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language arts
grade-11
transitions-with-conjunctive-adverbs
Complete the text with the better adverbial conjunction. Jeanette was recently promoted to lead a small team in a newly created department within her company. ___, it will be her first experience in a supervisory role, but her manager thinks she has the leadership skills that it takes to succeed.
[ "Granted", "Moreover" ]
0
language arts
grade-10
identify-vague-pronoun-references
Which of the following contains a vague pronoun reference?
[ "When Carly returned to the apartment that evening, she greeted Jill with a hug.", "Carly greeted Jill with a hug when she returned to the apartment that evening." ]
1
language arts
grade-8
choose-the-antonym
Which word is an antonym of **impair**?
[ "aid", "harm" ]
0
language arts
grade-11
use-context-as-a-clue-to-the-meanings-of-foreign-expressions
What is the meaning of the foreign expression in bold? During the summer months, several of downtown Castroville's restaurants extend their tables onto the sidewalks for **al fresco** dining.
[ "inexpensive", "outdoor", "fresh", "hasty" ]
1
language arts
grade-4
determine-the-meaning-of-idioms-from-context-set-2
What is the meaning of **bite the bullet**? Savannah didn't want to write the book report, but she decided to **bite the bullet** and start it anyway.
[ "to take action too soon", "to do something unpleasant but necessary" ]
1
language arts
grade-12
choose-punctuation-to-avoid-fragments-and-run-ons
Which is the best way to complete the text? Its propeller buzzing loudly, the seaplane taxied across the lake past the ___ steadily increased its speed in preparation for takeoff.
[ "sailboats; and", "sailboats. And", "sailboats and" ]
2
language arts
grade-12
analyze-the-development-of-informational-passages-set-1
Review the **fourth and fifth paragraphs**. title: Edison and Popular Culture Every time we play recorded music or go to the movies, we enjoy the benefits of Thomas Edison's genius and hard work. Although Edison is perhaps most famous for his light bulb, his inventions in sound recording and motion pictures helped give rise to the entertainment industry as we know it today. After his successful development of the first tinfoil phonograph in 1877, Edison and his researchers made countless improvements to the phonograph, constantly striving to achieve the finest sound reproduction possible. At first, Edison thought the phonograph primarily suitable only for business purposes, like the dictation of letters. What the public really wanted, however, was a machine to play music. Recognizing the biggest market for the phonograph, Edison began producing musical records in the early 1890s. No matter how scratchy and crude those early cylinder records seem today, they were amazing to buyers who were hearing recorded sound for the very first time. The development of records, cassette tapes, compact discs, and finally digital music traces back to Edison's early experiments with sound recording. Not satisfied with merely recording sound, Edison turned his attention to another of the senses: sight. In October 1888, Edison wrote that he intended to do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear, which is the recording and reproduction of things in motion." Thus began Edison's development of the kinetograph (motion picture camera) and kinetoscope (motion picture viewer). Over the next five years, Edison experimented with the making of motion pictures, erecting the Black Maria, the world's first structure especially built to be a motion picture studio. The first motion pictures were not projected on a theater screen. Instead, viewers looked through a peephole mounted on top of a box with the projector inside. For a nickel, viewers could look through the peephole to see films of men at work (like Blacksmith Scene) or of a dancer (Carmencita), or perhaps a scene of everyday life (like The Barbershop). Although they lasted less than a minute, these first short films excited audiences as much as any film seen today. The first films were silent, but in 1895 Edison attempted to combine sound recording and motion pictures in a device he called the kinetophone. Unfortunately, this early effort at talking motion pictures proved unsuccessful. More than thirty years would pass before sound films would become widespread. The peephole kinetoscope was a success, but Edison and other researchers realized that projected films were the next step in motion picture development. The first commercially successful American motion picture projector was called Edison's Vitascope. Drawing from the work of inventors C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat, the vitascope launched the era of projected film in the United States. When the vitascope premiered in New York City in 1896, the hit film of the evening was titled Rough Sea at Dover, made by Englishman Robert Paul. So realistic was the view of waves crashing on Dover Beach that people in the front rows actually shrank back in their seats, fearful of getting wet. Edison wanted to invent things to improve the lives of all people, whether it was electric light bulbs to light their homes or phonographs and motion pictures to inspire their imaginations. Just as he often built on the work of those who preceded him, so, too, have others built on Edison's work. Every time we flip a light switch or watch a movie, we enjoy the legacy of Edison's genius. But true genius, said Edison, relies on "hard work, stick-to-itiveness, and common sense." Thomas Edison's own example of dedication and determination may be his true legacy. Adapted from the National Park Service, "Edison and Popular Culture" How do the fourth and fifth paragraphs work together?
[ "They describe a great achievement of Edison's and then explain why it was unpopular.", "They describe a great achievement of Edison's and then explore his next success.", "They describe a great success of Edison's and then acknowledge its limits." ]
2
language arts
grade-5
determine-the-meaning-of-idioms-from-context-set-1
