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Task Categories: question-answering
Languages: en
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Licenses: apache-2-0
Language Creators: found
Annotations Creators: crowdsourced
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section (string)question (string)article (string)is_paraphrase (bool)topic (class label)answers (json)candidates (json)q_types (json)
Ball
Does a 40mm table tennis ball spin more or less than the original 38mm one?
Table tennis
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 4 ]
[ "The international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball.", "The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92.", "The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Olympic Games.", "However, this created some controversy as the Chinese National Team argued that this was merely to give non-Chinese players a better chance of winning since the new type of balls has a slower speed, while at that time most Chinese players were playing with fast attack and smashes.", "A 40 mm table tennis ball is slower and spins less than the original 38 mm (1.5 inch) one.", "The ball is made of a high-bouncing air-filled celluloid or similar plastics material, colored white or orange, with a matte finish.", "The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings.", "For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a gray table.", "Some Table Tennis balls have ball rated in stars so that more professional players can know which ball to use.", "Manufacturers often indicate the quality of the ball with a star-rating system, usually from one to three, three being the highest grade.", "As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval.", "The ITTF approval can be seen printed on the ball." ]
[]
Music video
What does Pink wear in the video?
Blow Me (One Last Kiss)
false
0 (MUSIC)
[ 10 ]
[ "The music video for \"Blow Me (One Last Kiss)\" premiered on July 26, 2012 at 7:50pm EDT on MTV and VEVO and was directed by Pink's longtime collaborator Dave Meyers, who directed the videos for almost all of her lead singles and many of her hits.", "The official colored version of the video was leaked online on August 31, and was officially posted on VEVO on September 5, 2012.", "The video is entirely in black and white, with splashes of color, features opening titles in French.", "The video begins with Pink having a picnic with her love interest (Sebastian de la Forza).", "The two lean in for a kiss, which is interrupted by him taking a phone call.", "Pink splashes him with red wine, and walks away through the trees.", "She meets another man on his motorbike (Alexander Ercheverria) and goes home with him.", "He draws a portrait of her.", "Pink watches through the window as many female guests arrive for a party the man has organised.", "During the party, she dances with one of the women until she is interrupted by the man who brought her home.", "Pink wears a black suit with her hair pushed back and dances with the woman (Mosh).", "The man gets down on one knee and proposes.", "Pink accepts by giving him her hand but is disappointed to find out the proposal was meant for her dance partner.", "During their wedding ceremony, Pink is dressed completely in black, as if she is attending a funeral.", "A flying bike appears above the guests (Andreas-Holm Hansen), which is carrying a heart-shaped balloon.", "The balloon pops, and red liquid covers the guests as Pink sings and dances cheerfully.", "She joins the driver of the flying bike, and they fly away together at the end of this video clip across the countryside, into the sunset, under a bridge, over trees and up close to a big hill on the high flying bicycle with eagle wings.", "A colored version was also released.", "MTV's James Montgomery assured Pink's fans that she hasn't changed, while crediting the video for its angry and funny nature, saying \"While your heroine might be saying she's a changed woman, the 'Blow Me' video proves that she's not.", "It's just as angry as her previous clips, and nearly as funny too.\"" ]
[ 0 ]
Tourism
In what year was the Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts built?
Chile
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 16 ]
[ "Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades.", "In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion is attributed to foreign tourists.", "According to the National Service of Tourism (Sernatur), 2 million people a year visit the country.", "Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and PR China.", "The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama, in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.", "In Putre, also in the north, there is the Chungará Lake, as well as the Parinacota and the Pomerape volcanoes, with altitudes of 6,348 m and 6,282 m, respectively.", "Throughout the central Andes there are many ski resorts of international repute, including Portillo, Valle Nevado and Termas de Chillán.", "The main tourist sites in the south are national parks (the most popular is Conguillío National Park in the Araucanía) and the coastal area around Tirúa and Cañete with the Isla Mocha and the Nahuelbuta National Park, Chiloé Archipelago and Patagonia, which includes Laguna San Rafael National Park, with its many glaciers, and the Torres del Paine National Park.", "The central port city of Valparaíso, which is World Heritage with its unique architecture, is also popular.", "Finally, Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean is one of the main Chilean tourist destinations.", "For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer (December to March), and mainly in the coastal beach towns.", "Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, La Serena and Coquimbo are the main summer centres in the north, and Pucón on the shores of Lake Villarrica is the main centre in the south.", "Because of its proximity to Santiago, the coast of the Valparaíso Region, with its many beach resorts, receives the largest number of tourists.", "Viña del Mar, Valparaíso's northern affluent neighbor, is popular because of its beaches, casino, and its annual song festival, the most important musical event in Latin America.", "Pichilemu in the O'Higgins Region is widely known as South America's \"best surfing spot\" according to Fodor's.", "In November 2005 the government launched a campaign under the brand \"Chile: All Ways Surprising\" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.", "Museums in Chile such as the Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts built in 1880, feature works by Chilean artists." ]
[ 0 ]
English army and Harold's preparations
How many times was the who national "fyrd" called out between 1046 and 1065?
Battle of Hastings
false
7 (HISTORICAL EVENTS)
[ 6 ]
[ "The English army was organised along regional lines, with the \"fyrd\", or local levy, serving under a local magnate – whether an earl, bishop, or sheriff.", "The \"fyrd\" was composed of men who owned their own land, and were equipped by their community to fulfil the king's demands for military forces.", "For every five hides, or units of land nominally capable of supporting one household, one man was supposed to serve.", "It appears that the hundred was the main organising unit for the \"fyrd\".", "As a whole, England could furnish about 14,000 men for the \"fyrd\", when it was called out.", "The \"fyrd\" usually served for two months, except in emergencies.", "It was rare for the whole national \"fyrd\" to be called out; between 1046 and 1065 it was only done three times, in 1051, 1052, and 1065.", "The king also had a group of personal armsmen, known as housecarls, who formed the backbone of the royal forces.", "Some earls also had their own forces of housecarls.", "Thegns, the local landowning elites, fought either with the royal housecarls or attached themselves to the forces of an earl or other magnate.", "The \"fyrd\" and the housecarls both fought on foot, with the major difference between them being the housecarl's superior armour.", "The English army does not appear to have had a significant number of archers.", "Harold had spent mid-1066 on the south coast with a large army and fleet waiting for William to invade.", "The bulk of his forces were militia who needed to harvest their crops, so on 8 September Harold dismissed the militia and the fleet.", "Learning of the Norwegian invasion he rushed north, gathering forces as he went, and took the Norwegians by surprise, defeating them at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September.", "Harald of Norway and Tostig were killed, and the Norwegians suffered such great losses that only 24 of the original 300 ships were required to carry away the survivors.", "The English victory came at great cost, as Harold's army was left in a battered and weakened state." ]
[ 5, 3 ]
Production and development
Who did Chris Messina play on The Mindy Project?
The Mindy Project
false
1 (TV)
[ 6 ]
[ "The series was initially commissioned by NBC, but the pilot with the working title \"It's Messy\" was released from NBC's projects on January 27, 2012.", "Universal then sent the script to Fox executives who read it over that following weekend.", "On January 30, 2012, Fox greenlit the pilot, with Mindy Kaling attached to star.", "Casting announcements for the remaining series regular roles began in February 2012, with Ed Weeks cast in the role of Dr. Jeremy Reed, a sexy, British doctor in the practice.", "Zoe Jarman and Dana DeLorenzo then joined in series regular roles.", "Jarman signed on to play Betsy Putch, an upbeat receptionist at the practice; whilst DeLorenzo joined as Shauna Dicanio, a young, party loving receptionist in the practice.", "In mid-March, Chris Messina joined the cast as Dr. Danny Castellano, an arrogant doctor who works at the practice.", "Shortly after, Anna Camp boarded the series as Gwen Grandy, a stay-at-home mom and Mindy's best friend.", "On May 9, 2012, Fox placed a series order for the comedy.", "Two days later, the title was changed from \"It's Messy\" to \"The Mindy Project.\"", "Two months later, Amanda Setton, Stephen Tobolowsky and Ike Barinholtz joined the series.", "Setton replaced Dana DeLorenzo in the role of Shauna; Tobolowsky joined in the series regular role of Dr. Marc Shulman, the senior partner of the practice; and Barinholtz signed onto the recurring role of Morgan Tookers, a quirky rehabilitated ex-con who joins the practice as a nurse.", "On August 27, 2012, the pilot episode was made available to view online on various sites including Fox, in an attempt to garner interest in the series.", "On October 8, 2012, Fox ordered a full season of \"The Mindy Project\".", "In the middle of the first season, the network made changes to the show's cast.", "On November 20, 2012, it was reported that Amanda Setton's role had been eliminated and that Anna Camp had been downgraded to a recurring cast member.", "Stephen Tobolowsky's role was also eliminated, with his character retiring in the eighth episode.", "Beth Grant, who guest starred as Nurse Beverly in episode two, returned as a series regular in episode fifteen.", "Ike Barinholtz was also upgraded to series regular.", "Xosha Roquemore, who guest starred in the final few episodes of season one as Tamra, was upped to series regular beginning with season two.", "Adam Pally, who originally signed on for a recurring role, was upgraded to series regular during season two.", "On March 4, 2013, the series was renewed for a second season, which began on September 17, 2013.", "On November 21, 2013, Fox announced that \"The Mindy Project\" would take a mid-season hiatus, before returning on April 1, 2014.", "Fox announced the third season renewal of \"The Mindy Project\" on March 7, 2014." ]
[ 3 ]
Abstract
Who is the host of Dancing with the Stars (U.S. TV series)?
Dancing with the Stars (U.S. TV series)
false
1 (TV)
[ 2 ]
[ "Dancing with the Stars (U.S. TV series)Dancing with the Stars is an American dance competition show airing since 2005 on ABC in the United States, and CTV/CTV Two in Canada.", "The show is the American version of the British television series \"Strictly Come Dancing\".", "Tom Bergeron is the Emmy-winning host, alongside Erin Andrews, who is the new co-host for season eighteen.", "Lisa Canning was co-host in season one, Samantha Harris co-hosted seasons two through nine and Brooke Burke-Charvet in seasons ten through seventeen.", "The contestant pairs consist of a celebrity paired with a professional dancer.", "Past celebrity contestants include professional and Olympic athletes, supermodels, actors, singers, astronauts, and teen-heartthrobs.", "Each couple performs predetermined dances and competes against the others for judges' points and audience votes.", "The couple receiving the lowest combined total of judges' points and audience votes is eliminated each week until only the champion dance pair remains.", "In 2012, GSN picked up rerun rights to seasons four to thirteen, but due to low ratings the network stopped airing the show after airing for three months from January 2012 to April 2012 in two different seasons aired mostly on weekends." ]
[ 3 ]
Rules and regulations
If a golfer has ever played golf for money or received payment for giving instruction s/he may no longer be considered what type of golfer?
Golf
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 6 ]
[ "The rules of golf are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by The R&A, spun off in 2004 from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (founded 1754), and the United States Golf Association (USGA).", "The underlying principle of the rules is fairness.", "As stated on the back cover of the official rule book:", "\"Play the ball as it lies, play the course as you find it, and if you cannot do either, do what is fair.", "\"", "There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.", "Essentially, anybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction, or played golf for money, is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs.", "However, amateur golfers may receive expenses that comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status.", "In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called golf etiquette.", "Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, pace of play, and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course.", "Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience." ]
[ 0 ]
Visual arts
Who painted "Benefits Supervisor Sleeping"?
England
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 11 ]
[ "The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.", "With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm.", "There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough.", "During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009.", "Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter.", "Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter.", "The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.", "Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson.", "The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds became two of England's most treasured artists.", "The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais were leaders.", "Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.", "Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work \"Benefits Supervisor Sleeping\" in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist." ]
[ 3 ]
Later innovations
How do fast food restaurants store their ketchup?
Ketchup
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 0 ]
[ "In fast food outlets, ketchup is often dispensed in small packets.", "Diners tear the side or top and squeeze the ketchup out of the ketchup packets.", "In 2011, Heinz began offering a new measured-portion package, called the \"Dip and Squeeze\" packet, which allowed the consumer to either tear the top off the package and squeeze the contents out, as with the traditional packet, or, in the alternative, tear the \"front\" off the package and use the package as a dip cup of the type often supplied with certain entreés.", "Previously fast food outlets dispensed ketchup from pumps into paper cups.", "This method has made a resurgence in the first decade of the 21st century with cost and environmental concerns increasing of individual packets.", "In October 2000, Heinz introduced colored ketchup products called EZ Squirt, which eventually included green, purple, pink, orange, teal, and blue.", "These products were made by adding food coloring to the traditional ketchup.", "these products have been discontinued." ]
[ 5 ]
Abstract
Are bodyweight categories similar or different for the genders?
Olympic weightlifting
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 3 ]
[ "Olympic weightlifting, also called Olympic-style weightlifting, or weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.", "The two competition lifts in order are the snatch and the clean and jerk.", "Each weightlifter receives three attempts in each, and the combined total of the highest two successful lifts determines the overall result within a bodyweight category.", "Bodyweight categories are different for women and men.", "A lifter who fails to complete at least one successful snatch and one successful clean and jerk also fails to \"total\", and therefore receives an \"incomplete\" entry for the competition.", "The clean and press was once a competition lift, but was discontinued due to difficulties in judging proper form.", "In comparison with other strength sports, which test limit strength (with or without lifting aids), Olympic weightlifting tests aspects of human ballistic limits (explosive strength) and are therefore executed faster—and with more mobility and a greater range of motion during their execution - than other lifts.", "Properly executed, the snatch and the clean and jerk are both dynamic and explosive while appearing graceful, especially when viewed from a recording at a slowed speed.", "While there are relatively few competitive Olympic weightlifters (or more simply \"lifters\"), the lifts and their components are commonly used by elite athletes in other sports to train for both explosive and functional strength." ]
[]
Story of Noah
What is the name of Noah's youngest son?
Sistine Chapel ceiling
true
3 (ART)
[ 11 ]
[ "As with the first sequence of pictures, the three panels concerning Noah, taken from the sixth to ninth chapters of Genesis are thematic rather than chronological.", "In the first scene is shown the sacrifice of a sheep.", "Vasari, in writing about this scene mistakes it for the sacrifices by Cain and Abel, in which Abel's sacrifice was acceptable to God and Cain's was not.", "What this image almost certainly depicts is the sacrifice made by the family of Noah, after their safe deliverance from the Great Flood which destroyed the rest of Humankind.", "The central, larger, scene shows the Great Flood.", "The Ark in which Noah's family escaped floats at the rear of the picture while the rest of humanity tries frantically to scramble to some point of safety.", "This picture, which has a large number of figures, conforms the most closely to the format of the paintings that had been done around the walls.", "The final scene is the story of Noah's drunkenness.", "After the Flood, Noah tills the soil and grows vines.", "He is shown doing so, in the background of the picture.", "He becomes drunk and inadvertently exposes himself.", "His youngest son, Ham, brings his two brothers Shem and Japheth to see the sight but they discreetly cover their father with a cloak.", "Ham is later cursed by Noah and told that the descendants of Ham's son Canaan will serve Shem and Japheth's descendants forever.", "Taken together, these three pictures serve to show that Humankind had moved a long way from God's perfect creation.", "However, it is through Shem and his descendants, the Israelites, that Salvation will come to the world.", "Since Michelangelo executed the nine Biblical scenes in reverse chronological order, some analyses of the frescoes of the vault commence with the \"Drunkenness of Noah\".", "Tolnay's Neoplatonic interpretation sees the story of Noah at the beginning and the act of Creation by God as the conclusion of the process of \"deificatio\" and the return from physical to spiritual being." ]
[ 0 ]
Religion
How many people are of diffferent Christian denominations?
Turkey
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 11 ]
[ "Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience.", "The role of religion has been a controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties.", "For many decades, the wearing of the hijab was banned in schools and government buildings, because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam.", "However, the ban was lifted for the universities in 2011 and for the government buildings in 2013.", "Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey; it exceeds 99% if secular people of Muslim background are included, with the most popular sect being the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam.", "The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs (), it interprets the Hanafi school of law, and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80,000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams.", "Academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million.", "According to Aksiyon magazine, the number of Shiite Twelvers (excluding Alevis) is 3 million (4.2%).", "There are also some Sufi practitioners.", "Roughly 2% are non-denominational Muslims.", "The percentage of non-Muslims in Turkey had fallen from 19.1% in 1914 to 2.5% in 1927.", "Currently, there are about 120,000 people of different Christian denominations, representing less than 0.2% of Turkey's population, including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox, 35,000 Roman Catholics, 5,000 Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestants.", "Today there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey.", "The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century.", "There are about 26,000 people who are Jewish, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi.", "The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey has roots in Bahá'u'lláh's, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, being exiled to Constantinople, current-day Istanbul, by the Ottoman authorities.", "Bahá'ís cannot register with the government officially, but there are probably 10 to 20 thousand Bahá'ís, and around a hundred Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey." ]
[ 5 ]
Trench warfare begins
When did the Germans begin using chlorine gas on the Western Front?
World War I
true
7 (HISTORICAL EVENTS)
[ 13 ]
[ "Western Front.", "Trench warfare begins.", "Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology.", "These advances allowed for impressive defence systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war.", "Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances.", "Artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground extremely difficult.", "Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties.", "In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and the tank.", "Just after the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September 1914), both Entente and German forces each continually sought to outflank the other by manoeuvering to the north: this series of manoeuvres became known as the \"Race to the Sea\".", "When these outflanking efforts failed, Britain and France soon found themselves facing an uninterrupted line of entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium's coast.", "Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories.", "Consequently, German trenches were much better constructed than those of their enemy; Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be \"temporary\" before their forces broke through German defences.", "Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances.", "On 22 April 1915, at the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans (violating the Hague Convention) used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front.", "Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war.", "Tanks were first used in combat by the British during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette (part of the wider Somme offensive) on 15 September 1916, with only partial success.", "However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Germans employed only very small numbers of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks." ]
