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Q7593707
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
History
St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton History There have been three chapels or churches on the site of St John the Baptist parish church. The first chapel at Chowbent was built in 1645 by John Atherton as a chapel of ease of Leigh Parish Church. It was sometimes referred to as the Old Bent Chapel. It was not consecrated and used by the Presbyterians as well as the Vicar of Leigh. In 1721 Lord of the manor Richard Atherton expelled the dissenters who subsequently built Chowbent Chapel. The first chapel was consecrated in 1723 by the Bishop of Sodor and
Q7593707
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
History
Man. The first chapel was replaced by a new St John's Chapel on the same site which was consecrated by the Bishop of Chester in 1814. It was in turn replaced by the present church, designed by the Lancaster architects Paley and Austin. It was built in two phases. The chancel and first three bays of the nave were built in 1878–79, and consecrated in 1879. The cost was £10,000 (equivalent to £1,000,000 in 2018), of which £3,200 was given by the colliery owners Fletcher, Burrows and Company. The west end, which included a modified version of the southwest tower
Q7593707
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1,085
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
History & Exterior
120 feet (37 m) high, was completed between 1890 and 1896 by the successors in the Lancaster practice, Paley, Austin and Paley. From 1899 the church was affected by mining subsidence, causing the tower to separate from the south aisle. The tower has been stabilised, but remains out of alignment and is leaning. In 1991 the east end of the church was badly damaged by fire. It was repaired and re-ordered by Peter Skinner in 1996–97; the re-ordering included dividing the chancel from the rest of the church to create a church hall. Exterior The church is constructed in Runcorn sandstone with
Q7593707
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Exterior
ashlar dressings and a tiled roof. Its architectural style is that of the late Decorated period. The plan consists of a five-bay nave with a clerestory, north and south aisles, a two-bay chancel with a north chapel and a south two-storey vestry and organ chamber, and a southwest tower. The tower is in five stages with octagonal buttresses at each corner, which rise above the parapet to form turrets with conical caps. The parapet is embattled. The doorway is on the south side of the tower, and above it is a four-light window. There are clock faces in the
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Exterior
fourth stage, and the bell openings in the top stage have four lights. Above each bell opening is a statue in a canopied niche. On the south side of the church the windows have four lights, while those on the north side have three lights. Along the clerestory are square windows, two to a bay, which contain two different types of tracery. To the east of the vestry and organ chamber is an octagonal turret. The west and east windows are large, the west window having seven lights, and the east window six. Under the east window is red
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Exterior & Interior
and buff chequerwork carved with roses, the IHC christogram, leaves and swords. The hour-chiming clock was installed by Potts of Leeds in 1895. Interior The interior is in Stourton stone with a Yorkshire stone floor. The nave has a hammerbeam roof. The arcades are carried on clustered piers. The former intricately carved chancel screen now acts as a reredos behind the altar at the east end of the nave. The stone pulpit, which contains marble panels with niches depicting scenes from the life of Christ in semi-relief, is a memorial to the Rt Revd James Fraser, Bishop of Manchester, who died in
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Interior
1885. The octagonal font is in alabaster and is decorated with panels. Box pews, one of which is dated 1728, have been re-used as dado panelling in the vestry. In the nave are lamps designed by Peter Skinner. The stained glass in the east window, dated 1896, is by C. E. Kempe, and a window in the south aisle contains glass by Ward and Hughes dating from 1895. In another south aisle window is glass from 1922 by Edward Moore, which has been moved from the north chapel. The rest of the windows have been re-glazed after the 1991 fire
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Interior & Appraisal
with clear glass. The two-manual pipe organ was built in 1967 by Hill, Norman and Beard, replacing an earlier three-manual organ of 1888 by J. C. Bishop and Son. Appraisal The church was designated as a Grade II listed building on 15 July 1966. Grade II is the lowest of the three gradings given by English Heritage, and includes buildings that "are nationally important and of special interest". The description in the National Heritage List for England states that it is "an imposing building which exhibits fine craftsmanship both inside and out". The authors of the Buildings of England series describe the
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St John the Baptist's Church, Atherton
Appraisal
church as "monumental, one of Paley & Austin's best", and state that the tower is "magnificently monumental". Brandwood et al. in their book on the architectural practice of Sharpe, Paley and Austin agree that it is "one of Paley & Austin's finest churches".
Q6070666
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385
Stan Richards
Career
Stan Richards Career He played the role of Seth Armstrong from May 1978 until his death of emphysema in 2005, having been originally "signed" to the series for a run of just 4 weeks. He had previously acted in six episodes of Coronation Street as Arthur Stokes, having started his career aged 15 as a pub pianist. Upon his death, his life and work were honoured at the British Soap Awards in 2005.
Q7598013
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544
Stanbridgeford railway station
Present day
Stanbridgeford railway station Present day The station building, now known as Stanbridgeford House, has survived as a private residence and the platform area has been incorporated into the garden. In 1991, the A505 Leighton Southern Bypass opened and reused a section of the railway alignment from a point to the west of the former station to a point to the north-west of Billington. The line to the east is also severed by the road. The signal box which controlled access to Tottenhoe Lime siding was moved in January 1969 to the Leighton Buzzard Light Railway. What remains of the line
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Stanbridgeford railway station
Present day
to the east has become part of the 3.5 km (2.2 mi) Sewell greenaway as far as French's Avenue in Dunstable. The route is part of National Cycle Network route 6 and includes a bridge over the A505.
Q7598840
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600
Stangenwald Building
Stangenwald Building The Stangenwald Building at 119 Merchant Street, in downtown Honolulu, Hawaii was the city's first high-rise office building, with its own law library, and one of the earliest electric elevators in the (then) Territory when it was built in 1901. It was also advertised as "fireproof" because it was built of concrete, stone, brick, and steel, with no wood except in the windows, doors, and furniture, and because it had fireproof vaults and firehoses on every floor. Fireproofing was an important selling point because of the fire that had devastated nearby Chinatown the previous year.) Apart from a
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Stangenwald Building
few exceptional structures like Aloha Tower (1926) and Honolulu Hale (1929), it remained the tallest building in Honolulu for half a century, until the building boom of the 1950s. Young local architect C.W. Dickey designed it with features of Italianate architecture: arched windows, terra cotta ornaments, and a wide balcony with fine grillwork above the entrance. Every floor had a unique exterior. The interior vestibule and hall were decorated with mosaic tile floors and marble panelling, while the stairways had slate and marble steps. In 1980, another local architect, James K. Tsugawa, completed an award-winning restoration. Dr. Hugo Stangenwald was an Austrian
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Stangenwald Building
physician and pioneer photographer who arrived in Honolulu in 1853. In 1869, he bought the 5,303-square-foot (492.7 m²) property and built his medical offices there, in partnership with Dr. Gerrit P. Judd next door. Not long before he died in 1899, he leased the land to a group who planned a fine structure to match the quality of the Judd Building (1898) next door, designed by Oliver G. Traphagen, who had just arrived from Duluth, Minnesota.
