# Datasets:the_pile_stack_exchange

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1M<n<10M
Language Creators: found
Annotations Creators: no-annotation
Source Datasets: original
ArXiv:
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domain (string)text (string)
"Q: What is the h-index exactly and how does it work? What is the h-index, and how does it work ? A: The h-index is a measure of the impact of someone's publication list. An h-index of 10 for example means that the person has published 10 papers with at least 10 citations. The total number of papers published may be higher, but only 10 will have 10 or more citations. Critics argue that this measure disadvantages young researchers who did not have time to publish a lot and whose work has not been published for long and thus may not have attracted many citations. Other criticisms include that it makes a researcher focus on how to increase the citation count for a paper that may be not that good but would increase the h-index. For more explanation, see for example the Wikipedia article. "
"Q: Do I need to have teaching experience before entering grad school? I'm considering going back to graduate school, but I've heard from a number of friends that graduate students are all required to teach. Is that the case? I have no teaching experience at all. Will that negatively affect my chances of getting in? A: In general, no, it won't. Having teaching experience might weigh in your favor in exceptional circumstances (a graduate department that needs a lot of teaching assistants, and you're "on the bubble"; you're going into an education program or something similar; or the application specifically asks for teaching experience). However, most graduate schools don't expect that students have prior teaching experience, and provide training to smooth the transition. Teaching load also varies widely from program to program: some science and engineering students TA for one semester over a five-year program, while humanities graduate students may have to TA every semester to pay for their studies. "
"Q: How are the personal assistants for professors usually funded? As examples, the lab executive assistant at http://www.klab.caltech.edu/people.shtml or the lab administrative assistant over at http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~tapio/people.html#admins A: Funding for non-research positions comes from either direct or indirect sources. Direct sources means writing a proposal that includes funding for personnel such as a lab technician or an administrator for a research center. In this case, the funding is obtained directly through grants. Most of the time, however, the funding is indirect: the salary is paid by the department, rather than an individual research group. This funding is paid for through the "overhead" charges that are included in research grants. (In some cases, such as public universities in Germany, this funding is also indirect, coming from a grant by the state or federal government given to each professorship.) A: I've seen three common ways of funding staff - undoubtedly there are more. For staff directly related to the running of a research lab, for example senior technicians, lab managers, dedicated programmers for computational research, etc. there may be funding written into the direct salary costs of the research grants their faculty member submits. For example, many of the grants in the field I'm in have direct funding for data managers and the like for the duration of a research grant. If a faculty member anticipates needing a particular type of help - most often a lab technician or programmer in my experience - they may ask for their salary to be part of the faculty member's startup package for some small number of years before (hopefully) the faculty member can support them through mechanism #1. Other staff members, such as personal assistants, some research staff etc. are theoretically things that are supposed to be paid for by the rather sizable chunk of a grant budget that goes to indirect costs to the university. Whether or not this occurs in practice is another question all together. "
"Q: What are the options for fellowships for international grad students in USA? I'm looking for fellowships that an international grad student can apply for, to support him/her while working towards a Ph.D. (additional to whatever funding that may be available as TA). So far, I've been able to identify the following: Fulbright Scholarships for International Students (applications have to be done more than a year before, and they've suspended 2013-14 grants, so not really an option for me) Aga Khan Foundation International Scholarship Programme, which has the following selection criteria: The main criteria for selecting award winners are: l) excellent academic records, 2) genuine financial need, 3) admission to a reputable institution of higher learning and 4) thoughtful and coherent educational and career plans. Candidates are also evaluated on their extra-curricular interests and achievements, potential to achieve their goals and likelihood to succeed in a foreign academic environment. Applicants are expected to have some years of work experience in their field of interest. It would be great if I could get to know of similar fellowships that an incoming student can apply to, before starting grad school. A: The Smithsonian offers fellowships for international grad students, specifically a ten-week summer internship for pre-dissertation grad students and 3-12 months of funding for post-dissertation grad students. Also, you get to work at the Smithsonian. "
