra , directed by Bud Yorkin with a screenplay by Norman Lear , and based on the play of the same name by Neil Simon .", "The Jeffersons is an American sitcom that was broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975, through July 2, 1985, lasting 11 seasons and a total of 253 episodes. \"The Jeffersons\" is one of the longest-running sitcoms, the second longest-running American series with a primarily African American cast (surpassed in 2012 by \"Tyler Perry's House of Payne\"), and the first to prominently feature a married interracial couple.", "Songs for Swingin' Lovers! is the tenth studio album by American singer Frank Sinatra and his fourth for Capitol Records. It was arranged by Nelson Riddle and released in March 1956. It was the first album ever to top the UK Albums Chart." ]
[]
WH_train_78
instance_of hmas kurumba
ship
[ "air force", "army", "branch", "department", "extraction", "federation", "force", "january", "military", "nation", "navy", "oil", "oil tanker", "point", "process", "region", "service", "ship", "six", "tanker", "transport", "two" ]
[ "The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation. Following federation, the six colonies that united to form the Commonwealth of Australia as states kept the systems of government (and the bicameral legislatures) that they had developed as separate colonies, but they also agreed to have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.", "HMAS Kurumba was an oil tanker operated by the Royal Australian Navy ( RAN ) from 1919 to 1946 . Kurumba was built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson , Wallsend for the RAN and was launched on 14 September 1916 . Commissioned on 7 December 1916 as part of the Royal Navy 's Royal Fleet Auxiliary and served until 11 March 1919 when she was transferred to the Royal Australian Fleet Auxiliary and arrived in Australia in July . Kurumba operated in Australian and South - East Asia waters until being paid off to reserve on 4 June 1928 . Kurumba was reactivated on 4 September 1939 and served in Australian waters and the South West Pacific Area during World War II. Following the war she was taken out of service in July 1946 and was sold to Artemis Maritime Co Inc , Panama in January 1948 and she was renamed Angeliki . In 1955 , she was sold to Pappas Eleftheriades and renamed Evangelos . She was broken up at Castellón de la Plana in 1966 .", "An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets.", "The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.", "The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and a number of 'tri-service' units. The ADF has a strength of just over 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, and is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies." ]
[]
WH_train_79
country_of_citizenship travis mayweather
earth
[ "american", "british", "earth" ]
[ "Travis Mayweather is a fictional character , portrayed by Anthony Montgomery , in the television series Star Trek : Enterprise , serving as a navigator and helm officer aboard the starship Enterprise . He holds the rank of Ensign , and is in the command division . Mayweather is one of the main characters throughout the show 's entire four - season run .", "General Hospital (commonly abbreviated GH) is an American daytime television medical drama. It is listed in \"Guinness World Records\" as the longest-running American soap opera in production and the third longest-running drama in television in American history after \"Guiding Light\" and \"As the World Turns.\" Concurrently, it is the world's third longest-running scripted drama series in production after British serials \"The Archers\" and \"Coronation Street\", as well as the world's second-longest-running televised soap opera still in production. \"General Hospital\" premiered on the ABC television network on April 1, 1963. Same-day broadcasts as well as classic episodes were aired on SOAPnet from January 20, 2000, to December 31, 2013, following Disney-ABC's decision to discontinue the network. \"General Hospital\" is the longest-running serial produced in Hollywood, and the longest-running entertainment program in ABC television history. It holds the record for most Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Drama Series, with 13 wins.", "A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land (topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and human-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and human-made structures such as harbours, buildings and bridges. Nautical charts are essential tools for marine navigation; many countries require vessels, especially commercial ships, to carry them. Nautical charting may take the form of charts printed on paper or computerized electronic navigational charts. Recent technologies have made available paper charts which are printed \"on demand\" with cartographic data that has been downloaded to the commercial printing company as recently as the night before printing. With each daily download, critical data such as Local Notice to Mariners is added to the on-demand chart files so that these charts will be up to date at the time of printing.", "The United Paramount Network (UPN) was an American broadcast television network that launched on January 16, 1995. The network was originally owned by Chris-Craft Industries/United Television; then Viacom (through its Paramount Television unit, which produced most of the network's series) turned the network into a joint venture in 1996 after acquiring a 50% stake in the network, and then purchased Chris-Craft's remaining stake in 2000. In December 2005, UPN was spun off to CBS Corporation when CBS and Viacom split up into two separate companies.", "A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation. The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of ship or aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship's captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, and ensuring hazards are avoided. The navigator is in charge of maintaining the aircraft or ship's nautical charts, nautical publications, and navigational equipment, and generally has responsibility for meteorological equipment and communications.", "Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise based on the television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series, simply called \"Star Trek\" and now referred to as \"\", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on the television network NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the starship USS \"Enterprise\", a space exploration vessel, built by the interstellar federal republic United Federation of Planets in the twenty-third century. The \"Star Trek\" canon of the franchise include \"The Original Series\", an animated series, four television series, its film franchise and an upcoming television series scheduled to debut in 2017.", "Anthony Dwayne Montgomery (born June 2, 1971 in Indianapolis, Indiana) is an American film and television actor, as well as graphic novelist. He is best known for his portrayal of Ensign Travis Mayweather on the UPN science fiction television series \"\" (the fifth live-action series in the \"Star Trek\" franchise). Montgomery is currently playing Andre Maddox on the ABC daytime soap opera \"General Hospital\"." ]
[]
WH_train_80
religious_order felix of cantalice
order of friars minor
[ "augustinians", "carmelites", "catholicism", "order of friars minor" ]
[ "A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites.", "The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain. Saint Bertold has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived, and this is likely to be a later extrapolation by hagiographers.", "The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354430), applies to two separate types of Catholic religious orders and some Anglican religious orders. Within Anglicanism the Rule of St Augustine is followed only by women, who form several different communities of Augustinian nuns in the Anglican Communion. Within Roman Catholicism Augustinians may be members of either one of two separate and distinct types of Order:\nCharism.\nIn a religious community, \"charism\" is the particular contribution that each religious order, congregation or family and its individual members embody. The teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, and the lives and experiences of Augustinians over sixteen centuries help define the ethos of the order.", "The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis. Theses orders adheres to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. ", "Felix of Cantalice , O.F.M. Cap . ( Italian : Felice da Cantalice ) , was born on 18 May 1515 to peasant parents in Cantalice , Italy , in the central Italian region of Lazio . Canonized by Pope Clement XI in 1712 , he was the first Capuchin friar to be named a saint ." ]
[]
WH_train_81
place_of_death elisabeth marschall
hamelin
[ "albert", "austria", "berlin", "central", "cologne", "england", "frankfurt", "germany", "hamburg", "hamelin", "march", "most", "nagasaki", "ravensbrück concentration camp", "union" ]
[ "Albert Pierrepoint (30 March 1905  10 July 1992) was a long-serving hangman in England. He executed at least 400 people, including William Joyce (\"Lord Haw-Haw\") and John Amery. In Germany and Austria after the war, he executed some 200 people who had been convicted of war crimes. In England, Timothy Evans was hanged by Pierrepoint for a crime committed by his neighbour John Christie, who was also hanged by Pierrepoint.", "The Hamburg Ravensbrück trials were a series of seven trials for war crimes against camp officials from the Ravensbrück concentration camp that the British authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Hamburg after the end of World War II. These trials were heard before a military tribunal; the three to five judges at these trials were British officers, assisted by a lawyer. The defendants included concentration camp personnel of all levels: SS officers, camp doctors, male guards, female guards (\"Aufseherinnen\"), and a few former prisoner-functionaries who had tortured or mistreated other inmates. In total, 38 defendants were tried in these seven trials; 21 of the defendants were women. Executions relating to these trials were carried out on the gallows at Hamelin Prison by British hangman Albert Pierrepoint.", "Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of , and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin. Other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf.", "Elisabeth Marschall ( 27 May 1886 -- 3 May 1947 ) was the Head Nurse ( Oberschwester ) at the Ravensbrück concentration camp . Her duties included selecting prisoners for execution , overseeing medical experiments , and selecting which prisoners would be shipped to Auschwitz . At the Hamburg Ravensbrück Trials , she was found guilty and sentenced to death . On 3 May 1947 she was hanged by British executioner Albert Pierrepoint on the gallows in Hameln prison . Aged 60 , she was the oldest female Nazi to be executed .", "Hamburg (local pronunciation ; Low German/Low Saxon: \"Hamborg\" ), officially \"Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg\" (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area. Its population is over 1.7 million people, and the wider Hamburg Metropolitan Region covers more than 5.1 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe.", "Hamelin (or ; German: \"Hameln\") is a town on the river Weser in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Hamelin-Pyrmont and has a population of roughly 56,000. Hamelin is best known for the tale of the Pied Piper of Hamelin.", "World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nationsincluding all of the great powerseventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of \"total war\", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (in which approximately 11 million people were killed) and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centres (in which approximately one million were killed, and which included the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki), it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history." ]
[]
WH_train_82
country_of_citizenship john bell
united kingdom of great britain and ireland
[ "belgium", "england", "germany", "great britain", "kingdom of great britain", "london", "scotland", "united kingdom", "united kingdom of great britain and ireland" ]
