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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: additive models play an important role in semiparametric statistics . this paper gives learning rates for regularized kernel based methods for additive models . these learning rates compare favourably in particular in high dimensions to recent results on optimal learning rates for purely nonparametric regularized kernel based quantile regression using the gaussian radial basis function kernel , provided the assumption of an additive model is valid . additionally , a concrete example is presented to show that a gaussian function depending only on one variable lies in a reproducing kernel hilbert space generated by an additive gaussian kernel , but does not belong to the reproducing kernel hilbert space generated by the multivariate gaussian kernel of the same variance . * key words and phrases . * additive model , kernel , quantile regression , semiparametric , rate of convergence , support vector machine . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: additive models @xcite provide an important family of models for semiparametric regression or classification . some reasons for the success of additive models are their increased flexibility when compared to linear or generalized linear models and their increased interpretability when compared to fully nonparametric models . it is well - known that good estimators in additive models are in general less prone to the curse of high dimensionality than good estimators in fully nonparametric models . many examples of such estimators belong to the large class of regularized kernel based methods over a reproducing kernel hilbert space @xmath0 , see e.g. @xcite . in the last years. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
many interesting results on learning rates of regularized kernel based models for additive models have been published when the focus is on sparsity and when the classical least squares loss function is used , see e.g. @xcite , @xcite , @xcite , @xcite , @xcite , @xcite and the references therein . of course , the least squares loss function is differentiable and has many nice mathematical properties , but it is only locally lipschitz continuous and therefore regularized kernel based methods based on this loss function typically suffer on bad statistical robustness properties , even if the kernel is bounded . this is in sharp contrast to kernel methods based on a lipschitz continuous loss function and on a bounded loss function , where results on upper bounds for the maxbias bias and on a bounded influence function are known , see e.g. @xcite for the general case and @xcite for additive models .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we have studied the leptonic decay @xmath0 , via the decay channel @xmath1 , using a sample of tagged @xmath2 decays collected near the @xmath3 peak production energy in @xmath4 collisions with the cleo - c detector . we obtain @xmath5 and determine the decay constant @xmath6 mev , where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the leptonic decays of a charged pseudoscalar meson @xmath7 are processes of the type @xmath8 , where @xmath9 , @xmath10 , or @xmath11 . because no strong interactions are present in the leptonic final state @xmath12 , such decays provide a clean way to probe the complex , strong interactions that bind the quark and antiquark within the initial - state meson . in these decays , strong interaction effects can be parametrized by a single quantity , @xmath13 , the pseudoscalar meson decay constant . the leptonic decay rate can be measured by experiment , and the decay constant can be determined by the equation ( ignoring radiative corrections ) @xmath14 where @xmath15 is the fermi coupling constant , @xmath16 is the cabibbo - kobayashi - maskawa ( ckm ) matrix @xcite element , @xmath17 is the mass of the meson , and @xmath18 is the mass of the charged lepton . the quantity @xmath13 describes the amplitude for the @xmath19 and @xmath20-quarks within the @xmath21 to have zero separation , a condition necessary for them to annihilate into the virtual @xmath22 boson that produces the @xmath12 pair .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the experimental determination of decay constants is one of the most important tests of calculations involving nonperturbative qcd . such calculations have been performed using various models @xcite or using lattice qcd ( lqcd ) .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: in 84 , 258 ( 2000 ) , mateos conjectured that current reversal in a classical deterministic ratchet is associated with bifurcations from chaotic to periodic regimes . this is based on the comparison of the current and the bifurcation diagram as a function of a given parameter for a periodic asymmetric potential . barbi and salerno , in 62 , 1988 ( 2000 ) , have further investigated this claim and argue that , contrary to mateos claim , current reversals can occur also in the absence of bifurcations . barbi and salerno s studies are based on the dynamics of one particle rather than the statistical mechanics of an ensemble of particles moving in the chaotic system . the behavior of ensembles can be quite different , depending upon their characteristics , which leaves their results open to question . in this paper we present results from studies showing how the current depends on the details of the ensemble used to generate it , as well as conditions for convergent behavior ( that is , independent of the details of the ensemble ) . we are then able to present the converged current as a function of parameters , in the same system as mateos as well as barbi and salerno . we show evidence for current reversal without bifurcation , as well as bifurcation without current reversal . we conjecture that it is appropriate to correlate abrupt changes in the current with bifurcation , rather than current reversals , and show numerical evidence for our claims . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the transport properties of nonlinear non - equilibrium dynamical systems are far from well - understood@xcite . consider in particular so - called ratchet systems which are asymmetric periodic potentials where an ensemble of particles experience directed transport@xcite . the origins of the interest in this lie in considerations about extracting useful work from unbiased noisy fluctuations as seems to happen in biological systems@xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
recently attention has been focused on the behavior of deterministic chaotic ratchets@xcite as well as hamiltonian ratchets@xcite . chaotic systems are defined as those which are sensitively dependent on initial conditions . whether chaotic or not , the behavior of nonlinear systems including the transition from regular to chaotic behavior is in general sensitively dependent on the parameters of the system .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the effect of a random phase diffuser on fluctuations of laser light ( scintillations ) is studied . not only spatial but also temporal phase variations introduced by the phase diffuser are analyzed . the explicit dependence of the scintillation index on finite - time phase variations is obtained for long propagation paths . it is shown that for large amplitudes of phase fluctuations , a finite - time effect decreases the ability of phase diffuser to suppress the scintillations . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: studies of laser beams propagating through turbulent atmospheres are important for many applications such as remote sensing , tracking , and long - distance optical communications . howerver , fully coherent laser beams are very sensitive to fluctuations of the atmospheric refractive index . the initially coherent laser beam acquires some properties of gaussian statistics in course of its propagation through the turbulence . as a result , the noise / signal ratio approaches unity for long - distance propagation .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
( see , for example , refs.@xcite-@xcite ) . this unfavourable effect limits the performance of communication channels . to mitigate this negative effect
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: with a special intention of clarifying the underlying spin contents of the nucleon , we investigate the generalized form factors of the nucleon , which are defined as the @xmath0-th @xmath1-moments of the generalized parton distribution functions , within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model . a particular emphasis is put on the pion mass dependence of final predictions , which we shall compare with the predictions of lattice qcd simulations carried out in the so - called heavy pion region around @xmath2 . we find that some observables are very sensitive to the variation of the pion mass . it will be argued that the negligible importance of the quark orbital angular momentum indicated by the lhpc and qcdsf lattice collaborations might be true in the unrealistic heavy pion world , but it is not necessarily the case in our real world close to the chiral limit . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the so - called `` nucleon spin crisis '' raised by the european muon collaboration ( emc ) measurement in 1988 is one of the most outstanding findings in the field of hadron physics @xcite,@xcite . the renaissance of the physics of high energy deep inelastic scatterings is greatly indebted to this epoch - making finding . probably , one of the most outstanding progresses achieved recently in this field of physics is the discovery and the subsequent research of completely new observables called generalized parton distribution functions ( gpd ) .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
it has been revealed that the gpds , which can be measured through the so - called deeply - virtual compton scatterings ( dvcs ) or the deeply - virtual meson productions ( dvmp ) , contain surprisingly richer information than the standard parton distribution functions @xcite@xcite . roughly speaking , the gpds are generalization of ordinary parton distributions and the elastic form factors of the nucleon .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we improve the currently known thresholds for basisness of the family of periodically dilated @xmath0-sine functions . our findings rely on a beurling decomposition of the corresponding change of coordinates in terms of shift operators of infinite multiplicity . we also determine refined bounds on the riesz constant associated to this family . these results seal mathematical gaps in the existing literature on the subject . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: let @xmath1 . let @xmath2\longrightarrow [ 0,\pi_{p , q}/2]$ ] be the integral @xmath3 where @xmath4 . the @xmath0-_sine functions _ , @xmath5 , $ ] are defined to be the inverses of @xmath6 , @xmath7\ ] ] extended to @xmath8 by the rules @xmath9 which make them periodic , continuous , odd with respect to 0 and even with respect to @xmath10 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