What is the meaning of **head over heels**? From the day they first met, Mr. and Mrs. Harper have been **head over heels** for each other.
[ "always together", "very much in love" ]
1
social studies
grade-5
world-war-ii-global-events
How did the United States respond to the bombing of Pearl Harbor?
[ "The United States took Japan to court for war crimes.", "The United States gave Pearl Harbor to Japan.", "The president of the United States met with the Japanese prime minister.", "The United States declared war on Japan." ]
3
language arts
pre-k
choose-the-lowercase-letter-that-matches-c-k-o-p-s-u-v-w-x-z
Pick the lowercase letter that matches. P
[ "u", "d", "p" ]
2
language arts
grade-11
trace-an-argument-set-1
Read the text. title: The Score to Better Scores A quiet space is often considered essential for achieving the concentration that leads to academic success. But research shows that some students may benefit from breaking the silence with certain kinds of music while they study. Music has a powerful influence on both the body and the brain, in ways that can help students navigate the physical and emotional obstacles that come with academic challenges. Still, students should choose their tunes wisely. Relaxing music with minimal variation and a steady, repetitive rhythm seems to make the best study partner. Studies have identified a link between soothing background music and cognitive performance. One U.S. study compared students who took a test to a background of soft music with those who took the test under silent conditions. The study found that students taking a test to music not only completed more questions within a set time but also answered more questions correctly. Music has been further linked to improvements in memory and recall. French researchers concluded that when classical music was played during a traditional lecture, students were better able to remember the information presented. In a similar vein, American researchers found that music moves the brain to pay attention, engaging the parts of the brain that are associated with attention and memory. Experts agree that when music stimulates mood and motivation, students are able to learn more and to better demonstrate their knowledge. A bit of mood music affects more than just memory and recall when students hit the books. Music can also relieve stress associated with school. Scientists have learned that music engages the autonomic nervous system, which not only controls the unconscious functions of the body but also influences emotions. So it's no surprise that researchers from the Group Health Research Institute concluded that certain kinds of background music can be just as effective at reducing stress as a massage. Music affects the brain by causing it to release dopamine, a chemical that promotes relaxation. If the pressure of studying for a major test is giving you the jitters, music can calm your nerves. Furthermore, while the brain feels better with music, the body may as well. Research shows that certain types of music can make physical pain feel less intense, particularly for older adults and patients receiving medical treatment while in intensive care. Music can also be an asset to athletes, many of whom use music to help improve physical performance and endurance. A study of male college students and exercise revealed that participants worked harder while listening to music they enjoyed. What's more, calming music with a steady, meditative rhythm at day's end can help people sleep longer and more deeply. Studies have shown that listening to classical music at bedtime can be an effective treatment for people who have trouble falling asleep. Some educators still express concern that listening to music while trying to concentrate may do more harm than good. For example, some studies have shown that students absorb less information when they listen to music with lyrics. Lyrics also seem to get in the way of completing writing assignments. Loud or agitated music may have a negative influence on a student's mood or act as a distraction. In addition, some experts speculate that students who are accustomed to studying with music will find it difficult to recall relevant information in a silent testing environment. The best approach may also depend on the students themselves. Students who are easily distracted may find any kind of background music to be a barrier. Head-banging, adrenaline-soaked music is not an ideal choice for most students while buckling down for a chemistry assignment or settling in with an English essay. But research shows that rhythmic, soothing background music can enhance student performance in a variety of ways. In addition to boosting mental acuity, concentration, and recall, background music can help relieve the stress and anxiety associated with preparing for high-stakes tests. Listening to music during study time may not mean a guaranteed A for all students, but those who find it helpful should be allowed to plug in their headphones. What is the author's main claim or argument?
[ "Educators should play music while their students study or take tests.", "Loud, agitated music with lyrics is less beneficial for studying than relaxing, rhythmic music.", "Listening to certain kinds of music can help students perform better academically." ]
2
language arts
kindergarten
choose-the-lowercase-letter-that-matches-c-k-o-p-s-u-v-w-x-z
Pick the lowercase letter that matches. W
[ "k", "w" ]
1
social studies
grade-5
identify-facts-and-opinions
Which sentence states a fact?
[ "The ancient Maya people of Central America had some peculiar ideas about chocolate.", "The ancient Maya people believed that chocolate was the food of the gods." ]
1
social studies
grade-5
the-american-revolution-preparing-for-war
In 1773, a British politician said that Great Britain controlled a "vast empire, on which the sun never sets." What did he mean by "the sun never sets" on the British Empire?