Q7599198
2
0
4
446
Stanisław Nogaj
Stanisław Nogaj Stanisław Nogaj was a Polish journalist and writer from Silesia. During the World War II he was arrested by the Germans and sent to the Dachau concentration camp and then to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he had been working at the camp's chancellery of Concentration Camp Gusen I. After the war his personal notes became one of the bases for estimation of the death toll in that camp. He also published his memoirs of the ordeal.
Q3496723
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10
149
Stanislaus Francis Perry
Early life & Political career
Stanislaus Francis Perry Early life He was born Stanislas-François Poirier in Tignish, Prince Edward Island, the son of Pierre Poirier and Marie-Blanche Gaudet. Poirier was educated in Tignish and then was educated in English at St. Andrew's College in Charlottetown. On his return to Tignish in 1843, he taught school. Poirier anglicized his name around this time. In 1847, he married Margaret Carroll. He was named a justice of the peace in 1851. Political career In 1854, Perry left teaching, began farming to support his family and entered politics. As an Acadian, he supported the redistribution of land on the
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Stanislaus Francis Perry
Political career
island from the landowners to the tenant farmers. In 1870, he supported a coalition conservative government because it supported grants to Catholic schools. Perry was speaker in the provincial assembly from 1873 to 1874. Perry was initially opposed to Confederation but ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the House of Commons in 1873 before being elected in 1874. He was also an unsuccessful federal candidate in 1878 and 1882. He was defeated in 1896 but won the subsequent by-election after the first election was declared invalid. Perry was a proponent of a tunnel to link the island to the mainland. He
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Stanislaus Francis Perry
Political career
represented 1st Prince in the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island from 1854 to 1875 and from 1879 to 1887 and, in the House of Commons of Canada, represented Prince County from 1874 to 1878 and from 1887 to 1896 and West Prince from 1897 to 1898 as a Liberal member. Perry (Poirier) was the first Acadian to serve in both the provincial assembly and the House of Commons. Perry helped organize the first and second Acadian national conventions in Memramcook, New Brunswick (1881) and Miscouche, Prince Edward Island (1884) although he boycotted the second event because he wanted the event
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Stanislaus Francis Perry
Political career & Death & Personal life
to be held in Tignish. Death He died in office in Ottawa in 1898 and was buried in Tignish. Personal life He was the grandfather of Nova Scotia Premier Angus Lewis Macdonald and is a direct ancestor of current PEI MLA Hal Perry.
Q5930243
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6
576
Stanwell Moor
History and geography
Stanwell Moor History and geography The locality gained its main barrier from what had always been its village in the early 1960s, a dual carriageway and it hived off shortly after with the building of a community hall and establishment of its own residents' association. It is however, ecclesiastically, still strongly tied with Stanwell in the Church of England, its parish. Fewer than six of the original medieval buildings stand in the hamlet. It sits on the part of the parish on strongly fertile, partly densely wooded, alluvial soil, whereas most of Stanwell was associated with the stony ground
Q5930243
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Stanwell Moor
History and geography & Local government & Amenities
which makes up gravel deposits near to the surface of the soil, as throughout the area south of Heathrow Airport to the River Thames. Local government The community is in the Stanwell North ward, as used by Spelthorne and for certain statistical purposes. Stanwell Moor is represented the Conservative's Kwasi Kwarteng on Surrey County Council. Amenities A parade of shops is here, followed at one end by a pub. A further pub is by the Colne itself. Distributaries of the complex River Colne runs past Stanwell Moor where it forms a broad part of the Colne Valley
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Stanwell Moor
Amenities
regional park. Stanwell Moor is buffered from all other settlements. Its south is covered by the King George VI Reservoir after which is Staines upon Thames. South-west is the Wraysbury Reservoir.
Q4667782
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631
Star Music
History
Star Music History Star Music was founded in February 1995 as Star Recording, Inc. with Star Records as its label. The record label was created by ABS-CBN Corporation to diversify its functions from a broadcast media to a full entertainment company. Commercial operations of the label started in September 1995, signing an exclusive distribution agreement with Sony Music Entertainment Philippines (now Ivory Music and Video) in the entire country, except in Metro Manila. Due to its distribution agreement with Sony, Star Records endured problems with distributing titles in Metro Manila. In August 1996, the record label engage into licensing deals
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Star Music
History
in order to strengthen its production base and gain entry into the Metro Manila market. It first signed a 3-year license agreement with JML Records, a local rock label. The deal enabled the label to gain control of its catalogue of 30 titles. Later, Star Records signed deals with foreign-independent labels such as Beaver Music of the Netherlands, Music of Life of the United Kingdom, and Rox of Belgium. In October 1996, Star Records renewed its licensing deal with Sony which also includes 30 dealerships in Metro Manila. The deal enabled the label to get a significant presence in Metro Manila's
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Star Music
History
market. By December of the same year, the label's number of signed artists increased to twenty artists. In June 1997, Star Records signed a distribution and licensing agreement with Taiwan's Rock Records, which also involved products from about forty independent European and American labels. Also under this deal, albums by named international artists helped improved Star Records' market profile. In 2007, Star Records launched Acel, the former vocalist of the rock band Moonstar88, as the country's first digital artist. By 2015, the record label celebrates its 20th anniversary. In 2013, Star Recording, Inc. and Star Songs, Inc. were both merged to ABS-CBN
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Star Music
History
Film Productions. In 2014, it changed its name to Star Music. In the same year, they launched their very own music downloading website. This is also the time where Star Music started to release their songs on iTunes, Spotify, and other music downloading and streaming websites and applications. They also revamped their YouTube channel as a response to the current trend in the consumption of music and video contents on the internet. In September 2015, Star Music acquired the copyrights to around 116 original compositions of Tito Sotto, Vic Sotto and Joey de Leon which includes songs popularized by 1970s group
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Star Music
History
VST & Co., Sharon Cuneta, and Nora Aunor, and popular songs such as "Ipagpatawad Mo", "Tayo'y Magsayawan" and "Awitin Mo, Isasayaw Ko." On January 31, 2016, after 10 years, rapper Gloc-9 signed a record deal with Star Music, the record label who introduced Gloc-9 to mainstream listeners. Two of the most successful albums of Gloc-9, G9 and Ako Si... were released under Star Records in 2003 and 2005 respectively. These albums brought Gloc-9's biggest smash hits with songs like "Simpleng Tao" and "Hinahanap Ng Puso (feat. Hannah Romawac of Session Road)".