these are natural generalisations of the sine function , indeed @xmath11 and they are known to share a number of remarkable properties with their classical counterpart @xcite . among these properties lies the fundamental question of completeness and linear independence of the family @xmath12 where @xmath13 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we report on strong enhancement of mid - infrared second harmonic generation ( shg ) from sic nanopillars due to the resonant excitation of localized surface phonon - polaritons within the reststrahlen band . the magnitude of the shg peak at the monopole mode experiences a strong dependence on the resonant frequency beyond that described by the field localization degree and the dispersion of linear and nonlinear - optical sic properties . comparing the results for the identical nanostructures made of 4h and 6h sic polytypes , we demonstrate the interplay of localized surface phonon polaritons with zone - folded weak phonon modes of the anisotropic crystal . tuning the monopole mode in and out of the region where the zone - folded phonon is excited in 6h - sic , we observe a prominent increase of the already monopole - enhanced shg output when the two modes are coupled . envisioning this interplay as one of the showcase features of mid - infrared nonlinear nanophononics , we discuss its prospects for the effective engineering of nonlinear - optical materials with desired properties in the infrared spectral range . light localization in sub - wavelength volumes is a core of modern nanophotonics . conventional methods of achieving strong confinement of the electromagnetic fields extensively utilize unique properties of surface plasmons . a remarkable variety of objects and materials supporting these excitations ensures the key role of plasmonics in a broad range of applications @xcite . apart from unparalleled sensitivity of plasmonic structures to the optical properties of the environment , strong light localization facilitates nonlinear - optical effects @xcite . owing to the spectral tunability of the localized plasmon resonances and their sizeable nonlinearity , metallic nanostructures of different shapes and sizes have earned their place in nonlinear photonics . despite obvious advantages of plasmon - based nanophotonics , metallic nanoobjects exhibit significant optical losses ,.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the simulations we discuss here allowed us to obtain spectra of the shg response . we employed comsol multiphysics software ( www.comsol.com ) in order to perform simulations of the linear optical response as described in ref . @xcite . a unit cell containing a single sic pillar attached to the sic substrate. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
was constructed , with floquet boundary conditions along the @xmath30-axis and periodic boundary conditions along the @xmath31-axis , perpendicular to the plane of incidence . a _ p_-polarized plane wave at frequency @xmath32 was launched towards the sic structure at an incident angle of 25@xmath33 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: synaptic memory is considered to be the main element responsible for learning and cognition in humans . although traditionally non - volatile long - term plasticity changes have been implemented in nanoelectronic synapses for neuromorphic applications , recent studies in neuroscience have revealed that biological synapses undergo meta - stable volatile strengthening followed by a long - term strengthening provided that the frequency of the input stimulus is sufficiently high . such `` memory strengthening '' and `` memory decay '' functionalities can potentially lead to adaptive neuromorphic architectures . in this paper , we demonstrate the close resemblance of the magnetization dynamics of a magnetic tunnel junction ( mtj ) to short - term plasticity and long - term potentiation observed in biological synapses . we illustrate that , in addition to the magnitude and duration of the input stimulus , frequency of the stimulus plays a critical role in determining long - term potentiation of the mtj . such mtj synaptic memory arrays can be utilized to create compact , ultra - fast and low power intelligent neural systems . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: with significant research efforts being directed to the development of neurocomputers based on the functionalities of the brain , a seismic shift is expected in the domain of computing based on the traditional von - neumann model . the @xmath0 @xcite , @xmath1 @xcite and the ibm @xmath2 @xcite are instances of recent flagship neuromorphic projects that aim to develop brain - inspired computing platforms suitable for recognition ( image , video , speech ) , classification and mining problems . while boolean computation is based on the sequential fetch , decode and execute cycles , such neuromorphic computing architectures are massively parallel and event - driven and are potentially appealing for pattern recognition tasks and cortical brain simulations to that end , researchers have proposed various nanoelectronic devices where the underlying device physics offer a mapping to the neuronal and synaptic operations performed in the brain . the main motivation behind the usage of such non - von neumann post - cmos technologies as neural and synaptic devices stems from the fact that the significant mismatch between the cmos transistors and the underlying neuroscience mechanisms result in significant area and energy overhead for a corresponding hardware implementation .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
a very popular instance is the simulation of a cat s brain on ibm s blue gene supercomputer where the power consumption was reported to be of the order of a few @xmath3 @xcite . while the power required to simulate the human brain will rise significantly as we proceed along the hierarchy in the animal kingdom , actual power consumption in the mammalian brain is just a few tens of watts . in a neuromorphic computing platform
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: this paper investigates , using prior shape models and the concept of ball scale ( b - scale ) , ways of automatically recognizing objects in 3d images without performing elaborate searches or optimization . that is , the goal is to place the model in a single shot close to the right pose ( position , orientation , and scale ) in a given image so that the model boundaries fall in the close vicinity of object boundaries in the image . this is achieved via the following set of key ideas : ( a ) a semi - automatic way of constructing a multi - object shape model assembly . ( b ) a novel strategy of encoding , via b - scale , the pose relationship between objects in the training images and their intensity patterns captured in b - scale images . ( c ) a hierarchical mechanism of positioning the model , in a one - shot way , in a given image from a knowledge of the learnt pose relationship and the b - scale image of the given image to be segmented . the evaluation results on a set of 20 routine clinical abdominal female and male ct data sets indicate the following : ( 1 ) incorporating a large number of objects improves the recognition accuracy dramatically . ( 2 ) the recognition algorithm can be thought as a hierarchical framework such that quick replacement of the model assembly is defined as coarse recognition and delineation itself is known as finest recognition . ( 3 ) scale yields useful information about the relationship between the model assembly and any given image such that the recognition results in a placement of the model close to the actual pose without doing any elaborate searches or optimization . ( 4 ) effective object recognition can make delineation most accurate . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the segmentation process as a whole can be thought of as consisting of two tasks : recognition and delineation . recognition is to determine roughly `` where '' the object is and to distinguish it from other object - like entities . although delineation is the final step for defining the spatial extent of the object region / boundary in the image , an efficient recognition strategy is a key for successful delineation . in this study ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
a novel , general method is introduced for object recognition to assist in segmentation ( delineation ) tasks . it exploits the pose relationship that can be encoded , via the concept of ball scale ( b - scale ) @xcite , between the binary training objects and their associated images . as an alternative to the manual methods based on initial placement of the models by an expert @xcite in the literature ,
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: long time coverage and high radial velocity precision have allowed for the discovery of additional objects in known planetary systems . many of the extrasolar planets detected have highly eccentric orbits , which raises the question of how likely those systems are to host additional planets . we investigate six systems which contain a very eccentric ( @xmath0 ) planet : hd 3651 , hd 37605 , hd 45350 , hd 80606 , hd 89744 , and 16 cyg b. we present updated radial - velocity observations and orbital solutions , search for additional planets , and perform test particle simulations to find regions of dynamical stability . the dynamical simulations show that short - period planets could exist in the hd 45350 and 16 cyg b systems , and we use the observational data to set tight detection limits , which rule out additional planets down to a few neptune masses in the hd 3651 , hd 45350 , and 16 cyg b systems . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: one surprising result that has come out of the more than 200 extrasolar planet discoveries to date is the wide range of eccentricities observed . unlike our own solar system , many of the extrasolar planets which are not tidally locked to their host stars have moderate eccentricities ( @xmath1 ) , and 15 planets have high eccentricities ( @xmath0 ) . these observations have spawned several theories as to the origin of highly eccentric extrasolar planets .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