[ "Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, England, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about north east of London. The town has been continuously occupied since the Saxon period, and its port has been one of England's most important for the whole of its history.", "The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric (or \"shelf\") sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than long and wide, with an area of around .", "Felixstowe is an Edwardian seaside town and civil parish between the River Orwell and River Deben on the North Sea coast of Suffolk, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population as 23,689. It includes the Port of Felixstowe, which is the largest container port in the United Kingdom.", "John Bell ( 1811 -- 1895 ) was a British sculptor , born in Bell 's Row , Great Yarmouth , Norfolk . His family home was Hopton Hall , Suffolk . His works were shown at the Great Exhibition of 1851 , and he was responsible for the marble group representing `` America '' on the Albert Memorial in London .", "Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, are among the Royal Parks of London. They gardens are shared by the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and sit immediately to the west of Hyde Park, in western central London. The gardens cover an area of 270 acres. The open spaces of Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park and St. James's Park together form an almost continuous \"green lung\" in the heart of London. Kensington Gardens are Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. ", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which holds the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941. It has a capacity of up to 5,272 seats. The Hall is a registered charity held in trust for the nation and receives no public or government funding.", "The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. It was commissioned by Queen Victoria in memory of her beloved husband, Prince Albert who died of typhoid in 1861. The memorial was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the Gothic Revival style. Opened in July 1872 by Queen Victoria, with the statue of Albert ceremonially \"seated\" in 1875, the memorial consists of an ornate canopy or pavilion, in the style of a Gothic ciborium over the high altar of a church, containing a statue of the prince facing south. The memorial is tall, took over ten years to complete, and cost £120,000 (the equivalent of about £10,000,000 in 2010). The cost was met by public subscription.", "Norwich (also ) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies about 100 miles (160 km) north-east of London. It is the regional administrative centre for East Anglia and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of its most important. It remained the capital of the most populous English county until the Industrial Revolution.", "Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds, Newmarket and Felixstowe, one of the largest container ports in Europe.", "Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819  22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.", "Cambridgeshire (or ; abbreviated Cambs.), archaically known as the County of Cambridge, is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The city of Cambridge is the county town. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and Huntingdon and Peterborough, which had been created in 1965 from the historic counties of Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, the Isle of Ely and the Soke of Peterborough. It contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen.", "Lincolnshire (or ; abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the northwest, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just , England's shortest county boundary. The county town is Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.", "Wirksworth is a market town in Derbyshire, England, with a population recorded as 5,038 in the 2011 census.", "Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich.", "Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam about north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867, including 24,488 students.", "Great Yarmouth, often known to locals as Yarmouth, is a coastal town in Norfolk, England. It is located at the mouth of the River Yare, east of Norwich.", "London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most populous city proper in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it \"Londinium\". London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, \"London\" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.", "East Anglia is an area in the East of England. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe that originated in Angeln, northern Germany. The area included varies but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit, comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area.", "Bury St Edmunds is a market town in Suffolk, England. Bury St Edmunds Abbey is near the town centre. Bury is the seat of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich, with the episcopal see at St Edmundsbury Cathedral.", "Hopton Hall is an 18th-century country house at Hopton, near Wirksworth, Derbyshire. It is a Grade II listed building.", "Lowestoft is a town in the English county of Suffolk. The town is on the North Sea coast and is the most easterly settlement of the United Kingdom. It is north-east of London, north-east of Ipswich and south-east of Norwich. It is situated on the edge of The Broads system and is the major settlement within the district of Waveney with a population of 71,010 in 2011.", "The Wash is the square-mouthed bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire. It is among the largest estuaries in the United Kingdom. The Wash is fed by the rivers Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse.", "Derbyshire (or ; abbreviated Derbys. or Derbs.) is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county. The county contains part of the National Forest, and borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire also to the west.\nKinder Scout, at 636 metres (2,087 ft), is the highest point in the county, whilst Trent Meadows, where the River Trent leaves Derbyshire, is its lowest point at 27 metres (89 ft). The River Derwent is the county's longest river at 66 miles (106 km), and runs roughly north to south through the county. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms (near Swadlincote) as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain." ]
[]
WH_train_83
original_language_of_work ali baba goes to town
english
[ "arabic", "english", "israel", "persian", "sicilian" ]
[ "Ali Baba Goes to Town is a 1937 film starring Eddie Cantor , Tony Martin , and Roland Young . Cantor plays a hobo named Aloysius `` Al '' Babson , who walks into the camp of a movie company that is making the Arabian Nights . He falls asleep and dreams he is in Baghdad as an advisor to the Sultan ( Young ) . He organizes work programs , taxes the rich , and abolishes the army , in a spoof of Roosevelt 's New Deal . The cast also includes Gypsy Rose Lee , using the stage name of Louise Hovick , as the Sultana . The Raymond Scott Quintette also appears , performing `` Twilight In Turkey . '' A clip from Ali Baba Goes to Town is shown in the movie The Day of the Locust ( 1975 ) , in which Karen Black plays an aspiring actress in 1930s Hollywood . A brief shot of Black is edited into the Ali Baba footage to create the impression that her character played a bit role in that film .", "Cairo (; ', ') is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by Jawhar al-Siqilli (\"the Sicilian\") of the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is nicknamed \"the city of a thousand minarets\" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture.", "Iran (, also , ; ' ), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (' ), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the \"de facto\" Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of , it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic center.", "Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, , is approximately 7.216.040 making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran, Iran).", "The Arab world ('; formally: '), also known as the Arab nation (\"\"), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million people, over half of whom are under 25 years of age.", "Eddie Cantor (January 31, 1892 October 10, 1964), born Edward Israel Iskowitz, was an American \"illustrated song\" performer, comedian, dancer, singer, actor, and songwriter. Familiar to Broadway, radio, movie, and early television audiences, this \"Apostle of Pep\" was regarded almost as a family member by millions because his top-rated radio shows revealed intimate stories and amusing anecdotes about his wife Ida and five daughters. Some of his hits include \"Makin' Whoopee\", \"Ida\", \"Yes! We Have No Bananas\", \"If You Knew Susie\", \"Ma! He's Makin' Eyes at Me\", \"Baby\", \"Margie\", and \"How Ya Gonna Keep 'em Down on the Farm (After They've Seen Paree)?\" He also wrote a few songs, including \"Merrily We Roll Along\", the \"Merrie Melodies\" Warner Bros. cartoon theme.", "Roland Young (11 November 1887 5 June 1953) was an English actor.", "Egypt (; ', , \"Kimi\"), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and Saudi Arabia do not share a land border with Egypt. It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation." ]
[]
WH_train_84
country_of_citizenship davide valsecchi
italy
[ "british", "italy" ]
[ "Flavio Briatore (born 12 April 1950) is an Italian businessman. He started his career as a restaurant manager and insurance salesman in Italy. Briatore was convicted in Italy on several fraud charges in the 1980s, though the convictions were successively extinguished by an amnesty. Briatore set up a number of successful Benetton franchises as a fugitive in the Virgin Islands and the United States. In 1990, he was promoted by Luciano Benetton to manager of the Benetton Formula One racing team, which became Renault F1 in 2002. From 2007 to 2010, he was part-owner and chairman of London's Queens Park Rangers F.C.. On 16 September 2009, Briatore was forced to resign from the ING Renault F1 team due to his involvement in race fixing at the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix. After the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) conducted its own investigation, Briatore was banned indefinitely from any events sanctioned by the FIA, although this ban was later overturned by a French Tribunal de Grande Instance.", "The GP2 Series, GP2 for short, is a form of open wheel motor racing introduced in 2005 following the discontinuation of the long-term Formula One feeder series, Formula 3000. The format was conceived by Bernie Ecclestone and Flavio Briatore, while Ecclestone also has the rights to the name GP1. In 2010 the GP3 Series class was launched, as a feeder class for the GP2 series.", "Bernard Charles \"Bernie\" Ecclestone (born 28 October 1930) is a British business magnate. He was the chief executive of the Formula One Group, which manages Formula One and controls the commercial rights to the sport, and part-owns Delta Topco, the ultimate parent company of the Formula One Group. As such, he is generally considered an authoritative voice in Formula One racing and is most commonly described in tabloid journalism as \"F1 Supremo\".", "Davide Valsecchi ( born 24 January 1987 ) is an Italian racing driver , and the 2012 GP2 Series champion ." ]
[]
WH_train_85
developer mario party 6
hudson soft
[ "actor", "camelot software planning", "flagship", "hudson soft", "intelligent systems", "legend", "microsoft", "namco", "nd cube", "nintendo", "sony", "square" ]
[ "After the development of \"Mario Party 8\", several of Hudson Soft's key designers left to work for Nintendo subsidiary Nd Cube, developers of \"Wii Party\". Starting in 2012 with \"Mario Party 9\", Nd Cube has taken over development of the series from Hudson Soft. The latest title in the series, \"\", was released in 2016 for the Nintendo 3DS.", ", subtitled Legend of the Seven Stars in its North American release, is a role-playing video game developed by Square (now Square Enix) and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. It was originally released on March 9, 1996, in Japan and on May 13, 1996, in North America. Nintendo ported the game, with minor differences, to the Wii's Virtual Console service in 2008 and to the Wii U's Virtual Console service by late June 2016 to regions around the world. It is the first role-playing video game in the \"Mario\" series. The game contains fundamental gameplay similarities and inspirations to other Square role-playing video games, such as the \"Final Fantasy\" series, with a story and action-based gameplay derived from the \"Super Mario Bros.\" series.", "Mario Party 6 ( Japanese : 6 Hepburn : Mario Pti Shikkusu ) is the sixth game in the Mario Party series of board game - style video games by Nintendo and is the third title in the series made for Nintendo GameCube and was released in Japan on November 18 , 2004 ; North America on December 6 , 2004 ; in Europe on March 18 , 2005 ; and in Australia on September 15 , 2005 . It is the first GameCube game to make use of a microphone add - on . Mario Party 6 is followed by Mario Party 7 .", "Nd Cube Co., Ltd. ( Enud Kybu Kabushiki Gaisha) is a Nintendo subsidiary and Japanese video game developer based in Japan with offices in Tokyo and Sapporo. Nd Cube is a fully owned Nintendo subsidiary. The company was founded on March 1, 2000, as a joint venture between Nintendo and advertising firm Dentsu, hence the Nd in the name. The subsidiary shares were purchased by 78% in part by Nintendo, 13.3% by Dentsu, 8.7% by yet undecided shareholders. But in 2010, Nintendo decided to buy out 98% of the shares, with ad partner Dentsu stepping aside.", "The \"Super Mario\" games follow Mario's adventures in the fictional Mushroom Kingdom, usually with Mario as the player character. He is usually joined by his brother, Luigi, and occasionally by other members of the \"Mario\" cast. As in platform video games, the player runs and jumps across platforms and atop enemies in themed levels. The games have simple plots, typically with Mario rescuing the kidnapped Princess Peach from the primary antagonist, Bowser. The first title in the series, \"Super Mario Bros.