[ "He used the setting sun as a symbol for endings. He believed the British Empire would last forever.", "Great Britain controlled land all around the world. So, the sun was always up in some part of the empire.", "He was celebrating the invention of the lightbulb. The nights were no longer dark in Great Britain.", "He believed that Great Britain was so powerful, it could even control the sun." ]
1
language arts
grade-7
use-the-correct-pair-of-correlative-conjunctions
Complete the sentence with the better correlative conjunctions. For the guacamole, we need avocados, limes, salt, and garlic. ___ we don't have any limes, ___ we could try substituting lemons.
[ "If . . . then", "Whether . . . or" ]
0
language arts
grade-5
use-greek-and-latin-roots-as-clues-to-the-meanings-of-words
Biology is the study of living things. The root **logy** means "the study of something". What does the root **bio** mean?
[ "life", "own or self", "light" ]
0
language arts
grade-10
use-the-correct-pair-of-correlative-conjunctions
Complete the sentence with the better correlative conjunctions. Julie has traveled to many national parks in the United States, but she has visited ___ Yellowstone ___ Yosemite.
[ "both . . . and", "neither . . . nor" ]
1
language arts
grade-6
compound-subjects-and-objects-with-pronouns
Select the correct pronoun to complete the sentence. Is it true that ___ and Uncle Noah moved to Springtown?
[ "she", "her" ]
0
social studies
grade-4
the-war-of-1812-events-and-effects
The USS Constitution was given which nickname after its battle with HMS Guerrière?
[ "Old Faithful", "Old Man", "Old Ironsides", "Old Ghost" ]
2
language arts
grade-3
use-the-correct-article-a-or-an
Complete the sentence with the best article. Will Alvin scream if he sees ___ big spider?
[ "an", "a" ]
1
social studies
grade-5
the-war-of-1812-causes
The United States fought which country in the War of 1812?
[ "Germany", "Russia", "Great Britain", "Canada" ]
2
language arts
grade-8
interpret-the-meaning-of-an-allusion-from-its-source
Read the source of the allusion. In the Bible, Moses parts the Red Sea with his staff, forming a clear, dry path for his people to walk along as they escape from Egypt. What is the meaning of the allusion in the sentence below?
[ "to open up a path", "to come and go like the tides" ]
0
language arts
grade-12
choose-the-word-whose-connotation-and-denotation-best-match-the-sentence
Complete the sentence with the word that best fits the overall meaning and tone. Mr. Dodson resigned amidst ___ of money laundering and tax evasion, and he was called before a grand jury shortly thereafter.
[ "allegations", "declarations" ]
0
language arts
grade-8
is-it-a-complete-sentence-a-fragment-or-a-run-on
Which is a **complete sentence**?
[ "With high-tech medical devices, doctors remotely monitor blood pressure and blood oxygen levels in house-bound patients.", "I ordered the shrimp it was served on a bed of shredded lettuce." ]
0
language arts
grade-3
describe-the-difference-between-related-words
What is the difference between a meal and a snack?
[ "a snack is more healthy", "a meal is larger" ]
1
language arts
grade-5
determine-the-meanings-of-words-with-greek-and-latin-roots
What does the word autopilot mean?
[ "a tool that pilots use when they want to make the airplane fly faster", "a device that flies an airplane on its own, without a pilot", "a map or drawing that shows an airplane's route" ]
1
language arts
grade-7
analyze-passages-from-a-night-to-remember-part-1
Review the passage. [P]eople didn't need to be told there was trouble. To those berthed far below on the starboard side, the crash was no "faint grinding jar." It was a "tremendous noise" that sent them tumbling out of bed. Mrs. Celiney Yasbeck—a bride of 50 days—ran out into the corridor with her husband. Instead of making the long hike to the deck, it was easier to look below for trouble. In their nightclothes they walked along to a door leading down to the boiler rooms and peeked through. Engineers were struggling to make repairs and get the pumps going. The Yasbecks needed no second glance—they rushed back to their cabin to dress. Far above on A Deck, Second Class passenger Lawrence Beesley noticed a curious thing. As he started below to check his cabin, he felt certain the stairs "weren't quite right." They seemed level, and yet his feet didn't fall where they should. Somehow they strayed forward off balance . . . as though the steps were tilted down toward the bow. Major Peuchen noticed it too. As he stood with Mr. Hays at the forward end of A Deck, looking down at the steerage passengers playing soccer with the loose ice, he sensed a very slight tilt in the deck. "Why, she is listing!" he cried to Hays. "She should not do that! The water is perfectly calm and the boat has stopped." "Oh, I don't know," Mr. Hays replied placidly, "you cannot sink this boat." Others also felt the downward slant, but it seemed tactless to mention the matter. In boiler room No. 5, Fireman Barrett decided to say nothing to the engineers working on the pumps. Far above in the A Deck foyer, Colonel Gracie and Clinch Smith had the same reaction. On the bridge the commutator showed the Titanic slightly down at the head and listing 5 degrees to starboard. Nearby, Andrews and Captain Smith did some fast figuring. Water in the forepeak . . . No. 1 hold . . . No. 2 hold . . . mail room . . . boiler room No. 6 . . . boiler room No. 5. Water 14 feet above keel level in the first ten minutes, everywhere except boiler room No. 5. Put together, the facts showed a 300-foot gash, with the first five compartments hopelessly flooded. What did this mean? Andrews quietly explained. The Titanic could float with any two of her 16 watertight compartments flooded. She could float with any three of her first five compartments flooded. She could even float with all of her first four compartments gone. But no matter how they sliced it, she could not float with all of her first five compartments full. The bulkhead between the fifth and sixth compartments went only as high as E Deck. If the first five compartments were flooded, the bow would sink so low that water in the fifth compartment must overflow into the sixth. When this was full, it would overflow into the seventh, and so on. It was a mathematical certainty, pure and simple. There was no way out. From Walter Lord, A Night To Remember. Copyright 1955 by Walter Lord. Why did Major Peuchen point out to Mr. Hays that the water was calm and the boat had stopped?