Q15702706
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594
Star Wars: The Card Game
Cycles
Star Wars: The Card Game Cycles Like other Living Card Games, each card cycle consists of six packs of pre-determined cards—referred to as “force packs”—that focus on a particular theme or setting from within the Star Wars universe, including story elements that have only made an appearance in the formerly canon expanded universe now known as “Star Wars Legends.” Each force pack increases players' deck-building options with sixty cards (ten cohesive objective sets with six cards in each objective set). Deluxe expansions, released between each card cycle, add a larger volume of cards to the game than an individual force
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Star Wars: The Card Game
Cycles & Seasonal Tournament Kits
pack and primarily focus on two different factions in the game, one from the light side and one from the dark side,. On January 10, 2018, Fantasy Flight Games announced that the release of the final force pack of the Alliances cycle, the sixth card cycle of the game, would mark the end of additional content for the game. Seasonal Tournament Kits Seasonal Tournament Kits are the foundation of Organized Play. With three four-month seasons each year (Spring, Summer, and Winter), players can find a large variety of tournaments, game nights, and leagues at their local stores. Seasonal events are a
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Star Wars: The Card Game
Seasonal Tournament Kits & Store Championships & Regional Championships
place for newer players to experience organized tournaments and experienced players to try a new deck or alternative format, such as 2v2. Store Championships Store Championships kick off Organized Play each year in style. With Store Championships, you will find players of varying skill, more prizes than your weekly game night or league, and loads of fun. Store Championships are also a great chance to play in a more competitive event at your local store and vie for bragging rights and the title of Store Champion. Regional Championships Regional Championships are your chance to join a community that spans beyond
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Star Wars: The Card Game
Regional Championships & National Championships
your town or city. Regional Championships are exclusive events and offer a precious first-round bye at the country’s National Championship. Win a Regional Championship and prove to everyone that you should be taken seriously! National Championships National Championships are all about meeting others from across your country and seeing how you stack up against the best your country has to offer. Get to know other top players in your country and form new friendships. Compete against your fellow compatriots for the right to be crowned National Champion and a first-round bye at World Championships!
Q3205496
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557
Star of Danger
Plot summary
Star of Danger Plot summary Wade Montray, a civil servant of the Terran Empire, is transferred from Earth to Darkover. He's a widower with a teenaged son, Larry, who is fascinated by this alien world. Larry has learned the rudiments of the Darkovan language from tapes, and wants to explore outside the confines of the Terran Spaceport complex and the Trade City. During his first solo exploration, Larry runs into a gang of street toughs. A local, Kennard Alton, intervenes. After Larry comports himself well in a one-on-one fight with one of the toughs, Alton invites him
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Star of Danger
Plot summary
to his father's home to share a meal. Alton explains some of the Darkovan customs. Valdir Alton, Kennard's father, arrives home and invites Larry to return to his home when he wishes. Larry returns to his quarters where his father, Wade, is furious with his son's adventure and confines him to the spaceport. Larry promised to lend some books to Kennard and realizes the Darkovans will consider it a grave insult if he fails to return to the Alton home. Against his father's wishes, he takes the books to Kennard. Valdir Alton introduces Larry to Lorill Hastur, the
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Star of Danger
Plot summary
head of Darkover's governing council. Hastur questions Larry about his motivations for returning to the Alton home. Larry's answers please Hastur, and he expresses his approval. Again, Larry is invited to return, but says his father probably won't allow another visit. Wade Montray is predictably angry and forbids his son's return to the city. His commander tells him they've heard from the Darkovan council, and they're offended by his action, as if they are unfit company for his son. The Altons invited Larry to spend the summer at Armida, and Terran command recommends that Wade agree in
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Star of Danger
Plot summary
the interest of diplomatic relations. Larry begins to feel more comfortable with the local customs after a couple of weeks at Armida. Kennard, Larry, Lord Alton and their guardsmen are out riding when they encounter a forest fire. Larry joins the others to fight the fire, but it turns out to be a diversion set by raiding bandits who have attacked a nearby village. Valdir's men track the bandits to a canyon, where Larry is taken prisoner during a fight. The bandits believe him to be Kennard Alton. In an attempt to gain information, they drug him
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Star of Danger
Plot summary
with kirian. The real Kennard Alton rescues Larry and they escape into the mountains. In the course of their escape, the two boys learn much about each other's cultures, and realize that each has benefits and drawbacks. Larry's latent telepathic abilities emerge under the stress of the journey. They encounter Trailmen, banshee-birds and a chieri. The chieri reveals to Kennard that the Darkovans are of Terran origin and returns them, by teleportation, to the spaceport. Kennard tells his father that he wishes to leave Darkover to attend school. Larry decides to remain on Darkover, living with the
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Star of Danger
Plot summary
Altons. Under pressure from Valdir Alton, Wade Montray tells Larry that his mother was a daughter of Aldaran, and one of the Comyn.