"Q: What rules guide whether to put qualifications on an academic business card? I'm just wondering what rules of etiquette guide whether an academic puts qualifications on a business card. I'm assuming that either "Dr" at the start or "PhD" at the end is important to include where applicable, perhaps with the exception that higher titles such as "Prof" would take precedence over "Dr". However, what about beyond that? A: The accepted conventions also depend strongly on country. As a general rule, though, I'd avoid anything "cute" unless you happen to be your own boss. For instance, in the US, I'd expect to see doctoral-level degrees listed. I'd also expect to see high-level professional qualifications, such as "PE" for "Professional Engineers." Similarly, if a master's degree carries sufficient professional weight in one's discipline, I'd list that, too. You are also correct in assuming that Prof. "overwrites" Dr. In Germany, by contrast, one is expected to list all degrees of equivalent standing, including honorary degrees. This can lead to rather unwieldy titles such as Univ.-Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr.-Ing. h.c. Dr. rer. nat. E.h. Johannes Schmidt (Note: I've seen substantially longer, too!) However, two additional points are worth mentioning. First, any degree at the master's or diploma level is considered significant enough to list as part of one's title: Dipl.-Ing. Michael Mustermann would be expected for someone with a "Diplom" in engineering. Secondly, until recently, non-German degrees were not considered the equivalent of German degrees. An American doctorate holder was Joanna Doe, Ph.D. and was legally not allowed to call herself Dr. Joanna Doe However, this has been somewhat relaxed recently, although only for degree holders from certain countries. "
"Q: How important are teaching portfolios in obtaining an academic position? I have been recently introduced to the idea of teaching portfolios, that is a collection of teaching experiences and references made by peer educators. Their supposed purpose is to go along a researcher CV when applying for a position in academia, i.e. assistant/associate professor. Any first hand experience? A: This may be useful for someone considering a career at a teaching-first school, but I've never seen such portfolios asked for or even considered at research universities in the US and the larger European countries. A: Creating a "portfolio" for teaching used to be the norm for those entering the teaching career on the secondary (high school) level and below. My portfolio is HUGE (a 3-inch binder stuffed full of lesson plans, my philosophy of education, professional development, letters of recommendation, photos of my students, etc.), but I've only had one administrator ever actually LOOK at my portfolio and that was when I was interviewing for my first teaching position. The move I've seen from many universities is to have their teaching students create virtual or online portfolios. If I were you and I were considering applying for a higher-ed. position, I certainly wouldn't create anything that was a step backwards in technology. If you choose to create a portfolio, spend the time and create a virtual one. "
"Q: Is there a generally accepted format for submitting papers to journals? I believe in Mathematics and Computer Science journals usually accept LaTeX documents. In fact, the AMS has a number of packages and document classes for just this purpose. What about other disciplines? I'm not particularly familiar with the humanities. Would a Microsoft Word document be unacceptable? Does it vary from subject to subject, or even journal to journal? A: The policies vary entirely from journal to journal about what is considered acceptable. APS journals, for instance, will accept both MS Word-based documents as well as documents formatted with RevTeX, their modified template system. ACS journals and a number of other publishers also offer their own LaTeX- and Word-specific templates for authors to use. Whether the use of the template is required or merely recommended is also a function of the journal. So, as a general rule, you should always check the homepage of a journal before you start preparing an article for submission to that journal. To some extent, I prefer working with LaTeX in preparing manuscripts, for the simple reason that their plain-text document format makes it a lot less painful to switch back and forth between different templates, compared to a word-processing format like Word or LibreOffice or Pages. A: It does indeed vary from subject to subject, and journal to journal. I once got in a short argument with some math students who had asserted "If its going to be published, it needs to be in LaTeX", a disagreement that only ended when I went and found some submission guidelines. For three fairly good journals in my field (Epidemiology), you have some considerable differences. American Journal of Epidemiology wants everything in either Word or PDF format - LaTeX documents are compatible with this, but its certainly not doing anyone any favors in terms of already being formatted. Epidemiology will accept LaTeX documents, but warns that the odds of typesetting and other erros increases in formats besides Word. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology only requires that an editable version be available. So the de-facto standard in my field is Word, though of course there are ways around that. And then, as mentioned, there are formatting issues beyond just "what's the file extension?" How references, the text, and figures are reported - must odds ratios be graphed on a log scale or not?. How p-values are treated. What format graphics are allowed to be in, etc. As Fabian said, submitting to a new journal often involves combing through the same content to subtly tweak formatting. A: This varies a lot between journals, and probably even more between different disciplines. In the life sciences Latex is rather rare, MS Word seems to me to be the most common format in my subjective observation. But the actual document format, be it Latex or Word, is only part of the difference between journals. The exact rules on how to format a paper vary so much that you'll have to put significant effort into adapting the same manuscript for different journals anyway. Check out the Author submission guidelines for Nature or those from JACS as an example. They often regulate details like how the axis labelling in graphs has to look like. The journals also often have different length requirements, so you might have to shorten your manuscript if you decide to switch to a different journal. "
"Q: What are the consequences to the researcher in cases of academic fraud? The purpose of this question is to attempt to generate a concise but comprehensive answer to the question, what happens to the researcher after fraud is discovered? I'm familiar with some consequences: Listing on the NIH Office of Research Integrity website Retraction of relevant publications Prevention from publication in journals for X years What other are some other typical (and atypical) outcomes? A: As I posted in answer to another comment, more often than not, schools want to avoid the dramas associated with plagiarism scandals. That is why schools like Harvard will prompt researchers accused of fraudulent behavior, such as Marc Hauser, to resign, rather than go through tenure revocation procedures. But losing one's job is fairly likely, and an unofficial blacklisting is almost certain to result. One other consequence, though, is often forgotten: the peripheral damage of academic fraud cases. Sensationalized results, such as those in the Jan Hendrik Schön and Hwang Woo-Suk cases, led many graduate students to embark on projects in those disciplines trying to reproduce and expand upon the promises implied by those projects. When those projects collapsed, a lot of graduate students were left in the lurch. "
"Q: Ph.D. in UK/Ireland as "Dipl.-Ing." from Germany Is it feasible for an engineering student from Germany to get into a Ph.D. program in the UK/Ireland? Specifically, what should one keep in mind/try to accomplish in the last two years before finishing the "Diplom"? How would one apply? Maybe this question can be extended to other combinations of countries, but I didn’t want it to be too broad. A: In short, yes. If you're talking about the "traditional" 5 year Diplom, it's essentially equivalent to an MSc, which is what most universities require to start a PhD (although some only require a Bachelor's degree). I don't think you need to keep anything in particular in mind when finishing, apart from making sure that you get good grades for your transcript :) The application procedure wouldn't be any different from other students, although you may have to explain in some detail what your degree is. A: Yes, it is certainly possible. One thing to keep in mind is that practically all PhD programs in the UK require some evidence of an acceptable standard of English (see here for an example), usually IELTS or TOEFL tests, and depending on your English skills, this might warrant some preparation during the last year of your Diplom. Many PhD programs also require at least two letters of recommendation, so the sooner you have an idea who might provide these for you, the better. "
"Q: Good source for pre PhD level papers/dissertations in Mathematics I am looking for a good source to get my hands on some pre PhD level maths papers/dissertations, because I want to get a better feeling what is expected. (i.e. BSc and MSc Dissertations) My department is unfortunately not at liberty to make MSc Dissertations available for copyright reasons, so I am stuck with asking individual people. In order to get a good overview I'd really like to get my hands on a much bigger selection of papers though, so I'm looking for a good online sources. A: Your best source of such information would be to look for electronic repositories that are at least partially "open." The openThesis repository offers one such source, and you might find some information on sites like academia.edu. An alternate source would be to look at individual school's repositories. For instance, MIT's DSpace offers copies of many recent MIT thesis and dissertations, which can be previewed by anyone, although you need to be a member of the MIT community in order to be able to download and print documents from the site. A: A quick Google search for "partial fulfillment master science mathematics" finds hundreds of MS theses in several branches of mathematics. "