[ 2 ]
Nutrients
How much cholesterol is there in an ounce of bacon?
Bacon
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 3 ]
[ "One rasher of cooked streaky bacon contains of fat, and of protein.", "Four pieces of bacon can also contain up to 800 mg of sodium, which is roughly equivalent to 1.92 grams of salt.", "The fat and protein content varies depending on the cut and cooking method.68% of bacon's calories come from fat, almost half of which are saturated.", "Each ounce of bacon contains 30 milligrams of cholesterol." ]
[ 5 ]
Abstract
Who wrote the song Payphone?
Payphone (song)
false
0 (MUSIC)
[ 2 ]
[ "Payphone (song)\"Payphone\" is a song performed by the American pop rock band Maroon 5 featuring American rapper Wiz Khalifa.", "The song was released on April 17, 2012, as the lead single from their fourth studio album, \"Overexposed\" (2012).", "The song was written by Adam Levine, Benny Blanco, Ammar Malik, Robopop, Shellback and Khalifa and produced by Blanco and Shellback.", "The song is a pop ballad and it talks about a romance that is no more.", "The song has received favorable reviews from music critics, who praised the catchy melody and named it \"a radio success\", but some others dismissed Khalifa's appearance and its title.", "The official music video, directed by Samuel Bayer, finds Levine taking down some bank robbers and attempting to become the \"hero\" in a hail of bullets as he makes his escape, steals a gun from a robber and then gets mistaken for one.", "Because of this, he must escape from a fleet of policemen, which he does with ease.", "The video was positively received from critics, who considered it an enjoyable mini-action movie.", "The video was nominated for an MTV Video Music Award for Best Pop Video, but lost out to \"What Makes You Beautiful\" by One Direction.", "On the \"Billboard\" Hot 100, the song debuted at the number three spot before peaking at number two.", "The song sold 493,000 copies in its first week, becoming the best sales week for a digital song by a group and also the eleventh-best sales week overall.", "It also reached number one on the Canadian Hot 100 chart and stayed at the top for eight consecutive weeks.", "It also topped the UK Singles Chart, making it the band's first ever single to do so.", "\"Payphone\" was the world's fifth best-selling single of 2012 with 9.5 million copies sold." ]
[ 3 ]
Architecture
Is Inigo Jones British?
Italy
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 5 ]
[ "Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, because of Italy's division into several regional states until 1861.", "This has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs.", "Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.", "Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum, the Milan Cathedral and Florence cathedral, the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the building designs of Venice are found in Italy.", "Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world.", "British architect Inigo Jones, inspired by the designs of Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian Renaissance architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by Andrea Palladio.", "Additionally, Italianate architecture, popular abroad since the 19th century, was used to describe foreign architecture which was built in an Italian style, especially modelled on Renaissance architecture." ]
[]
Environment
How much faster then broadband will the next-gen network be?
South Korea
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 5 ]
[ "During the first 20 years of South Korea's growth surge, little effort was made to preserve the environment.", "Unchecked industrialization and urban development have resulted in deforestation and the ongoing destruction of wetlands such as the Songdo Tidal Flat.", "However, there have been recent efforts to balance these problems, including a government run five-year green growth project that aims to boost energy efficiency and green technology.", "The green-based economic strategy is a comprehensive overhaul of South Korea's economy, utilizing nearly two percent of the national GDP.", "The greening initiative includes such efforts as a nationwide bike network, solar and wind energy, lowering oil dependent vehicles, backing daylight savings and extensive usage of environmentally friendly technologies such as LEDs in electronics and lighting.", "The country – already the world's most wired – plans to build a nationwide next-generation network which will be 10 times faster than broadband facilities in order to reduce energy usage.", "The renewable portfolio standard program with renewable energy certificates runs from 2012 to 2022.", "Quota systems favor large, vertically integrated generators and multinational electric utilities, if only because certificates are generally denominated in units of one megawatt-hour.", "They are also more difficult to design and implement than an a Feed-in tariff.", "Lauber, V. (2004).", "\"REFIT and RPS: Options for a harmonized Community framework,\" Energy Policy, Vol.", "32, Issue 12, pp.1405–1414.", "Lauber, V. (2008).", "\"Certificate Trading – Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?", "\"Ljubljana Conference on the Future of GHG Emissions Trading in the EU, March 2008.", "Salzburg, Austria: University of Salzburg.", "Retrieved 16 March 2009 at: www.uni-salzburg.at/politikwissenschaft/lauber</ref> Around 350 residential micro combined heat and power units where installed in 2012.", "Seoul's tap water recently became safe to drink, with city officials branding it \"Arisu\" in a bid to convince the public.", "Efforts have also been made with afforestation projects.", "Another multi-billion dollar project was the restoration of Cheonggyecheon, a stream running through downtown Seoul that had earlier been paved over by a motorway.", "One major challenge is air quality, with acid rain, sulfur oxides, and annual yellow dust storms being particular problems.", "It is acknowledged that many of these difficulties are a result of South Korea's proximity to China, which is a major air polluter.", "South Korea is a member of the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity Treaty, Kyoto Protocol (forming the Environmental Integrity Group (EIG), regarding UNFCCC, with Mexico and Switzerland), Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (not into force), Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, and Whaling." ]
[ 5 ]
Earth
What is the natural satellite of earth?
Solar System
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 3 ]
[ " Earth (1 AU from the Sun) is the largest and densest of the inner planets, the only one known to have current geological activity, and the only place where life is known to exist.", "Its liquid hydrosphere is unique among the terrestrial planets, and it is the only planet where plate tectonics has been observed.", "Earth's atmosphere is radically different from those of the other planets, having been altered by the presence of life to contain 21% free oxygen.", "It has one natural satellite, the Moon, the only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar System." ]
[ 0 ]
Scientific analysis and criticism
What two creations of confirmation bias are under study with respect to astrological belief?
Astrology
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 8, 7 ]
[ "Astrology has been rejected by the scientific community as having no explanatory power for describing the universe.", "Scientific testing of astrology has been conducted, and no evidence has been found to support any of the premises or purported effects outlined in astrological traditions.", "There is no proposed mechanism of action by which the positions and motions of stars and planets could affect people and events on Earth that does not contradict well understood, basic aspects of biology and physics.", "The majority of professional astrologers rely on performing astrology-based personality tests and making relevant predictions about the remunerator's future.", "Those who continue to have faith in astrology have been characterized as doing so \"in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary\".", "It has also been shown that confirmation bias is a psychological factor that contributes to belief in astrology.", "Confirmation bias is a form of cognitive bias.", "From the literature, Astrology believers often tend to selectively remember those predictions which have turned out to be true, and do not remember those predictions which happen to be false.", "Another, separate, form of confirmation bias also plays a role, where believers often fail to distinguish between messages that demonstrate special ability and those which do not.", "Thus there are two distinct forms of confirmation bias that are under study with respect to astrological belief." ]
[ 0 ]
Abstract
How many Despicable Me movies are there?
Despicable Me
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 7 ]
[ "Despicable Me is a 2010 American computer-animated 3D comedy film from Universal Pictures and Illumination Entertainment that was released on July 9, 2010 in the United States.", "It is Illumination Entertainment's first film.", "It was directed by Pierre Coffin and Chris Renaud, based on an original story by Sergio Pablos.", "The film stars the voice of Steve Carell as Gru, a super-villain who adopts three girls (voiced by Miranda Cosgrove, Dana Gaier, and Elsie Fisher) from an orphanage; and the voice of Jason Segel as Vector, a rival of Gru who steals the Great Pyramid of Giza.", "When Gru learns of Vector's heist, he plans an even greater heist: to shrink and steal the Earth's moon.", "It was entirely animated by the French animation studio Mac Guff, which was later acquired by Illumination Entertainment.", "The film earned positive reviews from critics, and grossed over $543 million worldwide, against a budget of $69 million.", "It launched a franchise with a series of films, including a sequel in 2013, followed by a 2015 spin-off film featuring Gru's Minions as the main characters, and \"Despicable Me 3\" in 2017." ]
[ 5 ]
Etymology
The name "Indonesia" originates from where?
Indonesia
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 0 ]
[ "The name \"Indonesia\" derives from the Greek words \"Indós\" and \"nèsos\", which means \"island\".", "The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.", "In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms \"Indunesians\" — and, his preference, \"Malayunesians\" — for the inhabitants of the \"Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago\".", "In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used \"Indonesia\" as a synonym for \"Indian Archipelago\".", "However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use \"Indonesia\".", "Instead, they used the terms \"Malay Archipelago\" (\"Maleische Archipel\"); the \"Netherlands East Indies\" (\"Nederlandsch Oost Indië\"), popularly \"Indië\"; \"the East\" (\"de Oost\"); and \"Insulinde\".", "After 1900, the name \"Indonesia\" became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.", "Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book \"Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894\".", "The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name \"Indonesisch Pers-bureau\" in 1913." ]
[ 4 ]
Beginnings as a sculptor
When did the serviceman Henry Moore enroll at the Leeds School of Art?
Henry Moore
true
3 (ART)
[ 0 ]
[ "After the war Moore received an ex-serviceman's grant to continue his education and in 1919 he became a student at the Leeds School of Art (now Leeds College of Art), which set up a sculpture studio especially for him.", "At the college, he met Barbara Hepworth, a fellow student who would also become a well-known British sculptor, and began a friendship and gentle professional rivalry that lasted for many years.", "In Leeds, Moore also had access to the modernist works in the collection of Sir Michael Sadler, the University Vice-Chancellor, which had a pronounced effect on his development.", "In 1921, Moore won a scholarship to study at the Royal College of Art in London, along with Hepworth and other Yorkshire contemporaries.", "While in London, Moore extended his knowledge of primitive art and sculpture, studying the ethnographic collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum.", "The student sculptures of both Moore and Hepworth followed the standard romantic Victorian style, and included natural forms, landscapes and figurative modelling of animals.", "Moore later became uncomfortable with classically derived ideals; his later familiarity with primitivism and the influence of sculptors such as Constantin Brâncuși, Jacob Epstein, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Frank Dobson led him to the method of direct carving, in which imperfections in the material and marks left by tools became part of the finished sculpture.", "Having adopted this technique, Moore was in conflict with academic tutors who did not appreciate such a modern approach.", "During one exercise set by Derwent Wood (the professor of sculpture at the Royal College), Moore was asked to reproduce a marble relief of Domenico Rosselli's \"The Virgin and Child\" by first modelling the relief in plaster, then reproducing it in marble using the mechanical technique of \"pointing\".", "Instead, he carved the relief directly, even marking the surface to simulate the prick marks that would have been left by the pointing machine.", "In 1924, Moore won a six-month travelling scholarship which he spent in Northern Italy studying the great works of Michelangelo, Giotto di Bondone, Giovanni Pisano and several other Old Masters.", "During this period he also visited Paris, took advantage of the timed-sketching classes at the Académie Colarossi, and viewed, in the Trocadero, a plaster cast of a Toltec-Maya sculptural form, the Chac Mool, previously seen in book illustrations.", "The reclining figure was to have a profound effect upon Moore's work, becoming the primary motif of his sculpture." ]
[ 2 ]
Subjects
In the movie "How to Survive a Plague", was Ray Navarro an actor?
How to Survive a Plague
true
6 (MOVIES)
[ 15 ]
[ "People featured in the film include:", "Bill Bahlman", "David Barr", "Gregg Bordowitz", "George H. W. Bush (archive footage)", "Bill Clinton (archive footage)", "Spencer Cox", "Jim Eigo", "Mark Harrington", "Jesse Helms (archive footage)", "Garance Franke-Ruta", "Larry Kramer", "Mathilde Krim", "Ed Koch", "Iris Long", "Ray Navarro", "Bob Rafsky", "Peter Staley" ]
[ 5 ]
Live entertainment
What characters were removed from the parade?
Disney California Adventure
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 10 ]
[ "Many Disney characters are found throughout the park, greeting visitors and posing for photos.", "Some have specific areas where they are scheduled to appear, but can be found wandering as well.", "\"World of Color\" is a nighttime show, designed by Walt Disney Creative Entertainment.", "It has more than 1200 fountains and includes lasers, lights, and fire with high-definition projections on mist screens similar to the ones used in \"Fantasmic!\"", "at Disneyland and Disney's Hollywood Studios at Walt Disney World.", "Mad T Party is an interactive nighttime dance party inspired by Tim Burton's \"Alice in Wonderland\" film and is located in the Hollywood Land district.", "It is considered a similar experience to Glow Fest, which was staged in the same area in summer 2010, and ElecTRONica, a similar event themed to Disney's \"Tron\" franchise that ended on April 15, 2012.", "Mad T Party features lights, music, projections, and merchandise kiosk stands, a lounge and an interactive game area.", "The event started on June 15, 2012.", "Pixar Play Parade is a parade featuring floats and characters based on the Disney·Pixar films \"Monsters Inc.\", \"The Incredibles\", \"Finding Nemo\", \"A Bug's Life\", \"Toy Story\" and \"Cars\".", "The parade originally had an additional section featuring characters from \"Ratatouille\" but was removed.", "The floats feature small water jets that shoot water into the crowd of spectators.", "The music used in the parade is derived from Hong Kong Disneyland's Mickey's WaterWorks Parade, sharing the same tunes.", "Due to the massive construction in the park, the parade was on hiatus since January 2011 and returned in June 2012.", "The Red Car News Boys musical group is found at Carthay Circle.", "They appear via Red Car Trolley and inform guests about local news happenings in-song.", "A Hollywood newcomer, Mickey Mouse, arrives and is motivated by the newsgroup to pursue his dream of seeking a career in Los Angeles.", "The performance is partly inspired by the 1992 film, \"Newsies\".", "The Five & Dime swing band consists of five male musicians and one female singer.", "They perform in the cross-hairs of Buena Vista Street and Hollywood Land." ]
[ 0 ]
Crispy tacos
What is the name the cheese used in a tacos?
Taco
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 4 ]
[ "A mostly California variation where the (sometimes over-sized) corn tortilla is fried or deep-fried in oil (originally, lard).", "The meat can be anything, such as ground beef, steak, shredded beef, chicken or pork (carnitas).", "Ground beef is generally diluted with refried bean paste and/or potato, and heavily seasoned.", "Steak will usually be heavily chili-marinated, diced beef tip (\"asada\").", "The meat is generally topped with jack and/or cheddar cheese, lettuce and tomato (and sometimes avocado and/or sour cream), with salsa on top." ]
[ 0 ]
Criticism by novelist Buchheim
How long is the Director's Cut of "Das Boot"?
Das Boot
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 4 ]
[ "Even though impressed by the technological accuracy of the film's set-design and port construction buildings, novelist Lothar-Günter Buchheim expressed great disappointment with Petersen's adaptation in a film review published in 1981, especially with Petersen's aesthetic vision for the film and the way the plot and the effects are, according to him, overdone and clichéd by the adaptation.", "He also criticised the hysterical overacting of the cast, which he called highly unrealistic, while acknowledging the cast's acting talent in general.", "Buchheim, after several attempts for an American adaptation had failed, had provided a script detailing his own narrative, cinematographical and photographical ideas as soon as Petersen was chosen as new director.", "It would have amounted in full to a complete six-hour epic; however, Petersen turned him down because at the time the producers were aiming for a 90-minute feature for international release.", "However, today's Director's Cut of \"Das Boot\" amounts to over 200 minutes, and the complete TV version of the film is 282 minutes long.", "Buchheim, himself a U-boat correspondent, attacked specifically what he called Petersen's sacrificing of both realism and suspense in dialogue, narration, and photography for the sake of cheap dramatic thrills and action effects (for example, in reality one single exploding bolt of the boat's pressure hull would have been enough for the whole crew to worry about the U-boat being crushed by water pressure, while Petersen has several bolts loosening in various scenes).", "Buchheim also criticized depictions of the crew's loud behaviour during patrols as unrealistic and celebrations after achieving a torpedo hit or surviving a bombing as unprofessional.", "Furthermore, an officer—even an outsider like Lt. Werner—would have commanded special respect and that throwing an oil-drenched towel into his face would not have been tolerated.", "Uttering concerns about the end result, Buchheim felt that unlike his clearly anti-war novel the adaptation was \"another re-glorification and re-mystification\" of the German World War II U-boat war, German heroism and nationalism.", "He called the film a cross between a \"cheap, shallow American action flick\" and a \"contemporary German propaganda newsreel from World War II\"." ]
[ 5 ]
Grand Slam tournaments
When did the international tournament at Wimbledon begin?
Tennis
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 16 ]
[ "The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis events in the world.", "They are held annually and comprise, in chronological order, the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, and the US Open.", "Apart from the Olympic Games, Davis Cup, Fed Cup, and Hopman Cup, they are the only tournaments regulated by the International Tennis Federation (ITF).", "The ITF's national associations, Tennis Australia (Australian Open), the Fédération Française de Tennis (French Open), the Lawn Tennis Association (Wimbledon) and the United States Tennis Association (US Open) are delegated the responsibility to organize these events.", "Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters 1000 (men) and Premier events (women).", "Another distinguishing feature is the number of players in the singles draw.", "There are 128, more than any other professional tennis tournament.", "This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top 100, qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards.", "Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three.", "Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.", "Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests.", "Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions.", "These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies.", "For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white.", "Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from 1988 through 1990 citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its \"predominantly white\" dress code.", "Wimbledon has its own particular methods for disseminating tickets, often leading tennis fans to follow complex procedures to obtain tickets.", " The international tournament began in 1925" ]
[ 2 ]
First law
What had Faraday concluded based on his electrochemical experiments?
Electrochemistry
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 0 ]
[ "Faraday concluded after several experiments on electrical current in non-spontaneous process, the mass of the products yielded on the electrodes was proportional to the value of current supplied to the cell, the length of time the current existed, and the molar mass of the substance analyzed.", "In other words, the amount of a substance deposited on each electrode of an electrolytic cell is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the cell.", "Below is a simplified equation of Faraday's first law:", "formula_7", "Where", "\"m\" is the mass of the substance produced at the electrode (in grams),", "\"Q\" is the total electric charge that passed through the solution (in coulombs),", "\"n\" is the valence number of the substance as an ion in solution (electrons per ion),", "\"M\" is the molar mass of the substance (in grams per mole)." ]
[ 0 ]
Recordings
Who had the first measurable hit in 1951?
Santa Claus Is Coming to Town
true
0 (MUSIC)
[ 4 ]
[ "The earliest known recorded version of the song was by banjoist Harry Reser and his band on October 24, 1934 (Decca 264A) featuring Tom Stacks on vocal, the version shown in the Variety charts of December 1934.", "The song was a sheet music hit, reaching #1.", "The song was also recorded on September 26, 1935, by Tommy Dorsey & His Orchestra.", "The song is a traditional standard at Christmas time, and has been covered by numerous recording artists.", "The 1951 version by Perry Como was the first measurable hit, and in 1963 the Four Seasons version charted at #23 on Billboard.", "In 1970 Rankin-Bass produced an hour-long animated television special based on the song, with narrator Fred Astaire telling the original story of Santa Claus.", "Many contemporary artists have recorded and performed various versions of the song, including a rock and roll version by Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band.", "The song was recorded in a 1975 live version and eventually released in 1985 as a B-side to \"My Hometown\", a single from the \"Born in the U.S.A.\" album.", "Luis Miguel recorded the song in Spanish as \"Santa Claus Llegó a La Ciudad\" for his Christmas album \"Navidades\" (2006).", "His version of the song peaked at #26 on the \"Billboard\" Latin Pop Songs chart.", "Other well-known versions of this song include Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters (1943), Frank Sinatra (1948), the Ray Conniff Singers (1959), Alvin and the Chipmunks (1961), The Crystals (1963), The Beach Boys (1964), The Jackson 5 (1970), The Carpenters (1978), The Pointer Sisters (1987), Neil Diamond (1992), Mariah Carey (1994), George Strait (1996), Faith Hill (2008), Miley Cyrus (2008), Andrea Bocelli (2009), Love Händel from \"Phineas and Ferb\" (2010), Justin Bieber (2011), Michael Bublé (2011), Mark Salling and Cory Monteith on \"Glee\" (2011), Colbie Caillat (2012), Rod Stewart (2012) and Dannii Minogue (2013)." ]