one such method , planet - planet scattering , occurs when multiple jovian planets form several astronomical units ( au ) from the host star and then interact , leaving one in an eccentric orbit and often ejecting the other @xcite . this method has been proposed to explain the architecture of the @xmath2 and planetary system @xcite , which contains a hot jupiter as well as two jovian planets in moderately eccentric orbits .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study equilibrium configurations of swarming biological organisms subject to exogenous and pairwise endogenous forces . beginning with a discrete dynamical model , we derive a variational description of the corresponding continuum population density . equilibrium solutions are extrema of an energy functional , and satisfy a fredholm integral equation . we find conditions for the extrema to be local minimizers , global minimizers , and minimizers with respect to infinitesimal lagrangian displacements of mass . in one spatial dimension , for a variety of exogenous forces , endogenous forces , and domain configurations , we find exact analytical expressions for the equilibria . these agree closely with numerical simulations of the underlying discrete model.the exact solutions provide a sampling of the wide variety of equilibrium configurations possible within our general swarm modeling framework . the equilibria typically are compactly supported and may contain @xmath0-concentrations or jump discontinuities at the edge of the support . we apply our methods to a model of locust swarms , which are observed in nature to consist of a concentrated population on the ground separated from an airborne group . our model can reproduce this configuration ; quasi - two - dimensionality of the model plays a critical role . swarm , equilibrium , aggregation , integrodifferential equation , variational model , energy , minimizer , locust . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: biological aggregations such as fish schools , bird flocks , bacterial colonies , and insect swarms @xcite have characteristic morphologies governed by the group members interactions with each other and with their environment . the _ endogenous _ interactions , _ i.e. _ , those between individuals , often involve organisms reacting to each other in an attractive or repulsive manner @xcite when they sense each other either directly by sound , sight , smell or touch , or indirectly via chemicals , vibrations , or other signals .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
a typical modeling strategy is to treat each individual as a moving particle whose velocity is influenced by social ( interparticle ) attractive and repulsive forces @xcite . in contrast , the _ exogenous _ forces describe an individual s reaction to the environment , for instance a response to gravity , wind , a chemical source , a light source , a food source , or a predator . the superposition of endogenous and exogenous forces can lead to characteristic swarm shapes ; these equilibrium solutions are the subject of our present study .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: i discuss new results on absolute branching ratios of charm mesons into specific exclusive final states , cabibbo suppressed decay rates , inclusive decays to @xmath0 mesons , limits on @xmath1 mixing , cp violation and t violation . preliminary results from cleo - c now dominate the world average absolute branching fractions . for the most important normalization modes involving @xmath2 and @xmath3 , the averages are @xmath4 for the @xmath5 cleo - c measures @xmath6 . using this rate , i derive an effective branching ratio @xmath7 , that is appropriate for use in extracting other branching fractions that have often been measured relative to this mode . this number is compared with other determinations . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: studies of charm decays are pursued for several different reasons . first of all , there is the possibility of directly observing new physics beyond the standard model ( sm ) , since the effects of cp violation due to sm processes is highly suppressed allowing new physics contributions to be more easily seen than in @xmath8 decays where the sm processes typically have large effects @xcite . @xmath1 mixing also is interesting because it could come from either sm or new physics ( np ) processes , and could teach us interesting lessons .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
another important reason for detailed charm studies is that most @xmath8 s , @xmath999% , decay into charm , so knowledge about charm decays is particularly useful for @xmath8 decay studies . especially interesting are absolute branching ratios , resonant substructures in multi - body decays , phases on dalitz plots , etc .. other heavier objects such as top quarks decay into @xmath8 quarks and higgs particles may decay with large rates to @xmath10 , again making charm studies important .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: cut - sky orthogonal mode analyses of the @xmath0-dmr 53 and 90 ghz sky maps are used to determine the normalization of a variety of open cosmogonical models based on the cold dark matter scenario . to constrain the allowed cosmological - parameter range for these open cosmogonies , the predictions of the dmr - normalized models are compared to various observational measures of cosmography and large - scale structure , viz . : the age of the universe ; small - scale dynamical estimates of the clustered - mass density parameter @xmath1 ; constraints on the hubble parameter @xmath2 , the x - ray cluster baryonic - mass fraction @xmath3 , and the matter power spectrum shape parameter ; estimates of the mass perturbation amplitude ; and constraints on the large - scale peculiar velocity field . the open - bubble inflation model ( ratra & peebles 1994 ; bucher , goldhaber , & turok 1995 ; yamamoto , sasaki , & tanaka 1995 ) is consistent with current determinations of the 95% confidence level ( c.l . ) range of these observational constraints . more specifically , for a range of @xmath2 , the model is reasonably consistent with recent high - redshift estimates of the deuterium abundance which suggest @xmath4 , provided @xmath5 ; recent high - redshift estimates of the deuterium abundance which suggest @xmath6 favour @xmath7 , while the old nucleosynthesis value @xmath8 requires @xmath9 . small shifts in the inferred @xmath0-dmr normalization amplitudes due to : ( 1 ) the small differences between the galactic- and ecliptic - coordinate sky maps , ( 2 ) the inclusion or exclusion of the quadrupole moment in the analysis , ( 3 ) the faint high - latitude galactic emission treatment , and , ( 4 ) the dependence of the theoretical cosmic microwave background anisotropy angular spectral shape on the value of @xmath2 and @xmath10 , are explicitly quantified . the dmr data alone do not possess sufficient discriminative power to prefer any values for @xmath1 , @xmath2 , or @xmath10 at the 95% c.l.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: quantum - mechanical fluctuations during an early epoch of inflation provide a plausible mechanism to generate the energy - density perturbations responsible for observed cosmological structure . while it has been known for quite some time that inflation is consistent with open spatial hypersurfaces ( gott 1982 ; guth & weinberg 1983 ) , attention was initially focussed on models in which there are a very large number of @xmath17-foldings during inflation , resulting in almost exactly flat spatial hypersurfaces for the observable part of the present universe ( guth 1981 ; also see kazanas 1980 ; sato 1981a , b ) . this was , perhaps , inevitable because of strong theoretical prejudice towards flat spatial hypersurfaces and their resulting simplicity . however , to get a very large number of @xmath17-foldings during inflation it seems necessary that the inflation model have a small dimensionless parameter ( j. r. gott , private communication 1994 ; banks et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
1995 ) , which would require an explanation . attempts to reconcile these favoured " flat spatial hypersurfaces with observational measures of a low value for the clustered - mass density parameter @xmath1 have concentrated on models in which one postulates the presence of a cosmological constant @xmath18 ( peebles 1984 ) . in the simplest flat-@xmath18 model one assumes a scale - invariant ( harrison 1970 ; peebles & yu 1970 ; zeldovich 1972 ) primordial power spectrum for gaussian adiabatic energy - density perturbations .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we present a two - channel model to describe the quantum state of two atoms with finite - range interaction near a feshbach resonance . this model provides a simple picture to analytically derive the wave function and the binding energy of the molecular bound state . the results agree excellently with the measurements and multichannel calculations . for small binding energies , the system enters a threshold regime in which the feshbach molecules are identical to long range atom pairs in single channel . according to their threshold behavior , we find feshbach resonances can be classified into two types . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: formation and bose - einstein condensation ( bec ) of molecules @xcite have recently been achieved based on ultracold atoms with magnetically - tuned feshbach resonances @xcite . in these experiments , feshbach coupling is induced by tuning a foreign molecular state near the scattering continuum , which allows for an efficient transfer of colliding atoms into molecules . this method works for virtually all alkali atoms , and can create ultracold molecules from various sources including bose condensates @xcite , degenerate fermi gases @xcite , or normal thermal gases @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