"Q: Selecting journal reviewers through cover letter I was planning to use mdpi.com to submit a paper to "Entropy" journal. The journal perfectly matches the area that my paper covers. However, they require a cover letter to five reviewers selected by myself: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy/instructions Coverletter: Check in your cover letter whether you supplied at least 5 referees. Check if the English corrections are done before submission. Is this the standard procedure? Can you propose other similar journal? I am getting afraid that receiving feedback is not an easy task, and I can wander with the paper for a year or so. A: They don't require you to send a cover letter to five referees, but just to indicate in your cover letter the names and contact info of 5 potential reviewers. It's just to help them finding reviewers for your paper (as they say, they might not use those you provided). But I don't think you need to contact the reviewers first. As far as I know, it's a pretty common procedure, I've seen it for several other journals. A: I wouldn't say that a journal asking for reviewers is "standard" practice, but it is by no means rare. For instance, nearly all ACS journals require that the paper submitter provide the names of between three and six potential referees. Other journals that I've submitted to, including J. Chem. Phys. and the Physical Review series do not require referee lists of any kind. It should be noted that the choice of referees is entirely discretionary on the part of the editor. The editor is free to pick from any or all of the names on your list—or none of them, if it's an area the editor knows well enough to assign referees independently. "
"Q: Historical data for success rate of grant/project applications? Is there any publicly accessible information regarding the success rate of grant/project applications for science/technology and other research grant programs (e.g. NSF grants) and its variation over time? I'm not interested in an exhaustive list but some illustrative examples would be much appreciated. A: Check out the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. It may take you some time to find exactly what you're looking for, but there are numerous reports available, with a good deal of detail. A: It's surprisingly hard to find that information, I was expecting to get it more easily, in particular when public funding is involved. I've found for the European Union FP7-ICT call 1, there were 1836 proposals for only 318 accepted, with a total 1.2 billion euros funded (Source, slide 18). I guess a good strategy could be to contact the Research Division of the European Commission, I'm sure they have this information somewhere, and they are probably able to provide it. "
"Q: Are there any students at the United Nations University? The United Nations University (UNU) is an academic arm of the United Nations. If I understood well, it is doing only research. Are there any people who are actually enrolled as "students" there? References appreciated A: The United Nations University does not really work as a normal university, but rather as a research center. The difference is that they recruit students from developing countries as for a period that can go from several months to a year, in order to make them work on concrete research projects, so that they can gain experience (which can help them to apply for a Master of PhD program somewhere else). For instance, this a job position for students at the UNU-IIST (International Institute for Software Technology). Note that the UNU-IIST also plan to offer a joint PhD program with the University of Pisa. Note also that it seems that each institute of the UNU is to some extent independent, so maybe other institutes provide more academic programs. So, to answer your questions, technically speaking there are students at the UNU (when I was working at the UNU-IIST, there were something between 10 and 20 students), but they are not "enrolled" by the UNU, it's more like some kind of internship. "
"Q: Software for managing departmental alumni relations My department is looking for a CRM tool to manage its relationship with graduated students (either on BSc, MSc or PhD level). What we want to achieve: Show our candidates that you can get a well paid work after graduating Physics in Poland (they don't believe such positions exist) Allow our department to track careers of out students and possibly change study program to better fulfill their needs Gain input from former students Allow current and former students to view/apply for job opportunities (people from our department who start a company often look for people with similar education level) All these use cases are more or less practiced now, but mainly using emails. I was wondering what are established practices, particularly in Western Universities (since Polish ones tend to lag somewhat, especially when it comes to such problems). Do your departments do any kind of alumni tracking? If yes, what tools do you use? If not, why not? A: LinkedIn is a fine resource for this sort of thing, especially for keeping track of alums' careers and contact data. I encourage my students to link to me for exactly this reason. "