[ "to show that the tilt of the ship could not be explained by rough or moving waters", "to calm Mr. Hays by convincing him to enjoy the peace and quiet of his surroundings", "to reveal his belief that there was no crisis and that sailing conditions were favorable" ]
0
social studies
grade-8
causes-of-the-american-revolution-the-french-and-indian-war
In the 1750s, land speculation companies were claiming land to sell to future settlers. A land speculation company in Virginia hired Christopher Gist to explore the Ohio River Valley in 1750. Part of Gist's job was to make friendly contact with Native Americans in the area. Read Gist's description of a conversation that took place during his expedition. Then complete the sentence below. An Indian, who spoke good English, came to [me], and said that their great man, the Beaver, and Captain Oppamyluah (two chiefs of the Delaware) desired to know where the Indians' land lay, for the French claimed all the land on one side of the Ohio River, and the [British] on the other. Delaware:a European name for the Lenape Native Americans Complete the sentence. The Delaware chiefs said that they "desired to know where the Indians' land lay." In other words, they complained that ___.
[ "the French had exhausted the fur supply in the Ohio River Valley", "the British settlers were killing Delaware people", "their land had been destroyed by a fire", "the French and British were claiming all the land" ]
3
language arts
grade-11
classify-the-figure-of-speech-anaphora-antithesis-apostrophe-assonance-chiasmus-understatement
Which figure of speech is used in this text? I am just going outside and **may be some time**. —Captain Lawrence Oates, Antarctic explorer, before going out into subzero temperatures to face certain death
[ "chiasmus", "understatement" ]
1
language arts
grade-1
which-word-is-not-like-the-others
Which word is not like the others?
[ "sister", "grandma", "mother", "man" ]
3
language arts
grade-5
use-actions-and-dialogue-to-understand-characters
Read the sentence. Lily's father tried to get her to come with them to the party, but Lily would not be budged. Based on this sentence, what is Lily probably like?
[ "stubborn", "nosy" ]
0
language arts
grade-1
complete-the-sentence-with-a-two-syllable-word
Which word makes more sense in the sentence? Put a ___ by each plate.
[ "napkin", "cobweb" ]
0
language arts
grade-8
use-the-correct-verb-with-compound-subjects
Complete the sentence with the best verb. Whenever Skip runs out into the yard, the chickens and the rooster ___ into the coop.
[ "disappears", "disappear" ]
1
language arts
grade-5
use-adverbs-to-compare
Complete the sentence with the correct form of the adverb. Of all Mr. Silva's plans, the new one succeeded ___.
[ "more beautifully", "most beautifully" ]
1
language arts
grade-10
what-does-the-punctuation-suggest
What does the following sentence suggest? "Put the cherries that are bruised or soft in this container," Aisha instructed her assistants in the kitchen. "We can use them to make jam."
[ "Only some of the cherries are bruised or soft.", "All of the cherries are bruised or soft." ]
0
language arts
grade-3
determine-the-meanings-of-similes
What is the meaning of the simile? On her five-mile walk, Katie felt like she was climbing Mount Everest.
[ "Katie felt really tall.", "Katie felt really tired." ]
1
language arts
grade-9
choose-punctuation-to-avoid-fragments-and-run-ons
Which is the best way to complete the text? The La Brea tar pits formed from crude oil that seeped through fissures in the earth's ___ fossilized remains of at least fifty-nine species of mammals from the Pleistocene Epoch have been found in the pits.
[ "crust, or the", "crust. Because the", "crust. The" ]
2
language arts
grade-12
which-text-is-most-formal
Which letter opening is more formal?
[ "Dear Mr. Austin,", "Dear Tony," ]
0
language arts
kindergarten
complete-the-rhyme
Complete the rhyme. We stop at the ___.
[ "top", "hut" ]
0
language arts
grade-5
use-the-correct-modal-verb
Select the modal verb that best completes the sentence. You and Valeria really ___ take my advice and brush your teeth after every meal.
[ "should", "would" ]
0
language arts
grade-9
is-it-a-phrase-or-a-clause
Is the group of words in bold a phrase or a clause? **Isabella's suitcase was too large to fit in the overhead bin**, so unfortunately she had to check it.
[ "phrase", "clause" ]
1
social studies
grade-5
understand-overall-supply-and-demand
The city of Norwood has been one of the world's biggest makers of cough drops for many years. But last month, Norwood's cough drop factories were destroyed by floods. What will probably happen to the overall supply of cough drops?
[ "The supply will probably go up.", "The supply will probably go down." ]
1
language arts
grade-12
avoid-double-illogical-and-unclear-comparisons
Which text best completes the sentence? Tisha is ___.
[ "friendlier than her brother", "the friendliest of anyone in her family", "more friendlier than her sister" ]
0
language arts
kindergarten
choose-the-lowercase-letter-that-matches-review
Pick the lowercase letter that matches. F
[ "p", "f" ]
1
language arts
grade-12
use-parallel-structure
Complete the sentence. It was either through luck or ___ that Diane was able to convince her claustrophobic parents to board the airplane.
[ "sheer perseverance", "through sheer perseverance" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
describe-the-difference-between-related-words
What is the difference between something bad and something terrible?
[ "something bad is less fun", "something terrible is worse" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
read-poetry