feshbach molecules have special and unique properties . they typically populate only one weakly - bound quantum state , and the bound state can strongly couple to the scattering continuum via feshbach resonance .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: large numbers of supernovae ( sne ) have been discovered in recent years , and many more will be found in the near future . once discovered , further study of a sn and its possible use as an astronomical tool ( e.g. , as a distance estimator ) require knowledge of the sn type . current classification methods rely almost solely on the analysis of sn spectra to determine their type . however , spectroscopy may not be possible or practical when sne are faint , numerous , or discovered in archival studies . we present a classification method for sne based on the comparison of their observed colors with synthetic ones , calculated from a large database of multi - epoch optical spectra of nearby events . we discuss the capabilities and limitations of this method . for example , type ia sne at redshifts @xmath0 can be distinguished from most other sn types during the first few weeks of their evolution , based on @xmath1 vs. @xmath2 colors . type ii - p sne have distinct ( very red ) colors at late ( @xmath3 d ) stages . broadband photometry through standard johnson - cousins @xmath4 filters can be useful to classify sne out to @xmath5 . the use of sloan digital sky survey ( sdss ) @xmath6 filters allows the extension of our classification method to even higher redshifts ( @xmath7 ) , and the use of infrared bands , to @xmath8 . we demonstrate the application of this method to a recently discovered sn from the sdss . finally , we outline the observational data required to further improve the sensitivity of the method , and discuss prospects for its use on future sn samples . community access to the tools developed is provided by a dedicated website . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the study of supernovae ( sne ) has greatly advanced in the last few years . intensive and highly automated monitoring of nearby galaxies ( e.g. , li et al . 1996 ; treffers et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
1997 ; filippenko et al . 2001 ; dimai 2001 ; qiu & hu 2001 ) , wide - field , moderately deep surveys ( e.g. , reiss et al . 1998 ; gal - yam & maoz 1999 , 2002 ; hardin et al . 2000 ; schaefer 2000 ) , and cosmology - oriented , deep , high - redshift sn search projects ( perlmutter et al . 1997 ; schmidt et al .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the general expression of the stern - gerlach force is deduced for a relativistic charged spin-@xmath0 particle which travels inside a time varying magnetic field . this result was obtained either by means of two lorentz boosts or starting from dirac s equation . then , the utilization of this interaction for attaining the spin states separation is reconsidered in a new example using a new radio - frequency arrangement . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the time varying stern - gerlach , sg , interaction of a relativistic fermion with an e.m . wave has been proposed to separate beams of particles with opposite spin states corresponding to different energies@xcite . we will show how spin polarized particle will exchange energy with the electromagnetic field of an rf resonator .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
let us denote with @xmath1 the coordinates of a particle in the laboratory , and with @xmath2 the coordinates in the particle rest frame , prf . in the latter the sg force that represents the action of an inhomogeneous magnetic field on a particle endowed with a magnetic moment @xmath3 is f_sg = (^ * b ) = x ( ^ * b ) + y ( ^ * b ) + z ( ^ * b ) [ fsg ] with = ge2 m s [ mu ] . here @xmath4 is the elementary charge with @xmath5 for protons and positrons , @xmath6 , and @xmath7 for antiprotons and electrons , @xmath8 , making @xmath9 and @xmath10 either parallel or antiparallel to each other , respectively .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we calculate cross sections for low energy elastic exciton - exciton scattering within the effective mass approximation . unlike previous theoretical approaches , we give a complete , non - perturbative treatment of the four - particle scattering problem . diffusion monte carlo is used to calculate the essentially exact energies of scattering states , from which phase shifts are determined . for the case of equal - mass electrons and holes , which is equivalent to positronium - positronium scattering , we find @xmath0 for scattering of singlet - excitons and @xmath1 for triplet - excitons , where @xmath2 is the excitonic radius . the spin dependence of the cross sections arises from the spatial exchange symmetry of the scattering wavefunctions . a significant triplet - triplet to singlet - singlet scattering process is found , which is similar to reported effects in recent experiments and theory for excitons in quantum wells . we also show that the scattering length can change sign and diverge for some values of the mass ratio @xmath3/@xmath4 , an effect not seen in previous perturbative treatments . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: excitons in semiconductors have been the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations of bose condensation . low - energy exciton - exciton interactions are characterized by the exciton - exciton scattering length , @xmath5 , which determines the thermodynamics of a low density gas and is crucial for modeling the thermalization time of a dilute exciton gas . despite its importance , the exciton - exciton scattering length is an elusive quantity , being difficult to measure experimentally or to estimate theoretically .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
as is well - known in atomic physics , scattering lengths can be extremely sensitive to the details of the interactions between particles . in particular , the existence of a weakly bound or nearly bound state causes the scatter length to become quite large .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we present a novel method for calculating the primordial non - gaussianity produced by super - horizon evolution during inflation . our method evolves the distribution of coarse - grained inflationary field values using a transport equation . we present simple evolution equations for the moments of this distribution , such as the variance and skewness . this method possesses some advantages over existing techniques . among them , it cleanly separates multiple sources of primordial non - gaussianity , and is computationally efficient when compared with popular alternatives , such as the @xmath0 framework . we adduce numerical calculations demonstrating that our new method offers good agreement with those already in the literature . we focus on two fields and the @xmath1 parameter , but we expect our method will generalize to multiple scalar fields and to moments of arbitrarily high order . we present our expressions in a field - space covariant form which we postulate to be valid for any number of fields . * keywords * : inflation , cosmological perturbation theory , physics of the early universe , quantum field theory in curved spacetime . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: inflation generically predicts a primordial spectrum of density perturbations which is almost precisely gaussian @xcite . in recent years the small non - gaussian component @xcite has emerged as an important observable @xcite , and will be measured with good precision by the _ planck surveyor _ satellite @xcite . in the near future ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
as observational data become more plentiful , it will be important to understand the non - gaussian signal expected in a wide variety of models , and to anticipate what conclusions can be drawn about early - universe physics from a prospective detection of primordial non - gaussianity . in this paper , we present a novel method for calculating the primordial non - gaussianity produced by super - horizon evolution in two - field models of inflation .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: for @xmath0 and @xmath1 , we consider certain admissible sequences of @xmath2 lattice paths in a colored @xmath3 square . we show that the number of such admissible sequences of lattice paths is given by the sum of squares of the number of standard young tableaux of partitions of @xmath4 with height @xmath5 , which is also the number of @xmath6-avoiding permutations of @xmath7 . finally , we apply this result to the representation theory of the affine lie algebra @xmath8 and show that this quantity gives the multiplicity of certain maximal dominant weights in the irreducible module @xmath9 . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: for fixed integers @xmath0 and @xmath1 , we consider the admissible sequences of @xmath2 lattice paths in a colored @xmath3 square given in @xcite . each admissible sequence of paths can be associated with a partition @xmath10 of @xmath4 . in section [ paths ] , we show that the number of self - conjugate admissible sequences of paths associated with @xmath10 is equal to the number of standard young tableaux of shape @xmath10 , and thus can be calculated using the hook length formula . we extend this result to include the non - self - conjugate admissible sequences of paths and show that the number of all such admissible sequences of paths is equal to the sum of squares of the number of standard young tableaux of partitions of @xmath4 with height less than or equal to @xmath11 . using the rsk correspondence in @xcite ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
it is shown in ( @xcite , corollary 7.23.12 ) that the sum of squares of the number of standard young tableaux of partitions of @xmath4 with height less than or equal to @xmath11 is equal to the number of @xmath6-avoiding permutations of @xmath7 . in section [ multiplicities ] , we apply our results to the representation theory of the affine kac - moody algebra @xmath8 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: various new physics models predict a light cp - odd higgs boson ( labeled as @xmath0 ) and open up new decay modes for @xmath1-boson , such as @xmath2 , @xmath3 and @xmath4 , which could be explored at the gigaz option of the ilc . in this work we investigate these rare decays in several new physics models , namely the type - ii two higgs doublet model ( type - ii 2hdm ) , the lepton - specific two higgs doublet model ( l2hdm ) , the nearly minimal supersymetric standard model ( nmssm ) and the next - to - minimal supersymmetric standard model ( nmssm ) . we find that in the parameter space allowed by current experiments , the branching ratios can reach @xmath5 for @xmath6 ( @xmath7 ) , @xmath8 for @xmath3 and @xmath9 for @xmath4 , which implies that the decays @xmath10 and @xmath11 may be accessible at the gigaz option . moreover , since different models predict different patterns of the branching ratios , the measurement of these rare decays at the gigaz may be utilized to distinguish the models . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the lep experiments at the resonance of @xmath1-boson have tested the standard model ( sm ) at quantum level , measuring the @xmath1-decay into fermion pairs with an accuracy of one part in ten thousands . the good agreement of the lep data with the sm predictions have severely constrained the behavior of new physics at the @xmath1-pole . taking these achievements into account one can imagine that the physics of @xmath1-boson will again play the central role in the frontier of particle physics if the next generation @xmath1 factory comes true with the generated @xmath1 events several orders of magnitude higher than that of the lep .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