[ 3 ]
Abstract
After what year was the "Z" number known as a physical characteristic of atoms?
Atomic number
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 11 ]
[ "In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.", "It is conventionally represented by the symbol Z.", "The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element.", "In an uncharged atom, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.", "The atomic number, \"Z\", should not be confused with the mass number, \"A\", which is the number of nucleons, the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.", "The number of neutrons, \"N\", is known as the neutron number of the atom; thus, \"A\" = \"Z\" + \"N\" (these quantities are always whole numbers).", "Since protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass (and the mass of the electrons is negligible for many purposes) and the mass defect of nucleon binding is always small compared to the nucleon mass, the atomic mass of any atom, when expressed in unified atomic mass units (making a quantity called the \"relative isotopic mass,\") is roughly (to within 1%) equal to the whole number \"A\".", "Atoms with the same atomic number \"Z\" but different neutron numbers \"N\", and hence different atomic masses, are known as isotopes.", "A little more than three-quarters of naturally occurring elements exist as a mixture of isotopes (see monoisotopic elements), and the average isotopic mass of an isotopic mixture for an element (called the relative atomic mass) in a defined environment on Earth, determines the element's standard atomic weight.", "Historically, it was these atomic weights of elements (in comparison to hydrogen) that were the quantities measurable by chemists in the 19th century.", "The conventional symbol \"Z\" comes from the German word meaning number/numeral/figure, which, prior to the modern synthesis of ideas from chemistry and physics, merely denoted an element's numerical place in the periodic table, whose order is approximately, but not completely, consistent with the order of the elements by atomic weights.", "Only after 1915, with the suggestion and evidence that this \"Z\" number was also the nuclear charge and a physical characteristic of atoms, did the word (and its English equivalent \"atomic number\") come into common use in this context." ]
[ 0 ]
Merchandise
"Glee-The Complete First Season" was first available when?
Glee (TV series)
true
1 (TV)
[ 9 ]
[ "Three soundtrack albums were released to accompany \"Glee\" first season: ', ' and '.", "Two extended plays (EP) accompanied the episodes \"The Power of Madonna\" and \"Journey to Regionals\": ' and ' respectively.", "\"Glee: The Music, The Complete Season One\", a compilation album featuring all 100 studio recordings from the first season, was released exclusively to the iTunes Store.", "Five soundtrack albums were released to accompany \"Glee\" second season: ', featuring Christmas-themed songs, and ', were both released in November 2010; ', ', and ' were 2011 releases, in March, April, and May, respectively.", "An EP entitled \"\" was released to accompany the Halloween episode, \"The Rocky Horror Glee Show\".", "Two EPs were released exclusively at the Target discount chain: \"Glee: The Music, Love Songs\" in the last week of 2010, and \"Glee: The Music, Dance Party\" in early September 2011.", "\"Glee\" has been released on several DVD and Blu-ray box-sets.", "\"Glee – Pilot Episode: Director's Cut\" features the pilot episode and a preview of the second episode, \"Showmance\".", "\"Glee – Volume 1: Road to Sectionals\" contains the first thirteen episodes of season one, and \"Glee – Volume 2: Road to Regionals\" contains the final nine episodes of the first season.", "\"Glee – The Complete First Season\" was released on September 13, 2010.", "Three boxed sets were released for the second season: \"Glee Season 2: Volume 1\" containing the first ten episodes on January 25, 2011, and both \"Glee Season 2: Volume 2\" with the final twelve episode and \"Glee: The Complete Second Season\" with all twenty-two on September 13, 2011.", "All three were released on DVD; only the complete season is available on Blu-ray.", "Little, Brown Books is in the process of publishing five \"Glee\"–related young adult novels, which are being developed in collaboration with the show's producers and writers.", "The first three novels have been written by Sophia Lowell; the first, \"Glee: The Beginning\", was released in August 2010 and serves as a prequel to the events of the television series.", "Subsequent novels include \"Glee: Foreign Exchange\", released in February 2011, and \"Glee: Summer Break\", released in July 2011.", "Twentieth Century Fox Consumer Products have plans for a line of \"Glee\"–related merchandise including games, electrical products, greeting cards, apparel and stationery.", "Macy's carry a line of \"Glee\"–related clothing, and Claire's stock accessories." ]
[ 2 ]
Abstract
As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire rose in power, beginning the historical period known as what?
Napoleonic Wars
false
7 (HISTORICAL EVENTS)
[ 10 ]
[ "The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of wars between Napoleon's French Empire and opposing coalitions led by Great Britain.", "As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription.", "French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812.", "Napoleon was defeated in 1814; he returned and was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo, and all France's gains were taken away by the victors.", "Before a final victory against Napoleon, five of seven coalitions saw defeat at the hands of France.", "France defeated the first and second coalitions during the French Revolutionary Wars, the third (notably at Austerlitz), the fourth (notably at Jena, Eylau, and Friedland) and the fifth coalition (notably at Wagram) under the leadership of Napoleon.", "These great victories gave the French Army a sense of invulnerability, especially when it approached Moscow.", "But after the retreat from Russia, in spite of incomplete victories, France was defeated by the sixth coalition at Leipzig, in the Peninsular War at Vitoria and at the hands of the seventh coalition at Waterloo.", "The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy that would lead to the two nations' respective consolidations later in the century.", "Meanwhile, the global Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America.", "As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning \"Pax Britannica\".", "No consensus exists about when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began.", "An early candidate is 9 November 1799, the date of Bonaparte's coup seizing power in France.", "However, the most common date is 18 May 1803, when renewed war broke out between Britain and France, ending the one-year-old Peace of Amiens, the only period of general peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814.", "Most actual fighting ceased following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815, although skirmishing continued as late as 3 July 1815 at the Battle of Issy.", "The Second Treaty of Paris officially ended the wars on 20 November 1815." ]
[ 0 ]
Raising the duck
How do I get a duck to make Peking Duck?
Peking duck
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 0, 1 ]
[ "Raising the duck.", "The ducks used to prepare Peking Duck originated in Nanjing.", "They were small, had black feathers, and lived in the canals around the city linking major waterways.", "With the relocation of the Chinese capital to Beijing, supply barge traffic increased in the area.", "Often these barges would spill grain into the canals, providing food for the ducks.", "By the Five Dynasties, the new species of duck had been domesticated by Chinese farmers.", "Nowadays, Peking Duck is prepared from the Pekin duck (\"Anas platyrhynchos domestica\").", "Newborn ducks are raised in a free range environment for the first 45 days of their lives, and force fed 4 times a day for the next 15–20 days, resulting in ducks that weigh 5–7 kg (11–15 lbs).", "The force feeding of the ducks led to an alternate name for the dish, Peking Stuffed Duck ()." ]
[ 5 ]
History
What amount was the ultimate cost of Disneyland Tokyo?
Tokyo Disneyland
true
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 3 ]
[ "In April 1979, the first basic contract for the construction of Disneyland in Tokyo was signed.", "Japanese engineers and architects flocked to California to tour Disneyland and prepare to construct the new operating dreamland in Tokyo.", "Just one year later, construction of the park began and was covered by hundreds of media reporters as an indication of the high expectations for the park in the future.", "Though successful in the building process, the final cost of Disneyland Tokyo almost doubled the estimated budget costing 180 billion yen rather than the projected 100 billion yen.", "Despite this discrepancy, Disneyland Tokyo has been a constant source of pride since opening day over 30 years ago." ]
[ 0 ]
DNA transfer
How many ways can some bacteria be transfered between cells?
Bacteria
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 0, 1 ]
[ "Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells.", "This can occur in three main ways.", "First, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation.", "Genes can also be transferred by the process of transduction, when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome.", "The third method of gene transfer is conjugation, whereby DNA is transferred through direct cell contact.", "Transduction of bacterial genes by bacteriophage appears to be a consequence of infrequent errors during intracellular assembly of virus particles, rather than a bacterial adaptation.", "Conjugation, in the much-studied E. coli system is determined by plasmid genes, and is an adaptation for transferring copies of the plasmid from one bacterial host to another.", "It is seldom that a conjugative plasmid integrates into the host bacterial chromosome, and subsequently transfers part of the host bacterial DNA to another bacterium.", "Plasmid-mediated transfer of host bacterial DNA also appears to be an accidental process rather than a bacterial adaptation.", "Transformation, unlike transduction or conjugation, depends on numerous bacterial gene products that specifically interact to perform this complex process, and thus transformation is clearly a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer.", "In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine donor DNA into its own chromosome, it must first enter a special physiological state termed competence (see Natural competence).", "In \"Bacillus subtilis\" about 40 genes are required for the development of competence.", "The length of DNA transferred during \"B. subtilis\" transformation can be between a third of a chromosome up to the whole chromosome.", "Transformation appears to be common among bacterial species, and thus far at least 60 species are known to have the natural ability to become competent for transformation.", "The development of competence in nature is usually associated with stressful environmental conditions, and seems to be an adaptation for facilitating repair of DNA damage in recipient cells.", "In ordinary circumstances, transduction, conjugation, and transformation involve transfer of DNA between individual bacteria of the same species, but occasionally transfer may occur between individuals of different bacterial species and this may have significant consequences, such as the transfer of antibiotic resistance.", "In such cases, gene acquisition from other bacteria or the environment is called horizontal gene transfer and may be common under natural conditions.", "Gene transfer is particularly important in antibiotic resistance as it allows the rapid transfer of resistance genes between different pathogens." ]
[ 5 ]
Noodles
What is the origin of the kansui name?
Ramen
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 1 ]
[ "Most noodles are made from four basic ingredients: wheat flour, salt, water, and \"kansui\", which is essentially a type of alkaline mineral water, containing sodium carbonate and usually potassium carbonate, as well as sometimes a small amount of phosphoric acid.", "Originally, \"kansui\" was named after the water from Inner Mongolia's Lake Kan which contained large amounts of these minerals and was said to be perfect for making these noodles.", "Making noodles with \"kansui\" lends them a yellowish hue as well as a firm texture.", "Eggs may also be substituted for \"kansui\".", "Some noodles are made with neither eggs nor \"kansui\" and should only be used for yakisoba.", "Ramen comes in various shapes and lengths.", "It may be thick, thin, or even ribbon-like, as well as straight or wrinkled." ]
[ 0 ]
Geology
Where is Mount Rushmore located?
Mount Rushmore
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 1 ]
[ "Mount Rushmore is largely composed of granite.", "The memorial is carved on the northwest margin of the Harney Peak granite batholith in the Black Hills of South Dakota, so the geologic formations of the heart of the Black Hills region are also evident at Mount Rushmore.", "The batholith magma intruded into the pre-existing mica schist rocks during the Proterozoic, roughly 1.6 billion years ago.", "Coarse grained pegmatite dikes are associated with the granite intrusion of Harney Peak and are visibly lighter in color, thus explaining the light-colored streaks on the foreheads of the presidents.", "The Black Hills granites were exposed to erosion during the Neoproterozoic, but were later buried by sandstone and other sediments during the Cambrian.", "Remaining buried throughout the Paleozoic, they were re-exposed again during the Laramide orogeny around 70 million years ago.", "The Black Hills area was uplifted as an elongated geologic dome.", "Subsequent erosion stripped the granite of the overlying sediments and the softer adjacent schist.", "Some schist does remain and can be seen as the darker material just below the sculpture of Washington.", "The tallest mountain in the region is Harney Peak ().", "Borglum selected Mount Rushmore as the site for several reasons.", "The rock of the mountain is composed of smooth, fine-grained granite.", "The durable granite erodes only every 10,000 years, thus was more than sturdy enough to support the sculpture and its long-term exposure.", "The mountain's height of above sea level made it suitable, and because it faces the southeast, the workers also had the advantage of sunlight for most of the day." ]
[ 4 ]
Season 4
In 30 Rock, why are Jenna and Tracy consistently in fear of losing their spotlight?
30 Rock
false
1 (TV)
[ 2 ]
[ "The fourth season of \"30 Rock\" premiered on October 15, 2009.", "Like the previous season 3, it also consisted of 22 episodes.", "A recurring story arc early in the season revolved around Jack's request that Liz cast a new actor for \"TGS\", and Liz's subsequent search for the perfect comedian, much to the dismay of Jenna and Tracy, who fear losing their spotlight.", "The later half of the season focused on two complementary story arcs: Jack's inability to choose between his two girlfriends, and Liz's inability to find a boyfriend to live up to her expectations and Jenna's relationship with a Jenna Maroney impersonator.", "The season has also featured such guest stars as Julianne Moore, Jon Bon Jovi, Cheyenne Jackson, Sherri Shepherd, Will Forte, Elizabeth Banks, Michael Sheen, Matt Damon, and James Franco." ]
[ 1 ]
Accolades
What was nominated at the 2012 Teen Choice Awards for "Choice Rock Song?"
Somebody That I Used to Know
false
0 (MUSIC)
[ 0, 5 ]
[ "On 15 July 2011, the song finished third in the 2011 Vanda & Young Songwriting Competition, with the winning song, \"Cameo Lover\", by Kimbra.", "Earlier that year, Gotye had first noticed Kimbra when both were short-listed as finalists for the competition.", "At the ARIA Music Awards of 2011, \"Somebody That I Used To Know\" won Single of the Year, Best Pop Release, Best Video (for Natasha Pincus), Engineer of the Year (for François Tétaz) and Producer of the Year (for Gotye).", "Gotye also won Best Male Artist for the song while Kimbra won Best Female Artist for her previous single, \"Cameo Lover\".", "At the APRA Music Awards of 2012, \"Somebody That I Used To Know\" won Most Played Australian Work and Song of the Year and Gotye won Songwriter of the Year.", "It is also nominated at the 2012 Teen Choice Awards for \"Choice Rock Song\" and \"Choice Break-Up Song\".", "The song was nominated at the 55th Grammy Awards for Record of the Year and Best Pop Duo/Group Performance, winning both awards." ]
[ 0 ]
Critical response
What rating does Rotten Tomatoes give "Gravity"?
Gravity (film)
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 2 ]
[ "", "\"Gravity\" had its world premiere at the 70th Venice International Film Festival on August 28, 2013, where it received universal acclaim from critics and audiences who praised the acting, direction, screenplay, cinematography, visual effects, production design, the use of 3D, and Steven Price's musical score.", "Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 97% based on reviews from 295 critics, with a \"Certified Fresh\" rating and an average score of 9.1/10.", "The site's consensus states: \"Alfonso Cuarón's \"Gravity\" is an eerie, tense sci-fi thriller that's masterfully directed and visually stunning\".", "On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 based on reviews from critics, the film has a score of 96 based on 49 reviews, indicating \"universal acclaim\".", "In CinemaScore polls conducted during the opening weekend, cinema audiences gave \"Gravity\" an average grade of A- on an A+ to F scale.", "Matt Zoller Seitz, writing on RogerEbert.com, gave four stars out of four, calling it \"a huge and technically dazzling film and that the film's panoramas of astronauts tumbling against starfields and floating through space station interiors are at once informative and lovely\".", "Justin Chang writing for \"Variety\" said that the film \"restores a sense of wonder, terror and possibility to the big screen that should inspire awe among critics and audiences worldwide\".", "Richard Corliss of \"Time\" said, \"Cuarón shows things that cannot be but, miraculously, are, in the fearful, beautiful reality of the space world above our world.", "If the film past is dead, \"Gravity\" shows us the glory of cinema's future.", "It thrills on so many levels.", "And because Cuarón is a movie visionary of the highest order, you truly can't beat the view.\"", "He praised Cuarón for \" daringly and dexterously with point-of-view: at one moment you're inside Ryan's helmet as she surveys the bleak silence, then in a subtle shift you're outside to gauge her reaction.", "The 3-D effects, added in post-production, provide their own extraterrestrial startle: a hailstorm of debris hurtles at you, as do a space traveler's thoughts at the realization of being truly alone in the universe.", "\"Peter Travers of \"Rolling Stone\" gave the film a maximum of four stars, stating that the film was \"more than a movie.", "It's some kind of miracle.\"", "A. O. Scott writing for \"The New York Times\" highlighted the use of 3-D which he said, \"surpasses even what James Cameron accomplished in the flight sequences of \"Avatar\"\".", "Scott also said that the film \"in a little more than 90 minutes rewrites the rules of cinema as we have known them\".", "Some critics have compared \"Gravity\" with other notable films set in space.", "Lindsey Webber of Vulture.com said the choice of Ed Harris for the voice of Mission Control is a reference to \"Apollo 13\".", "\"Gravity\" references other films, including \"Alien\", and \"\".", "James Cameron praised the film and stated, \"I think it's the best space photography ever done, I think it's the best space film ever done, and it's the movie I've been hungry to see for an awful long time\".", "Quentin Tarantino said it was one of his top ten movies of 2013.", "\"Empire\", \"Time\" and \"Total Film\" ranked the film as the best of 2013." ]
[ 0 ]
Health
What is the life expectancy in the UAE?
United Arab Emirates
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 0 ]
[ "The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 78.5 years.", "Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies.", "In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities.", "The strategy focuses on unifyinghealthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment.", "The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86.", "Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.", "The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy.", "Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees.", "Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme.", "Recently the country has been benefiting from medical tourists from all over the GCC.", "The UAE currently attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf." ]
[ 0 ]
Background
Who wrote the song "Payphone"?
Payphone (song)
false
0 (MUSIC)
[ 0 ]
[ "The song was written by Maroon 5's lead singer Adam Levine, along with Ammar Malik, Robopop, Benny Blanco, Shellback, and Wiz Khalifa, while production was helmed by Blanco and Shellback.", "Levine, Blanco, Shellback, and Malik also wrote the band's previous single \"Moves Like Jagger\".", "The writing process started when Blanco, Robopop, and Malik convened together in the studio; Malik and Robopop constructed a piano line and demo track that Blanco compiled into a proper melody.", "Then, it was given to Levine who wrote the lyrics.", "Meanwhile, Blanco recalled rapper Wiz Khalifa with an idea to throw a wrench into the Maroon 5 works by adding hip-hop flavor to the its sound, \"I love when things don't make sense, like, 'Holy fuck!'", "You don't hear him on the song at all.", "I like when bands dip into a whole different genre.\"", "Wiz Khalifa wrote and rapped his verse on \"Payphone\".", "In an interview with \"Rolling Stone\", Blanco told that five minutes before Khalifa arrived at the studio, he prepared \"the sound beds for the finger snap-driven portion of the jam\".", "However, producer Max Martin, who was the executive producer of \"Overexposed\", adjusted the chorus, because he felt it should be a \"little different\".", "\"Payphone\" was recorded at Conway Studios in Los Angeles by Noah \"Mailbox\" Pasovoy and Shellback, while Eric Eylands served as the assistant engineer.", "John Hanes mixed the song at Mixstar Studios in Virginia Beach and Phil Seaford was the mixing assistant.", "The programming, additional bass, keys, acoustic guitars and the background vocals were provided by Shellback and Blanco.", "Jeremy \"Jbogs\" Levin and David \"D Silb\" Silberstein served as production coordinators.", "Khalifa appears as courtesy of Rostrum Records.", "\"Payphone\" was released as a lead single from \"Overexposed\".", "On April 17, 2012, it was digitally released in most territories.", "A&M/Octone Records serviced the song to contemporary hit radio in the United States on April 24.", "A CD single containing the album version of the song together with a Thomas Penton/Barry Huffine remix was released on June 8 in Germany." ]
[ 3 ]
Other taolu routines
What is the English transliteration of 醉酒拳?
Wushu (sport)
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 23 ]
[ "The majority of routines used in the sport are new, modernized recompilations of traditional routines.", "However, routines taken directly from traditional styles, including the styles that are not part of standard events, may be performed in competition, especially in China.", "These routines generally do not garner as many points as their modern counterparts, and are performed in events separate from the compulsory routine events.", "Among these, the more commonly seen routines include:", "Baguazhang (八卦掌) – Eight-Trigrams Palm", "Bajiquan (八極拳) – Eight Extremes Fist/Boxing", "Chaquan (查拳) – Cha Fist/Boxing", "Changquan (长拳) – Long fist", "Chuojiao (戳腳) – Poking Feet", "Ditangquan (地躺拳) – Ground-Prone Fist/Boxing", "Fanziquan (翻子拳) – Tumbling Fist/Boxing", "Houquan (猴拳) – Monkey Fist/Boxing", "Huaquan (華拳) – Hua Fist/Boxing", "Nanquan (南拳) – Southern Fist", "Paochui (炮捶) – Cannon Punch", "Piguaquan (劈掛拳) – Chop-Hitch Fist/Boxing", "Shequan (蛇拳) – Snake Fist/Boxing", "Tantui (弹腿) – Spring Leg", "Tanglanquan (螳螂拳) – Praying Mantis Fist/Boxing", "Tongbeiquan (通背拳) – Through-the-Back Fist/Boxing", "Wing Chun (Yongchunquan) – Eternal Spring", "Xingyiquan (形意拳) – Shape-Intent Fist/Boxing", "Yingzhuaquan (鷹爪拳) – Eagle Claw Fist/Boxing", "Zuiquan (醉酒拳) – Drunken Fist/Boxing" ]