Review the poem. The Zoo from High Above The elephant at the city zoo Would watch the monkeys all day through. He loved seeing them swing from branch to branch, So one night, the elephant took a chance. He slipped into the monkey house, **Huge, yet sounding like a mouse.** He climbed up the branches so he could see How the world would look from the top of a tree. At sunrise, a troubled keeper found The trembling beast, far off the ground. Looking down, the elephant wondered why He had wished to climb up the tree so high! Look at the text in **bold**. What does this text show?
[ "The elephant made a loud noise in the monkey house.", "The elephant was hiding from a mouse.", "The elephant moved around very quietly." ]
2
language arts
grade-5
punctuating-dialogue
Which sentence is correct?
[ "\"The geese look so funny waddling across the road,\" Kendall giggled.", "\"The geese look so funny waddling across the road.\" Kendall giggled." ]
0
language arts
grade-8
choose-the-antonym
Which word is an antonym of **confound**?
[ "complicate", "clarify" ]
1
language arts
grade-5
choose-between-the-past-tense-and-past-participle
Complete the sentence with the correct form of the verb. Dan ___ to leave the blister on his hand uncovered.
[ "known", "knew" ]
1
language arts
grade-5
use-the-correct-homophone
Complete the sentence with the correct homophone. When the wind changed, Tristan expertly adjusted the sail in order to keep his boat on ___
[ "course", "coarse" ]
0
language arts
grade-1
complete-the-sentence-with-the-correct-short-vowel-word
Which word makes the most sense in the sentence? Why is your hat ___?
[ "gum", "wet", "sun" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
which-word-is-a-noun
Is the word in bold a noun? Was the weather pleasant down in the **valley**?
[ "yes", "no" ]
0
language arts
kindergarten
choose-the-uppercase-letter-that-matches-c-k-o-p-s-u-v-w-x-z
Pick the uppercase letter that matches. s
[ "I", "S", "U" ]
1
language arts
grade-12
use-dictionary-entries-to-determine-correct-usage
Look at this dictionary entry. dictionary word: diffuse dictionary pos: verb dictionary inflections: diffusing, diffused dictionary entry: 1 to spread throughout an area The photographer diffused the light by aiming the lamp at a white umbrella. dictionary etymology: from Latin (diffundere) Which sentence uses the word **diffuse** correctly?
[ "Although the new candle diffused a pleasant vanilla fragrance throughout her bedroom, Alana preferred her usual sandalwood incense.", "Negotiator Theodore W. Kheel diffused a dispute between the International Typographical Union and seven New York City newspapers in 1963." ]
0
language arts
grade-5
use-actions-and-dialogue-to-understand-characters
Read the sentences. By the end of the day, Estelle had grown tired of all her new toys. It was time to think about what presents she wanted for her next birthday! Based on these sentences, what is Estelle probably like?
[ "spoiled", "calm" ]
0
language arts
grade-6
determine-the-authors-point-of-view
Read the text. One, two, three, four, what do we need a pep squad for? This question is nothing to cheer about, but it is the very question before our school board tonight. With cuts to the activities budget, the pep squad is first up on the chopping block. Not everyone understands how important our pep squad is: we support our teams, we provide entertainment, and we build school spirit. Defunding the pep squad would devalue all that we do for this school. Furthermore, members of our pep squad demonstrate the same dedication and discipline as athletes in any other sport. We work out three days a week, practice our routines daily, and compete in statewide competitions. More importantly, the leadership skills and character traits we develop—sportsmanship, enthusiasm, and self-confidence—will be valuable throughout our lives. Instead of axing the pep squad entirely, why not cut a little from the budgets of all activities? It would be more reasonable for everyone to bear part of the budgetary pain. Together, we can make this work. Let's go, team! Which sentence best summarizes the author's point of view about cutting the pep squad from the school's activities budget?
[ "Having a pep squad benefits the school and the members of the team, so it should not be completely cut from the budget.", "The pep squad should not have any cuts at all from its budget because it provides a great benefit to the school community." ]
0
language arts
grade-3
identify-the-authors-purpose-passages
Read the text below. When the drums begin, Eli will leap to the center of the stage for his solo. Everyone else should form a circle around him. What is the text's most likely purpose?
[ "to persuade", "to inform", "to entertain" ]
1
language arts
grade-7
is-it-a-phrase-or-a-clause
Is the group of words in bold a phrase or a clause? **Lillian's suitcase was too large to fit in the overhead bin**, so unfortunately she had to check it.
[ "phrase", "clause" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
does-the-adjective-tell-you-what-kind-or-how-many
Look at the adjective in **bold**. Does it tell you "what kind" or "how many"? Julia will need **seven** stamps.
[ "what kind", "how many" ]
1
language arts
grade-5
is-the-sentence-simple-or-compound
Which is a **compound sentence**?
[ "The American Philatelic Society is a group for stamp collectors.", "The pirates buried the treasure chest, but some sailors soon found it." ]
1
language arts
grade-8
identify-vague-pronoun-references
Which of the following contains a vague pronoun reference?
[ "After Eric explained the chemistry homework to Aaron, Eric understood it better, too.", "After Eric explained the chemistry homework to Aaron, he understood it better, too." ]
1
language arts
grade-6
is-the-sentence-declarative-interrogative-imperative-or-exclamatory
What kind of sentence is this? Deion has never tried chocolate ice cream before, which I find astounding!
[ "declarative", "interrogative", "exclamatory" ]
2
language arts
grade-4
choose-the-best-topic-sentence