\", released for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985, established gameplay concepts and elements prevalent in nearly every \"Super Mario\" game since. These include a multitude of power-ups and items that give Mario special magic powers such as fireball-throwing and size-changing into giant and miniature sizes.", "Paper Mario, known in Japanese as and originally known as Super Mario RPG 2, is a role-playing video game developed by Intelligent Systems and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 game console. It was first released in Japan on August 11, 2000, in North America on February 5, 2001, and in Europe and Australia on October 5, 2001. \"Paper Mario\" was re-released for Nintendo's Wii Virtual Console in July 2007 as well as Wii U Virtual Console in 2015.", "Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo then developed into a video game company in the 1970s, ultimately becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most-valuable company with a market value of over $85 billion. From 1992 until 2016, Nintendo was also the majority shareholder of Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners.", "Mario's Time Machine is an educational video game originally released for MS-DOS and then for the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super NES consoles. The Software Toolworks both developed and published the MS-DOS and Super NES versions in 1993, while the NES version was developed by Radical Entertainment and published by Nintendo in 1994. The MS-DOS version was re-released as \"Mario's Time Machine Deluxe\" in 1996.", "The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others. , the Wii leads its generation over PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold; in December 2009, the console broke the sales record for a single month in the United States.", "There have been five \"Mario Kart\" games released for home consoles, three portable games, and three Namco co-developed arcade games, for a total of eleven. The latest title in the series, \"Mario Kart 8\", was released on Wii U in May 2014. The series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide to date. An enhanced version of \"Mario Kart 8\", entitled \"Mario Kart 8 Deluxe\", will be released on the Nintendo Switch in April 2017.", "Mario Tennis, known in Japan as , is a 2000 sports video game developed by Camelot Software Planning and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 video game console. The game was released in North America and Japan in the summer of 2000, and released in Europe later in November. It is the first tennis-based game starring Mario since \"Mario's Tennis\", and the second game developed by Camelot on a Nintendo system. The game is known for being the introduction of Waluigi, and the re-introduction of Princess Daisy and Birdo.", "Charles Martinet (born September 17, 1955) is an American actor and voice actor. He is best known for voicing Mario in the \"Super Mario\" video game series. He has voiced Mario, the title character in Nintendo's flagship video game franchise, since 1995. He also voices Baby Mario, Luigi, Baby Luigi, Wario, Waluigi and Toadsworth.", "Hudson Soft Co., Ltd, commonly known by its brand name Hudson, was a Japanese video game company that released numerous games for video game consoles, home computers and mobile phones, mainly from the 1980s to the 2000s. It was headquartered in the Midtown Tower in Tokyo Midtown, Akasaka, Minato, Tokyo, Japan, with an additional office in the Hudson Building in Sapporo.", "The \"Mario\" franchise is the best-selling video game franchise of all time. Over 210 million units of the overall \"Mario\" series of games have been sold. Outside of the \"Super Mario\" platform series, other \"Mario\" genres include the \"Mario Kart\" racing series, sports games such as the \"Mario Tennis\" and \"Mario Golf\" series, role-playing games such as \"Super Mario RPG\" and \"Paper Mario\", and educational games such as \"Mario Is Missing!\" and \"Mario's Time Machine\". The franchise has branched into several mediums, including television shows, film, comics, and licensed merchandise. Since 1995, Mario has been voiced by Charles Martinet." ]
[]
WH_train_86
languages_spoken_or_written robert gordon robertson
english
[ "english", "french", "inuktitut" ]
[ "The Northwest Territories (also known as NWT; French: \"les Territoires du Nord-Ouest\", \"TNO\"; Athabaskan languages: \"Denendeh\"; Inuinnaqtun: \"Nunatsiaq\"; Inuktitut: ) is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2011 population of 41,462, it is the second largest and most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada. Its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission.", "Inuktitut (; inuk \"person\" + -titut \"like, in the manner of\"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuit, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.", "Yellowknife (2011 population:\n19,234) is the capital and only city, as well as the largest community in the Northwest Territories (NT or NWT), Canada. It is located on the northern shore of Great Slave Lake, approximately south of the Arctic Circle, on the west side of Yellowknife Bay near the outlet of the Yellowknife River. Yellowknife and its surrounding water bodies were named after a local Dene tribe once known as the 'Copper Indians' or 'Yellowknife Indians', referred to locally as the Yellowknives Dene First Nation, who traded tools made from copper deposits near the Arctic Coast. The current population is ethnically mixed. Of the eleven official languages of the Northwest Territories, five are spoken in significant numbers in Yellowknife: Dene Suline, Dogrib, South and North Slavey, English, and French. In the Dogrib language, the city is known as \"Smbak'è\" (Som-ba Kay) (\"where the money is\").", "( Robert ) Gordon Robertson , PC CC FRSC ( May 19 , 1917 -- January 15 , 2013 ) was Commissioner of the Northwest Territories from November 15 , 1953 to July 12 , 1963 who , having been sworn in at the age of 36 , remains the youngest person to ever hold the office . He went on to become Clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the Cabinet , the top position in the Canadian public service . Born in Davidson , Saskatchewan , Robertson was educated at University of Saskatchewan , Exeter College , Oxford ( where he was a Rhodes Scholar ) and University of Toronto . He joined the Department of External Affairs in 1941 . From 1945 to 1948 he worked in the Prime Minister 's Office of William Lyon Mackenzie King , and from 1948 to 1953 he was in the Privy Council Office under Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent . In 1953 he was appointed Deputy Minister of the newly formed Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources . By virtue of that position he was also Commissioner of the Northwest Territories . He remained in this combination of positions until 1963 , when incoming Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson appointed him Clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the Cabinet , the top position in the Canadian public service . He held this position under Pearson and then under Pierre Trudeau until 1975 . In that year , Trudeau appointed him Secretary to the Cabinet for Federal - Provincial Relations , to support Trudeau in his constitutional reform agenda . He remained in that position for most of the government of Joe Clark , retiring in December 1979 . Awarded an honorary doctorate of laws from the University of Saskatchewan for outstanding service with the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources and Commissioner of the Northwest Territories Council in 1959 . In 1970 , he won the Vanier Medal of the Institute of Public Administration of Canada . Robertson was a recipient of the Public Service Outstanding Achievement Award in 1972 ; in 1976 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada , and a member of the Privy Council in 1982 . Robertson served as chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa from 1980 to 1990 . In 2000 , Robertson published Memoirs of a Very Civil Servant , which recounted his experiences as a senior civil servant under five Canadian Prime Ministers .", "Canada (French: ) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest city is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.", "Inuinnaqtun (natively meaning \"like the real human beings/peoples\"), is an indigenous Inuit language of Canada and a dialect of Inuvialuktun. It is related very closely to Inuktitut, and some scholars, such as Richard Condon, believe that Inuinnaqtun is more appropriately classified as a dialect of Inuktitut. The governments of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut recognise Inuinnaqtun as an official language in addition to Inuktitut. The Official Languages Act of Nunavut, passed by the Senate of Canada on June 11, 2009, recognized Inuinnaqtun as one of the official languages of Nunavut." ]
[]
WH_train_87
original_language_of_work lollilove
english
[ "english", "spanish" ]
[ "Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's 10 southernmost counties. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used based on historical political divisions. Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.", "LolliLove is a mockumentary co-written by , directed by and starring Jenna Fischer . The film satirizes a hip , misguided Southern California couple who decide to make a difference in the lives of the homeless by giving them lollipops with a cheery slogan on the wrapper .", "A lollipop is a type of confectionery consisting of a sweetmeat of hard candy or water-ice mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. Different informal terms are used in different places, including lolly, sucker, sticky-pop, etc. Lollipops are available in many flavors and shapes.", "Confectionery, also called sweets or candy, is sweet food. The term varies among English-speaking countries. In general, though, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections.", "San Diego (Spanish for \"Saint Didacus\") is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico." ]
[]
WH_train_88
instance_of ultimate daredevil and elektra
limited series
[ "1937", "action", "animation", "august", "book", "century", "comic", "company", "conglomerate", "culture", "day", "dc comics", "entertainment", "episodes", "five", "four", "group", "imprint", "industry", "internet", "jack", "june", "league", "limited", "limited series", "magazine", "mass", "mass media", "media conglomerate", "music", "name", "narrative", "number", "parent company", "practice", "protagonist", "publication", "publisher", "publishing", "release", "sequence", "series", "shared universe", "society", "steel", "studio", "superhero", "team", "term", "title", "toy", "video", "work" ]
[ "An American comic book is a thin (typically 32-page) periodical containing primarily comics content.", "Gregory \"Greg\" Rucka is an American comic book writer and novelist, known for his work on such comics as \"Action Comics\", \"Batwoman\", \"Detective Comics\", and the miniseries \"Superman: World of New Krypton\" for DC Comics, and for novels such as his \"Atticus Kodiak\" series.", "Ultimate Marvel, later known as Ultimate Comics, was an imprint of comic books published by Marvel Comics, featuring re-imagined and updated versions of the company's superhero characters from the Ultimate Universe. Those characters include Spider-Man, the X-Men, the Avengers and the Fantastic Four. The imprint was launched in 2000 with the publication of the series \"Ultimate Spider-Man\" and \"Ultimate X-Men\", providing new original stories for the characters. The Marvel Multiverse, which comprises an infinite number of galaxies and alternate universes, calls this universe Earth-1610. ", "Action Comics is an American comic book series that introduced Superman, one of the first major superhero characters as the term is popularly defined. The publisher was originally known as National Allied Publications, and later as National Comics Publications and as National Periodical Publications, before taking on its current name of DC Comics. Its original incarnation ran from 1938 to 2011 and stands as one of the longest-running comic books with consecutively numbered issues. A second volume of \"Action Comics\" with issue #1 ran from 2011 to 2016. \"Action Comics\" returned to its original numbering beginning with issue #957 (Aug. 2016).", "Superman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, high school students living in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1933. They sold Superman to Detective Comics, the future DC Comics, in 1938. Superman debuted in \"Action Comics\" #1 (cover-dated June 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, newspaper strips, television programs, films, and video games. With this success, Superman helped to create the superhero archetype and establish its primacy within the American comic book. The character is also referred to by such epithets as the Man of Steel, the Man of Tomorrow, and The Last Son of Krypton.", "The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's second largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, after Comcast. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923, by brothers Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, and established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production, television, and theme parks. The company also operated under the names The Walt Disney Studio, then Walt Disney Productions. Taking on its current name in 1986, it expanded its existing operations and also started divisions focused upon theater, radio, music, publishing, and online media.", "Atticus Kodiak is the fictional protagonist of a series of novels written by Greg Rucka. The series concerns Atticus's career as a professional bodyguard.", "Marvel Entertainment, LLC (formerly Marvel Enterprises and Toy Biz, Inc. and marketed and stylized as MARVEL) is an American entertainment company founded in June 1998, merging Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and ToyBiz. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, and is mainly known for its Marvel Comics, Marvel Animation and Marvel Television units. Marvel Studios, formerly under the \"Marvel\" umbrella, became a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Studios, where it develops and produces a shared universe that shares continuity with shows produced by the television unit.", "Salvador Larroca (born 1964) is a Spanish comic book artist, primarily known for his work on various X-Men titles.", "Superman: World of New Krypton is a twelve-issue American comic book limited series produced by DC Comics. It is written by the team of James Robinson and Greg Rucka, who at the time of this publication are the current writers of the \"Superman\" and \"Action Comics\" titles, and illustrated by artist Pete Woods.", "Famous Funnies is an American publication of the 1930s that represents what popular culture historians consider the first true American comic book, following seminal precursors.", "Comic Book Artist was an American magazine founded by Jon B. Cooke devoted to anecdotal histories of American comic books, with emphasis on comics published since the 1960s. It was published by TwoMorrows Publishing and later Top Shelf Productions from 19982005. Its sequel is \"Comic Book Creator\" magazine which started publishing in 2013 and is also published by TwoMorrows.", "DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc. , a division of Time Warner. DC Comics is one of the largest, oldest, and most successful companies operating in American comic books, and produces material featuring numerous well-known heroic characters, including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, Supergirl, The Flash, Aquaman, Cyborg, Shazam, Martian Manhunter, Zatanna, Static Shock, Hawkman, Hawkgirl and Green Arrow. The fictional DC universe also features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, and the Teen Titans, and well-known villains such as Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Catwoman, Ra's al Ghul, Deathstroke, Professor Zoom, Sinestro, Black Adam and Brainiac. The company has also published non-DC Universe-related material, including \"Watchmen\", \"V for Vendetta\" and many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo.", "Marvel Comics is the common name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc., formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, an American publisher of comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Entertainment, Marvel Worldwide's parent company.", "A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as web comics.\nThere were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in American newspapers alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes.", "Detective Comics is the title of an American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first volume, published from 1937 to 2011, is best known for introducing the superhero Batman in \"Detective Comics\" #27 (cover date May 1939, release date March 1939). A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011 but in 2016 reverted to the original volume numbering. The series is the source of its publishing company's name, and along with \"Action Comics\", the series that launched with the debut of Superman one of the medium's signature series. The series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States.", "A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are often accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative, usually dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although some origins in 18th century Japan and 1830s Europe, comic books were first popularized in the United States during the 1930s. The first modern comic book, \"Famous Funnies\", was released in the United States in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term \"comic book\" derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; however, this practice was replaced by featuring stories of all genres, usually not humorous in tone.", "Ultimate Elektra is a five-issue comic book limited series, which serves as a follow-up to \"Ultimate Daredevil and Elektra\". Both were published by Marvel Comics under the Ultimate Marvel imprint. \"Devil's Due\" is written by Mike Carey, with pencils by Salvador Larroca.", "Ultimate Daredevil and Elektra is a four - issue comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics written by Greg Rucka with art by Salvador Larroca . Marvel characters Daredevil and Elektra are introduced to the Ultimate universe in the series in October 2002 . A sequel to the series called Ultimate Elektra was released in August 2004 .", "The X-Men is a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby, the characters first appeared in \"The X-Men\" #1 (September 1963). They are among the most recognizable and successful intellectual properties of Marvel Comics, appearing in numerous books, television shows, films, and video games." ]
[]
WH_train_89
instance_of derjon
river
[ "12", "army", "autonomous province", "body of water", "border", "capital", "census", "channel", "city", "climate", "code", "communication", "confederation", "country", "data", "dialect", "fashion", "footwear", "government", "head of state", "hungary", "italy", "law", "legislature", "may", "mediterranean sea", "member", "name", "nation", "norm", "number", "ocean", "official", "parliament", "part", "peninsula", "plateau", "region", "republic", "river", "romance", "seat", "shape", "sign", "size", "spa", "standard", "steel", "style", "system of government", "territory", "the city", "three", "town", "two", "union", "valley", "variety", "water" ]
[ "South Tyrol (German and ), also known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two autonomous provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of and a total population of 511,750 inhabitants (31.12.2011). Its capital is the city of Bolzano (German: \"Bozen\"; Ladin: \"Balsan\" or \"Bulsan\").\nAccording to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3 percent of the population speaks German (Standard German in the written norm and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4 percent of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1 percent speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language as first language.", "A mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is the climate typical of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. The lands around the Mediterranean Sea form the largest area where this climate type is found, but it also is found in most of coastal California, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia, and in central Chile.", "The Adige is a river with its source in the Alpine province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland. At in length, it is the second longest river in Italy, after the Po river at .", "Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: \"RS\"), is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. It covers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union, and NATO. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.", "Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (; ) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: Trentino and South Tyrol.", "Vatican City , officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of 842, it is the smallest State in the world by both area and population, but formally it is not sovereign, sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world.", "The Mediterranean Sea (pronounced ) is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water.", "San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over , with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Dogana. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.", "The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. The currency is also officially used by the institutions of the European Union and four other European countries, as well as unilaterally by two others, and is consequently used daily by some 337 million Europeans . Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency.", "The Derjon ( Ladin : Derjon ; Italian : Rio Gardena ; German : Grödner Bach ) is a stream in South Tyrol , Italy .", "Merano or Meran is a town and \"comune\" in South Tyrol, northern Italy. Generally best known for its spa resorts, it is located within a basin, surrounded by mountains standing up to above sea level, at the entrance to the Passeier Valley and the Vinschgau.", "Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as \"lo Stivale\" (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state.", "Standard German (, or ) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. It is a pluricentric Dachsprache with three codified (or \"standardized\") specific regional variants: German Standard German, Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German.", "A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe. Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle, while some also cover some part of the lower calf. Some boots extend up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece. Traditionally made of leather or rubber, modern boots are made from a variety of materials. Boots are worn both for their functionality protecting the foot and leg from water, extreme cold, mud or hazards (e.g., work boots may protect wearers from chemicals or use a steel toe) or providing additional ankle support for strenuous activities with added traction requirements (e.g., hiking) and for reasons of style and fashion.", "Bolzano (or ; German: \"Bozen\", ; Ladin: \"Balsan\" or \"Bulsan\") is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. With a population of 105,713 (2013), Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol.\nBolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where lectures and seminars are held in English, German and Italian. The city is also home to the Italian Army's Alpini High Command (COMALP) and some of its combat and support units.", "France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans and had a total population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic with the capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux.", "A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.", "Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. \nThe country is situated in Western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of . While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately eight million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva." ]
[]
WH_train_90
parent_taxon saw-wing
hirundinidae
[ "amniota", "animal", "anomalospiza", "bear", "bird", "chordata", "cuculidae", "eunectes", "helix", "hirundinidae", "hirundo", "homo", "human", "icteridae", "insects", "mammal", "ostrich", "passer", "rodentia", "sauropsida", "shrike", "sparrow", "sphaerodactylus", "squamata", "theria", "vertebrata" ]
[ "The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes. The cuckoo family includes the common or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis. The coucals and anis are sometimes separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively.", "The swallows and martins are a group of passerine birds in the family Hirundinidae that are characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. \"Swallow\" is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow.", "In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is often problematic. For example, in a species complex, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear or disappear altogether. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, morphology, or ecological niche. The presence of locally adaptive traits may further subdivide species into infraspecific taxa such as subspecies.", "Binomial nomenclature (also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just \"binomial\"), a binomen or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus \"Homo\" and within this genus to the species \"Homo sapiens\". The \"formal\" introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work \"Species Plantarum\" in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book \"Pinax theatri botanici\" (English, \"Illustrated exposition of plants\") many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus.", "Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division, which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 pairs. Cell division initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.", "A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes). Another name that is sometimes seen as a scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin \"oscen\", \"a songbird\". This group contains some 4,000 species found all over the world, in which the vocal organ typically is developed in such a way as to produce a diverse and elaborate bird song.", "Birds (Aves), also known as avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the bee hummingbird to the ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds.", "Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin \"mamma\" \"breast\"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. The sister group of mammals may be the extinct \"Haldanodon.\" The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade. The mammals consist of the Yinotheria including monotrema and the Theriiformes including the theria.", "Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 64,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and the bony fish. ", "Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates, and indeed a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty. They are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups.", "A genus ( genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.", "Cowbirds are birds belonging to the genus Molothrus in the family Icteridae. They are brood parasitic New World birds which are unrelated to the Old World cuckoos, one of which, the common cuckoo, is the most famous brood parasitic bird.", "Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.", "Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young. The strategy appears among birds, insects and some fish. The brood parasite manipulates a host, either of the same or of another species, to raise its young as if it were its own.", "Plumage (\"feather\") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes. Within species there can be different colour morphs.", "In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic scale and are thus loosely described as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.", "The barn swallow (\"Hirundo rustica\") is the most widespread species of swallow in the world. It is a distinctive passerine bird with blue upperparts, a long, deeply forked tail and curved, pointed wings. It is found in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. In Anglophone Europe it is just called the swallow; in Northern Europe it is the only common species called a \"swallow\" rather than a \"martin\".", "Shrikes are carnivorous passerine birds of the family Laniidae. The family is composed of thirty-one species in four genera. They are fairly closely related to the bush-shrike family Malaconotidae.", "The cuckoo-finch (\"Anomalospiza imberbis\"), also known as the parasitic weaver or cuckoo weaver, is a small passerine bird now placed in the family Viduidae with the indigobirds and whydahs. It occurs in grassland in Africa south of the Sahara. The male is mainly yellow and green while the female is buff with dark streaks. The eggs are laid in the nests of other birds.", "A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. A notable feature of passerines compared to other orders of Aves is the arrangement of their toes, three pointing forward and one back, which facilitates perching. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders, with over 5,000 identified species. It has roughly twice as many species as the largest of the mammal orders, the Rodentia. It contains more than 110 families, the second-most of any order of tetrapods (after Squamata, the scaled reptiles).\nThe passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.", "The saw - wings , Psalidoprocne , is a small genus of passerine birds in the swallow family . The common name of this group is derived from the rough outer edge of the outer primary feather on the wing , which is rough due to recurved barbs . The function of this is unknown . The birds are 11 -- 17 cm long and black or black - and - white in colour . The genus has an African distribution and all species can be found foraging over forest and woodland .", "Rodents (from Latin \"rodere\", \"to gnaw\") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica. They are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments.", "Passer is a genus of sparrows, also known as the true sparrows. The genus includes the house sparrow and the Eurasian tree sparrow, some of the most common birds in the world. They are small birds with thick bills for eating seeds, and are mostly coloured grey or brown. Native to the Old World, some species have been introduced throughout the world.", "The order Squamata, or the scaled reptiles, are the largest recent order of reptiles, comprising all lizards and snakes. With over 10,000 species, it is also the second-largest order of extant vertebrates, after the perciform fish, and roughly equal in number to the Saurischia (one of the 2 major groups of dinosaurs). Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. They are the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the dwarf gecko (\"Sphaerodactylus ariasae\") to the green anaconda (\"Eunectes murinus\") and the now-extinct mosasaurs, which reached lengths of ." ]
[]
WH_train_91
shares_border_with panitan
roxas
[ "as", "asia", "australia", "cagayan de oro", "celebes sea", "davao city", "east", "gas", "guangzhou", "hong kong", "iloilo", "indonesia", "island", "japan", "java sea", "kuala lumpur", "leyte", "major", "malaysia", "manila", "most", "muntinlupa", "national capital region", "navotas", "north", "northern region", "northwest", "pacific ocean", "palau", "panay", "parañaque", "pasig", "putrajaya", "quezon", "quezon city", "roxas", "san juan", "south", "southwest", "sulu sea", "taiwan", "thailand", "tianjin", "vietnam" ]
[ "Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, abbreviated as PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south.\nTaiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy.", "Manila (or ), officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines.", "Metropolitan Manila, commonly known as Metro Manila or simply Manila, is the capital region of the Philippines, is the seat of government, the 2nd most populous and the most densely populated region of the country. The National Capital Region (NCR) is composed of Manila, the capital city of the country, Quezon City, the country's most populous city, and the cities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, and Valenzuela, including the only remaining municipality of Pateros.", "Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species.", "Aklan (\"Akean\") (Aklanon pronunciation: [ak'an]) is a province in the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Kalibo. The province is situated in the northwest portion of Panay Island, bordering Antique to the southwest, and Capiz to the east. Aklan faces the Sibuyan Sea and Romblon province to the north.", "Western Visayas is an administrative region in the Philippines, numerically designated as Region VI. It consists of five provinces: (Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras and Iloilo) and one highly urbanized city (Iloilo City), which serves as the regional center.", "Capiz is a province located in the region of Western Visayas in the central section of the Philippines. Its capital is the city of Roxas and is located at the northeastern portion of Panay Island, bordering Aklan and Antique to the west, and Iloilo to the south. Capiz faces the Sibuyan Sea to the north.", "Indonesia (or ; Indonesian: ), officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At , Indonesia is the world's 14th-largest country in terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area. It has an estimated population of over 260 million people and is the world's fourth most populous country, the most populous Austronesian nation, as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of the country's population.", "Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe. Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements as well as vast barely populated regions within the continent of 4.4 billion people.", "Iloilo is a province located in the region of Western Visayas in the Philippines. Iloilo occupies a major southeast portion of the island of Panay and is bordered by the province of Antique to the west, Capiz to the north, the Jintotolo Channel to the northeast, the Guimaras Strait to the east, and the Iloilo Strait and Panay Gulf to the southwest. Just off Iloilo's southeast coast is the island province of Guimaras, once part of Iloilo but now an independent province. Across the Panay Gulf and Guimaras Strait is Negros Occidental, occupying the northeastern half of the island of Negros.", "Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines and the 15th largest in the world. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous. With a population of 52.99 million , it is the fourth most populous island in the world (after Java, Honshu, and Great Britain), containing about 53% of the country's total population.", "The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.", "Quezon City ( also known as QC) is the most populous city in the Philippines. It is one of the cities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Quezon City was named after Manuel L. Quezon, second President of the Philippines, who founded the city and developed it to replace Manila as the national capital for 28 years from 1948 to 1976. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province, which was also named after the president. It is the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area and most populated local government unit in the country.", "The Sibuyan Sea is a small sea in the Philippines that separates the Visayas from the northern Philippine island of Luzon.", "China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China, and its capital is Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.", "Mindanao is the second largest and southernmost major island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country (the other two being Luzon and the Visayas), consisting of the island of Mindanao and smaller outlying islands. Davao City is the largest city in Mindanao. As of the 2010 census, the island's population itself is 20,281,545 people, while the Mindanao island group has 21,968,174 inhabitants. Davao City is the most populous in Mindanao as 1,632,991 population, and the 2nd is Zamboanga City as 861,799 population, the 3rd is Cagayan de Oro City as 675,950 population, and followed by General Santos City as 594,446 population as of 2015 census.", "The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 5 million km² (2 million mi²). of the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by the Philippine archipelago (Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao) on the southwest; Halmahera, Morotai, Palau, Yap, and Ulithi (of the Carolines) on the southeast; the Marianas, including Guam, Saipan, and Tinian, on the east; the Bonin and Iwo Jima on the northeast; the Japanese islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kysh on the north; the Ryukyu Islands on the northwest; and Taiwan in the west.", "The Visayas or the Visayan Islands (Visayan: \"Kabisay-an\", ), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan people.", "An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011, 46 (approximately 24%) of the 193 UN member states are island countries.", "Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 90.5 million inhabitants , it is the world's 14th-most-populous country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976.", "Palau (historically Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 250 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, and has an area of . The most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located on the nearby island of Babeldaob, in Melekeok State. Palau shares maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Federated States of Micronesia.", "Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:", "The Celebes Sea of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahassa Peninsula, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia. It extends 420 miles (675 km) north-south by 520 miles (837 km) east-west and has a total surface area of , to a maximum depth of . The sea opens southwest through the Makassar Strait into the Java Sea.", "The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around . The area's importance largely results from one-third of the world's shipping sailing through its waters and that it is believed to hold huge oil and gas reserves beneath its seabed.", "Panitan is a third class municipality in the province of Capiz , Philippines . According to the 2010 census , it has a population of 37,895 people ." ]
[]
WH_train_92
occupation bao xin
officer
[ "army", "confucian scholar", "construction", "dragoon", "emperor", "eunuch", "founder", "general", "justice", "king", "leader", "major", "member", "military", "officer", "official", "politician", "r", "ruler", "script", "social reformer", "soldier", "sovereign", "taiwan", "warrior" ]
[ "Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of East Asia. Macau lies across the delta to the west, and the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. With a total land area of and a population of over 7.3 million of various nationalities, it ranks as the world's fourth most densely populated sovereign state or territory.", "Chongqing, formerly transliterated as Chungking, is a major city in Southwest China and one of the Five national central cities in China. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in inland China.", "Guangzhou , traditionally romanised as Canton, is the capital and largest city of the Province of Guangdong in southeastern China. Located on the Pearl River about north-northwest of Hong Kong and north of Macau, Guangzhou was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub.", "The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. Named for its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Gansu and Shaanxi, the dynasty was formed after the conquest of six other states by the Qin state, and its founding emperor named Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of Qin. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC, during the Warring States period. In the mid and late third century BC, the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States to gain control over the whole of China. It is also the shortest dynasty in Chinese history, lasting only 15 years with two emperors.", "Wang Mang (c. 45 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun (), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning \"renewed\") Dynasty (), ruling 923 AD. The Han dynasty was restored after his overthrow, and his rule marks the separation between the Western Han Dynasty (before Xin) and Eastern Han Dynasty (after Xin). Some historians have traditionally viewed Wang as a usurper, while others have portrayed him as a visionary and selfless social reformer. Though a learned Confucian scholar who sought to implement the harmonious society he saw in the classics, his efforts ended in chaos.", "Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. The city is located immediately north of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers slightly less than a province.", "Bao Xin ( 152 -- 192 ) was a military general who lived during the late Han Dynasty of China . Initially , he participated in the imperial campaign against the Yellow Turbans along with other regional warlords . After the rise of Dong Zhuo , who usurped the power of the Imperial Court , Bao joined the campaign against Dong Zhuo . During a battle at Sishui Pass , he disobeyed orders from the alliance 's leader Yuan Shao and instructed his younger brother , Bao Zhong , to engage the enemy commander Hua Xiong , with around 5,000 armored cavalry . However , the raid failed and Bao Zhong was slain . Later he served under Xiahou Dun , one of Cao Cao 's highest - ranked generals . He was killed in 192 in an assault against one of the Yellow Turban rebels ' strongholds in Shouzhang ( southwest of present - day Dongping County ) .", "The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. The task of the military is usually defined as defense of the state and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military can also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, food production and banking.", "The Three Kingdoms (AD 220280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu, following the Han dynasty and preceding the Jin dynasty. The term \"Three Kingdoms\" itself is something of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han dynasty. Nevertheless, the term \"Three Kingdoms\" has become standard among sinologists. To