[ 0 ]
Buena Vista Street
When was Buena Vista street open to the public?
Disney California Adventure
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 5 ]
[ "Buena Vista Street is the first \"themed district\" inside the main entrance of California Adventure Park, taking its name from the Burbank street on which the Walt Disney Studios are located.", "Guests enter through the main entrance gate, which resembles the landmark Pan-Pacific Auditorium.", "Buena Vista Street includes an immersive recreation of early 1920s Los Angeles when Walt Disney first arrived with Mission and Art Deco facades housing shops and restaurants.", "A recreation of Carthay Circle Theater, which showcased the world premiere of \"Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs\" in 1937 sits at the end of the street, serving as the visual anchor for the district.", "The narrow gauge Red Car Trolley travels from the entry, up Buena Vista Street to Carthay Circle, then down Hollywood Boulevard towards the Tower of Terror.", "Buena Vista Street was opened to the public on June 15, 2012." ]
[ 2 ]
On other planets
Which planets have aurooras been observed on?
Aurora
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 9 ]
[ "", "[[Image:Saturns Northern Aurora still.jpg|thumb|An aurora high above the northern part of Saturn; image taken by the Cassini spacecraft,a movie (click on image), shows images from 81 hours of observations of Saturn's aurora]]Both Jupiter and Saturn have magnetic fields much stronger than Earth's (Jupiter's equatorial field strength is 4.3 gauss, compared to 0.3 gauss for Earth), and both have large radiation belts.", "Auroras have been observed on both, most clearly with the Hubble Space Telescope.", "Uranus and Neptune have also been observed to have auroras.", "The auroras on the gas giants seem, like Earth's, to be powered by the solar wind.", "In addition, however, Jupiter's moons, especially Io, are powerful sources of auroras on Jupiter.", "These arise from electric currents along field lines (\"field aligned currents\"), generated by a dynamo mechanism due to the relative motion between the rotating planet and the moving moon.", "Io, which has active volcanism and an ionosphere, is a particularly strong source, and its currents also generate radio emissions, studied since 1955.", "Auroras also have been observed on the surfaces of Io, Europa, and Ganymede, using the Hubble Space Telescope.", "These auroras have also been observed on Venus and Mars.", "Because Venus has no intrinsic (planetary) magnetic field, Venusian auroras appear as bright and diffuse patches of varying shape and intensity, sometimes distributed across the full planetary disc.", "Venusian auroras are produced by the impact of electrons originating from the solar wind and precipitating in the night-side atmosphere.", "An aurora was also detected on Mars, on 14 August 2004, by the SPICAM instrument aboard Mars Express.", "The aurora was located at Terra Cimmeria, in the region of 177° East, 52° South.", "The total size of the emission region was about 30 km across, and possibly about 8 km high.", "By analyzing a map of crustal magnetic anomalies compiled with data from Mars Global Surveyor, scientists observed that the region of the emissions corresponded to an area where the strongest magnetic field is localized.", "This correlation indicates that the origin of the light emission was a flux of electrons moving along the crust magnetic lines and exciting the upper atmosphere of Mars." ]
[]
Holidays
What is the day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia?
Sweden
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 2 ]
[ "Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.", "They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night (\"Valborgsmässoafton\") on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations.", "The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.6 June is the National Day of Sweden and has since 2005 been a public holiday.", "Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar.", "In August many Swedes have \"kräftskivor\" (crayfish dinner parties).", "Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with \"Mårten Gås\" parties, where roast goose and \"svartsoppa\" ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served.", "The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July." ]
[ 0 ]
U.S. broadcast
Which company protested "Dexter" reruns on CBS?
Dexter (TV series)
true
1 (TV)
[ 1 ]
[ "Criticism.U.S.", "When U.S. network CBS publicly announced in December 2007 that it was considering \"Dexter\" for broadcast reruns, the Parents Television Council (PTC) protested the decision.", "When the network began posting promotional videos of the rebroadcast on YouTube on January 29, 2008, PTC president Timothy F. Winter, in a formal press release, again called for CBS to not broadcast the show on broadcast television, saying that it \"should remain on a premium subscription cable network\" because \"the series compels viewers to empathize with a serial killer, to root for him to prevail, to hope he doesn't get discovered.\"", "Winter called on the public to demand that local affiliates preempt \"Dexter\", and warned advertisers that the PTC would take action against any affiliates that sponsored the show.", "Following Winter's press release, CBS added parental advisory notices to its broadcast promotions and ultimately rated \"Dexter\" TV-14 for broadcast.", "The show premiered on February 17, 2008, edited primarily for language and scenes containing sex or the dismemberment of live victims.", "The PTC later objected to CBS' broadcasting of the final two episodes of the first season in a two-hour block, in addition to objections over the starting times of the episodes, which was as early as 8 p.m. in some time zones." ]
[]
Antibody-drug conjugates
Which two medications are twain in late clinical trials?
Chemotherapy
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 7 ]
[ "Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, drug and a linker between them.", "The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells (known as a tumor antigen) or on cells that the tumor can utilise, such as blood vessel endothelial cells.", "They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell.", "These specially targeted delivery vehicles vary in their stability, selectivity, and choice of target, but, in essence, they all aim to increase the maximum effective dose that can be delivered to the tumor cells.", "Reduced systemic toxicity means that they can also be used in sicker patients, and that they can carry new chemotherapeutic agents that would have been far too toxic to deliver via traditional systemic approaches.", "The first approved drug of this type was gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg), released by Wyeth (now Pfizer).", "The drug was approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia, but has now been withdrawn from the market because the drug did not meet efficacy targets in further clinical trials.", "Two other drugs, trastuzumab emtansine and brentuximab vedotin, are both in late clinical trials, and the latter has been granted accelerated approval for the treatment of refractory Hodgkins lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma." ]
[]
Sense and antisense
How do DNA sequences work in bacteria?
DNA
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 8 ]
[ "A DNA sequence is called \"sense\" if its sequence is the same as that of a messenger RNA copy that is translated into protein.", "The sequence on the opposite strand is called the \"antisense\" sequence.", "Both sense and antisense sequences can exist on different parts of the same strand of DNA (i.e.", "both strands can contain both sense and antisense sequences).", "In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, antisense RNA sequences are produced, but the functions of these RNAs are not entirely clear.", "One proposal is that antisense RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through RNA-RNA base pairing.", "A few DNA sequences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and more in plasmids and viruses, blur the distinction between sense and antisense strands by having overlapping genes.", "In these cases, some DNA sequences do double duty, encoding one protein when read along one strand, and a second protein when read in the opposite direction along the other strand.", "In bacteria, this overlap may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription, while in viruses, overlapping genes increase the amount of information that can be encoded within the small viral genome." ]
[ 5 ]
Nutrients and the nutritional importance of rice
What rices have been found to inhibit the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development?
Rice
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 15 ]
[ "Nutrition and health.", "Nutrients and the nutritional importance of rice.", "Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population.", "It is the predominant dietary energy source for 17 countries in Asia and the Pacific, 9 countries in North and South America and 8 countries in Africa.", "Rice provides 20% of the world’s dietary energy supply, while wheat supplies 19% and maize (corn) 5%.", "A detailed analysis of nutrient content of rice suggests that the nutrition value of rice varies based on a number of factors.", "It depends on the strain of rice, that is between white, brown, black, red and purple varieties of rice – each prevalent in different parts of the world.", "It also depends on nutrient quality of the soil rice is grown in, whether and how the rice is polished or processed, the manner it is enriched, and how it is prepared before consumption.", "An illustrative comparison between white and brown rice of protein quality, mineral and vitamin quality, carbohydrate and fat quality suggests that neither is a complete nutrition source.", "Between the two, there is a significant difference in fiber content and minor differences in other nutrients.", "Brilliantly colored rice strains, such as purple rice, derive their color from anthocyanins and tocols.", "Scientific studies suggest that these color pigments have antioxidant properties that may be useful to human health.", "In purple rice bran, hydrophilic antioxidants are in greater quantity and have higher free radical scavenging activity than lipophilic antioxidants.", "Anthocyanins and γ-tocols in purple rice are largely located in the inner portion of purple rice bran.", "Comparative nutrition studies on red, black and white varieties of rice suggest that pigments in red and black rice varieties may offer nutritional benefits.", "Red or black rice consumption was found to reduce or retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development, induced by dietary cholesterol, in mammals.", "White rice consumption offered no similar benefits, and the study claims this to be due to absent antioxidants in red and black varieties of rice." ]
[ 0 ]
Themes
When was the Lord of The Rings published?
The Lord of the Rings
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 0 ]
[ "Although \"The Lord of the Rings\" was published in the 1950s, Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the Atomic Bomb, nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.", "A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story, generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race (e.g.", "Elf, Dwarf, Hobbit, Southron, Númenórean, Orc); and that the character's race is seen as determining their behaviour.", "Counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often omit relevant textual evidence to the contrary, cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work itself; ignore the absence of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the author's personal life and claim that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view.", "Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determinant factor for the portrayal of good and evil.", "Commentators such as science fiction author David Brin have interpreted the work to hold unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure.", "In his essay \"Epic Pooh\", science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcock critiques the world-view displayed by the book as deeply conservative, in both the 'paternalism' of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative.", "Tom Shippey cites the origin of this portrayal of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-classes during the inter-war years towards the industrial working class.", "Other observers have cited Christian and Catholic themes in \"The Lord of the Rings\".", "The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell's \"monomyth\"." ]
[ 2 ]
Conception
The Grey's Anatomy Show was removed for a tenth season on what date?
Grey's Anatomy
false
1 (TV)
[ 23 ]
[ "Shonda Rhimes, the series' creator, wanted to make a show that she would enjoy watching, and thought it would be interesting to create a show about \"smart women competing against one another\".", "When asked how she decided to develop a medical drama, Rhimes responded: The series was pitched to the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), who gave the green light, and the show was picked up as a mid-season replacement for \"Boston Legal\" in the 2005 television season.", "Francie Calfo, executive vice president of development at ABC Entertainment, commented that ABC was looking for a medical show that was unlike the others airing at the time.", "She pointed out that “shows are hard, and it was hard trying to figure out where ours could be different.", "But where everybody else is speeding up their medical shows, [Rhimes found a way to slow it down, so you get to know the characters.", "There's definitely a strong female appeal to it.", "\"Rhimes initially conceived \"Grey's Anatomy\" as a statement against racism.", "She endeavored to create a show that featured a racially diverse cast that allowed viewers to relate to characters regardless of race.", "While creating characters, as well as writing the first script, the series' writers had no character descriptions in mind, and hoped to cast the best actor available for each part.", "Rhimes has explained that if the network did not allow her to create characters this way, she would have been hesitant about moving forward with the series.", "Female roles in particular were developed as multi-faceted characters.", "Rhimes offered her insight on this: \"I wanted to create a world in which you felt as if you were watching very real women.", "Most of the women I saw on TV didn't seem like people I actually knew.", "They felt like ideas of what women are.", "They never got to be nasty or competitive or hungry or angry.", "They were often just the loving wife or the nice friend.", "But who gets to be the bitch?", "Who gets to be the three-dimensional woman?", "\"The series debuted on March 25, 2005 and was scheduled to run in the \"Boston Legal\" time slot for four weeks.", "However, high ratings and viewership led to it holding onto the slot for the remainder of the season.", "ABC Entertainment President, Steve McPherson, commented on the scheduling change: \"Ultimately we decided that, without having adequate lead time or marketing dollars to devote to moving either show so late in the season, we'd continue to let [\"Grey's Anatomy\"] build on its tremendous momentum through May.\"", "The show's title, \"Grey's Anatomy\", was devised as a play on words: a reference to both Henry Gray's medical textbook, \"Gray's Anatomy\", and the title character Dr. Meredith Grey (Ellen Pompeo).", "Prior to broadcast, it was announced that the show's title would change from \"Grey's Anatomy\" to \"Complications\", although ultimately this did not come to pass.", "The show was renewed for a tenth season on May 10, 2013." ]
[ 0 ]
Ethnic groups
How many ethnic groups make up china?
China
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 0 ]
[ "China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest ofwhich are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.51% of the totalpopulation.", "The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic group – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang.", "Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according tothe 2010 census.", "Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.", "The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign citizens living in China.", "The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), theUnited States (71,493) and Japan (66,159)." ]
[ 5 ]
Production
Who wrote the 1961 novel on which the film "Wake in Fright" was based?
Wake in Fright
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 0 ]
[ "A film version of \"Wake in Fright\", based on the 1961 novel by Kenneth Cook, was linked with the actor Dirk Bogarde and the director Joseph Losey as early as 1963.", "Morris West later secured the film rights and tried, unsuccessfully, to raise funding for the film's production.", "The rights were eventually bought by NLT and Group W. and Canadian director Ted Kotcheff was recruited to direct the film.", "At the time of production, Kotcheff had directed two films, \"Tiara Tahiti\" (1962) and \"Two Men Sharing\" (1969).", "After \"Wake in Fright\", Kotcheff would continue to have a successful career as a director.", "His later films included \"The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz\" (1973), \"Fun with Dick and Jane\" (1977), \"First Blood\" (1982) and \"Weekend at Bernie's\" (1988).", "The shooting of \"Wake in Fright\" began in Australia in January 1970 at Broken Hill, New South Wales (the area which had inspired Cook for the setting of his novel), with interiors shot the next month at Ajax Studios in the Sydney beach-side suburb of Bondi.", "It was the last film to feature the veteran character actor Chips Rafferty, who died of a heart attack prior to \"Wake in Fright\"s release, and the first film with Jack Thompson, the future Australian cinema star, among its cast members.", "Coincidentally, Rafferty (real name John William Pilbean Goffage) had been born in Broken Hill, the film's stand-in for \"The Yabba\", in 1909." ]
[ 3 ]
Information storage
Which year was previous experiment in DNA published in?
DNA
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 3 ]
[ "In a paper published in Nature in January, 2013, scientists from the European Bioinformatics Institute and Agilent Technologies proposed a mechanism to use DNA's ability to code information as a means of digital data storage.", "The group was able to encode 739 kilobytes of data into DNA code, synthesize the actual DNA, then sequence the DNA and decode the information back to its original form, with a reported 100% accuracy.", "The encoded information consisted of text files and audio files.", "A prior experiment was published in August 2012.", "It was conducted by researchers at Harvard University, where the text of a 54,000-word book was encoded in DNA." ]
[]
History
When was the MRA founded?
Squash (sport)
true
4 (SPORT)
[ 20 ]
[ "Squash's use of stringed racquets is shared with tennis, which dates from the late sixteenth century, though is more directly descended from the game of racquets from England.", "In \"racquets\", instead of hitting over a net as in tennis, players hit a squeezable ball against walls.", "Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game racquets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools, eventually becoming an international sport.", "The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses, chimneys, and ledges.", "The school soon built four outside courts.", "Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball.", "Students modified their racquets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions.", "The racquets have changed in much the same way as those used in tennis.", "Squash racquets used to be made out of laminated timber.", "In the 1980s, construction shifted to lighter, carbon-based materials (such as graphite) with small additions of such components as Kevlar, boron and titanium.", "Natural \"gut\" strings were replaced with synthetic strings.", "In the 19th century the game increased in popularity with various schools, clubs and even private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions.", "The first squash court in North America appeared at St. Paul's School in New Hampshire in 1884.", "In 1904 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash Racquets Association, (USSRA), now known as U.S.", "Squash.", "In April 1907 the Tennis, Racquets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash.", "Then the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”.", "In 1912 the Titanic had a squash court in first class.", "It was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash Racquets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain.", "The sport spread to America and Canada, and eventually around the globe.", "It was founded in 1924 in New York as Metropolitan Racquets Association, or MSRA." ]
[ 2 ]
Public soup kitchen
What is chiaroscuro?
Sien (Van Gogh series)
false
3 (ART)
[ 4 ]
[ "Quite poor, Sien's family often relied upon the public soup kitchen for food.", "Hulsker called the signed drawing \"The Public Soup Kitchen\" (F1020a below) important and attractive.", "Van Gogh and his contemporary George Hendrik Breitner had sketched together at a soup kitchen in the Geest (it is not known which of the several possibilities it was).", "After going to the trouble and expense of installing shutters in his windows to adust the light and to recreate the scene itself in his studio, van Gogh was able to study his models at lesisure.", "In this way he was able to introduce more \"chiaroscuro\" (light and dark) in his drawing, which he executed with the natural ('mountain') chalk that Theo had sent him and whose properties he lauds in his letters.", "All the models are from Sien's family: her mother and baby on the left, her sister, back turned, and her daughter, hair cropped as a precaution against lice, in the center, with Sien herself, superbly executed in profile, on the right.", "The watercolor F1020b (below) is much less successful as van Gogh himself acknowledged, blaming the paper in part for not being right for the job." ]
[ 0 ]
Politics
When did Enda Kenny assume the office of Taoiseach?
Republic of Ireland
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 8 ]
[ "Ireland is a constitutional republic with a parliamentary system of government.", "The is the bicameral national parliament composed of the President of Ireland and the two Houses of the Oireachtas:The President serves as head of state, and is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once.", "The President is primarily a figurehead, but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers with the advice of the Council of State.", "The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgement on its constitutionality.", "Michael D. Higgins became the ninth President of Ireland on 11 November 2011.", "The serves as the head of government and is appointed by the President upon the nomination of the .", "Most \"\" have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections.", "It has become customary for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since 1989.", "Enda Kenny assumed the office of Taoiseach on 9 March 2011.", "The is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the , six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis.", "The has 166 members () elected to represent multi-seat constituencies under the system of proportional representation and by means of the single transferable vote.", "The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members.", "No more than two members can be selected from the , and the , (deputy prime minister) and Minister for Finance must be members of the .", "The Dáil must be dissolved within five years after its first meeting following the previous election, and a general election for members of the Dáil must take place no later than thirty days after the dissolution.", "According to the Constitution of Ireland, parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law.", "The current government is a coalition administration led by with Enda Kenny as , supported by the Labour Party with Eamon Gilmore as .", "Opposition parties in the current are Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, the Socialist Party, the PBPA, the WUAG, as well as a number of Independents.", "Ireland has been a member state of the European Union since 1973, but has chosen to remain outside the Schengen Area.", "Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the Common Travel Area, which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.", "However, some identification is required at airports and seaports." ]