this factory can be realized in the gigaz option of the international linear collider ( ilc)@xcite . the ilc is a proposed electron - positron collider with tunable energy ranging from @xmath12 to @xmath13 and polarized beams in its first phase , and the gigaz option corresponds to its operation on top of the resonance of @xmath1 boson by adding a bypass to its main beam line .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: a positive , non - saturating and dominantly linear magnetoresistance is demonstrated to occur in the surface state of a topological insulator having a wavevector - linear energy dispersion together with a finite positive zeeman energy splitting . this linear magnetoresistance shows up within quite wide magnetic - field range in a spatially homogenous system of high carrier density and low mobility in which the conduction electrons are in extended states and spread over many smeared landau levels , and is robust against increasing temperature , in agreement with recent experimental findings in bi@xmath0se@xmath1 nanoribbons . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: it is well known that the classical magnetoresistance ( mr ) in metals or semiconductors with a closed free electron fermi surface increases quadratically with increasing magnetic field @xmath2 for @xmath3 and saturates when @xmath4 . here @xmath5 is the zero - magnetic - field mobility . hence , the extraordinarily high and linear mr ( lmr ) , which breaks this familiar rule , has been gaining much attention as soon as its discovery . in the past decade. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
, this unexpected lmr has been reported in silver chalcogenide,@xcite indium antimonide,@xcite silicon,@xcite mnas - gaas composite material,@xcite and graphene.@xcite kapitza s linear law@xcite indicates that the metal shows a magnetoresistance linear in perpendicular magnetic field when it has an open fermi surface and a mean free path longer than the electronic larmor radius . recently , another two models , irrespective of the open fermi surface , have been constructed to provide possible mechanisms for the lmr phenomenon .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: dwarf galaxies in the local group provide a unique astrophysical laboratory . despite their proximity some of these systems still lack a reliable distance determination as well as studies of their stellar content and star formation history . we present first results of our survey of variable stars in a sample of six local group dwarf irregular galaxies . taking the leo a dwarf galaxy as an example we describe observational strategies and data reduction . we discuss the lightcurves of two newly found @xmath0 cephei stars and place them into the context of a previously derived p - l relation . finally we discuss the lpv content of leo a. . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: a magnitude limited complete census of variable stars in nearby dwarf galaxies allows important contributions to the star formation history of these systems . measurements of some variable stars can supply improved distance determinations for the host galaxies , others will provide important constraints for the population analysis . different classes of variables can further improve the understanding of the star formation history of these system , functioning as tracers of star formation during different epochs . we expect the data set of our long term monitoring program to be especially well suited to study the contents of red long - period variables and to re - investigate the paucity of cepheids with @xmath1 days as reported by sandage & carlson ( 1985 ) .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
we selected a sample of six local group dwarf irregular galaxies which are visible with the 0.8 m telescope of our institute at mt . the names and additional data from the literature compilation by mateo ( 1998 ) are shown in table 1 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the generation of hydrodynamic radiation in interactions of pulsed proton and laser beams with matter is explored . the beams were directed into a water target and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors . measurements were performed with varying pulse energies , sensor positions , beam diameters and temperatures . the obtained data are matched by simulation results based on the thermo - acoustic model with uncertainties at a level of 10@xmath0 . the results imply that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the medium . the heating results in a fast expansion or contraction and a pressure pulse of bipolar shape is emitted into the surrounding medium . an interesting , widely discussed application of this effect could be the detection of ultra - high energetic cosmic neutrinos in future large - scale acoustic neutrino detectors . for this application a validation of the sound generation mechanism to high accuracy , as achieved with the experiments discussed in this article , is of high importance . cosmic neutrinos , acoustic neutrino detection , thermo - acoustic model , ultra - high energy cosmic rays , beam interaction . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in 1957 g.a . askaryan pointed out that ionisation and cavitation along a track of an ionising particle through a liquid leads to hydrodynamic radiation @xcite . in the 1960s , 1970s and 1980s , theoretical and experimental studies have been performed on the hydrodynamic radiation of beams and particles traversing dense media @xcite . the interest in characterising the properties of the acoustic radiation was , among other reasons , lead by the idea that the effect can be utilised to detect ultra - high energy ( @xmath1 ) cosmic , i.e. astrophysical neutrinos , in dense media like water , ice and salt .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
in the 1970s this idea was discussed within the dumand optical neutrino detector project @xcite and has been studied in connection with cherenkov neutrino detector projects since . the detection of such neutrinos is considerably more challenging than the search for high - energy neutrinos ( @xmath2 ) as currently pursued by under - ice and under - water cherenkov neutrino telescopes @xcite . due to
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the wide field camera 3 ( wfc3 ) on the _ hubble space telescope _ ( _ hst _ ) enabled the search for the first galaxies observed at @xmath0 ( @xmath1 myr after the big bang ) . to continue quantifying the number density of the most luminous galaxies ( @xmath2 ) at the earliest epoch observable with _ hst _ , we search for @xmath3 galaxies ( f125w - dropouts ) in archival data from the brightest of reionizing galaxies ( borg[z8 ] ) survey , originally designed for detection of @xmath4 galaxies ( f098m - dropouts ) . by focusing on the deepest 293 arcmin@xmath5 of the data along 62 independent lines of sight , we identify six @xmath3 candidates satisfying the color selection criteria , detected at s / n @xmath6 in f160w with @xmath7 to @xmath8 if at @xmath9 . three of the six sources , including the two brightest , are in a single wfc3 pointing ( @xmath10 arcmin@xmath5 ) , suggestive of significant clustering , which is expected from bright galaxies at @xmath11 . however , the two brightest galaxies are too extended to be likely at @xmath11 , and one additional source is unresolved and possibly a brown dwarf . the remaining three candidates have @xmath12 , and given the area and completeness of our search , our best estimate is a number density of sources that is marginally higher but consistent at @xmath13 with searches in legacy fields . our study highlights that @xmath11 searches can yield a small number of candidates , making tailored follow - ups of _ hst _ pure - parallel observations viable and effective . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the epoch of reionization signified the appearance of the first stars and galaxies within the first billion years after the big bang , and the transformation of the intergalactic medium ( igm ) from opaque to transparent . despite recent progress , however , it is not yet fully understood . it is now well established that reionization is completed by @xmath14 thanks to observations of the ly@xmath15 forest ( e.g. @xcite ) , and that the universe was substantially ionized around redshift @xmath4 when its age was less than 600 myr , based on the electron scattering optical depth measured by planck @xcite . however , there is still substantial uncertainty regarding the sources of reionization .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