further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of similar names, historians have added a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei, Shu is also known as Shu Han, and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu.", "The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD. It interrupted the Han dynasty, dividing it into the periods of the Western Han and the Eastern Han.", "Dong Zhuo (died 22 May 192), courtesy name Zhongying, was a politician and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He seized control of the capital Luoyang in 189 when it was in a state of turmoil following the death of Emperor Ling and a clash between the eunuch faction and some court officials led by General-in-Chief He Jin. Dong Zhuo subsequently deposed Emperor Shao and instated Emperor Xian.", "Combat arms (or fighting arms in non-American parlance) is a collective name in a system of administrative military reference to those troops within national armed forces which participate in direct tactical ground combat. In general they include units that carry or employ a weapon system such as infantry, cavalry, and artillery units. The use of multiple combat arms in mutually supporting ways is known as combined arms.", "Yuan Shao (died 28 June 202), courtesy name Benchu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil war that occurred towards the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. He was also an elder half-brother of Yuan Shu, a warlord who controlled the Huai River region, though the two were not on good terms with each other.", "H.O.R.S.E. is a form of poker commonly played at the high-stakes tables of casinos. It consists of rounds of play cycling among:", "Hua Xiong (died 191) was a military general under the warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han Dynasty of China. In 190, various warlords from around the country formed a coalition against Dong Zhuo, who was holding Emperor Xian hostage in the imperial court. In one of the battles against the coalition, Hua Xiong, holding the rank of Chief Controller (), was executed after his force was defeated by Sun Jian at Yangren ().", "Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC June 1, 195 BC), born Liu Bang, was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 195 BC. He was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history with humble origin from the peasant class.", "A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions.", "Dragoon regiments were established in most European armies during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.", "The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian. During this period, the country was thrown into turmoil by the Yellow Turban Rebellion (184-205). Meanwhile, the Han Empire's institutions were destroyed by the warlord Dong Zhuo, and fractured into regional regimes ruled by various warlords, some of whom were nobles and officials of the Han imperial court. Eventually, one of those warlords, Cao Cao, was able to gradually reunify the empire, ostensibly under Emperor Xian's rule, but the empire was actually controlled by Cao Cao himself. Cao Cao's efforts to completely reunite the Han empire were rebuffed at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 / 209, when his armies were defeated by the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei. The Han dynasty formally ended in 220 when Cao Cao's son and heir, Cao Pi, pressured Emperor Xian into abdicating in his favour. Cao Pi became the emperor of a new state, Cao Wei. A year later, in response to Cao Pi's usurpation of the Han throne, Liu Bei declared himself emperor of Shu Han; and in 229, Sun Quan followed suit, declaring himself emperor of Eastern Wu. The period from Emperor Xian's abdication in 220 to the partial reunification of China under the Jin dynasty in 265 was known as the Three Kingdoms era in Chinese history.", "Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare and typically suffer the greatest number of casualties during a military campaign. Historically, as the oldest branch of the combat arms, the infantry are the tip of the spear of a modern army, and continually undergo training that is typically more physically demanding and psychologically stressful than that of any other branch of the combat arms. Common representations of infantry fighting forces include the U.S. Army Infantry Branch, U.S. Marine Corps Infantry, Royal Canadian Infantry Corps, Infantry of the British Army, and the Royal Australian Corps of Infantry.", "A soldier is one who fights as part of an organised, land-based armed force. A soldier can be an enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer.", "Sun Jian (155191), courtesy name Wentai, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He allied himself with Yuan Shu in 190 when warlords from eastern China formed a coalition to oust Dong Zhuo, a tyrannical warlord who held the puppet Emperor Xian in his power. Although he controlled neither many troops nor much land, Sun Jian's personal bravery and resourcefulness were feared by Dong Zhuo, who placed him among Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu and Liu Biao as the most influential men at that time. After the coalition disbanded in the next year, China fell into massive civil war. In 191, Sun Jian was killed in battle during an offensive campaign against Liu Biao.", "East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China, Hong Kong, and Macao; Mongolia and Taiwan; North and South Korea; and Japan; it covers about , or about 28% of the Asian continent, about twice the area of Europe.", "The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China. It is located about midway between the Yellow River and Yangtze, the two largest rivers in China, and like them runs from west to east. Historically draining directly into the Yellow Sea, floods have changed the course of the river such that it is now a major tributary of the Yangtze. The Huai is notoriously vulnerable to flooding.", "The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the \"Han people\" and the Chinese script is referred to as \"Han characters\".\nIt was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (923 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25220 AD).", "A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.", "A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.", "Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching, but, as infantry does in general, fought on foot (in the modern era with muskets or rifles, but before that with swords, spears, bows, or crossbows). In contrast, cavalry fought on horseback. The original dragoons were essentially mounted infantry. According to the 1911 \"Encyclopædia Britannica\", \"Mounted rifles are half cavalry, mounted infantry merely specially mobile infantry.\" Today, with motor vehicles having replaced horses for military transport, the motorized infantry are in some respects successors to mounted infantry.", "He Jin (died 22 September 189), courtesy name Suigao, was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. He shared power with his sister as regents in 189, following the death of Emperor Ling. In the ensuing struggle with the influential eunuch faction for power, He Jin was assassinated. His death allowed Dong Zhuo to seize military control over the capital Luoyang and take control of the imperial court. The subsequent breakdown of central command brought forth the beginning of massive civil wars which led to the formation of the era known as the Three Kingdoms.", "Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, abbreviated as PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south.\nTaiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy.", "The Campaign against Dong Zhuo was a punitive expedition initiated by a coalition of regional officials and warlords against the warlord Dong Zhuo in 190 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The members of the coalition claimed that Dong had the intention of usurping the throne by holding Emperor Xian hostage and by establishing a strong influence in the imperial court. They justified their campaign as to remove Dong from power. The campaign led to the evacuation of the capital Luoyang and the shifting of the imperial court to Chang'an. It was a prelude to the end of the Han dynasty and, subsequently, the Three Kingdoms period.", "Jurisdiction (from the Latin \"ius, \" meaning \"law\" and \"\" meaning \"to speak\") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In the federations like USA, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law.", "Cavalry (from French \"cavalerie\", cf. \"cheval\" 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title.", "China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China, and its capital is Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.", "The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The CPC is the sole governing party of China, although it coexists alongside eight other legal parties that comprise the United Front; these parties, however, hold no real power or independence from the CPC. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 the CPC had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, thus leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The CPC is currently the world's second largest political party with a membership of 88.76 million as of 2016 (while the Indian Bharatiya Janata Party appears to have remained the largest with a membership of 110 million as of the previous year, 2015). It also controls the world's largest armed force, the People's Liberation Army. ", "A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state. It is usually undertaken in response to perceived disobedient or morally wrong behavior, either as revenge or to apply strong diplomatic pressure without a formal declaration of war. More commonly in the 19th century, punitive expeditions were used as pretexts to colonial adventures that resulted in annexations, regime changes or changes in policies of the affected state to favour one or more colonial powers." ]
[]
WH_train_93
original_language_of_work shrek the third
english
[ "english", "indonesia", "instrumental", "latin", "traditional chinese" ]
[ "A composer (Latin \"compn\"; literally \"one who puts together\") is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano, string quartet, wind quintet or orchestra) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song, which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation (e.g., sheet music scores).", "Raman Hui Shing-Ngai (Traditional Chinese: , born 1963) is a Hong Kong animator and film director best known for co-directing \"Shrek the Third\", and (co)directing several short films, including \"Kung Fu Panda: Secrets of the Furious Five\", \"Scared Shrekless\" and \"\".", "Harry Gregson-Williams is an English composer, orchestrator, conductor, and music producer. He has regularly written for television and films, such as \"\", \"\", \"The Martian\", and the \"Shrek\" franchise. He is the brother of composer Rupert Gregson-Williams.", "Shrek the Third is a 2007 American computer - animated fantasy comedy film , and the third installment in the Shrek franchise . Like the first two Shrek films , the film is based on fairy tale themes . It was produced by DreamWorks Animation and is the first in the series to be distributed by Paramount Pictures1 which acquired DreamWorks Pictures in 2006 ( the former parent of DWA ) . Chris Miller and Raman Hui directed the film , with the former also co-writing the screenplay with Jeffrey Price , Peter S. Seaman , and Aron Warner . Harry Gregson - Williams composed the original music for the film . The story takes place eight months after the marriage of Shrek and Fiona in the first film . Reluctantly reigning over the kingdom of Far , Far Away , Shrek sets out to find the next heir to the throne -- Fiona 's cousin Artie , while Prince Charming is plotting to overthrow Shrek and become king . In addition to Mike Myers , Eddie Murphy , Cameron Diaz , Antonio Banderas , Rupert Everett , Julie Andrews , and John Cleese , who reprised their roles from Shrek 2 , the film also features Justin Timberlake in the role of Arthur Pendragon and Eric Idle as Merlin . The film premiered on May 6 , 2007 , at the Mann Village Theatre , Westwood in Los Angeles , and was released in the United States theaters on May 18 , 2007 ( exactly six years after the first film ) . It was nominated for Best Animated Movie at the 2008 Kids ' Choice Awards , but lost to Ratatouille . It was also nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film at the 61st British Academy Film Awards . It was the final film in the Shrek franchise to be produced by Pacific Data Images before its closure in 2015 . The film grossed $ 799 million on a $ 160 million budget , becoming the fourth highest - grossing film of 2007 . A sequel , titled Shrek Forever After was released in 2010 .", "India, officially the Republic of India (\"Bhrat Gaarjya\"), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.", "DreamWorks Animation SKG, Inc. (known professionally as DreamWorks Animation or simply DreamWorks) is an American animation studio that is a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, a division of Comcast. It is based in Glendale, California and produces animated feature films, television programs and online virtual games. The studio has currently released a total of 33 feature films, including the franchises \"Shrek\", \"Madagascar\", \"Kung Fu Panda\", and \"How to Train Your Dragon\". The studio was formed by the merger of the feature animation division of DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images (PDI). Originally formed under the banner of DreamWorks in 1997 by some of Amblin Entertainment's former animation branch Amblimation alumni, it was spun off into a separate public company in 2004. DreamWorks Animation currently maintains its Glendale campus, as well as satellite studios in India and China. On August 22, 2016, NBCUniversal acquired DreamWorks Animation for $3.8 billion, making it a division of the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group." ]