Q2759439
2
0
10
19
Staro Gracko massacre
Background & Massacre
Staro Gracko massacre Background The Kosovo War ended on 11 June 1999 with the Yugoslav army (VJ) agreeing to withdraw its forces from the province of Kosovo after a 78-day NATO bombing campaign. As many as 40,000 Yugoslav soldiers subsequently left the province and were replaced by an estimated 50,000 NATO troops, while 170,000 Kosovar Serbs fled to Central Serbia. Although the village of Staro Gracko, with a population of 300, was predominantly inhabited by ethnic Serbs and was home to eighty Serb and two Kosovo Albanian families, surrounding villages were inhabited by ethnic Albanians. Massacre On 23 July 1999, at
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Staro Gracko massacre
Massacre
approximately 9:13pm, British KFOR troops heard gunfire and contacted a NATO reaction-force which hurried to the scene. The NATO soldiers subsequently discovered the bodies of thirteen Serbs next to a combine harvester by an open field. A fourteenth body was discovered lying on a tractor nearby. The farmers had been returning home after a day of harvesting wheat. When their corpses were discovered, it was reported that the men had been grouped together in a circle and shot dead. The bodies of some victims appeared to have been mutilated and disfigured with blunt instruments. The farmers had requested NATO protection
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Staro Gracko massacre
Massacre & Aftermath & Reaction
seven days prior to the killings, but their pleas were ignored. Aftermath After the fourteen bodies were discovered, Canadian troops cordoned off the village. The bodies were then taken to a hospital in Pristina to be identified. The United Nations stated that women and children were among the victims. Reaction Kosovo Liberation Army leader Hashim Thaçi condemned the killings, calling them "[a] crazy act designed to wreck the improving relations between Kosovo Albanians and Serbs." Bernard Kouchner, the head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), said that he was "horrified" by the massacre and promised to
Q2759439
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Staro Gracko massacre
Reaction
bring "the perpetrators to justice without delay." Louise Arbour, the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), said that she was "gravely concerned" and called for "an immediate investigation into the massacre." Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević blamed international peacekeeping forces for the massacre, while VJ General Nebojša Pavković threatened to send Yugoslav troops back into Kosovo if the United Nations were not able to control the province.
Q7603186
2
0
6
567
State Dockyard, Newcastle
History
State Dockyard, Newcastle History In 1942, the State Dockyard opened on the site of the Government Dockyard at Dyke Point in Newcastle that had closed in 1933. Officially the New South Wales Government Engineering & Shipbuilding Undertaking, it was universally referred to as the State Dockyard. The dockyard facility was located at Carrington on Newcastle Harbour, on 11 ha (27 acres) of land in addition to the ship repairs site on 3 ha (7 acres). The dockyard launched its first vessel in July 1943. By the end of World War II, it had launched two ships for the Royal Australian Navy and 22
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80
State Dockyard, Newcastle
History & After closure
vessels for the United States and had repaired six hundred ships. With the cessation of large scale shipbuilding, in the 1970s it diversified into other engineering disciplines. In November 1986 a team of apprentices from the Hunter Valley Training Company completed a three-year overhaul of steam locomotive 3801 at the dockyard. The dockyard closed on 3 March 1987. A 15,000 ton floating dock was located at Dyke Point in 1943 to repair damaged ships during World War II. The floating dock was scrapped in 1977. After closure In 2007 the outline of the painted "STATE DOCKYARD" sign on southern roof of the
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State Dockyard, Newcastle
After closure & Surviving ships
former dockyard building could still be viewed from above. Surviving ships As of 2014, the surviving State Dockyard built ships are Cape Don, a lighthouse tender built in 1962 for the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service which is now a museum ship at Balls Head Bay, Waverton. The ferries Lady Herron, Freshwater, Queenscliff, Narrabeen and Collaroy continue to operate for Harbour City Ferries, while former Sydney Harbour ferries Lady Cutler and Lady McKell operate as cruise boats on Port Phillip.
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496
State Security Service of Abkhazia
History
State Security Service of Abkhazia The State Security Service of Abkhazia is the principal security and intelligence agency of Abkhazia. History On 27 November 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia decreed to abolish the Abkhazian KGB and to establish the State Security Service. On 4 December 1992, the Supreme Soviet shortened its name to Security Service of Abkhazia. Until 1992, the State Security Service was led by Grigori Komoshvili. After the outbreak of the 1992-1993 war with Georgia, Komoshvili's Deputy Gennadi Berulava became the new head. In early October 1993, after the war had ended, he was dismissed and succeeded by
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536
State Security Service of Abkhazia
History & Government of President Ardzinba
Astamur Tarba. On 20 November 1992, during the war, the Abkhazian border guard was established. Government of President Ardzinba On 5 May 1997, President Vladislav Ardzinba decreed to rename the Service back to State Security Service of Abkhazia. After a bomb attack on 13 December 1999 in Sukhumi targeting government officials, Ardzinba dismissed Astamur Tarba and replaced him with First Deputy Chairman of the State Customs Committee Raul Khajimba. On 18 June 2001, Khajimba also became First Vice Premier, and on 1 November he was replaced as State Security Service Head by Interior Minister Zurab Agumava. On 2 April 2003, Agumava was replaced
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State Security Service of Abkhazia
Government of President Ardzinba & Governments of Presidents Bagapsh and Ankvab
by Advisor to the President on Military Matters Givi Agrba. Agrba handed in his resignation on 15 June 2004 along with Foreign Minister Sergei Shamba and First Vice Premier Astamur Tarba following the murder of opposition politician Garri Aiba. Agrba's resignation was accepted by Ardzinba on 7 July and he was replaced by Mikhail Tarba. Governments of Presidents Bagapsh and Ankvab Following the Tangerine Revolution and the election of President Sergei Bagapsh in 2005, he appointed Iuri Ashuba as Security Service Head on 28 February 2005. After his December 2009 re-election, he replaced Ashuba with Aslan Bzhania on 23 February 2010. Bzhania
Q25054414
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342
State Security Service of Abkhazia
Governments of Presidents Bagapsh and Ankvab & Government of President Khajimba
remained Security Service Head following the death in office of Bagapsh and the 2011 election of Alexander Ankvab. Government of President Khajimba After the May 2014 Revolution and Ankvab's forced resignation, Bzhania became the candidate representing the outgoing government in the August 2014 Presidential election. After his loss to opposition candidate Raul Khajimba, he was replaced as Security Service Head by his deputy (and head of the Border Guard) Zurab Margania on 29 September.