can galaxies form with sufficient efficiency at such early times to provide enough reionizing photons ( e.g. @xcite ) , or is the process possibly driven by other classes of objects such as agn @xcite ? observationally , recent progress in near - ir detector technology has dramatically advanced our ability to search for galaxies during this epoch . following the installation of the wide field camera 3 ( wfc3 ) on the _ hubble space telescope _ ( _ hst _ ) , a continuously growing sample of galaxy candidates at @xmath16 is accumulating thanks to a variety of surveys . these range from small - area ultradeep observations such as the hubble ultra - deep field ( hudf , @xcite ) , to shallower , larger - area searches for @xmath17 galaxies either in legacy fields such as the cosmic assembly near - infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey ( candels ; @xcite ) , or taking advantage of random - pointing opportunities like in the brightest of reionizing galaxies ( borg ) survey ( go 11700 , 12572 , 13767 ; pi trenti ) . overall , a sample approaching 1000 galaxy candidates at @xmath18 is known today @xcite , and we are beginning to identify the first galaxy candidates from the first 500 million years ( @xmath19 ; @xcite ) .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: _ this paper presents invariants under gamma correction and similarity transformations . the invariants are local features based on differentials which are implemented using derivatives of the gaussian . the use of the proposed invariant representation is shown to yield improved correlation results in a template matching scenario . _ . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: invariants are a popular concept in object recognition and image retrieval @xcite . they aim to provide descriptions that remain constant under certain geometric or radiometric transformations of the scene , thereby reducing the search space . they can be classified into global invariants , typically based either on a set of key points or on moments , and local invariants , typically based on derivatives of the image function which is assumed to be continuous and differentiable .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the geometric transformations of interest often include translation , rotation , and scaling , summarily referred to as _ similarity _ transformations . in a previous paper @xcite , building on work done by schmid and mohr @xcite , we have proposed differential invariants for those similarity transformations , plus _ linear _ brightness change . here , we are looking at a _ non - linear _ brightness change known as _ gamma correction_. gamma correction is a non - linear quantization of the brightness measurements performed by many cameras during the image formation process .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we investigate the emergence of magnetic flux in the quiet sun at very small spatial scales , focusing on the magnetic connection between the photosphere and chromosphere . the observational data consist of spectropolarimetric measurements and filtergrams taken with the hinode satellite and the dutch open telescope . we find that a significant fraction of the magnetic flux present in internetwork regions appears in the form of @xmath0-shaped loops . the emergence rate is 0.02 loops per hour and arcsec@xmath1 , which brings @xmath2 mx s@xmath3 arcsec@xmath1 of new flux to the solar surface . initially , the loops are observed as small patches of linear polarization above a granular cell . shortly afterwards , two footpoints of opposite polarity become visible in circular polarization within or at the edges of the granule and start to move toward the adjacent intergranular space . the orientation of the footpoints does not seem to obey hale s polarity rules . the loops are continuously buffeted by convective motions , but they always retain a high degree of coherence . interestingly , 23% of the loops that emerge in the photosphere reach the chromosphere ( 16 cases out of 69 ) . they are first detected in 630 nm magnetograms and 5 minutes later in b 517.3 nm magnetograms . after about 8 minutes , some of them are also observed in h line - core images , where the footpoints produce small brightness enhancements . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: it is believed that solar magnetic fields are created in the tachocline , the interface between the convection zone and the radiative interior . due to buoyancy instabilities , they move upward and emerge into the solar atmosphere in the form of @xmath0-shaped flux tubes @xcite . the largest emerging active regions produce sunspots with magnetic fluxes in excess of @xmath4 mx and lifetimes of several weeks to months .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
smaller active regions consist of pores and contain an order of magnitude less flux , persisting over days to weeks . the smallest emerging regions detected to date are the so - called ephemeral regions .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we apply the statefinder diagnostic to the torsion cosmology , in which an accounting for the accelerated universe is considered in term of a riemann - cartan geometry : dynamic scalar torsion . we find that there are some typical characteristic of the evolution of statefinder parameters for the torsion cosmology that can be distinguished from the other cosmological models . furthermore , we also show that statefinder diagnostic has a direct bearing on the critical points . the statefinder diagnostic divides the torsion parameter @xmath0 into differential ranges , which is in keeping with the requirement of dynamical analysis . in addition , we fit the scalar torsion model to essence supernovae data and give the best fit values of the model parameters . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the current observations , such as sneia ( supernovae type ia ) , cmb ( cosmic microwave background ) and large scale structure , converge on the fact that a spatially homogeneous and gravitationally repulsive energy component , referred as dark energy , accounts for about @xmath1 % of the energy density of universe . some heuristic models that roughly describe the observable consequences of dark energy were proposed in recent years , a number of them stemming from a certain physics @xcite and the others being purely phenomenological @xcite . dark energy can even behave as a phantom and effectively violate the weak energy condition@xcite . in various cosmological models ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
fundamental quantities are either geometrical ( if they are constructed from a spacetime geometry directly ) or physical ( if they depend upon physical fields ) . physical quantities are certainly model - dependent , while geometrical quantites are more universal .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: matched - filtering for the identification of compact object mergers in gravitational - wave antenna data involves the comparison of the data stream to a bank of template gravitational waveforms . typically the template bank is constructed from phenomenological waveform models since these can be evaluated for an arbitrary choice of physical parameters . recently it has been proposed that singular value decomposition ( svd ) can be used to reduce the number of templates required for detection . as we show here , another benefit of svd is its removal of biases from the phenomenological templates along with a corresponding improvement in their ability to represent waveform signals obtained from numerical relativity ( nr ) simulations . using these ideas , we present a method that calibrates a reduced svd basis of phenomenological waveforms against nr waveforms in order to construct a new waveform approximant with improved accuracy and faithfulness compared to the original phenomenological model . the new waveform family is given numerically through the interpolation of the projection coefficients of nr waveforms expanded onto the reduced basis and provides a generalized scheme for enhancing phenomenological models . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: developments are currently underway to promote the sensitivity of ligo and to improve its prospect for detecting gravitational waves emitted by compact object binaries @xcite . of particular interest are the detection of gravitational waves released during the inspiral and merger of binary black hole ( bbh ) systems . detection rates for bbh events are expected to be within 0.41000 per year with advanced ligo @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
it is important that rigorous detection algorithms be in place in order to maximize the number of detections of gravitational wave signals . the detection pipeline currently employed by ligo involves a matched - filtering process whereby signals are compared to a pre - constructed template bank of gravitational waveforms . the templates are chosen to cover some interesting region of mass - spin parameter space and are placed throughout it in such a way that guarantees some minimal match between any arbitrary point in parameter space and its closest neighbouring template .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we investigate an efficient quantum error correction of a fully correlated noise . suppose the noise is characterized by a quantum channel whose error operators take fully correlated forms given by @xmath0 , @xmath1 and @xmath2 , where @xmath3 is the number of qubits encoding the codeword . it is proved that ( i ) @xmath4 qubits codeword encodes @xmath5 data qubits when @xmath4 is odd and ( ii ) @xmath4 qubits codeword implements an error - free encoding , which encode @xmath6 data qubits when @xmath4 is even . quantum circuits implementing these schemes are constructed . quantum error correction , higher rank numerical range , recovery operator , mixed unitary channel . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in quantum information processing , information is stored and processed with a quantum system . a quantum system is always in contact with its surrounding environment , which leads to decoherence in the quantum system . decoherence must be suppressed for quantum information stored in qubits to be intact .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