Read the paragraph. Then, add the better topic sentence. ___ It used to be common to shape butter using molds in the 1800s. But Brooks, who was artistic, decided to carve the butter into shapes without using molds. She carved faces and animals out of butter and sold them to her neighbors. Her most famous piece showed a sleeping woman carved out of butter. Many people paid to see this figure at fairs.
[ "Caroline Shawk Brooks turned blocks of butter into works of art.", "Caroline Shawk Brooks carved animal figures out of butter." ]
0
language arts
grade-9
identify-audience-and-purpose
Read the letter to the editor and then answer the question. I was dismayed on Friday when the Lowell City Council announced its intent to reduce library hours at all branches in an effort to cut costs. This reduction in services will negatively impact students in our community. I have worked at the downtown branch for more than a decade, and I've seen just how important the library is. Every day, dozens of students come to the library after school to do homework. For many students, there are no other safe, supervised spaces available during the afternoons. To protect this space, contact your city council representatives and speak out against reducing library hours! Who is the primary **audience**?
[ "fellow librarians", "local parents and community members", "students who use the library", "members of the Lowell City Council" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
capitalizing-titles
Which correctly shows the title of a book?
[ "\"Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing\"", "\"tales of a fourth Grade Nothing\"" ]
0
language arts
grade-3
choose-the-best-transition
Choose the transition that shows cause and effect. Lara and Jada wanted to see the Grand Canyon. ___, they made a stop there during a trip to Arizona.
[ "Still", "Therefore" ]
1
social studies
grade-8
understand-overall-supply-and-demand
The city of Arcadia has been one of the world's biggest makers of cough drops for many years. But last month, Arcadia's cough drop factories were destroyed by floods. What will probably happen to the overall supply of cough drops?
[ "The supply will probably go up.", "The supply will probably go down." ]
1
social studies
grade-5
the-empire-state-building
Where is the Empire State Building?
[ "in New York City", "in Houston, Texas", "in Washington, D.C.", "in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania" ]
0
language arts
grade-4
describe-the-difference-between-related-words
Which shows complaining?
[ "whining", "talking" ]
0
language arts
grade-8
what-does-the-punctuation-suggest
What does the following sentence suggest? Next month, the Lakeside Parks Department will remove elm trees that have been diagnosed with Dutch elm disease, in an effort to prevent the fungus from spreading to other trees.
[ "All of the elm trees have Dutch elm disease.", "Some of the elm trees have Dutch elm disease." ]
1
language arts
grade-6
analyze-the-effects-of-figures-of-speech-on-meaning-and-tone
Review the passage. The personification is shown in bold. He trembled, remembering the time he and the mare had come upon a gazelle, and he had ridden the mare alongside the gazelle, and she had outrun the wild thing. **Agba could still feel the wind singing in his ears.** By closing his eyes he brought back the whole day. On the way home they had passed a wizened old storyteller in the streets, who, when Agba came near, motioned him close. The old man placed his hand on the mare's head. From Marguerite Henry, King of the Wind: The Story of the Godolphin Arabian. Copyright 1948 by Marguerite Henry What is the effect of the personification on the passage's meaning or tone?
[ "It illustrates how fast Agba rode the horse.", "It illustrates how much Agba loves music." ]
0
language arts
pre-k
choose-the-lowercase-letter-that-matches-c-k-o-p-s-u-v-w-x-z
Pick the lowercase letter that matches. C
[ "c", "w", "m" ]
0
language arts
grade-2
use-time-order-words
Complete the text with the best word. We are having a lovely time in the park ___. We're eating a picnic lunch now.
[ "today", "soon", "later" ]
0
social studies
grade-2
jackie-robinson
What is Jackie Robinson known for?
[ "being the first African American baseball player in modern major league baseball", "being the first baseball player to hit 500 home runs", "being the first African American coach of the New York Yankees", "inventing a new kind of baseball bat" ]
0
language arts
grade-5
is-it-a-complete-sentence-a-fragment-or-a-run-on
Which is a **sentence fragment**?
[ "Lives in an earthquake zone.", "Three musicians play trumpets at the fair." ]
0
language arts
grade-8
use-thesaurus-entries
Look at this thesaurus entry: **endowment** Part of speech: "noun" Definition: money given to support something Synonyms: award, donation, fund, grant Which is an **endowment**?
[ "money loaned to a friend", "money given to a school" ]
1
language arts
grade-8
identify-thesis-statements
Which is a thesis statement?
[ "Taking a year off before college makes high school graduates better students because they are more mature, experienced, and focused on their studies.", "The following paper discusses how taking a year off after high school affects students who plan on attending college or technical school." ]
0
language arts
grade-11
classify-the-figure-of-speech-review
Which figure of speech is used in this text? **It is easier to forgive an enemy than to forgive a friend**. —William Blake
[ "apostrophe", "paradox" ]
1
language arts
grade-4
formatting-and-capitalizing-titles
Which sentence is correct?
[ "Jacob read an interesting newspaper called \"The Fresno Bee\".", "Jacob read an interesting newspaper called \"The fresno Bee\"." ]
0
language arts
grade-12
analogies-challenge
Complete the analogy. potter is to ceramics as legislator is to
[ "government", "policy", "justice" ]
1
language arts
grade-7
identify-vague-pronoun-references
Which of the following contains a vague pronoun reference?
[ "After Mr. Roth finished performing with Mr. Hancock, Becky went up and thanked him.", "Becky went up and thanked Mr. Roth after he finished performing with Mr. Hancock." ]
0
language arts
grade-12
determine-the-meanings-of-greek-and-latin-roots