Q1739333
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0
6
612
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Federal Circuit opinion
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc. Federal Circuit opinion The district court held the patent invalid as directed to nonstatutory subject matter. The Federal Circuit reversed, however, in an opinion that was followed by a large increase in the issuance of business-method and software patents. The Federal Circuit stated: [T]he transformation of data, representing discrete dollar amounts, by a machine through a series of mathematical calculations into a final share price, constitutes a practical application of a mathematical algorithm, formula, or calculation, because it produces "a useful, concrete and tangible result"—a final share price momentarily fixed
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State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Federal Circuit opinion
for recording and reporting purposes and even accepted and relied upon by regulatory authorities and in subsequent trades. At the time and during the following decade, this ruling was considered by many to be significant because previously "methods of doing business" had been widely thought not to be eligible for patent grants. For example, in Hotel Security Checking Co. v. Lorraine Co., the Second Circuit held that a bookkeeping system to prevent waiters from stealing customer payments for meals could not be patented. In Joseph E. Seagram & Sons v. Marzell, the D.C. Circuit held that a patent on "blind testing"
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State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Federal Circuit opinion
whiskey blends for consumer preferences would be "a serious restraint upon the advance of science and industry" and therefore should be refused. The Federal Circuit rejected this view in its State Street Bank opinion: The business method exception has never been invoked by this court, or the CCPA, to deem an invention unpatentable. Application of this particular exception has always been preceded by a ruling based on some clearer concept of Title 35 or, more commonly, application of the abstract idea exception based on finding a mathematical algorithm. The Federal Circuit found it inappropriate to carve out a further exception to the principle
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14
6
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Federal Circuit opinion & Aftermath & Judicial criticism
that "anything under the sun made by man is patentable." Accordingly, the Federal Circuit applied that principle to all business methods that "produce a useful, concrete and tangible result." Aftermath The State Street Bank opinion led to a great increase in business method and software patents. In 1991, software related patents represented about 20 percent of the yearly total; by 2011 they accounted for about 50 percent. The absolute number of software patents rose from about 25,000 per year to 125,000 per year in this period. An accompanying graph shows a GAO analysis of such data. Judicial criticism In May
Q1739333
14
6
14
653
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Judicial criticism
2006, Justice Kennedy of the US Supreme Court commented in a concurring opinion in the eBay case that a "burgeoning number" of business-method patents were of "potential vagueness and suspect validity." He was joined by Justices Stevens, Souter, and Breyer. In June 2006, the Court dismissed certiorari in LabCorp v. Metabolite, Inc.. The Federal Circuit had decided the case on the basis of the State Street precedent. Three Justices (Breyer, J., joined by Stevens and Souter, JJ.) dissented from the dismissal, arguing that the Federal Circuit had decided the LabCorp case on the erroneous "useful, concrete, and tangible result" legal
Q1739333
14
653
18
147
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Judicial criticism & Bilski
test enunciated in the State Street case. This was a legal test, the dissent argued, under which patents that the Supreme Court had held patent ineligible would be held patent eligible, citing as examples O'Reilly v. Morse, Gottschalk v. Benson, and Parker v. Flook. The Court should therefore decide the case, the dissenting Justices maintained, in order to "diminish legal uncertainty in the area, affecting a substantial number of patent claims." Bilski In 2008, in In re Bilski, the Federal Circuit decided to reconsider State Street en banc. In its order, the court listed as one of the questions to
Q1739333
18
147
18
763
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Bilski
be briefed by the applicant, the PTO, and the amici curiae was "Whether the court should reconsider State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc., 149 F.3d 1368 (Fed. Cir. 1998) . . . in which the court had held that business methods could be patented, and whether th[at] case[ ] should be overruled in any respect." In the en banc opinion the court later issued, it jettisoned the "useful-concrete-tangible result" (UCTR) test stated in State Street, but it did not explicitly overrule State Street in its entirety. The court said that the UCTR test "is insufficient to determine whether
Q1739333
18
763
18
1,420
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Bilski
a claim is patent-eligible under § 101," and "is inadequate," and it reaffirmed that "the machine-or-transformation test outlined by the Supreme Court is the proper test to apply" instead. As to State Street, the court said, "those portions of our opinions in State Street, relying on a ‘useful, concrete and tangible result’ analysis should not longer be relied on." The Federal Circuit's majority opinion did not hold that business methods are categorically patent ineligible. Judges Mayer and Dyk agreed with the majority that the Bilski patent application should be denied, but argued that the proper basis of decision was that business methods
Q1739333
18
1,420
18
2,082
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Bilski
could not be patented under a proper interpretation of the law. In his separate opinion in In re Bilski, Federal Circuit Judge Mayer stated, "Not surprisingly, State Street and its progeny have generated a thundering chorus of criticism," and he collected citations to supporting authorities. He quoted one source for the statement, "The Federal Circuit’s recent endorsement of patent protection for methods of doing business marks so sweeping a departure from precedent as to invite a search for its justification" and another for this: "To call [the situation following State Street] distressing is an understatement. The consensus . . . appears to be
Q1739333
18
2,082
18
2,766
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Bilski
that patents should not be issuing for new business methods." The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of patent ineligibility in Bilski v. Kappos. It did not endorse the use of the machine-or-transformation test as the sole test, but said it was only a "useful clue" to making the determination. The Court's majority also declined to hold business methods categorically patent ineligible. Four Justices, however—Justice Stevens, concurring, joined by Justices Breyer, Ginsburg, and Sotomayor—would have held all business methods patent ineligible, on the basis of the historical background of the patent clause of the Constitution. In a separate concurring opinion by Justice
Q1739333
18
2,766
22
438
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Bilski & Mayo and Alice
Breyer, he listed points on which the Court unanimously agreed. One point was that the State Street Bank case was not a correct statement of the law. Mayo and Alice The Supreme Court's subsequent decisions in Mayo v. Prometheus and Alice v. CLS Bank further expanded on Bilski and substantially obliterated State Street. These decisions established a two-step inquiry in which, first, the court is to look to whether the claimed invention is directed to an abstract idea or natural principle; if it is, a second step follows in which the court must determine whether the claimed invention implements the
Q1739333
22
438
22
1,110
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Mayo and Alice
abstract idea inventively or instead in a merely routine or conventional manner. Unless the implementation or application of the abstract idea embodies an "inventive concept," the claimed invention is patent ineligible. (These concepts are explained further in the articles on the Mayo and Alice cases.) Under this test the State Street patent would be invalid. Alice specifically holds that a generic computer implementation of an abstract idea is patent ineligible. In Alice, the Supreme Court held that a software-related invention on an existing business procedure could not be saved from patent ineligibility and be made patent eligible simply by saying, "Do
Q1739333
22
1,110
26
408
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Mayo and Alice & Developments after Alice decision
it with a computer." Instead, it would be necessary to implement the procedure in an inventive manner. This decision appears to have overruled State Street sub silentio, as called for in the eBay dissent. Developments after Alice decision After the Alice decision, many of the business method patents that had issued as a result of the State Street decision were invalidated. One commentator tabulated statistics through June 2015. He found that the Federal Circuit held more than 90 percent invalid, while district courts invalidated more than 70 percent. In one of these district court decisions, Federal Circuit Judge Bryson, sitting by
Q1739333
26
408
26
1,083
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Developments after Alice decision
designation as a district judge, spoke of these business method patents as uninventive and mere "aspirational" recitations of "methods for performing a commonplace business function" without any description of "any novel manner of performing that function" other than saying "do it with a computer": In short, such patents, although frequently dressed up in the argot of invention, simply describe a problem, announce purely functional steps that purport to solve the problem, and recite standard computer operations to perform some of those steps. The principal flaw in these patents is that they do not contain an "inventive concept" that solves practical problems
Q1739333
26
1,083
26
1,460
State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.