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WH_train_94
producer hippie hippie shake
tim bevan
[ "bbc", "christopher nolan", "danny boyle", "david horsley", "eric fellner", "europe", "european union", "film producer", "full force", "leonardo dicaprio", "pat powers", "sarah radclyffe", "tim bevan", "universal studios", "working title films" ]
[ "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain (the name of which is also loosely applied to the whole country), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign statethe Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of , the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union.", "Great Britain, also known as Britain , is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , Great Britain is the largest European island and the ninth-largest in the world. In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, comprise the British Isles archipelago.", "London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most populous city proper in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it \"Londinium\". London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, \"London\" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.", "Universal Studios (known professionally as Universal Pictures and also simply referred to as Universal) is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. The company was founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, and Jules Brulatour, and is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fourth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé and Nordisk Film, and the oldest in terms of the overall film market. Its studios are located in Universal City, California, and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Studios is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) and is one of Hollywood's \"Big Six\" studios.", "28 Days Later is a 2002 British post-apocalyptic horror film directed by Danny Boyle, written by Alex Garland, and stars Cillian Murphy, Naomie Harris, Brendan Gleeson, Megan Burns, and Christopher Eccleston. The plot depicts the breakdown of society following the accidental release of a highly contagious virus and focuses upon the struggle of four survivors to cope with the destruction of the life they once knew.", "Eric Fellner, CBE (born 10 October 1959) is an English film producer. He is the co-chairman (along with Tim Bevan) of the production company Working Title Films.", "Working Title Films Limited is a British film production company, based in London owned by Universal Studios. The company was founded by Tim Bevan and Sarah Radclyffe in 1983. It produces feature films and several television productions. Eric Fellner and Bevan are now the co-chairs of the company.", "Cillian Murphy (born 25 May 1976) is an Irish actor of stage and screen. Since making his debut in his home country in the late 1990s, Murphy has also become a presence in British and American cinemas noted by critics for his performances in many independent and mainstream films. He is best known as Jim in \"28 Days Later\" (2002), the Scarecrow in The Dark Knight Trilogy (200512), Jackson Rippner in \"Red Eye\" (2005), Robert Capa in \"Sunshine\" (2007), Robert Fischer in \"Inception\" (2010) and Thomas Shelby in the BBC series \"Peaky Blinders\".", "Timothy John Bevan, CBE (born December 1957) is a British film producer, the co-chairman (with Eric Fellner) of the production company Working Title Films.", "The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation, and is the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, with over 20,950 staff in total, of whom 16,672 are in public sector broadcasting; including part-time, flexible as well as fixed contract staff, the total number is 35,402.", "Hippie Hippie Shake is an unreleased British drama film produced by Working Title Films . The film is based on a memoir by Richard Neville , editor of the Australian satirical magazine Oz , and chronicles his relationship with girlfriend Louise Ferrier , the launch of the London edition of Oz amidst the 1960s counterculture , and the staff 's trial for distributing an obscene issue . Hippie Hippie Shake stars Cillian Murphy as Richard Neville , with Sienna Miller as Louise . British film production company Working Title began development of Hippie Hippie Shake in 1998 , but the film was repeatedly delayed , changing directors and screenwriters . In September 2007 , the film finally began principal photography . In 2011 Working Title said that the film will not be released in cinemas .", "The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of , and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.", "Inception is a 2010 science fiction heist thriller film written, co-produced, and directed by Christopher Nolan, and co-produced by Emma Thomas. The film stars Leonardo DiCaprio as a professional thief who steals information by infiltrating the subconscious, and is offered a chance to have his criminal history erased as payment for a seemingly impossible task: \"inception\", the implantation of another person's idea into a target's subconscious. The ensemble cast additionally includes Ellen Page, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Marion Cotillard, Ken Watanabe, Tom Hardy, Dileep Rao, Cillian Murphy, Tom Berenger, and Michael Caine.", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "Sarah Radclyffe (born 14 November 1950), sometimes credited as Sarah Radcliffe, is a British film producer." ]
[]
WH_train_95
subclass_of bishop of portsmouth
diocesan bishop
[ "administration", "apostle", "archbishop", "area", "association", "bible", "bishop", "capital", "cathedral", "christian", "christian church", "christianity", "church", "city", "community", "continent", "cover", "death", "diocesan bishop", "diocese", "district", "england", "english", "ethnic group", "greek", "hebrew", "idea", "irish", "jurisdiction", "man", "mayor", "mission", "missionary", "monarch", "monk", "monotheistic religion", "nation", "ocean", "participation", "person", "pope", "portal", "printing", "printing press", "process", "protestant reformation", "province", "public", "religion", "religious", "river", "sea", "sense", "term", "third", "turkish", "vicar", "western", "word", "world" ]
[ "Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europea concept dating back to classical antiquityare arbitrary. The primarily physiographic term \"continent\" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.", "Canterbury (, or ) is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour.", "Augustine of Canterbury (first third of the 6th century  probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the \"Apostle to the English\" and a founder of the English Church.", "Mother church (Lat. \"Mater Ecclesiae\") is a term, especially in Catholicism, depicting the Christian Church as a mother in its functions of nourishing and protecting the believer. It may also refer to the mother church of a diocese i.e. Cathedral or a metropolitan church. The term has specific meanings within different Christian denominations.", "The Church of England (C of E) is the Anglican Christian state church of England. Headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury (currently Justin Welby) and primarily governed from London with the monarch as the supreme governor, the Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. The church dates its formal establishment as a national church to the 6th-century Gregorian mission in Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury, with considerable features introduced and established during and following the English Reformation in the 16th century.", "The Anglican Communion is an international association of autonomous churches consisting of the Church of England and national and regional Anglican churches (\"provinces\") in full communion with it. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant Anglicans.", "The Gregorian mission or Augustinian mission was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons. Headed by Augustine of Canterbury, by the death of the last missionary in 635 the mission had established Christianity in southern Britain. Along with the Irish and Frankish missions it converted other parts of Britain as well and influenced the Hiberno-Scottish missions to Continental Europe.", "The word diocese is derived from the Greek term \"\" meaning \"administration\". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes. This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity.", "Justin Portal Welby (born 6 January 1956) is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England. Welby was the vicar of Southam, Warwickshire, and most recently was the Bishop of Durham, serving for just over a year. As Archbishop of Canterbury he is the Primate of All England and the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion.", "The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across all of Europe during this period. Many factors contributed to the process: the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland, were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself.", "A Christian (or ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. \"Christian\" derives from the Koine Greek word \"Christós\" (), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term \"mashiach\".", "The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical provinces which constitute the Church of England. The other is the Province of York (which consists of 12 dioceses). It consists of 30 dioceses, covering roughly two-thirds of England, parts of Wales, and the Channel Islands, with the remainder comprising continental Europe (under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe).", "The Province of York is one of two ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England and consists of 12 dioceses which cover the northern third of England and the Isle of Man. York was elevated to an archbishopric in  735: Ecgbert was the first archbishop. At one time the Archbishops of York also claimed metropolitan authority over Scotland but these claims were never realised and ceased when the Archdiocese of St Andrews was established.", "England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.", "An ecclesiastical province is a general term for large jurisdiction of Christian religious government including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. In the Greco-Roman world, \"ecclesia\" (Greek , \"ekklsi\" (Latin ecclesia) meaning \"congregation, church\") was used to refer to a lawful assembly, or a called legislative body. As early as Pythagoras, the word took on the additional meaning of a community with shared beliefs. This is the meaning taken in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Septuagint), and later adopted by the Christian community to refer to the assembly of believers.", "The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby. His enthronement took place at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the \"Apostle to the English\", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.", "A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state. The idea was notably discussed during the 19th century, during the emergence of modern nationalism.", "London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most populous city proper in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it \"Londinium\". London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, \"London\" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.", "The Bishop of Portsmouth is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Portsmouth in the Province of Canterbury . The diocese covers south - east Hampshire and the Isle of Wight and has its see in the City of Portsmouth , where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Thomas of Canterbury which was elevated to cathedral status in 1927 . The office of bishop was created in 1927 when the new diocese was formed from part of the Diocese of Winchester . The current bishop is the Right Reverend Christopher Foster , the 9th Bishop of Portsmouth , who signs + Christopher Portsmouth . Previously Suffragan Bishop of Hertford , his nomination as Bishop of Portsmouth was announced by Downing Street on 9 February 2010 . He was installed and enthroned in a service at Portsmouth Cathedral on 18 September 2010 . The bishop 's residence is Bishopsgrove , Fareham , Hampshire , England ." ]
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WH_train_96
instance_of atelosteogenesis
disease
[ "12", "amino acid", "articulation", "bearing", "biology", "bone", "brain", "cage", "cause", "chemical", "class", "collective", "column", "complex", "composition", "contract", "disease", "extinct", "fish", "food", "force", "head", "hearing", "hormone", "human", "humans", "infectious", "infectious disease", "joint", "key", "ligament", "member", "mineral", "moment", "motion", "muscle", "offspring", "order", "organ", "part", "pattern", "process", "protein", "rib", "sex", "side", "single", "skeleton", "skull", "species", "stable", "store", "structure", "surface", "system", "three", "time", "tissue", "variety", "wall", "word" ]