[ 2 ]
Mediaeval objections
How does natural astrology differ from judicial astrology?
Astrology
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 2 ]
[ "In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville argued in his \"Etymologiae\" that astronomy described the movements of the heavens, while astrology had two parts: one was scientific, describing the movements of the sun, the moon and the stars, while the other, making predictions, was theologically erroneous.", "In contrast, John Gower in the fourteenth century defined astrology as essentially limited to the making of predictions.", "The influence of the stars was in turn divided into natural astrology, with for example effects on tides and the growth of plants, and judicial astrology, with supposedly predictable effects on people.", "The fourteenth century skeptic Nicole Oresme however included astronomy as a part of astrology in his \"Livre de divinacions\".", "Oresme argued that current approaches to prediction of events such as plagues, wars, and weather were inappropriate, but that such prediction was a valid field of inquiry.", "However, he attacked the use of astrology to choose the timing of actions (so-called interrogation and election) as wholly false, and rejected the determination of human action by the stars on grounds of free will.", "The friar Laurens Pignon (c. 1368–1449) similarly rejected all forms of divination and determinism, including by the stars, in his 1411 \"Contre les Devineurs\".", "This was in opposition to the tradition carried by the Arab astronomer Albumasar (787-886) whose \"Introductorium in Astronomiam\" and \"De Magnis Coniunctionibus\" argued the view that both individual actions and larger scale history are determined by the stars." ]
[ 5 ]
Energy
How much of the UK's electricity was gas-produced in 2011, percentage-wise?
United Kingdom
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 2 ]
[ "In 2006, the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th largest producer.", "The UK is home to a number of large energy companies, including two of the six oil and gas \"supermajors\" – BP and Royal Dutch Shell – and BG Group.", "In 2011, 40% of the UK's electricity was produced by gas, 30% by coal, 19% by nuclear power and 4.2% by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.", "In 2009, the UK produced 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of oil and consumed 1.7 million bbl/d.", "Production is now in decline and the UK has been a net importer of oil since 2005. the UK had around 3.1 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves, the largest of any EU member state.", "In 2009, 66.5% of the UK's oil supply was imported.", "In 2009, the UK was the 13th largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.", "Production is now in decline and the UK has been a net importer of natural gas since 2004.", "In 2009, half of British gas was supplied from imports and this is expected to increase to at least 75% by 2015, as domestic reserves are depleted.", "Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries.", "In the mid-1970s, 130 million tonnes of coal was being produced annually, not falling below 100 million tonnes until the early 1980s.", "During the 1980s and 1990s the industry was scaled back considerably.", "In 2011, the UK produced 18.3 million tonnes of coal.", "In 2005 it had proven recoverable coal reserves of 171 million tons.", "The UK Coal Authority has stated there is a potential to produce between 7 billion tonnes and 16 billion tonnes of coal through underground coal gasification (UCG) or 'fraking', and that, based on current UK coal consumption, such reserves could last between 200 and 400 years.", "However, environmental and social concerns have been raised over chemicals getting into the water table and minor earthquakes damaging homes.", "In the late 1990s, nuclear power plants contributed around 25% of total annual electricity generation in the UK, but this has gradually declined as old plants have been shut down and ageing-related problems affect plant availability.", "In 2012, the UK had 16 reactors normally generating about 19% of its electricity.", "All but one of the reactors will be retired by 2023.", "Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about 2018." ]
[ 5 ]
Media
Where are the most internet users, or the highest internet penetration rate?
Singapore
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 11 ]
[ "Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore.", "MediaCorp operates most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Singapore.", "There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp.", "The channels are Channel 5 (English channel), Channel News Asia (English channel), Okto (English channel), Channel 8 (Chinese channel), Channel U (Chinese channel), Suria (Malay channel) and Vasantham (Indian channel).", "Starhub Cable Vision (SCV) also offers cable television with channels from all around the world and Singtel's MioTV provides an IPTV service.", "Singapore Press Holdings, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.", "Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being too regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House.", "In 2010, Reporters Without Borders, a France-based international non-governmental organisation, ranked Singapore 136 out of 178 in its Press Freedom Index, just below Mexico.", "The Media Development Authority regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.", "Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned.", "Television is censored, and shows like Sex and the City and Queer as Folk (UK TV series) are banned.", "There are 3.4 million users of the internet in Singapore, one of the highest internet penetration rates in the world.", "The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet, but it maintains a list of one hundred websites (mostly pornographic) that it blocks as a 'symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet'.", "As the block covers only home internet access, users may still visit the blocked websites from their office computers." ]
[ 4 ]
World War I
Where was World War 1 fought?
Treaty of Versailles
false
7 (HISTORICAL EVENTS)
[ 1 ]
[ "World War I.", "The First World War (1914–1918) was fought across Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia.", "Countries beyond the war zones were also affected by the disruption of international trade, finance and diplomatic pressures from the belligerents.", "In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire, which led to the collapse of the Imperial Government and the rise of the Bolshevik Party led by Vladimir Lenin." ]
[ 4 ]
Nominations and awards
Which Academy Award did Kevin Spacey win for his work on The Usual Suspects?
The Usual Suspects
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 0, 1 ]
[ "Christopher McQuarrie was nominated for the Best Original Screenplay and Kevin Spacey was nominated for Best Supporting Actor at the Academy Awards.", "They both won, and in his acceptance speech Spacey memorably said, \"Well, whoever Keyser Söze is, I can tell you he's gonna get gloriously drunk tonight.", "\"McQuarrie also won the Best Original Screenplay award at the 1996 British Academy Film Awards.", "The film was also nominated for Best Film, and best editing.", "It won for best editing.", "The film was nominated for three Independent Spirit Awards — Best Supporting Actor for Benicio del Toro, Best Screenplay for Christopher McQuarrie and Best Cinematography for Newton Thomas Sigel.", "Both Del Toro and McQuarrie won in their categories.", "\"The Usual Suspects\" was screened at the 1995 Seattle International Film Festival, where Bryan Singer was awarded Best Director and Kevin Spacey won for Best Actor.", "The Boston Society of Film Critics gave Spacey the Best Supporting Actor award for his work on the film.", "Spacey went on to win this award with the New York Film Critics Circle and the National Board of Review, which also gave the cast an ensemble acting award." ]
[]
Reception
The Kid with a Bike got what rating from Peter Bradshaw?
The Kid with a Bike
true
6 (MOVIES)
[ 7 ]
[ "The film received near universal acclaim.", "It scored a 96% \"Certified Fresh\" approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 109 reviews; the film review aggregate site described the critical consensus that the film \"is a heart-wrenching, thematically and spiritually rich drama.\"", "Jonathan Romney wrote in \"Screen Daily\": \"After the slightly sub-par \"Lorna's Silence\" (2008), the brothers are back on peerless form with this story of innocence betrayed and befriended, which must count as one of the best films about childhood since \"Kes\" – or for that matter \"Bicycle Thieves\", to which it surely nods.\"", "Romney further commented: \"Shooting as usual with cinematographer Alain Marcoen, and in their familiar stamping ground of Seraing, the brothers this time bring a somewhat different, airier look to their locations, more suburban than in the past.", "Marcoen's camerawork, also, is rather more free-wheeling than the tightly constrained (and often imitated) tightness of \"The Son\".\"", "At the 2011 London Film Festival it was among \"Sight & Sound\"s 30 recommendations; according to them, \"The Dardenne brothers may be the most consistently high-achieving filmmakers of our time – the kings, if you like, of poetic neorealism.", "Like all their films, \"Le Gamin au vélo\" (\"The Kid with a Bike\") is near perfect.\"", "Upon its March 2012 UK release, Peter Bradshaw gave it (four stars out of 5) and said it \"revive the memory of De Sica's 1948 classic \"Bicycle Thieves\"\"; it is a \"heartfelt, boldly direct film composed in the social-realist key signature of C major, revisiting the film-makers' classic themes of parenthood, trust and love.", "\"On the negative side, one critic called the film \"trite\" and its thinking \"lazy\", while another reviewer called it \"formulaic\" and \"superficial\"." ]
[ 0 ]
Helms recordings
Which version of the song 'Jingle Bell Rock' is the most popular around the world?
Jingle Bell Rock
true
0 (MUSIC)
[ 1 ]
[ "", "\"Jingle Bell Rock\" has been performed by many, but Helms' version is the most known in the world.", "Its title and some of its lyrics are takeoffs on the old Christmas standard, \"Jingle Bells.\"", "It makes brief references to other popular songs of the 1950s, such as \"Rock Around the Clock,\" and mentions going to a \"Jingle hop.\"", "An electric guitar played by Hank Garland can be heard playing the first notes to the chorus from \"Jingle Bells.", "\"Despite being titled a Jingle Bell \"Rock\", Helms' version of the song was performed in the crossover style known as rockabilly.", "Bobby Helms' original version on Decca 9-30513 from 1957, was re-recorded by him on Kapp K-719 in 1965 and yet again in 1967 on Little Darlin' LD-0038.", "In 1970, Helms recorded an entire album titled \"Jingle Bell Rock\" on Certron C-7013, releasing from the album the title track on Certron C-10021 with a picture sleeve.", "In yet another re-recording, Helms released a version on Ashley AS-4200 (year unknown).", "In 1983, Bobby Helms released his last recording of \"Jingle Bell Rock\" on Black Rose 82713." ]
[]
Abstract
What was the peak position of She Will Be Loved in the UK?
She Will Be Loved
true
0 (MUSIC)
[ 2 ]
[ "\"She Will Be Loved\" is the third single on the American band Maroon 5's 2002 debut album, \"Songs About Jane\".", "Released in 2004, the single peaked at #5 in the United States, and by December 2012 had sold more than 2,722,000 digital downloads.", "It peaked at #4 in the United Kingdom.", "In Australia, it reached #1, a position it held for 5 non-consecutive weeks.", "The single is noted for its music video starring Kelly Preston.", "The song proved as successful as the band's previous hits, \"This Love\" and \"Harder to Breathe\", hitting number 1 on the Mainstream Top 40 and Adult Top 40 charts, but it prompted many alternative radio outlets to remove Maroon 5 from their playlists, on the ground that the band's newer songs were too light for alt-rock audiences.", "These stations continued to play \"Harder to Breathe\" and \"This Love\", but Maroon 5's newer hits were played only on pop and adult contemporary stations." ]
[ 0 ]
Awards and nominations
When did "30 Rock" receive the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Comedy Series?
30 Rock
false
1 (TV)
[ 8 ]
[ "Capping its critically successful first season, \"30 Rock\" won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series and Elaine Stritch was awarded an Emmy in September 2007 for her work as a guest actress in \"Hiatus\".", "Tina Fey and Alec Baldwin were nominated in the Outstanding Lead Actress and Outstanding Lead Actor in a comedy series categories respectively.", "\"Jack-Tor\" and \"Tracy Does Conan\" were both nominated in the category of Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series.", "\"30 Rock\" received four Creative Arts Emmy Awards.", "Alec Baldwin received the Golden Globe Award for in 2007.", "Baldwin also received the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series in 2007.", "The show also received various other guild award nominations during its first season.", "In 2008, Tina Fey and Alec Baldwin both won Screen Actors Guild Awards.", "The series took home the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Comedy Series in 2008.", "It also received the Danny Thomas Producer of the Year Award in Episodic Series – Comedy from the Producers Guild of America in 2008.", "\"30 Rock\" received 17 Emmy nominations, for its second season, meaning it was the second most nominated series of the year.", "These 17 nominations broke the record for the most nominations for a comedy series, meaning that \"30 Rock\" was the most-nominated comedy series for any individual Emmy year.", "The previous holder of this record was \"The Larry Sanders Show\" in 1996 with 16 nominations.", "\"30 Rock\" also won the Television Critics Association Award for \"Outstanding Achievement in Comedy.", "\"Also in 2008, \"30 Rock\" completed a sweep of the major awards for best comedy series at that year's Primetime Emmy Awards.", "The show won Outstanding Comedy Series, Alec Baldwin was recognized as Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series, and Tina Fey was given the award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series.", "This marks the eighth time in the history of the Emmy awards that a show won best series plus best lead actor and actress.", "Tina Fey also won the award for Outstanding Writing in a Comedy Series for the episode \"Cooter\".", "At the 2008 Golden Globe awards, \"30 Rock\" won the award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy, Alec Baldwin won Best Actor in a Television Musical or Comedy, and Tina Fey won Best Actress in a Television Musical or Comedy.", "For the show's 2007 episodes, \"30 Rock\" received a Peabody Award at the 67th Annual Peabody Awards.", "Upon announcing the award, the Peabody Board commended the show for being \"not only a great workplace comedy in the tradition of \"The Mary Tyler Moore Show\", complete with fresh, indelible secondary characters, but also a sly, gleeful satire of corporate media, especially the network that airs it\".", "In 2009 \"30 Rock\" received a record-breaking 22 Primetime Emmy Award nominations and won five Emmy Awards, including Best Comedy Series and Best Actor in a Comedy Series (Alec Baldwin)." ]
[ 2 ]
Sports
Muay thai is native to what area?
Thailand
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 1 ]
[ "Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, RTGS: Muai Thai, , lit.", "\"Thai boxing\") is a native form of kickboxing and Thailand's national sport.", "It incorporates kicks, punches, knees and elbow strikes in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in boxing.", "Takraw (Thai: ตะกร้อ) is a sport native to Thailand, which the players hit a rattan ball and only be allowed to use their feet, knees, chest and head to touch the ball.", "Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which appears in volleyball style, the players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on opponent's side.", "It is a popular in other countries in Southeast Asia also.", "A rather similar game but played only with the feet is Buka ball.", "Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world.", "Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80 kg welterweight rugby tournament in 2005.", "The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force.", "Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club.", "Thailand has been called the Golf Capital of Asia as it is a popular destination for golf.", "The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year.", "The growing popularity of golf, especially among the middle classes and expats, is evident since there are more than 200 world-class golf courses nationwide, and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club, Alpine Golf & Sports Club, Thai Country Club and Black Mountain Golf Club.", "Basketball is also a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level.", "The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 Asean Basketball League Championship.", "The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 Asian Games where it won the silver medal.", "Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure.", "The success in sports like weightlifting and Taekwondo at the last two Summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal chance for Thailand." ]
[ 0 ]
Languages
Is only Spanish spoken in Venezuela?
Venezuela
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 0 ]
[ "Although the country is mostly monolingual Spanish, many languages are spoken in Venezuela.", "In addition to Spanish, the Constitution recognizes more than thirty indigenous languages, including Wayuu, Warao, Pemón, and many others for the official use of the indigenous peoples, mostly with few speakers – less than 1% of the total population.", "Immigrants, in addition to Spanish, speak their own languages.", "Arabic is spoken by Lebanese and Syrian colonies on Isla de Margarita, Maracaibo, Punto Fijo, Puerto la Cruz, El Tigre, Maracay, and Caracas.", "Portuguese is spoken not only by the Portuguese community in Santa Elena de Uairén but also by much of the population due to its proximity to Brazil.", "The German community speaks their native language, while the Colonia Tovar speaks mostly an Alemannic dialect of German called \"coloniero\".", "English is the most widely used foreign language in demand and is spoken by many professionals, academics, and members of the upper and middle classes as a result of oil exploration by foreign companies, in addition to its acceptance as a lingua franca.", "Culturally, English is common in southern towns like El Callao, for the English-speaking native influence evident in folk songs and calypso Venezuelan and French with English voices.", "Italian instruction is guaranteed by the presence of a constant number of schools and private institutions because the Italian government considered mandatory language teaching at school level.", "Other languages spoken by large communities in the country are Chinese and Galician, among others." ]
[]
Before the monument (8000 BC forward)
How many of the posts were in an east-west alignment?
Stonehenge
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 3 ]
[ "Before the monument (8000 BC forward).", "Archaeologists have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes (one may have been a natural tree throw), which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby modern tourist car-park.", "These held pine posts around in diameter which were erected and eventually rotted \"in situ\".", "Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment which may have had ritual significance; no parallels are known from Britain at the time but similar sites have been found in Scandinavia.", "Salisbury Plain was then still wooded but 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape.", "In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area." ]
[ 5 ]
Sport
What year did skiing begin in Australlia?
Australia
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 14 ]
[ "Approximately 24% of Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities.", "Australia has strong international teams in cricket, field hockey, netball, rugby league, and rugby union, having been Olympic or world champions at least twice in each sport in the last 25 years for both men and women where applicable.", "Australia is also powerful in track cycling, rowing, and swimming, having consistently been in the top-five medal-winners at Olympic or World Championship level since 2000.", "Swimming is the strongest of these sports; Australia is the second-most prolific medal winner in the sport in Olympic history.", "Some of Australia's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are swimmers Dawn Fraser, Murray Rose, Shane Gould, and Ian Thorpe; sprinters Shirley Strickland, Betty Cuthbert, and Cathy Freeman; tennis players Rod Laver, Roy Emerson, Ken Rosewall, Evonne Goolagong, and Margaret Court; cricketers Donald Bradman and Shane Warne; three-time Formula One world champion Jack Brabham; five-time motorcycle grand prix world champion Mick Doohan; golfers Greg Norman and Karrie Webb; cyclist Hubert Opperman, prodigious billiards player Walter Lindrum and basketball players Andrew Bogut and Lauren Jackson.", "Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, squash, surfing, soccer, and motor racing.", "The annual Melbourne Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest.", "Australia has participated in every summer Olympics of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games.", "Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and ranked among the top six medal-takers for the games of 2000, 2004 and 2008.", "In the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Australia was placed 10th in the medal table.", "Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 Commonwealth Games and will host the 2018 Commonwealth Games.", "Other major international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix.", "Australia hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the annual Australia–New Zealand Bledisloe Cup is keenly watched.", "The highest-rating television programs include sports telecasts such as the summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.", "Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania." ]
[ 0 ]
Geology
What are some characteristics of tourmaline?
Stone Mountain
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 9 ]