Developments after Alice decision
and ensures that the patent is directed to something "significantly more than" the ineligible abstract idea itself. As such, they represent little more than functional descriptions of objectives, rather than inventive solutions. In addition, because they describe the claimed methods in functional terms, they preempt any subsequent specific solutions to the problem at issue.
Q28452151
2
0
6
528
Steed (FTP client)
Features
Steed (FTP client) Features Steed allows users to transfer files using FTP and SFTP protocols and access their bucket and containers on S3 and Azure for storing data in the cloud. User bookmarks are kept in sync across multiple devices by using OneDrive or Dropbox. Steed's UI provides a native Windows experience, and provide features specific to the operating system, like Jumplist, tabbed thumbnails, and high DPI support. Steed has a tabbed interface in order to manage multiple connections. After a ten day trial period, the product must be purchased.
Q7606073
2
0
6
556
Stefan Eeckelaert
Career
Stefan Eeckelaert Career Eeckelaert won the 1988 Dortmund Open, the 1990 French Open and the 1991 Antwerp Open. He made his major debut in the 1993 Winmau World Masters, losing in the first round to Ray Farrell. Eeckelaert then went on to win the Belgium National Championship and the Belgium Gold Cup in 1994 and also reached the final of the Norway Open and the Belgium Open, losing to Mike Gregory in both finals. He returned the World Masters the same year, but suffered a second first round exit in a defeat to Roland Scholten. Eeckelaert then made his only appearance
Q7606073
6
556
6
891
Stefan Eeckelaert
Career
in the BDO World Darts Championship in 1995, losing in the first round 3-0 to Peter Hunt. He then played in the 1995 World Masters, beating Alan Brown in the first round before losing to Richie Burnett. He reached the quarter finals of the 1996 Norway Open before fading away from the scene. Eeckelaert died on 8 January 2019.
Q3497890
2
0
4
530
Stefan Psenak
Stefan Psenak Stefan Psenak (born 1969 in Joliette, Quebec) is a Canadian poet, playwright, novelist and politician from Quebec. He won the Trillium Book Award in 1998 for Du chaos et de l'ordre des choses, and was a nominee for the Governor General's Award for French-language poetry in 2001 for La beauté. He served on Gatineau City Council from 2009 to 2013, representing Aylmer District. He was first elected in the 2009 Gatineau municipal election, but was defeated by Josée Lacasse in the 2013 Gatineau municipal election.
Q3972364
2
0
6
169
Stefano Bandecchi
Biography
Stefano Bandecchi Biography Bandecchi is the founder and owner of the Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano, a university founded in 2006. From June 2017 he is also owner of Ternana Calcio.
Q3972804
2
0
6
217
Steffani Brass
Personal life
Steffani Brass Personal life She has two older sisters named Tammi and Amanda, a brother named Bryan, and a nephew named Kevin. She is close friends with Spencer Locke, Dyllan Christopher and Abigail Mavity. She is 5' 2" (1.57 m).
Q178365
2
0
14
140
Stegaurach
Geography & History & Population development
Stegaurach Geography The community of Stegaurach lies in the valley of the Aurach, about 4 km west of Bamberg. Stegaurach lies in the Upper Franconia-West region. History Stegaurach belonged to the High Monastery at Bamberg. Stegaurach was actually part of the hereditary estate administration, a great deal of which was nevertheless made up of the High Monastery’s property or its Mediaten. Since the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, the community has belonged to Bavaria. Population development Within municipal limits, 3,935 inhabitants were counted in 1970, 4,958 in 1987 and 6,382 in 2000. In 2005 it was 6,747. In the next year the
Q178365
14
140
18
501
Stegaurach
Population development & Economy and infrastructure
population figure climbed sharply, giving Stegaurach a population of 6,841 on 31 December 2006. Economy and infrastructure According to official statistics, there were no workers on the social welfare contribution rolls working in producing businesses or trade and transport. In other areas, 313 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls were employed, and 2,120 such workers worked from home. In processing businesses there were three businesses, and in construction 7. Furthermore, in 1999, there were 46 agricultural operations with a working area of 795 ha, of which 571 ha was cropland and 223 ha was meadowland.
Q1703495
2
0
6
619
Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko
Life
Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko Life Petrichenko was born in 1892 in the village of Nikitenka in Kaluga Governorate to a family of peasants. Two years after his birth, his family moved to Alexandrovsk (Yekaterinoslav Governorate), where Stepan graduated from city school and joined the local ironworks as a metalworker. In 1913 Petrichenko was called up for military service with the Russian navy, where he was assigned to the Russian battleship Petropavlovsk, part of the Baltic Fleet. During the February Revolution in Russia, he had been with the fleet at the Estonian island Nargen (now Naissaar). In December 1917, it was proclaimed a
Q1703495
6
619
6
1,285
Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko
Life
Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Nargen. A republic was launched with eighty-two navy troops guiding about 800 local workers (indigenous had been evacuated at the start of World War I). Petrichenko fought the Bolsheviks, and the German Empire, aiding in the evacuation of Naissaar on February 26 with the Baltic Fleet in the direction of Helsinki, and from there to Kronstadt. In 1919 he entered the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) himself, but later resigned (a veiled cleansing). In the summer of 1920, he went home and returned with the approval of Nestor Makhno. He was not a career officer in the Baltic
Q1703495
6
1,285
6
1,875
Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko
Life
fleet, and when he took the responsibility of guiding the fleet he was an engineer on the battleship Petropavlovsk. After the rebellion was struck down by Trotsky, he fled over the ice to Finland, where he continued his agitation against the Bolsheviks. He stayed in Finland for many years, until he came into conflict with the Finnish government over his support of Soviet groups during the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1940. He was arrested and in 1945 he was expelled to the Soviet Union, where he was soon arrested and deported to Vladimir Prison where he
Q1703495
6
1,875
6
1,895
Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko
Life
died shortly after.