"Q: Subtle (and not-so-subtle) humor in scientific literature Tonight I was scrolling through my RSS aggregator (which includes subscriptions for several journals I follow) and this abstract caught my attention. The article's title, as well as the name of the software it describes, includes a subtle reference to this popular internet meme. This gave me a good laugh, and an excuse to watch that ridiculously silly video again. But on a more serious note, this is not the first time I have seen the use of subtle (or not-so-subtle) humor in the title of a scientific journal article, conference abstract, or poster presentation. Sometimes the humor is even injected into the body of the publication itself. But in general, we as scientists are expected to write in such a way that our findings are easily communicated and easily reproducible. The focus is on clarity, objectivity, and reproducibility. There are of course no formal rules about the use of humor in scientific literature, but are there any de facto rules? Do these de facto rules depend on the field (computer science vs genetics) or the publisher (Oxford Univ. Press vs BioMed Central) or the journal's impact factor (Nature vs Frontiers in Genetics)? Does humor even have a place in scientific literature, or would we be better off without it? A: I see humorous titles in scientific articles now and again, like the "Wizard of Odds" joke in a recent commentary in Epidemiology. One should however be somewhat cautious. The general use of "marketing gimmicks" like questions in the title have been suggested to increase downloads but not actual citations - which flawed or not flawed form the basis for how both the paper and you as the author are evaluated. Consider this finding: The results of the current study indicate that in two prestigious scientific journals in psychology the use of exceptionally amusing titles (2 standard deviations above the average rated amusement) was associated with a substantiate ‘penalty’ of around 33% of the total number of citations. The present results were found in both of the examined journals and cannot be attributed to potential moderating effects of the title length and pleasantness, the number of authors, the year of publica- tion, and the article type (regular article vs comment). While that might not be perfectly generalizable, I think it's pretty easy to say that being overly clever is hazardous. A: The NCBI ROFL blog is a good source of intentional and unintentional humour in the scientific literature. In general I think we can get a little too po-faced about the "importance" of the scientific literature, and a little humour now and then (used wisely) can help to make a point. It is an easy thing to misjudge, however, and I think it is true that no humour at all is vastly preferable to bad humour. A: The brief answer is that, yes, humor has its place, but it should never be used at the expense of the integrity of the results; even when used, it is often only used sparsely; and the author typically is somewhat known in the field. (You rarely find a very young professor publishing something like that.) "
"Q: When should I tell a potential employer about a spousal accommodation? The title sums it up: At what point during the interview/negotiations do you let a potential academic employer about spousal accommodations? A: I don't believe there's a universal right answer for this question. I think it depends on the level of accommodation required, as well as the particulars of your own situation. In general, if you're not being considered for a tenure-track or permanent-level position, there often isn't a lot you can do in terms of getting spousal accommodations, unless you have a very generous employer. In that case, I wouldn't think there's ever a good time to bring up the matter, because there won't be much in the way of possibilities. For a tenure-track or equivalent position, on the other hand, I think that I would wait at least until the level of having secured an interview before bringing up these issues. Any earlier, and some employers may (perhaps illegally, depending on jurisdiction) wash their hands of the issue by skipping you in making the list of finalists. Once you've gotten the interview, though, that's no longer a concern. Whether to mention it during or after the interview depends on the ability of the school to do something about it. I would lean towards mentioning at the interview, and particularly so f the school has a "dual-career" office in place. If you wait, then you may spend your time negotiating and having to accept or decline the offer without a firm commitment of help in hand at the time. "
"Q: What journals do not allow open access to published material? An increasing number of funding organizations require publications on the research that they fund to be open access, i.e. available to the public without having to subscribe to a journal or pay a fee. Does anybody know where I can find a list of journals/publishers that do not allow material that they publish to be published this way? A: This answer to a related question points to http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/, which allows you to look up the policy of specific journals. A: Directory of open access journals is the most comprehensive listing for the open access ones, so if you find a journal there, it's open. If not, then you need further research. Though usually clicking on an article link should be sufficient. "