[ "In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more general way. This can refer to a set of simultaneous offspring, such as the chicks hatched from one clutch of eggs, or to all the offspring, as with the honeybee.", "The uterus (from Latin \"uterus\", plural \"uteri\") or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of humans and most other mammals. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation. In the embryo the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus. The uterus has different forms in many other animals and in some it exists as two separate uteri known as a duplex uterus.", "Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth. Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses. Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx, shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the respiratory system. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face and serves as an alternative respiratory passage especially during suckling for infants. On most other mammals, it is located on the upper tip of the snout.", "Altricial, meaning \"requiring nourishment\", refers to a pattern of growth and development in organisms which are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or being born. The word is derived from the Latin root \"alere\" meaning \"to nurse, to rear, or to nourish\" and refers to the need for young to be fed and taken care of for a long duration. Species whose young are immediately or quickly mobile are known as precocial.", "Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin \"mamma\" \"breast\"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. The sister group of mammals may be the extinct \"Haldanodon.\" The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade. The mammals consist of the Yinotheria including monotrema and the Theriiformes including the theria.", "An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint (a symphysis), to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together. Their role as shock absorbers in the spine is crucial.", "The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of all vertebrates except the lamprey and the frog. It is formed by the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum and encloses the heart and lungs. In humans, the rib cage, also known as the thoracic cage, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which surrounds the thoracic cavity and supports the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle), forming a core portion of the human skeleton. A typical human rib cage consists of 24 ribs, the sternum (with xiphoid process), costal cartilages, and the 12 thoracic vertebrae. Together with the skin and associated fascia and muscles, the rib cage makes up the thoracic wall and provides attachments for the muscles of the neck, thorax, upper abdomen, and back.", "Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.", "The skeleton (from Greek , \"skeletós\" \"dried up\") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, and the cytoskeleton.", "A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.", "Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 64,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and the bony fish. ", "A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs. The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.", "Birth, also known as parturition, is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring. In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fetus at a developmental stage when it is ready to feed and breathe. In some species the offspring is precocial and can move around almost immediately after birth but in others it is altricial and completely dependent on parenting. In marsupials, the fetus is born at a very immature stage after a short gestational period and develops further in its mother's pouch.", "Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals. It is typical for mammals, but also occurs for some non-mammals. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations).", "Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components. It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.", "A hormone (from the Greek participle ) is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).", "White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.", "A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. ", "The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three partsthe outer ear, middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word \"ear\" often refers to the external part alone. The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth, and contains structures which are key to several senses: the semicircular canals, which enable balance and eye tracking when moving; the utricle and saccule, which enable balance when stationary; and the cochlea, which enables hearing. The ears of vertebrates are placed somewhat symmetrically on either side of the head, an arrangement that aids sound localisation.", "Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, possums, opossums, wombats, Tasmanian devils, and the recently extinct thylacines. Others include the numbat, the bandicoot, the bettong, the bilby, the quoll, and the quokka.", "Atelosteogenesis , type II is a severe disorder of cartilage and bone development . It is extremely rare , and infants with the disorder are usually stillborn ; however , those who survive birth die soon after from respiratory failure .", "In biology, the term precocial refers to species in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. The opposite developmental strategy is called \"altricial\" where the young are born or hatched helpless. Extremely precocial species may be called \"superprecocial\". These three categories form a continuum, without distinct gaps between them. Precocial species are normally nidifugous, meaning that they leave the nest shortly after birth or hatching." ]
[]
WH_train_97
genre gooflumps
novel
[ "animation", "art", "book", "computer animation", "criticism", "culture", "genre", "information", "literature", "music", "novel", "opera", "optical illusion", "parody", "poetry", "polemic", "rhetoric", "traditional animation" ]
[ "A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position. Polemics are mostly seen in arguments about controversial topics. The practice of such argumentation is called \"polemics\". A person who often writes polemics, or who speaks polemically, is called a \"polemicist\". The word is derived , .", "Linda Hutcheon, FRS, O.C. (born August 24, 1947) is a Canadian academic working in the fields of literary theory and criticism, opera, and Canadian studies. She is University Professor in the Department of English and of the Centre for Comparative Literature at the University of Toronto, where she has taught since 1988. In 2000 she was elected the 117th President of the Modern Language Association, the third Canadian to hold this position, and the first Canadian woman. She is particularly known for her influential theories of postmodernism.", "Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. More restrictively, it is writing considered as an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root \"literatura\"/\"litteratura\" (derived itself from \"littera\": \"letter\" or \"handwriting\") was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction and whether it is poetry or prose; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre).", "Gooflumps is the name given to a two - part parody series written in 1995 by Tom Hughes under the pseudonym of R. U. Slime .", "Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and the illusion of change by means of the rapid display of a sequence of images that minimally differ from each other. The illusionas in motion pictures in generalis thought to rely on the phi phenomenon. Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, a flip book, motion picture film, video tape, digital media, including formats with animated GIF, Flash animation, and digital video. To display animation, a digital camera, computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced.", "Imitation (from Latin \"imitatio\", \"a copying, imitation\") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior. Imitation is also a form of social learning that leads to the \"development of traditions, and ultimately our culture. It allows for the transfer of information (behaviours, customs, etc.) between individuals and down generations without the need for genetic inheritance.\" The word \"imitation\" can be applied in many contexts, ranging from animal training to international politics. The term generally refers to conscious behavior; subconscious imitation is termed mirroring.", "A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects.", "A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, or lampoon) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original workits subject, author, style, or some other targetby means of satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, \"parody is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text.\" Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as \"any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice.\"\nParody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music (although \"parody\" in music has an earlier, somewhat different meaning than for other art forms), animation, gaming, and film." ]
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WH_train_98
occupation mike bowers
lawyer
[ "attorney general", "general", "law enforcement officer", "lawyer", "officer", "united states of america" ]
[ "Michael Joseph Bowers ( born 1942 ) was the Attorney General of Georgia from 1981 to 1987 before mounting an unsuccessful campaign for Georgia Governor . He now practices law with Balch & Bingham in Atlanta , Georgia .", "A U.S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody).", "The attorney general of Georgia is the chief law enforcement officer and lawyer for the U.S. state of Georgia. The attorney general is elected to a four-year term at the same time as elections are held for Governor and other offices." ]
[]
WH_train_99
located_in_the_administrative_territorial_entity fort clinch state park
nassau county
[ "amelia", "atlantic ocean", "cuba", "cumberland", "earth", "florida", "fort", "georgia", "gulf", "gulf of mexico", "mainland", "mexico", "most", "nassau", "nassau county", "north carolina", "of", "river", "salt", "south", "south carolina" ]
[ "The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and barrier islands on the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. Numbering over 100, they are located between the mouths of the Santee and St. Johns Rivers along the coast of the US states of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.", "A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs. This form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, and mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat.", "An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.", "Amelia Island, in Nassau County, Florida, is the southernmost of the Sea Islands, a chain of barrier islands stretching along the east coast of the United States from South Carolina to Florida. It is long and approximately wide at its widest point. The communities of Fernandina Beach and Amelia City are both located on the island.", "The Fort Clinch State Park is a Florida State Park , located on a peninsula near the northernmost point of Amelia Island , along the Amelia River . Its 1,100 acres ( 4 km2 ) include the 19th - century Fort Clinch , sand dunes , plains , maritime hammock and estuarine tidal marsh . The park and fort lie to the northeast of Fernandina Beach at the entrance to the Cumberland Sound .", "South Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean.", "Nassau County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 73,314. The county seat and largest incorporated city is Fernandina Beach.", "A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, \"the sea\" is the interconnected system of Earth's salty, oceanic watersconsidered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic divisions. The sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory, the modern scientific study of the seaoceanographydates broadly to the British \"Challenger\" expedition of the 1870s. The sea is conventionally divided into up to five large oceanic sectionsincluding the International Hydrographic Organization's four named oceans (the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic) and the Southern Ocean; smaller, second-order sections, such as the Mediterranean, are known as \"seas\".", "Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water (see also soil salinity).\nSalinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry\nof natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water.", "Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen. They are subject to change during storms and other action, but absorb energy and protect the coastlines and create areas of protected waters where wetlands may flourish. A barrier chain may extend uninterrupted for over a hundred kilometers, excepting the tidal inlets that separate the islands, the longest and widest being Padre Island of Texas. The length and width of barriers and overall morphology of barrier coasts are related to parameters including tidal range, wave energy, sediment supply, sea-level trends, and basement controls.", "Fort Clinch is a 19th-century masonry coastal fortification, built as part of the Third System of seacoast defense conceived by the United States. It is located on a peninsula near the northernmost point of Amelia Island in Nassau County, Florida. The fort lies to the northeast of Fernandina Beach at the entrance to the Cumberland Sound (Florida), in the northeast part of the state. Today it is included within the boundaries of Fort Clinch State Park.", "Florida (Spanish for \"land of flowers\") is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida and Cuba. Florida is the 22nd most extensive, the 3rd most populous, and the 8th most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital.", "An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean, which covers almost 71% of its surface. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word \"sea\" is often used interchangeably with \"ocean\" in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land.", "A tidal marsh is a type of marsh that is found along coasts and estuaries of which the flooding characteristics are determined by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean. According to the salinity of the flooding water, freshwater, brackish and saline tidal marshes are distinguished. Respectively, they may be classified into coastal marshes and estuarine marshes." ]
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