Q20852564
2
0
12
97
Stephanie Hemphill
Biography & Work
Stephanie Hemphill Stephanie Hemphill is an American author of books for young adults. She has lived in Los Angeles and Chicago. Biography Hemphill grew up in Chicago and began writing at an early age, as part of the Young Authors afterschool program. Hemphill published poetry for adults first, but had always wanted to write for children. Eventually, she took a class at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) about writing children's poetry and the class inspired her to write her first novel. Work Hemphill's first novel, Things Left Unsaid: A Novel in Poems (2005), is realistic fiction about a
Q20852564
12
97
12
701
Stephanie Hemphill
Work
friendship between two girls which alternates between toxic and healthy. The characterization of the main characters was considered excellent and the pacing of the story praised by School Library Journal. The way that Hemphill writes Things Left Unsaid, according to Sara K. Day, allows the reader to become a confidante of the narrator, as if the reader is a friend, too. Things Left Unsaid won the Myra Cohn Livingston Award in 2006. Hemphill won a 2008 Printz Honor for her book, Your Own, Sylvia, a novel in verse about the poet, Sylvia Plath. In working on Your Own, Sylvia, Hemphill shared
Q20852564
12
701
12
1,277
Stephanie Hemphill
Work
that this novel faced many challenges, one of which was surviving the "censoring gauntlet of the Plath estate," but that she enjoyed writing about her because she loved Plath as an artist. Hemphill also felt a kinship to Plath during the time of her writing, since her marriage was ending and she was in the grips of being both overworked and depressed. She also worked in a manner similar to Plath, writing poetry every day, journaling and also writing to her mother, as Plath often did. The Chicago Tribune reviewed Your Own, Syliva, writing about the novel that "rarely is
Q20852564
12
1,277
12
1,870
Stephanie Hemphill
Work
there such a striking and successful blend of literary form and subject." Your Own, Sylvia also won the Myra Cohn Livingston Award in 2008. Hemphill's 2010 novel, Wicked Girls, is a free-verse historical novel of the Salem Witch Trials. Wicked Girls was a 2010 L.A. Times Book Prize Finalist. The Horn Book Magazine has singled out her novels in verse to highlight, calling the poetry in her 2012 work, Sisters of Glass, "elegant." In 2013 she wrote, Hideous Love, which is also written in free-verse is about the writer Mary Shelley. Hideous Love was considered by to be faithful to
Q20852564
12
1,870
12
2,264
Stephanie Hemphill
Work
the history of Shelley's life, especially in imagining the difficulties of living under the principals of free love and "the compromises culture required of a woman of genius during the time period." While Hemphill's novels received much praise from various sources others have been more critical. Reviewers for The Lion and the Unicorn called the verse in Your Own, Sylvia "doggerel."
Q16734402
2
0
8
233
Stephanie Perkins
Career
Stephanie Perkins Stephanie Perkins is an American author, known for her books Anna and the French Kiss, Lola and the Boy Next Door, The New York Times bestseller Isla and the Happily Ever After and There's Someone Inside Your House, the latter of which will be adapted into a film of the same name and will be released on Netflix. Career Perkins was born in South Carolina. During her formative years, she lived in Arizona with her family, and attended universities in California and Georgia. After spending a year living in San Francisco, she moved away to live with her
Q16734402
8
233
8
287
Stephanie Perkins
Career
husband, Jarrod Perkins in Asheville, North Carolina.
Q3110353
2
0
6
603
Stephanie Savage
Career
Stephanie Savage Career Savage graduated from the University of Toronto in 1990 with a B.A. in English and Cinema Studies, then from the University of Iowa in 1993 with an M.A. in Film History and Theory. While writing her PhD dissertation for the University of Iowa she moved to Los Angeles, and in 1995 was offered a position at Drew Barrymore's production company Flower Films. Here she dabbled in scriptwriting, handling production rewrites for Charlie's Angels, and met the film's director McG. The two later formed production company Wonderland Sound and Vision in 2001. In September 2016, Savage was announced as
Q3110353
6
603
6
670
Stephanie Savage
Career
an executive producer for the then-upcoming Dynasty reboot series.
Q20090738
2
0
6
350
Stephen Funnell
Playing career
Stephen Funnell Playing career A former Saints junior, Funnell was a fullback for St. George for five seasons between 1984-88. He was a reserve in the 1985 Grand Final but didn't retain a first grade spot on a regular basis during his time at the Dragons. Funnell decided to change clubs in 1989, joining Western Suburbs, and finished his career at Eastern Suburbs in 1992.
Q7609686
2
0
8
461
Stephen King-Hall
Life
Stephen King-Hall William Stephen Richard King-Hall, Baron King-Hall (21 January 1893 – 2 June 1966), was a British naval officer, writer, politician and playwright. Life The son of Admiral Sir George Fowler King-Hall and Olga Felicia Ker; theirs was an artistic naval family, King-Hall's sisters Magdalen and Lou also being writers. He married Kathleen Amelia Spencer (died 14 August 1950), daughter of Francis Spencer, on 15 April 1919 and they had three children, Ann, Frances Susan and Jane. He was educated at Lausanne in Switzerland and at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth. He fought in the First World War between
Q7609686
8
461
8
1,077
Stephen King-Hall
Life
1914 and 1918, with the Grand Fleet, serving on HMS Southampton and 11th Submarine Flotilla. He gained the rank of commander in the service of the Royal Navy in 1928, before resigning in 1929. He wrote several plays between 1924 and 1940, including Posterity accepted by Leonard Woolf for the Hogarth Essays. He joined the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1929, having previously been awarded their Gold Medal for his 1920 thesis on submarine warfare. He entered the House of Commons in 1939 as Member of Parliament (MP) for Ormskirk unopposed, standing as the National Labour candidate. He later changed
Q7609686
8
1,077
8
1,707
Stephen King-Hall
Life
his affiliation and continued to stand as an Independent, subsequently losing the seat to future Prime Minister Harold Wilson in the 1945 general election. During the Second World War, he served in the Ministry of Aircraft Production under Beaverbrook as Director of the Factory Defence Section. In 1944 he founded and chaired the Hansard Society to promote parliamentary democracy. He presented a programme for children on current affairs on both BBC radio and television. He was invested as a Knight Bachelor in 1954 and was created Baron King-Hall, of Headley in the County of Hampshire (Life Peer) on 15 January 1966.