"Q: Alphabetical author list in non-alphabetical journal (A followup for this question) Say your field's convention is to have alphabetical-ordered author list. What should you do when your work is accepted to a (multidisciplinary) journal in which the convention is to order the author by contribution (e.g. Nature)? A: If it's a well-known journal like Nature, then I would follow their convention. Everybody who reads the article will assume that you do. A: My first stop would be checking if the journal has any particular authorship policies. If it does, follow them - if its not the way your field does it, welcome to the perils of interdisciplinary research. From there, in my mind, it splits into two questions: Is it a field-specific paper that happens to be going in an interdisciplinary journal. For example, are all the authors from Alphabetical Author List Field? Then put it in that field's ordering. Is it genuinely interdisciplinary (multiple fields with different traditions)? I'd probably default to the non-alphabetical ordering scheme, as among people I work with its the more common ordering scheme, and those who come from other fields that don't do that are generally pretty understanding. Or, if the authorship list is small enough, see if there's a clever ordering of author names that gets everyone what they need (it happens). "
"Q: What percent of assistant professors generally receive tenure, and how does this percent vary depending on both school and field? Are new assistant professors more likely to receive tenure in an expanding field, like biology? And are they less likely (percentage-wise) to receive tenure at elite schools? A: This is actually quite a difficult question to answer specifically. Here is a brief paper reviewing some of the reasons why good data is unavailable on even very basic questions, together with some references to what is available. In the U.S. case, everyone agrees that, in general, the higher-ranked one's university, the more difficult it is to get tenure. Departments at some elite schools are notorious for their unwillingness or inability to grant tenure to their junior faculty over a very long period—in some cases, decades. (Just last year in my own field, for example, one of the leading departments tenured one of its junior faculty for the first time in more than twenty years. This is an extreme example, but you get the point.) Beyond the well-known general patterns and the (sometimes widely-reported) particular horror stories, though, many very interesting questions remain difficult to address systematically—including your one about expanding versus stable fields. The question is complicated by the fact that the institution of tenure itself is changing, as is its role within the university. As Wikipedia notes, in the United States "The period since 1972 has seen a steady decline in the percentage of college and university teaching positions in the US that are either tenured or tenure-track. United States Department of Education statistics put the combined tenured/tenure-track rate at 56% for 1975, 46.8% for 1989, and 31.9% for 2005. That is to say, by the year 2005, 68.1% of US college teachers were neither tenured nor eligible for tenure; a full 48% of teachers that year were part-time employees. "
"Q: Are the Survey rankings for the National Research Council really more objective than the Regression rankings? This blog post argues so, but I have my doubts since the author works at a graduate program whose S-rankings are much better than its R-rankings. I have a feeling that R-rankings do capture some things that S-rankings don't capture. Professors who are far ahead of their time, for example, might be recognized as such, but I would expect that their papers probably won't get very high citation counts for some time. A: No, both rankings are basically nonsense. Even if you agree with the NRC's choice of a single "quality" model across all intellectual disciplines, the rankings are based on horrendously incomplete and incorrect data. This is especially true in computer science. Also, the claim in the blog post is an obvious joke. The S-rankings are "better" because writer's home department's S-ranking was better than its R-ranking. "

# Dataset Card for Stack Exchange

### Dataset Summary

This dataset is part of EleutherAI/The Pile dataset and is a dataset for Language Models from processing stackexchange data dump, which is an anonymized dump of all user-contributed content on the Stack Exchange network.

The dataset is used for Language Modeling.

### Languages

The dataset is in English.

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

{'domain': 'chemistry',


### Data Fields

• domain: Stack Exchange domain of the sample
• text: Text content containing both the question and the answer

|train|5096117|

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Citation Information

@article{pile,
title={The {P}ile: An 800GB Dataset of Diverse Text for Language Modeling},
author={Gao, Leo and Biderman, Stella and Black, Sid and Golding, Laurence and Hoppe, Travis and Foster, Charles and Phang, Jason and He, Horace and Thite, Anish and Nabeshima, Noa and Presser, Shawn and Leahy, Connor},
journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2101.00027},
year={2020}
}


### Contributions

Thanks to sdtblck for creating the dataset. Thanks to richarddwang for adding the dataset.