[ "Stone Mountain is a pluton, a type of igneous intrusion.", "Primarily composed of quartz monzonite, the dome of Stone Mountain was formed during the formation of the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains.", "It formed as a result of the upwelling of magma from within the Earth's crust.", "This magma solidified to form granite within the crust five to ten miles below the surface.", "Stone Mountain pluton continues underground at its longest point into Gwinnett County.", "Numerous reference books and Georgia literature have dubbed Stone Mountain as “the largest exposed piece of granite in the world\".", "This misnomer is most likely a result of advertisement by granite companies and early park administration.", "Stone Mountain, though often called a pink granite dome, actually ranges in composition from quartz monzonite to granite and granodiorite.", "The minerals within the rock include quartz, plagioclase feldspar, microcline and muscovite, with smaller amounts of biotite and tourmaline.", "The tourmaline is mostly black in color, and the majority of it exists as optically continuous skeletal crystals, but much larger, euhedral pegmatitic tourmaline crystals can also be found in the mountain's numerous, cross-cutting felsic dikes.", "Embedded in the granite are xenoliths or pieces of foreign rocks entrained in the magma.", "The granite intruded into the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont region during the last stages of the Alleghenian Orogeny, which was the time when North America and North Africa collided.", "Over time, erosion eventually exposed the present mountain of more resistant igneous rock.", "This intrusion of granite also gave rise to Panola Mountain in DeKalb County, smaller outcroppings further east of Stone Mountain." ]
[ 0 ]
Ratings
What rating was given to the pilot of the show Glee?
Glee (TV series)
true
1 (TV)
[ 0 ]
[ "The pilot episode of \"Glee\" averaged 9.62 million viewers, and the following eleven episodes attained between 6.10 and 7.65 million.", "The mid-season finale was watched by 8.13 million viewers, with the show returning in April 2010 to a season high of 13.66 million viewers.", "The following six episodes attained between 11.49 and 12.98 million viewers, falling to 8.99 million for the penultimate episode \"Funk\".", "Viewing figures rose to 11.07 million viewers for the season finale, giving \"Glee\" the highest finale rating for a new show in the 2009–10 television season.", "Only the first twenty episodes of the first season were accounted for when calculating the season average due to the final two episodes airing outside the traditional sweeps period.", "On February 6, 2011, after the Super Bowl, \"Glee\" received its highest ever ratings, with over 26.8 million tuning in to see the special episode, with a peak of 39.5 million.", "In 2011, \"Glee\" generated $2 million advertising revenue per half hour.", "In 2012, the show was the fourth-highest revenue earning show of the year, with US$2.83 million ad revenue per half hour, behind \"Two and a Half Men\", \"The X Factor (U.S.)\" and \"American Idol\"." ]
[ 0 ]
International adaptations
What year did filming begin of the Mexican adaptation of "Gossip Girl"?
Gossip Girl
true
1 (TV)
[ 8 ]
[ "", "\"Gossip Girl\" spawned several adaptations in other countries.", "The Turkish version is known as \"Küçük Sırlar\" (Little Lies).", "On March 5, 2012, it was reported that Warner Bros. International Television and Metan Development Group would produce a Chinese teen drama series called \"China Girl\" inspired by \"Gossip Girl\".", "Production is set to start in June with the show airing in November.", "The show will follow the lives of students at a university instead of a high school.", "A Mexican version of the series has been greenlit as well by Mexican producer Pedro Torres and is titled \"\".", "The show will star Sofía Sisniega, Oka Giner, Jon Ecker, Vadhir Derbez, Diego Amozurrutia, and Macarena Achaga.", "Filming of the Mexican adaptation began in January 2013 with the series set to air in July 5, 2013 on Televisa.", "A demo of the series has been released.", "The show will also air in the United States on Univision in 2014.", "The show was not renewed for a second season." ]
[ 0 ]
Condition
What may cause some of the wall to disappear in the next 20 years?
Great Wall of China
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 3, 4 ]
[ "While some portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many locations the Wall is in disrepair.", "Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads.", "Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism.", "Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction.", "More than of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms.", "In places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than to less than .", "The square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared completely.", "Many western sections of the wall are constructed from mud, rather than brick and stone, and thus are more susceptible to erosion.", "In August 2012, a section of the wall in north China's Hebei province collapsed after days of continuous heavy rains." ]
[ 0 ]
Tempering
What causes properly processed chocolate to have a nice sheen and crisp bite?
Chocolate
true
9 (FOOD)
[ 3 ]
[ "The final process is called \"tempering\".", "Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye.", "This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken.", "The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process.", "The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization).", "The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present.", "The six different crystal forms have different properties.", "As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance.", "Once heated, the crystals of the polymorphic cocoa butter will be able to break apart from the rigid structure and allow the chocolate to obtain a more fluid consistency as the temperature increases.", "This is known as the melting process.", "When the heat is removed, the cocoa butter crystals will become rigid again and come closer together, allowing the chocolate to solidify.", "This temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the milk fat content in the chocolate and the shape of the fat molecules as well as the form of the cocoa butter fat.", "Chocolate with a higher fat content will melt at a lower temperature.", "Making chocolate considered \"good\" is about forming as many type V crystals as possible.", "This provides the best appearance and texture and creates the most stable crystals, so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time.", "To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.", "Generally, the chocolate is first heated to to melt all six forms of crystals.", "Next, the chocolate is cooled to about , which will allow crystal types IV and V to form.", "At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal \"seeds\" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate.", "The chocolate is then heated to about to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated.", "However, there are other methods of chocolate tempering used.", "The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid \"seed\" chocolate.", "The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency.", "A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.", "Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:", " Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal \"seeds\"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature.", " Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to \"inoculate\" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystals of the solid chocolate to \"seed\" the molten chocolate).", "Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate, particularly for large volume applications." ]
[ 0 ]
Legal system and judiciary
What is the facts of the English Common Law?
Hong Kong
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 2 ]
[ "Hong Kong's legal system is completely independent from the legal system of mainland China.", "In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established under British rule.", "The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying legal precedent (\"stare decisis\") to the facts before them.", "For example, murder is a common law crime rather than one established by an Act of Parliament.", "Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, for example, now carries a mandatory life sentence rather than the death penalty.", "According to Article 92 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's courts may refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents, and judges from other common law jurisdictions, most commonly England, Canada and Australia, are allowed to sit as non-permanent judges of the Court of Final Appeal.", "Structurally, the court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Court.", "Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal.", "Justices of the Court of Final Appeal are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.", "The Court of Final Appeal has the power of final adjudication with respect to the law of Hong Kong as well as the power of final interpretation over local laws including the power to strike down local ordinances on the grounds of inconsistency with the Basic LawThe Department of Justice is responsible for handling legal matters for the government.", "Its responsibilities include providing legal advice, criminal prosecution, civil representation, legal and policy drafting and reform, and international legal cooperation between different jurisdictions.", "Apart from prosecuting criminal cases, lawyers of the Department of Justice act on behalf of the government in all civil and administrative lawsuits against the government.", "As protector of the public interest, the department may apply for judicial reviews and may intervene in any cases involving the greater public interest.", "The Basic Law protects the Department of Justice from any interference by the government when exercising its control over criminal prosecution." ]
[ 0 ]
Language
Why are the dialects spoken in Scania influenced by Danish?
Sweden
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 3 ]
[ "The official language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography.", "Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians.", "The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish.", "The dialects spoken in Scania, the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.", "Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of Sweden's population, and Finnish is recognized as a minority language.", "Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognized: Meänkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish.", "Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented.", "The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, and the Riksdag voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.", "In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.", "In a 2005 survey by Eurobarometer, 89% of Swedes reported the ability to speak English.", "English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.", "Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year.", "Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages.", "These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish.", "Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers." ]
[ 1 ]
Religion
Which Portestant denomination is the biggest in Greece?
Greece
true
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 16 ]
[ "The Greek Constitution recognizes the Orthodox Christian faith as the \"prevailing\" faith of the country, while guaranteeing freedom of religious belief for all.", "The Greek government does not keep statistics on religious groups and censuses do not ask for religious affiliation.", "According to the U.S. State Department, an estimated 97% of Greek citizens identify themselves as Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church.", "In a Eurostat – Eurobarometer 2010 poll, 79% of Greek citizens responded that they \"believe there is a God\".", "According to other sources, 15.8% of Greeks describe themselves as \"very religious\", which is the highest among all European countries.", "The survey also found that just 3.5% never attend a church, compared to 4.9% in Poland and 59.1% in the Czech Republic.", "Estimates of the recognized Greek Muslim minority, which is mostly located in Thrace, range from 98,000 to 140,000, (between 0.9% and 1.2%) while the immigrant Muslim community numbers between 200,000 and 300,000.", "Albanian immigrants to Greece are usually associated with the Muslim religion, although most are secular in orientation.", "Following the 1919–1922 Greco-Turkish War and the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, Greece and Turkey agreed to a population transfer based on cultural and religious identity.", "About 500,000 Muslims from Greece, predominantly Turks, but also other Muslims, were exchanged with approximately 1,500,000 Greeks from Asia Minor (now Turkey).", "Judaism has existed in Greece for more than 2,000 years.", "Sephardi Jews used to have a large presence in the city of Thessaloniki (by 1900, some 80,000, or more than half of the population, were Jews), but nowadays the Greek-Jewish community who survived German occupation and the Holocaust, during World War II, is estimated to number around 5,500 people.", "Greek citizens who are Roman Catholic are estimated to be at around 50,000 with the Roman Catholic immigrant community in the country approximately 200,000.", "Old Calendarists account for 500,000 followers.", "Protestants, including Greek Evangelical Church and Free Evangelical Churches, stand at about 30,000.", "Assemblies of God, International Church of the Foursquare Gospel and other Pentecostal churches of the Greek Synod of Apostolic Church have 12,000 members.", "Independent Free Apostolic Church of Pentecost is the biggest Protestant denomination in Greece with 120 churches.", "There are not official statistics about Free Apostolic Church of Pentecost, but the Orthodox Church estimates the followers as 20,000.", "The Jehovah's Witnesses report having 28,859 active members.", "Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism has also been reportedly practiced by thousands of Greeks." ]
[]
Science and technology
How many other countries hold more patents than Sweden?
Sweden
false
5 (COUNTRY)
[ 15 ]
[ "Tycho Brahe, born in 1546 in an area of present-day Sweden which was then Denmark, made the careful astronomic observations upon which Kepler proved and quantified the heliocentric Copernican solar system.", "In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off.", "Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.", "In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members.", "Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.", "Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve.", "Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.", "Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.", "Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.", "The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.", "Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg.", "Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca.", "More recently Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation.", "A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.", "Swedish inventors held 41,735 patents in the United States , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.", "As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden." ]
[ 5 ]
Greco-Roman
Name one way of winning in a Greco-Roman wresting Match.
Wrestling
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 3 ]
[ "Greco-Roman is an international discipline and an Olympic sport.", "In Greco-Roman style, it is forbidden to hold the opponent below the belt, to make trips, and to actively use the legs in the execution of any action.", "Recent rule changes in Greco-Roman increase opportunities for and place greater emphasis on explosive, 'high amplitude' throws.", "Pinning one's opponent to the mat is one way of winning.", "One of the most well known Greco-Roman wrestlers is Alexander Karelin from Russia." ]
[]
Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications
When was the mounting point of the plaque changed?
Statue of Liberty
false
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 6 ]
[ "There are several plaques and dedicatory tablets on or near the Statue of Liberty.", "A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (\"Cie\" is the French abbreviation analogous to \"Co.\").", "A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue to be a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors \"the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America and attests their abiding friendship.\"", "There is a tablet placed by the New York committee that commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal.", "The cornerstone also bears a plaque placed by the Freemasons.", "In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text of \"The New Colossus\" and commemorates Emma Lazarus was presented by friends of the poet.", "Until the 1986 renovation, it was mounted inside the pedestal; today it resides in the Statue of Liberty Museum in the base.", "It is accompanied by a tablet given by the Emma Lazarus Commemorative Committee in 1977, celebrating the poet's life.", "A group of statues stands at the western end of the island, honoring those closely associated with the Statue of Liberty.", "Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Laboulaye, and Eiffel—are depicted.", "They are the work of Maryland sculptor Phillip Ratner.", "In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.", "The UNESCO \"Statement of Significance\" describes the statue as a \"masterpiece of the human spirit\" that \"endures as a highly potent symbol—inspiring contemplation, debate and protest—of ideals such as liberty, peace, human rights, abolition of slavery, democracy and opportunity.\"" ]
[ 2 ]
Protoplanetary nebula
What does PPN stand for?
Nebula
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 0 ]
[ "A protoplanetary nebula (PPN) is an astronomical object which is at the short-lived episode during a star's rapid stellar evolution between the late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) phase and the following planetary nebula (PN) phase.", "During the AGB phase, the star undergoes mass loss, emitting a circumstellar shell of hydrogen gas.", "When this phase comes to an end, the star enters the PPN phase.", "The PPN is energized by the central star, causing it to emit strong infrared radiation and become a reflection nebula.", "Collaminated stellar winds from the central star shape and shock the shell into an axially symmetric form, while producing a fast moving molecular wind.", "The exact point when a PPN becomes a planetary nebula (PN) is defined by the temperature of the central star.", "The PPN phase continues until the central star reaches a temperature of 30,000 K, after which is it hot enough to ionize the surrounding gas." ]
[ 0 ]
Enchanted Forest
When was Enchanted Forest opened?
Magic Kingdom
true
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 5 ]
[ "With the completion of Storybook Circus and Enchanted Forest, Magic Kingdom Park now covers 133 acres.", "Recent conceptual artwork shows several new additions and changes that will make up the New Fantasyland.", "Included is a new , themed to Disney's 1989 film \"The Little Mermaid\", that originally opened at Disney California Adventure.", "There is also an area, themed to Disney's 1991 film \"Beauty and the Beast\", featuring the Beast's Castle with a new dining experience, Gaston's Tavern, and Belle's cottage.", "Snow White's Scary Adventures was removed to build Princess Fairytale Hall, a meet-n-greet.", "This portion of the New Fantasyland officially opened on December 6, 2012.", "Opening on March 3rd, 2014 will be another part of the New Fantasyland featuring an attraction themed to \"Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs\", which will feature Snow White's cottage and The Seven Dwarfs Mine Train roller coaster ride, the first roller coaster to move in a wobbling motion on track, which should open in the Spring." ]
[ 2 ]
Condition
Why did a part of the wall fall in August 2012 in Hebei?
Great Wall of China
true
2 (TRAVEL)
[ 8 ]
[ "While some portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many locations the Wall is in disrepair.", "Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads.", "Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism.", "Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction.", "More than of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms.", "In places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than to less than .", "The square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared completely.", "Many western sections of the wall are constructed from mud, rather than brick and stone, and thus are more susceptible to erosion.", "In August 2012, a section of the wall in north China's Hebei province collapsed after days of continuous heavy rains." ]
[ 1 ]
Optical
Which style of microscope is used the most?
Microscope
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 0 ]
[ "The most common type of microscope (and the first invented) is the optical microscope.", "This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses producing an enlarged image of a sample placed in the focal plane.", "Optical microscopes have refractive glass and occasionally of plastic or quartz, to focus light into the eye or another light detector.", "Mirror-based optical microscopes operate in the same manner.", "Typical magnification of a light microscope, assuming visible range light, is up to 1250x with a theoretical resolution limit of around 0.250 micrometres or 250 nanometres.", "This limits the practical magnification limit to ~1500x.", "Specialized techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy, Vertico SMI) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is diffraction limited.", "The use of shorter wavelengths of light, such as the ultraviolet, is one way to improve the spatial resolution of the optical microscope, as are devices such as the near-field scanning optical microscope.", "Sarfus, a recent optical technique increases the sensitivity of standard optical microscope to a point it becomes possible to directly visualize nanometric films (down to 0.3 nanometre) and isolated nano-objects (down to 2 nm-diameter).", "The technique is based on the use of non-reflecting substrates for cross-polarized reflected light microscopy.", "Ultraviolet light enables the resolution of microscopic features, as well as to image samples that are transparent to the eye.", "Near infrared light can be used to visualize circuitry embedded in bonded silicon devices, since silicon is transparent in this region of wavelengths.", "In fluorescence microscopy, many wavelengths of light, ranging from the ultraviolet to the visible can be used to cause samples to fluoresce to allow viewing by eye or with the use of specifically sensitive cameras.", "Phase contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image.", "The use of phase contrast does not require staining to view the slide.", "This microscope technique made it possible to study the cell cycle in live cells.", "The traditional optical microscope has more recently evolved into the digital microscope.", "In addition to, or instead of, directly viewing the object through the eyepieces, a type of sensor similar to those used in a digital camera is used to obtain an image, which is then displayed on a computer monitor.", "These sensors may use CMOS or charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, depending on the application." ]
[]
Popularity
How is the fajita brought to the table?
Fajita
false
9 (FOOD)
[ 8 ]
[ "The first culinary evidence of the fajitas with the cut of meat, the cooking style (directly on a campfire or on a grill), and the Spanish nickname going back as far as the 1930s in the ranch lands of South and West Texas.", "During cattle roundups, beef were butchered regularly to feed the hands.", "Throwaway items such as the hide, the head, the entrails, and meat trimmings such as skirt were given to the Mexican cowboys called vaqueros as part of their pay.", "Hearty border dishes like barbacoa de cabeza (head barbecue), menudo (tripe stew), and fajitas or arracheras (grilled skirt steak) have their roots in this practice.", "Considering the limited number of skirts per carcass and the fact the meat wasn't available commercially, the fajita tradition remained regional and relatively obscure for many years, probably only familiar to vaqueros, butchers, and their families.", "The food became popular in Tex-Mex restaurants in Houston, Austin, and San Antonio.", "In southern Arizona, the term was unknown except as a cut of meat until the 1990s, when Mexican fast food restaurants started using the word in their marketing.", "In recent years, fajitas have become popular at American casual dining restaurants as well as in home cooking.", "In many restaurants, the fajita meat is brought to the table sizzling loudly on a metal platter or skillet, with the tortillas and condiments." ]