there are several proposals to fight against decoherence . quantum error correction , abriviated as qec hereafter , is one of the most promising candidate to suppress environmental noise , which leads to decoherence @xcite . by adding extra ancillary qubits , in analogy with classical error correction , it is possible to encode a data qubit to an @xmath4-qubit codeword in such a way that an error which acted in the error quantum channel is identified by measuring another set of ancillary qubits added for error syndrome readout .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: this is the first attempt to model the kinematics of a cme launch and the resulting euv dimming quantitatively with a self - consistent model . our 4d - model assumes self - similar expansion of a spherical cme geometry that consists of a cme front with density compression and a cavity with density rarefaction , satisfying mass conservation of the total cme and swept - up corona . the model contains 14 free parameters and is fitted to the 2008 march 25 cme event observed with stereo / a and b. our model is able to reproduce the observed cme expansion and related euv dimming during the initial phase from 18:30 ut to 19:00 ut . the cme kinematics can be characterized by a constant acceleration ( i.e. , a constant magnetic driving force ) . while the observations of euvi / a are consistent with a spherical bubble geometry , we detect significant asymmetries and density inhomogeneities with euvi / b . this new forward - modeling method demonstrates how the observed euv dimming can be used to model physical parameters of the cme source region , the cme geometry , and cme kinematics . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: it has become a generally agreed concept that the euv dimming observed during the onset of a _ coronal mass ejection ( cme ) _ manifests the coronal mass loss of the cme , and thus we basically expect a one - to - one correlation between the detections of cmes and euv dimmings , unless there exist special circumstances . for instance , the cme could originate behind the limb , in which case the euv dimming is obscured , or the cme could start in the upper corona , where there is little euv emission because of the gravitational stratification . the latter case would imply very low masses compared with a cme that originates at the base of the corona , i.e. , @xmath0 at two thermal scale heights . however , there exists a case with an average cme mass that did not leave any footprints behind in euv ( robbrecht et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
a statistical study on the simultaneous detection of euv dimmings and cmes has recently been performed by bewsher et al . this study based on soho / cds and lasco data confirms a 55% association rate of dimming events with cmes , and vice versa a 84% association rate of cmes with dimming events
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we construct a simply connected minimal complex surface of general type with @xmath0 and @xmath1 which has an involution such that the minimal resolution of the quotient by the involution is a simply connected minimal complex surface of general type with @xmath0 and @xmath2 . in order to construct the example , we combine a double covering and @xmath3-gorenstein deformation . especially , we develop a method for proving unobstructedness for deformations of a singular surface by generalizing a result of burns and wahl which characterizes the space of first order deformations of a singular surface with only rational double points . we describe the stable model in the sense of kollr and shepherd - barron of the singular surfaces used for constructing the example . we count the dimension of the invariant part of the deformation space of the example under the induced @xmath4-action . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: one of the fundamental problems in the classification of complex surfaces is to find a new family of complex surfaces of general type with @xmath0 . in this paper we construct new simply connected _ numerical campedelli surfaces _ with an involution , i.e. simply connected minimal complex surfaces of general type with @xmath0 and @xmath1 , that have an automorphism of order @xmath5 . there has been a growing interest for complex surfaces of general type with @xmath0 having an involution ; cf .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
j. keum - y . lee @xcite , calabri - ciliberto - mendes lopes @xcite , calabri - mendes lopes - pardini @xcite , y. lee - y .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: no - scale structure of the khler potential is obtained in many types of supersymmetric models . in this paper , phenomenological aspects of these models are investigated with special attention to the current higgs mass bound at lep and @xmath0 result at the cleo . when the boundary condition is given at the gut scale and gaugino masses are universal at this scale , very narrow parameter region is allowed only for positive higgsino mass region if r - parity is conserved . the negative higgsino mass case is entirely excluded . on the other hand , relatively large parameter region is allowed when the boundary condition is given above the gut scale , and tevatron can discover susy signals for the positive higgsino mass case . the no - scale models with wino , higgsino or sneutrino lsp are also considered . we show that the higgs mass constraint is important for the higgsino lsp case , which requires the lsp mass to be larger than about 245 gev . 0.0 mm 0.0 mm 159.2 mm -16.0 mm 240.0 mm . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: supersymmetry ( susy ) is one of the most attractive extensions of the standard model . this symmetry solves the naturalness problem and predicts gauge coupling unification at the gut scale @xmath1 . it also predicts the existence of superpartner of the standard model ( sm ) particles . from the naturalness argument , their masses should be below tev range , hence these particles will be discovered at tevatron or large hadron collider ( lhc ). Please generate the next two sentences of the article
. mechanisms of susy breaking and its mediation to the minimal supersymmetric standard model ( mssm ) sector are one of the most important problems in the susy phenomenology . in many models , this dynamics is related to high energy physics far above the electroweak(ew ) scale , e.g. , gut scale or planck scale .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the estimation of the number of passengers with the identical journey is a common problem for public transport authorities . this problem is also known as the origin - destination estimation ( od ) problem and it has been widely studied for the past thirty years . however , the theory is missing when the observations are not limited to the passenger counts but also includes station surveys . + our aim is to provide a solid framework for the estimation of an od matrix when only a portion of the journey counts are observable . + our method consists of a statistical estimation technique for od matrix when we have the sum - of - row counts and survey - based observations . our technique differs from the previous studies in that it does not need a prior od matrix which can be hard to obtain . instead , we model the passengers behaviour through the survey data , and use the diagonalization of the partial od matrix to reduce the space parameter and derive a consistent global od matrix estimator . we demonstrate the robustness of our estimator and apply it to several examples showcasing the proposed models and approach . we highlight how other sources of data can be incorporated in the model such as explanatory variables , e.g. rainfall , indicator variables for major events , etc , and inference made in a principled , non - heuristic way . constraint maximum likelihood estimation , eigenvectors , counts estimation . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the origin - destination ( od ) matrix is important in transportation analysis . the matrix contains information on the number of travellers that commute or the amount of freight shipped between different zones of a region . the od matrix is difficult and often costly to obtain by direct measurements / interviews or surveys , but by using incomplete traffic counts and other available information one may obtain a reasonable estimate .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
a particular application of the od matrix estimation is in the area of public transport . in order to improve their service , the responsible managers are looking for on - going evaluation of the passenger flow and the reasons that would influence this flow .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for non - invasive measurements of cavity parameters by injection of squeezed vacuum into an optical cavity . the principle behind this technique is the destruction of the correlation between upper and lower quantum sidebands with respect to the carrier frequency when the squeezed field is incident on the cavity . this method is especially useful for ultrahigh @xmath0 cavities , such as whispering gallery mode ( wgm ) cavities , in which absorption and scattering by light - induced nonlinear processes inhibit precise measurements of the cavity parameters . we show that the linewidth of a test cavity is measured to be @xmath1 khz , which agrees with the classically measured linewidth of the cavity within the uncertainty ( @xmath2 khz ) . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: high q cavities such as whispering gallery mode ( wgm ) cavities have recently demonstrated quality factors ( @xmath0 ) as high as @xmath3 and have shown the potential to reach even higher q values @xcite . however , there are difficulties in measurement of the linewidth and q of such high q cavities . while in theory , the q factor could be as high as @xmath4 and is limited only by rayleigh scattering @xcite , in practice , it is limited by other losses in the cavity .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
they include absorption and scattering losses due to impurities in the cavity material , and light - induced losses due to nonlinear processes . due to the extremely small mode volume and high q - factor of the cavity , the cavity build - up intensity is extremely high , even in the case of an input with small power ( as small as several mw ) .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: to investigate chemical reactivity of cu atomic - scale structures , we performed simulations based on the generalized gradient approximation in the density functional theory . an atomic layer of cu forming a triangular lattice ( tl ) was found to give a stable structure . the nitrogen monoxide molecule ( no ) was adsorbed on some atomic sites of tl or on an atomic step structure ( ass ) of cu . the molecular adsorption energy on tl was -0.83 ev . our data suggested that dissociative adsorption of no with a dissociation energy of -1.08 ev was possible with an energy barrier of order 1.4 ev . in this optimized structure , the nitrogen and oxygen atoms were embedded in the cu layer . on the step , no adsorbed at a bridge site and the formation energy of cu-(no)-cu local bond connections was estimated to be around -1.32 ev . molecular dissociation of no with a dissociation energy of -0.37 ev was also possible around ass . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: to enhance chemical reactivity of cu surfaces with nitrogen oxides ( no@xmath0 ) is an important issue for development of new catalytic materials effective in the no@xmath0 reduction process @xcite . the dissociative adsorption of no@xmath0 , for example , was found to be less expected on cu , compared with highly reactive rh , ir , ru , co , and ni surfaces , although dissociative adsorption was reported at finite temperatures in experiments @xcite . in order to provide active surfaces for no dissociation , cu thin films and low index surfaces were considered on one hand @xcite . in several electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory ( dft ) , on the other hand , dissociative adsorption of no was found to be possible but energetically un - favored compared with molecular adsorption @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