Look at the roots below. Which one means "life"?
[ "morph", "fac", "bio", "greg" ]
2
language arts
grade-3
use-context-to-identify-the-meaning-of-a-word
Read the passage and then answer the question. Marian Anderson was a great American singer. People often said that a voice like hers was heard once in a hundred years. That was because her voice was so **versatile**. She could sing many kinds of music, perfectly hitting all the highest and lowest notes. In 1935, she was invited to perform at the White House. She was the first African American to do so. She was also the first African American member of the New York City Metropolitan Opera. Her successes helped pave the way for other African American performers after her. What is the meaning of **versatile** as used in the passage?
[ "out of tune", "set, and not changing", "able to do many different things", "so high as to be ear-splitting" ]
2
language arts
grade-4
describe-the-difference-between-related-words
What is the difference between a letter and a note?
[ "a letter is longer", "a note is longer" ]
0
language arts
grade-10
choose-punctuation-to-avoid-fragments-and-run-ons
Which is the best way to complete the text? After Julie's family moved to Ireland, she and Dakota were separated by the Atlantic ___ a prolific written correspondence sustained their friendship.
[ "Ocean; but", "Ocean, but", "Ocean but" ]
1
language arts
grade-3
identify-the-irregular-past-tense-ii
Which sentence is in the past tense?
[ "Elizabeth and Haley **feel** so excited.", "Elizabeth and Haley **felt** so excited." ]
1
language arts
grade-5
punctuating-dialogue
Which sentence is correct?
[ "\"They made butter using a churn from the local farm\", said Mr. McConnell.", "\"They made butter using a churn from the local farm,\" said Mr. McConnell." ]
1
language arts
grade-11
recall-the-source-of-an-allusion
What is the source of the allusion in the sentence below? My mom is a partner at a prominent law firm; she's not exactly **Carol Brady**.
[ "a song", "television" ]
1
social studies
grade-5
understand-overall-supply-and-demand
The city of Yardley has been one of the world's biggest makers of cough drops for many years. But last month, Yardley's cough drop factories were destroyed by floods. What will probably happen to the overall supply of cough drops?
[ "The supply will probably go up.", "The supply will probably go down." ]
1
language arts
grade-4
what-does-the-modal-verb-show
What does the modal verb show? Select the best answer choice. The apple crisp **must** have burned, because smoke is coming out of the oven.
[ "near certainty", "a request for permission" ]
0
language arts
grade-7
compound-subjects-and-objects-with-pronouns
Select the correct pronoun to complete the sentence. For Thanksgiving dinner, Gabriel and ___ made the gravy and the butternut squash.
[ "me", "I" ]
1
social studies
grade-2
sitting-bull
Sitting Bull was an important Native American leader in the 1800s. Which Native American tribe was he part of?
[ "the Iroquois", "the Cherokee", "the Lakota", "the Apache" ]
2
language arts
grade-6
use-the-correct-verb-with-compound-subjects
Complete the sentence with the best verb. Depending on which of my relatives you ask, either Aunt Mia or Uncle Greg ___ the best rhubarb pie.
[ "bake", "bakes" ]
1
language arts
grade-7
determine-the-themes-of-short-stories
Read the following story. Alia was dismayed to find herself in the drawing studio. She had been sick with the flu during the week when everyone else got to pick their classes. She had hoped for Astronomy or Marine Biology, but they were full by the time she got to choose. She loved everything about science, from the way it used facts and formulas to how it revealed the basic nature of things. But art was so . . ."un"-scientific. The first class project was self-portraits. Some students were drawing self-portraits using mirrors. Others were working from photographs. Alia glanced at the incomplete sketches, feeling like a cat in a dog show. The teacher came up to Alia's easel and sat next to her. "Every portrait begins with a circle," he said. "Then you create a series of lines." To demonstrate, he drew a group of small, quick portraits. He began each one with a circle, some straight lines, and a triangle to determine where the eyes, nose, and chin should go. Alia had never thought about it, but the features of everyone's face were in the same spots. Hesitantly, Alia began her own self-portrait. She drew the basic form of a head, the way she had been shown. From there, she used lines to plot the features of her face. The process took patience and precision. She had to take note of each detail. One wrong measurement could throw off the whole portrait. Alia was surprised by the structure and discipline involved in drawing a portrait. Measuring, studying details, revealing the basic nature of something—it reminded her of what she loved about science. Which of the following best describes the main theme or lesson of the story?
[ "Keep trying even if you fail the first time.", "Don't assume you won't like something until you try it." ]
1
language arts
grade-1
complete-the-sentence-with-the-correct-short-vowel-word
Which word makes the most sense in the sentence? The bug is on his ___.
[ "leg", "hug", "nap" ]
0
language arts
grade-6
is-it-a-complete-sentence-or-a-fragment
Which is a complete sentence?
[ "A bushy, overgrown hedge along the fence.", "Mrs. Wells carefully buttoned up her coat." ]
1
language arts
kindergarten
choose-the-uppercase-letter-that-matches-f-i-j-l-m-t-y
Pick the uppercase letter that matches. i
[ "I", "P" ]
0
language arts
grade-11
choose-the-word-whose-connotation-and-denotation-best-match-the-sentence
Complete the sentence with the word that best fits the overall meaning and tone. To complete his article on 3-D printing before the end of the year, Mr. Greer had to ___ parts of the story to several writers.
[ "assign", "bequeath" ]
0
language arts
grade-3
use-adjectives-to-compare
Complete the sentence with the correct form of the adjective. Your hands are ___ than mine are.
[ "softest", "softer" ]
1