[ 5 ]
Theory of critical opalescence
When is the derivative zero?
Albert Einstein
false
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 2 ]
[ "Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.", "Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.", "At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations.", "The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white.", "Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering, which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.", "Einstein quantitatively derived critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations, and demonstrated how both the effect and Rayleigh scattering originate from the atomistic constitution of matter." ]
[ 2 ]
Abstract
Call Me Maybe was written by who?
Call Me Maybe
true
0 (MUSIC)
[ 1 ]
[ "\"Call Me Maybe\" is a song recorded by Canadian singer-songwriter Carly Rae Jepsen for her EP \"Curiosity\" (2012) and appearing on her international debut album, \"Kiss\".", "The song was written by Jepsen and Tavish Crowe as a folk song, but its genre was modified to pop following the production by Josh Ramsay.", "It was released as the lead single from the EP on September 20, 2011, through 604 Records.", "Jepsen was signed to Schoolboy Records, releasing her single in the United States through the label, as the first single from \"Kiss\".", "Musically, \"Call Me Maybe\" is an upbeat teen pop track that draws influences from dance-pop and disco.", "Lyrically, the track alludes to the inconvenience that a love at first sight brings to a girl who hopes for a call back from a crush.", "The song received generally positive reviews from contemporary critics, who praised its composition and clever lyrical content .", "\"Call Me Maybe\" has attained commercial success worldwide, reaching number one in Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States, while peaking inside the top three in Austria, Belgium (Flanders & Wallonia), Germany, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden.", "After reaching the top position on the Canadian Hot 100, Jepsen became only the fifth Canadian artist to do so in her home country since 2007.", "In the United States, the track reached number one on the \"Billboard\" Hot 100 and the Pop Songs chart.", "The song is the first number one by a Canadian female artist on the \"Billboard\" Hot 100 chart since 2007's \"Girlfriend\" by Avril Lavigne.", "An accompanying music video was directed by Ben Knechtel.", "In it, Jepsen seeks the attention of an attractive boy next door who is revealed at the close of the story to be attracted to a male band member.", "As part of promotion for the song, Jepsen performed the track on \"The Ellen DeGeneres Show\", where she made her US television debut, and at the 2012 Billboard Music Awards.", "\"Call Me Maybe\" has been covered by several artists, including Katy Perry, Kelly Clarkson, Miranda Cosgrove, Dan Deacon, Fun, Big Time Rush, The Chipettes, R5, Lil' Wayne, Enter Shikari, Ben Howard, Cody Simpson, The Saturdays, and parodied by Cookie Monster and some of the news staff of National Public Radio.", "It was also covered on \"The New Rachel\", the season premiere episode of the fourth season of \"Glee\".", "\"Call Me Maybe\" was nominated for two Grammy Awards, for Song of the Year and Best Pop Solo Performance at the 55th Annual ceremony, but lost to \"We Are Young\" by Fun and the live performance of \"Set Fire to the Rain\" by Adele, respectively.", "On December 11, 2012, \"Call Me Maybe\" was named \"Song of the Year\" for 2012 by MTV.", "In its 2012 Year-End issue, \"Billboard\" magazine ranked this song #2 in the Hot 100 Songs, Digital Songs, and Canadian Hot 100 charts, in each case behind \"Somebody That I Used to Know\", by Gotye featuring Kimbra.", "The song was also ranked number one by the Village Voice's annual Pazz and Jop poll, which compiles the votes of music critics from all over the United States.", "The song was the best-selling single worldwide in 2012, selling over 10 million copies in that year alone, and the best-selling single on the iTunes Store in 2012.", "With worldwide sales of over 13 million copies as of May 2013, \"Call Me Maybe\" was the best-selling digital single of 2012, and is also one of the best-selling digital singles and one of the best-selling singles of all time, with sales in the 10-14.99 million bracket." ]
[ 3 ]
Plot
Who urges Curt & Jules to have sex outside?
The Cabin in the Woods
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 7 ]
[ "Working from a hidden underground facility, senior technicians Gary Sitterson and Steve Hadley initiate plans for a mysterious ritual – reportedly one of several others taking place around the world.", "Also present is specialist Wendy Lin, who discloses that a similar operation undertaken by their Swedish counterparts has just ended in failure.", "Meanwhile, American college students Dana Polk, Holden McCrea, Marty Mikalski, Jules Louden, and Curt Vaughan are spending their weekend at a seemingly deserted cabin in the forest.", "It soon becomes clear that Sitterson and Hadley are manipulating this setting from afar, even intoxicating the teenagers with psychotropic drugs that gradually hinder rational thinking while increasing libido.", "After the door to the cabin's darkened cellar swings open on its own during a tipsy game of \"Truth or Dare\", for example, both technicians coerce their charges into investigating the contents within.", "The group soon uncovers a plentiful assortment of bizarre articles, including an old diary once maintained by Patience Buckner, onetime cabin resident abused by her sadistic family.", "Dana, who takes an interest in Patience, subsequently recites incantations from the journal and inadvertently summons the zombified Buckner clan.", "Leaving Dana, Holden, and Marty behind with the book, Curt and Jules retire outside – where Hadley successfully induces them to have sex.", "Set upon by marauding Buckners, Jules is decapitated but Curt escapes, sounding the alarm.", "Marty, a frequent marijuana smoker, becomes justifiably paranoid, declaring that unseen figureheads have been toying with their crisis.", "Locating concealed surveillance equipment, he theorizes that the predicament may be a gimmick for reality television before being dragged off to be killed by Judah Buckner.", "Terrified, Curt, Holden, and Dana attempt escape in their RV, though Sitterson triggers a tunnel collapse, rendering the highway impassable.", "Curt jumps a ravine on his motorcycle in a desperate bid to reach an adjoining road, but is killed crashing into a camouflaged force shield - apparently erected by the technicians.", "His demise convinces Dana that Marty's concerns may have been founded.", "Veering off the tarmac, the RV plummets into a nearby lake after Father Buckner surfaces inside and stabs Holden.", "Dana survives the impact, but is confronted by Matthew Buckner when she swims ashore.", "As he delivers his final blow, the Facility staff celebrate the completion of their ritual.", "Sitterson receives a phone call informing him that Marty is still alive.", "Rescuing Dana, Marty reveals that he was able to overpower his assailant upon being taken into an obscured elevator.", "They infiltrate the Facility, where a menagerie of monsters are imprisoned.", "Dana observes a cenobite-like creature clutching a globe she observed in the cabin's cellar, indicating that the items there dictate which monster will be unleashed on its concurrent occupants.", "She and Marty are cornered by a private security team, but before they can be captured, manage to release the monsters, which run rampant throughout and slaughter the Facility's staff, including Hadley.", "Sitterson escapes, only to be inadvertently stabbed by Dana in the lower levels of the building.", "Upon entering an underground temple, the two survivors meet the project Director who explains that every year worldwide rituals commence to appease malevolent beings identified only as \"Ancient Ones\" living beneath the Facility, they are kept in perpetual slumber through an annual pars pro toto sacrifice of five young people embodying certain archetypes: the Whore (Jules), the Athlete (Curt), the Scholar (Holden), the Fool (Marty), and the Virgin (Dana).", "The order in which intended victims perish is flexible, as long as the Whore is first and the Virgin is last (or optionally survives, so long as the others die).", "The Director urges Dana to shoot Marty, completing the ritual, but they are interrupted by a werewolf which Marty fends off after it attacked Dana.", "Patience Buckner arrives, killing the Director, and Marty pushes them into a chasm.", "Dana and Marty accept that it might be better for another species to take humanity's place if this is the price of its continued existence.", "They share a final joint as an Ancient One finally stirs, destroying the Facility." ]
[ 3 ]
Food spoilage
Can yeasts grow food that has a low PH?
Yeast
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 0 ]
[ "Yeasts are able to grow in foods with a low pH (5.0 or lower) and in the presence of sugars, organic acids, and other easily metabolized carbon sources.", "During their growth, yeasts metabolize some food components and produce metabolic end products.", "This causes the physical, chemical, and sensible properties of a food to change, and the food is spoiled.", "The growth of yeast within food products is often seen on their surfaces, as in cheeses or meats, or by the fermentation of sugars in beverages, such as juices, and semiliquid products, such as syrups and jams.", "The yeast of the \"Zygosaccharomyces\" genus have had a long history as spoilage yeasts within the food industry.", "This is mainly because these species can grow in the presence of high sucrose,ethanol, acetic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and sulphur dioxide concentrations, representing some of the commonly used food preservation methods.", "Methylene blue is used to test for the presence of live yeast cells.", "In oenology, the major spoilage yeast is \"Dekkera bruxellensis \"." ]
[]
Berries
How many ovaries are berries created from?
Fruit
false
9 (FOOD)
[ 0 ]
[ "Berries are another type of fleshy fruit; they are simple fruit created from a single ovary.", "The ovary may be compound, with several carpels.", "Type include (examples follow in the table below):", " Pepo – Berries where the skin is hardened, cucurbits", " Hesperidium – Berries with a rind and a juicy interior, like most citrus fruit" ]
[ 5 ]
Abstract
How many people play netball according to the INF?
Netball
false
4 (SPORT)
[ 12 ]
[ "Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.", "Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s.", "By 1960, international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball (later renamed the International Netball Federation (INF)) was formed.", "As of 2011, the INF comprises more than 60 national teams organized into five global regions.", "Games are played on a rectangular court with raised goal rings at each end.", "Each team attempts to score goals by passing a ball down the court and shooting it through its goal ring.", "Players are assigned specific positions, which define their roles within the team and restrict their movement to certain areas of the court.", "During general play, a player with the ball can hold onto it for only three seconds before shooting for a goal or passing to another player.", "The winning team is the one that scores the most goals.", "Netball games are 60 minutes long.", "Variations have been developed to increase the game's pace and appeal to a wider audience.", "Netball is most popular in Commonwealth nations, specifically in schools, and is predominantly played by women.", "According to the INF, netball is played by more than 20 million people in more than 80 countries.", "Major transnational competitions take place, including the Netball Superleague in Great Britain and the ANZ Championship in Australia and New Zealand.", "Three major competitions take place internationally: the quadrennial World Netball Championships, the Commonwealth Games, and the yearly World Netball Series.", "In 1995, netball became an International Olympic Committee recognised sport." ]
[ 5 ]
Season 4
What happened first, Ben and Leslie ending their relationship or Ben becoming Leslie's campaign manager?
Parks and Recreation
false
1 (TV)
[ 0, 6 ]
[ "With Ben's encouragement, Leslie decides to run for city council, and the two end their relationship.", "Leslie hires Andy as her assistant.", "Patricia Clarkson appears as Ron's first ex-wife, \"Tammy One\", who uses her power as an IRS employee to trick Ron into thinking he's being audited and temporarily takes complete control over his life.", "Tom and Jean-Ralphio's company, Entertainment 720, quickly blows through massive amounts of promotional funding while performing little actual work; the company goes out of business and Tom returns to his old job.", "After struggling to move on both personally and professionally, Ben and Leslie get back together, and Ben sacrifices his job to save Leslie from losing hers.", "The scandal leads her political advisors to abandon Leslie's campaign, and the Parks Department volunteers to become her new campaign staff.", "Ben agrees to be Leslie's campaign manager.", "Leslie's ex-boyfriend Dave (Louis C.K.)", "reappears and unsuccessfully attempts to win Leslie back.", "Leslie's campaign faces myriad setbacks against her main opponent, Bobby Newport (Paul Rudd), and his famous campaign manager Jennifer Barkley (Kathryn Hahn).", "Ann and Tom begin an extremely rocky romantic relationship.", "April takes on more responsibility in the department, shouldering much of Leslie's usual work.", "In the season finale, Jennifer offers Ben a job in Washington, which he reluctantly accepts, and after the race is initially called for Newport, Leslie wins the position in a recount." ]
[ 0 ]
Conservation
What was the Lady with an Ermine
Lady with an Ermine
false
3 (ART)
[ 8 ]
[ "The \"Lady with an Ermine\" has been subjected to two detailed laboratory examinations.", "The first was in the Warsaw Laboratories, the findings being published by K. Kwiatkowski in 1955.", "The painting underwent examination and restoration again in 1992, at the Washington National Gallery Laboratories under the supervision of David Bull.", "The painting is in oil on a thin walnut wood panel, about thick, prepared with a layer of white gesso and a layer of brownish underpaint.", "The panel is in good condition apart from a break to the upper left side of the painting.", "Its size has never been altered, as indicated by a narrow unpainted strip on all four sides of the painting.", "The background was thinly overpainted with unmodulated black, probably between 1830 and 1870, when the damaged corner was restored.", "Eugène Delacroix was suggested to have painted the background.", "Its previous colour was a bluish grey.", "The signature \"LEONARD D'AWINCI\" (which is Polish phonetical transcription of the name \"da Vinci\") in the upper left corner is not original.X-ray and microscopic analysis have revealed the charcoal-pounced outline of the pricked preparatory drawing on the prepared undersurface, a technique Leonardo learned in the studio of Verrocchio.", "Apart from the black of the background and some abrasion caused by cleaning, the painted surface reveals the painting is almost entirely by the artist's hand.", "There has been some slight retouching of her features in red, and the edge of the veil in ochre.", "Some scholars believe there also was some later retouching of the hands.", "Leonardo's fingerprints have been found in the surface of the paint, indicating he used his fingers to blend his delicate brushstrokes." ]
[ 0 ]
Episode title quotes
Who was the start of The Amazing Race 21 Episode "We Was Robbed"?
The Amazing Race 21
false
1 (TV)
[ 8 ]
[ "Episode titles are often taken from quotes made by the racers.", " \"Double Your Money (Shanghai, China)\" – \"Phil Keoghan\"", " \"Long Hair, Don't Care (Surabaya, Indonesia)\" – \"Jaymes\"", " \"There's No Crying in Baseball (Bangil, Indonesia)\" – \"Brittany\"", " \"Funky Monkey (Dhaka, Bangladesh)\" – \"Abbie\"", " \"Chill Out, Freak (Dhaka, Bangladesh)\" – \"Natalie\"", " \"Get Your Sexy On (Istanbul, Turkey)\" – \"Nadiya\"", " \"Off to See the Wizard (Moscow, Russia)\" – \"James\" ", " \"We Was Robbed (Moscow, Russia)\" – \"James\" ", " \"Fishy Kiss (Amsterdam, Netherlands)\" – \"Nadiya\"", " \"Not a Well-Rounded Athlete (Mallorca, Spain)\" – \"James\" ", " \"Take Down That Million (Loire Valley, France & New York City, New York)\" – \"Trey\"" ]
[ 3 ]
Abstract
How did William McKinley die?
Assassination of William McKinley
true
7 (HISTORICAL EVENTS)
[ 0, 2, 11 ]
[ "The 25th President of the United States, William McKinley, was shot and fatally wounded on September 6, 1901, inside the Temple of Music on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.", "McKinley was shaking hands with the public when he was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist.", "The President died on September 14 from gangrene caused by the bullet wounds.", "McKinley had been elected for a second term in 1900.", "He enjoyed meeting the public, and was reluctant to accept the security available to his office.", "The Secretary to the President, George B. Cortelyou, feared an assassination attempt would take place during a visit to the Temple of Music, and twice took it off the schedule.", "McKinley restored it each time.", "Czolgosz had lost his job during the economic Panic of 1893 and turned to anarchism, a political philosophy whose adherents had recently killed foreign leaders.", "Regarding McKinley as a symbol of oppression, Czolgosz felt it was his duty as an anarchist to kill him.", "Unable to get near McKinley during the earlier part of the presidential visit, Czolgosz shot McKinley twice as the President reached to shake his hand in the reception line at the temple.", "One bullet grazed McKinley; the other entered his abdomen and was never found.", "McKinley initially appeared to be recovering, but took a turn for the worse on September 13 as his wounds became gangrenous, and died early the next morning; Vice President Theodore Roosevelt succeeded him.", "After McKinley's murder, for which Czolgosz was put to death in the electric chair, the United States Congress passed legislation to officially charge the Secret Service with the responsibility for protecting the president." ]
[ 5 ]
Regulatory RNAs
How can antisense RNA bind to mRNA?
RNA
true
8 (SCIENCE)
[ 8 ]
[ "Several types of RNA can downregulate gene expression by being complementary to a part of an mRNA or a gene's DNA.", "MicroRNAs (miRNA; 21-22 nt) are found in eukaryotes and act through RNA interference (RNAi), where an effector complex of miRNA and enzymes can cleave complementary mRNA, block the mRNA from being translated, or accelerate its degradation.", "While small interfering RNAs (siRNA; 20-25 nt) are often produced by breakdown of viral RNA, there are also endogenous sources of siRNAs.", "siRNAs act through RNA interference in a fashion similar to miRNAs.", "Some miRNAs and siRNAs can cause genes they target to be methylated, thereby decreasing or increasing transcription of those genes.", "Animals have Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA; 29-30 nt) that are active in germline cells and are thought to be a defense against transposons and play a role in gametogenesis.", "Many prokaryotes have CRISPR RNAs, a regulatory system similar to RNA interference.", "Antisense RNAs are widespread; most downregulate a gene, but a few are activators of transcription.", "One way antisense RNA can act is by binding to an mRNA, forming double-stranded RNA that is enzymatically degraded.", "There are many long noncoding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes, one such RNA is Xist, which coats one X chromosome in female mammals and inactivates it.", "An mRNA may contain regulatory elements itself, such as riboswitches, in the 5' untranslated region or 3' untranslated region; these cis-regulatory elements regulate the activity of that mRNA.", "The untranslated regions can also contain elements that regulate other genes." ]
[ 5 ]
List
How long is the director's cut of Das Boot?
Das Boot
false
6 (MOVIES)
[ 3 ]
[ " 150 minutes (1981, 1982) Theatrical", " 209 minutes (1981) unreleased", " 300 minutes (1984, 1988) BBC mini-series", " 208 minutes (1997) Director's Cut", " 293 minutes (2004) \"Das Boot: The Original Uncut Version\"" ]
[ 5 ]
Cézanne and Cubism
How many revisions did the heads of the crouching figure undergo?
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
false
3 (ART)
[ 18 ]
[ "Both Paul Gauguin (1848–1903) and Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) were accorded major posthumous retrospective exhibitions at the Salon d'Automne in Paris between 1903 and 1907, and both were important influences on Picasso and instrumental to his creation of \"Les Demoiselles.\"", "According to the English art historian, collector and author of \"The Cubist Epoch\", Douglas Cooper, both of those artists were particularly influential to the formation of Cubism and especially important to the paintings of Picasso during 1906 and 1907. Cooper goes on to say however \"Les Demoiselles\" is often erroneously referred to as the first cubist painting.", "He explains, ", "The \"Demoiselles\" is generally referred to as the first Cubist picture.", "This is an exaggeration, for although it was a major first step towards Cubism it is not yet Cubist.", "The disruptive, expressionist element in it is even contrary to the spirit of Cubism, which looked at the world in a detached, realistic spirit.", "Nevertheless, the \"Demoiselles\" is the logical picture to take as the starting point for Cubism, because it marks the birth of a new pictorial idiom, because in it Picasso violently overturned established conventions and because all that followed grew out of it.", "Although not well known to the general public prior to 1906, Cézanne's reputation was highly regarded in avant-garde circles, as evidenced by Ambroise Vollard's interest in showing and collecting his work, and by Leo Stein's interest.", "Picasso was familiar with much of Cézanne's work that he saw at Vollard's gallery and at the Stein's.", "After Cézanne died in 1906, his paintings were exhibited in Paris in a large scale museum-like retrospective in September 1907.", "The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne greatly impacted the direction that the avant-garde in Paris took, lending credence to his position as one of the most influential artists of the 19th century and to the advent of Cubism.", "The 1907 Cézanne exhibition was enormously influential in establishing Cézanne as an important painter whose ideas were particularly resonant especially to young artists in Paris.", "Both Picasso and Braque found the inspiration for their proto-Cubist works in Paul Cézanne, who said to observe and learn to see and treat nature as if it were composed of basic shapes like \"cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones.\"", "Cézanne's explorations of geometric simplification and optical phenomena inspired Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, Le Fauconnier, Gris and others to experiment with ever more complex multiple views of the same subject, and, eventually to the fracturing of form.", "Cézanne thus sparked one of the most revolutionary areas of artistic enquiry of the 20th century, one which was to affect profoundly the development of modern art.", "Picasso drew each of the figures in \"Les Demoiselles\" differently.", "The woman pulling the curtain on the far right is rendered with heavy paint.", "Composed of sharp geometric shapes, her head is the most strictly cubist of all five.", "The heads of the crouching figure underwent at least two revisions from an Iberian figure to its current state.", "Much of the critical debate that has taken place over the years centers on attempting to account for this multiplicity of styles within the work.", "The dominant understanding for over five decades, espoused most notably by Alfred Barr, the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and organizer of major career retrospectives for the artist, has been that it can be interpreted as evidence of a transitional period in Picasso's art, an effort to connect his earlier work to Cubism, the style he would help invent and develop over the next five or six years." ]
[ 5 ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for SelQA