Q7609686
8
1,707
8
1,776
Stephen King-Hall
Life
He lived at Hartfield House, Headley until his death on 2 June 1966.
Q6959414
2
0
10
71
Stephen Stewart
Rowing brothers & Club and state rowing
Stephen Stewart Rowing brothers Stephen's older twin brothers James Stewart and Geoff Stewart were three-time Olympians (1996, 2000, 2004) and each won two Olympic bronze medals. The trio of brothers became the first to represent Australia in rowing at the same Olympics when they all rowed together at Athens 2004 to a bronze medal in the men's eight. The brothers were all educated at Newington College (1984–1991), and took up rowing coached by Olympian and fellow Old Newingtonian Michael Morgan and deputy headmaster Robert Buntine. Club and state rowing Stephan Stewart's senior club rowing was from the UTS Haberfield Rowing
Q6959414
10
71
14
135
Stephen Stewart
Club and state rowing & International representative rowing
Club on Sydney's Iron Cove. Stewart's first state representative selection for New South Wales came in 2001 in the men's senior eight who contested the King's Cup at the Interstate Regatta within the Australian Rowing Championships From 2001 to 2004 and in 2008 he rowed in New South Wales men's senior eights competing for the King's Cup at the Interstate Regatta. He stroked the 2003, 2004 and 2008 eight and saw King's Cup victories in 2004 and 2008. International representative rowing Stewart made his Australian representative debut in 1995 aged eighteen, competing at the World Rowing U23 Championships in Groningen in
Q6959414
14
135
14
707
Stephen Stewart
International representative rowing
the men's eight who finished in eighth place. That same year he rowed at the Junior World Rowing Championships in Poznan at which the Australian squad was negatively affected by food poisoning. Stewart was selected in the eight which was unable to move past the heat stage due to the effects of illness on the crew, but Stewart moved into the coxless four who were able to win the silver medal. His next representative appearance was in 2000 and again at the World Rowing U23 Championships in a coxless four which won the silver medal. He also competed at a World
Q6959414
14
707
14
1,263
Stephen Stewart
International representative rowing
Rowing Cup in Lucerne that year. In 2001 he was selected in to stroke the Australian men's eight. He raced at the World Rowing Cup IV in Munich and then at the 2001 World Rowing Championships where they missed the A final and placed seventh overall. Then in 2003 at the World Championships in Milan he stroked the Australian coxless four to a fourth-place finish. In time for the 2004 Athens Stephen was back in the stroke seat of the Australian men's eight with his brothers Geoff and James at four and five. They raced well to a bronze medal. In
Q6959414
14
1,263
14
1,639
Stephen Stewart
International representative rowing
the next Olympiad Steve Stewart didn't represent internationally at any World Championships or World Cups until his 2008 selection to again stroke the 2008 Australian men's eight. The eight competed at two World Rowing Cups in Europe before rowing at the 2008 Beijing Olympics to a sixth place in the final. It was Stephen Stewart's last Australian representative appearance.
Q7610896
2
0
4
662
Stephen Wäkevä
Stephen Wäkevä Stefan Wäkevä, a Finnish silversmith, and a Fabergé workmaster. Born 4 November in Väkevälä village Säkkijärvi in the Viipuri Province of the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1833. Apprentice in St. Petersburg at the workshop of silversmith Olof Fredrik Wennerström in 1843. Journeyman at the age of fourteen in 1847. Master in 1856. Wäkevä's workshop at 41 of the fifth of Roždestvenskaya (Sovetskaya) Street supplied Fabergé with silverware, mostly tea-services, tankards and punch bowls. Stefan Wäkevä's hallmark was the letters S.W in a circle. His two sons (Alexander Wäkevä and Konstantin Wäkevä) also worked for Fabergé, taking over his
Q7610896
4
662
4
702
Stephen Wäkevä
father's workshop at his death in 1910.
Q433390
2
0
6
532
Stephen du Perche
Arrival in Italy
Stephen du Perche Arrival in Italy In 1166, Margaret appealed to her other cousin, Rotrou, Archbishop of Rouen, to send her a family member to aid and support her in government. Coincidentally, Stephen was at that moment preparing to go on crusade to the Holy Land and so decided to visit Palermo, the capital of Sicily, for a few months. There he ended up staying for two years. He was very young at the time, described as puer and adolescens by William of Tyre, and may have still been in his teens. Nevertheless, in November, Margaret appointed him chancellor. His
Q433390
6
532
10
51
Stephen du Perche
Arrival in Italy & Conflict with Matthew of Ajello
appointment was resented by the local nobility. His chancellorship was noted, according to Hugo Falcandus, in that "he never allowed powerful men to oppress their subjects, nor ever feigned to overlook any injury done to the poor. In such a way his fame quickly spread throughout the Kingdom . . . so that men looked on him as a heaven-sent angel of consolation who had brought back the Golden Age". The opinion of Falcandus probably coincides better with that of the lower classes than Stephen's fellow aristocrats. Conflict with Matthew of Ajello In 1167, Margaret had Stephen elected as archbishop
Q433390
10
51
10
694
Stephen du Perche
Conflict with Matthew of Ajello
of Palermo, the highest ecclesiastic office in the land. He was ordained by Romuald, Archbishop of Salerno, only days before his elevation and it deeply rankled the old noblesse. Romuald and Richard Palmer, bishop of Syracuse, both candidates for the vacant see of Palermo themselves, were strongly opposed. But Stephen's greatest opponents was Matthew of Ajello, a notary whom he had offended the year previous. Stephen went so far as to try and seize Matthew's mail, but nothing indicating conspiracy was ever proven against the notary. Stephen was never consecrated, perhaps because had not attained the canonical age of thirty. In
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