Social Dataset

📃 [Paper] • 💻 [Github] • 🤗 [Dataset] • 📽 [Slides] • 📋 [Poster]

This dataset is proposed in the NAACL 2024 paper: Measuring Social Norms of Large Language Models.

We present a new challenge to examine whether large language models understand social norms. In contrast to existing datasets, our dataset requires a fundamental understanding of social norms to solve. Our dataset features the largest set of social norm skills, consisting of 402 skills and 12,383 questions covering a wide set of social norms ranging from opinions and arguments to culture and laws. We design our dataset according to the K-12 curriculum. This enables the direct comparison of the social understanding of large language models to humans, more specifically, elementary students. While prior work generates nearly random accuracy on our benchmark, recent large language models such as GPT3.5-Turbo and LLaMA2-Chat are able to improve the performance significantly, only slightly below human performance. We then propose a multi-agent framework based on large language models to improve the models' ability to understand social norms. This method further improves large language models to be on par with humans. Given the increasing adoption of large language models in real-world applications, our finding is particularly important and presents a unique direction for future improvements.

Authors

Ye Yuan, Kexin Tang, Jianhao Shen, Ming Zhang*, Chenguang Wang*

Resources

Dataset Structure

The basic statistics of the dataset are as follows:

Subject #Skills #Questions Avg. #A
Social Studies 170 2,315 3.4
Language Arts 232 10,068 2.4
Total 402 12,383 2.6

The dataset is in the following format:

DatasetDict({
    test: Dataset({
        features: ['subject', 'grade', 'skill', 'question', 'choices', 'answer_idx'],
        num_rows: 12383
    })
})

And the detailed description of the features are as follows:

  • subject: str
    • The subject of the question, one of social studies, language arts.
  • grade: str
    • The grade level information of the question.
  • skill: str
    • The skill level information of the question.
  • question: str
    • The question text.
  • choices: Optional[List[str]]
    • The choices of the question.
  • answer_idx: int
    • The index of the correct answer in the choices.

How to Use

Please refer to our code for the usage of evaluation on the dataset.

Citation

@inproceedings{yuan2024measuring,
    title={Measuring Social Norms of Large Language Models}, 
    author={Ye Yuan and Kexin Tang and Jianhao Shen and Ming Zhang and Chenguang Wang},
    year={2024},
    booktitle={NAACL},
}

Dataset Card Contact

yuanye_pku@pku.edu.cn

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