Dataset Summary

SelQA: A New Benchmark for Selection-Based Question Answering

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

Question Answering

Languages

English

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

An example from the answer selection set:

{
        "section": "Museums",
        "question": "Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art?",
        "article": "Israel",
        "is_paraphrase": true,
        "topic": "COUNTRY",
        "answers": [
            5
        ],
        "candidates": [
            "The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea scrolls, along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art.",
            "Israel's national Holocaust museum, Yad Vashem, is the world central archive of Holocaust-related information.",
            "Beth Hatefutsoth (the Diaspora Museum), on the campus of Tel Aviv University, is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world.",
            "Apart from the major museums in large cities, there are high-quality artspaces in many towns and \"kibbutzim\".",
            "\"Mishkan Le'Omanut\" on Kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country.",
            "Several Israeli museums are devoted to Islamic culture, including the Rockefeller Museum and the L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art, both in Jerusalem.",
            "The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history.",
            "It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia called Galilee Man.",
            "A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum."
        ],
        "q_types": [
            "where"
        ]
    }

An example from the answer triggering set:

{
        "section": "Museums",
        "question": "Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art?",
        "article": "Israel",
        "is_paraphrase": true,
        "topic": "COUNTRY",
        "candidate_list": [
            {
                "article": "List of places in Jerusalem",
                "section": "List_of_places_in_Jerusalem-Museums",
                "answers": [],
                "candidates": [
                    " Israel Museum *Shrine of the Book *Rockefeller Museum of Archeology Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum L.A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art Bloomfield Science Museum Natural History Museum Museum of Italian Jewish Art Ticho House Tower of David Jerusalem Tax Museum Herzl Museum Siebenberg House Museums.",
                    "Museum on the Seam "
                ]
            },
            {
                "article": "Israel",
                "section": "Israel-Museums",
                "answers": [
                    5
                ],
                "candidates": [
                    "The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea scrolls, along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art.",
                    "Israel's national Holocaust museum, Yad Vashem, is the world central archive of Holocaust-related information.",
                    "Beth Hatefutsoth (the Diaspora Museum), on the campus of Tel Aviv University, is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world.",
                    "Apart from the major museums in large cities, there are high-quality artspaces in many towns and \"kibbutzim\".",
                    "\"Mishkan Le'Omanut\" on Kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country.",
                    "Several Israeli museums are devoted to Islamic culture, including the Rockefeller Museum and the L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art, both in Jerusalem.",
                    "The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history.",
                    "It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia called Galilee Man.",
                    "A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum."
                ]
            },
            {
                "article": "L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art",
                "section": "L._A._Mayer_Institute_for_Islamic_Art-Abstract",
                "answers": [],
                "candidates": [
                    "The L.A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art (Hebrew: \u05de\u05d5\u05d6\u05d9\u05d0\u05d5\u05df \u05dc.",
                    "\u05d0.",
                    "\u05de\u05d0\u05d9\u05e8 \u05dc\u05d0\u05de\u05e0\u05d5\u05ea \u05d4\u05d0\u05e1\u05dc\u05d0\u05dd) is a museum in Jerusalem, Israel, established in 1974.",
                    "It is located in Katamon, down the road from the Jerusalem Theater.",
                    "The museum houses Islamic pottery, textiles, jewelry, ceremonial objects and other Islamic cultural artifacts.",
                    "It is not to be confused with the Islamic Museum, Jerusalem. "
                ]
            },
            {
                "article": "Islamic Museum, Jerusalem",
                "section": "Islamic_Museum,_Jerusalem-Abstract",
                "answers": [],
                "candidates": [
                    "The Islamic Museum is a museum on the Temple Mount in the Old City section of Jerusalem.",
                    "On display are exhibits from ten periods of Islamic history encompassing several Muslim regions.",
                    "The museum is located adjacent to al-Aqsa Mosque.",
                    "It is not to be confused with the L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art, also a museum in Jerusalem. "
                ]
            },
            {
                "article": "L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art",
                "section": "L._A._Mayer_Institute_for_Islamic_Art-Contemporary_Arab_art",
                "answers": [],
                "candidates": [
                    "In 2008, a group exhibit of contemporary Arab art opened at L.A. Mayer Institute, the first show of local Arab art in an Israeli museum and the first to be mounted by an Arab curator.",
                    "Thirteen Arab artists participated in the show. "
                ]
            }
        ],
        "q_types": [
            "where"
        ]
    }

An example from any of the experiments data:

Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel 's most important cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea scrolls , along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    Israel 's national Holocaust museum , Yad Vashem , is the world central archive of Holocaust - related information .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    Beth Hatefutsoth ( the Diaspora Museum ) , on the campus of Tel Aviv University , is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    Apart from the major museums in large cities , there are high - quality artspaces in many towns and " kibbutzim " .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    " Mishkan Le'Omanut " on Kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    Several Israeli museums are devoted to Islamic culture , including the Rockefeller Museum and the L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art , both in Jerusalem .    1
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia called Galilee Man .    0
Where are Rockefeller Museum and LA Mayer Institute for Islamic Art ?    A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum .    0

Data Fields

Answer Selection

Data for Analysis

for analysis, the columns are:

  • question: the question.
  • article: the Wikipedia article related to this question.
  • section: the section in the Wikipedia article related to this question.
  • topic: the topic of this question, where the topics are MUSIC, TV, TRAVEL, ART, SPORT, COUNTRY, MOVIES, HISTORICAL EVENTS, SCIENCE, FOOD.
  • q_types: the list of question types, where the types are what, why, when, who, where, and how. If empty, none of the those types are recognized in this question.
  • is_paraphrase: True if this question is a paragraph of some other question in this dataset; otherwise, False.
  • candidates: the list of sentences in the related section.
  • answers: the list of candidate indices containing the answer context of this question.
Data for Experiments

for experiments, each column gives:

  • 0: a question where all tokens are separated.
  • 1: a candidate of the question where all tokens are separated.
  • 2: the label where 0 implies no answer to the question is found in this candidate and 1 implies the answer is found.

Answer Triggering

Data for Analysis

for analysis, the columns are:

  • question: the question.
  • article: the Wikipedia article related to this question.
  • section: the section in the Wikipedia article related to this question.
  • topic: the topic of this question, where the topics are MUSIC, TV, TRAVEL, ART, SPORT, COUNTRY, MOVIES, HISTORICAL EVENTS, SCIENCE, FOOD.
  • q_types: the list of question types, where the types are what, why, when, who, where, and how. If empty, none of the those types are recognized in this question.
  • is_paraphrase: True if this question is a paragraph of some other question in this dataset; otherwise, False.
  • candidate_list: the list of 5 candidate sections:
    • article: the title of the candidate article.
    • section: the section in the candidate article.
    • candidates: the list of sentences in this candidate section.
    • answers: the list of candidate indices containing the answer context of this question (can be empty).
Data for Experiments

for experiments, each column gives:

  • 0: a question where all tokens are separated.
  • 1: a candidate of the question where all tokens are separated.
  • 2: the label where 0 implies no answer to the question is found in this candidate and 1 implies the answer is found.

Data Splits

Train Valid Test
Answer Selection 5529 785 1590
Answer Triggering 27645 3925 7950

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

To encourage research and provide an initial benchmark for selection based question answering and answer triggering tasks

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[Needs More Information]

Who are the source language producers?

[Needs More Information]

Annotations

Annotation process

Crowdsourced

Who are the annotators?

[Needs More Information]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[Needs More Information]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

The purpose of this dataset is to help develop better selection-based question answering systems.

Discussion of Biases

[Needs More Information]

Other Known Limitations

[Needs More Information]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[Needs More Information]

Licensing Information

Apache License 2.0

Citation Information

@InProceedings{7814688, author={T. {Jurczyk} and M. {Zhai} and J. D. {Choi}}, booktitle={2016 IEEE 28th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI)}, title={SelQA: A New Benchmark for Selection-Based Question Answering}, year={2016}, volume={}, number={}, pages={820-827}, doi={10.1109/ICTAI.2016.0128} }

Contributions

Thanks to @Bharat123rox for adding this dataset.

Update on GitHub
Papers with Code