we note that the simulations were often performed with respect to reactions on stable bulk surfaces . although the theoretical data suggested less reactivity of cu bulk surfaces for no@xmath0 reduction , there could be remarkable reactivity on some surface - like atomic structures of cu .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the origin and chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays is still an open question in astroparticle physics . the observed large - scale isotropy and also direct composition measurements can be interpreted as an extragalactic proton dominance above the _ ankle _ at about @xmath0 gev . photopion production of extragalactic protons in the cosmic microwave background predicts a cutoff at about @xmath1 gev in conflict with excesses reported by some experiments . in this report we will outline a recent statistical analysis @xcite of cosmic ray data using strongly interacting neutrinos as primaries for these excesses . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: there are reasons to believe that cosmic rays ( crs ) around the ankle at @xmath0 gev are dominated by extragalactic protons @xcite . scattering processes in the cosmic microwave background ( cmb ) limit the propagation of ultra high energy ( uhe ) charged particles in our universe . a continuation of a power - like cr spectrum above the greisen - zatsepin - kuzmin ( gzk ) cutoff @xcite at about @xmath1 gev is only consistent with the proton dominance if the sources lie within the proton attenuation length of about 50 mpc .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
very few astrophysical accelerators can generate crs with energies above the gzk cutoff ( see e.g. @xcite for a review ) and so far none of the candidate sources have been confirmed in our local environment . it has been speculated that decaying superheavy particles , possibly some new form of dark matter or remnants of topological defects , could be a source of uhe crs , but also these proposals are not fully consistent with the cr spectrum at lower energies @xcite .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the phenomenology of a system of two coupled quadratic maps is studied both analytically and numerically . conditions for synchronization are given and the bifurcations of periodic orbits from this regime are identified . in addition , we show that an arbitrarily large number of distinct stable periodic orbits may be obtained when the maps parameter is at the feigenbaum period - doubling accumulation point . an estimate is given for the coupling strength needed to obtain any given number of stable orbits . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: a multistable system is one that possesses a large number of coexisting attractors for a fixed set of parameters . there is ample evidence for such phenomena in the natural sciences , with examples coming from neurosciences and neural dynamics @xcite - @xcite , optics @xcite @xcite , chemistry @xcite @xcite @xcite , condensed matter @xcite and geophysics @xcite . multistability also seems to be an essential complexity - generating mechanism in a large class of agent - based models @xcite . in view of this. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
, it is important to identify the dynamical mechanisms leading to multistability and , in particular , to construct simple models where this phenomenon might be under control . the first mathematical result in this direction was obtained by newhouse @xcite
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we report on an easy - to - evaluate expression for the prediction of the bend - loss for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber ( pcf ) with a triangular air - hole lattice . the expression is based on a recently proposed formulation of the v - parameter for a pcf and contains no free parameters . the validity of the expression is verified experimentally for varying fiber parameters as well as bend radius . the typical deviation between the position of the measured and the predicted bend loss edge is within measurement uncertainty . 10 url # 1`#1`urlprefix[2][]#2 j. c. knight , `` photonic crystal fibres , '' nature * 424 * , 847851 ( 2003 ) . t. a. birks , j. c. knight , and p. s. j. russell , `` endlessly single mode photonic crystal fibre , '' opt . lett . * 22 * , 961963 ( 1997 ) . t. srensen , j. broeng , a. bjarklev , e. knudsen , and s. e. b. libori , `` macro - bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre , '' electron . lett . * 37 * , 287289 ( 2001 ) . t. srensen , j. broeng , a. bjarklev , t. p. hansen , e. knudsen , s. e. b. libori , h. r. simonsen , and j. r. jensen , `` spectral macro - bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres , '' iee proc .- opt . * 149 * , 206 ( 2002 ) . n. a. mortensen and j. r. folkenberg , `` low - loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers , '' j. opt . a : pure appl . opt . * 5 * , 163167 ( 2003 ) . j. c. baggett , t. m. monro , k. furusawa , v. finazzi , and d. j. richardson , `` understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers , '' opt . commun . * 227 * , 317335 ( 2003 ) . j. sakai and t. kimura , `` bending loss of propagation modes in arbitrary - index profile optical fibers , '' appl . opt . * 17 * , 14991506 ( 1978 ) . j. sakai , `` simplified bending loss formula for single - mode optical fibers , '' appl . opt . * 18 * , 951952 ( 1979 ) . a. w. snyder and j. d. love , _ optical waveguide theory _ (.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in solid - core photonic crystal fibers ( pcf ) the air - silica microstructured cladding ( see fig . [ fig1 ] ) gives rise to a variety of novel phenomena @xcite including large - mode area ( lma ) endlessly - single mode operation @xcite . though pcfs typically have optical properties very different from that of standard fibers they of course share some of the overall properties such as the susceptibility of the attenuation to macro - bending . macrobending - induced attenuation in pcfs has been addressed both experimentally as well as theoretically / numerically in a number of papers @xcite . however , predicting bending - loss is no simple task and typically involves a full numerical solution of maxwell s equations as well as use of a phenomenological free parameter , _. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
e.g. _ an effective core radius . in this paper we revisit the problem and show how macro - bending loss measurements on high - quality pcfs can be predicted with high accuracy using easy - to - evaluate empirical relations .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we consider the markov random flight @xmath0 in the three - dimensional euclidean space @xmath1 with constant finite speed @xmath2 and the uniform choice of the initial and each new direction at random time instants that form a homogeneous poisson flow of rate @xmath3 . series representations for the conditional characteristic functions of @xmath4 corresponding to two and three changes of direction , are obtained . based on these results , an asymptotic formula , as @xmath5 , for the unconditional characteristic function of @xmath4 is derived . by inverting it , we obtain an asymptotic relation for the transition density of the process . we show that the error in this formula has the order @xmath6 and , therefore , it gives a good approximation on small time intervals whose lengths depend on @xmath7 . estimate of the accuracy of the approximation is analysed . * asymptotic relation for the transition density + of the three - dimensional markov random flight + on small time intervals * alexander d. kolesnik + institute of mathematics and computer science + academy street 5 , kishinev 2028 , moldova + e - mail : kolesnik@math.md 0.2 cm 0.1 cm _ keywords : _ markov random flight , persistent random walk , conditional density , fourier transform , characteristic function , asymptotic relation , transition density , small time intervals 0.2 cm _ ams 2010 subject classification : _ 60k35 , 60k99 , 60j60 , 60j65 , 82c41 , 82c70 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: among the great variety of the works devoted to random motions at finite speed in the euclidean spaces @xmath8 ( see @xcite , @xcite , @xcite , @xcite for the markovian case and @xcite , @xcite for different non - markovian cases ) , the markov random flight in the three - dimensional euclidean space @xmath1 is , undoubtedly , the most difficult and hard to study . while in the low even - dimensional spaces @xmath9 and @xmath10 one managed to obtain the distributions of the motions in an explicit form ( see @xcite , @xcite and @xcite , respectively ) , in the important three - dimensional case only a few results are known . the absolutely continuous part of the transition density of the symmetric markov random flight with unit speed in the euclidean space @xmath1 was presented in ( * ? ? ?. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
* formulas ( 1.3 ) and ( 4.21 ) therein ) . it has an extremely complicated form of an integral with variable limits whose integrand involves inverse hyperbolic tangent function .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the classical structure - function ( sf ) method in fully developed turbulence or for scaling processes in general is influenced by large - scale energetic structures , known as infrared effect . therefore , the extracted scaling exponents @xmath0 might be biased due to this effect . in this paper , a detrended structure - function ( dsf ) method is proposed to extract scaling exponents by constraining the influence of large - scale structures . this is accomplished by removing a @xmath1st - order polynomial fitting within a window size @xmath2 before calculating the velocity increment . by doing so , the scales larger than @xmath2 , i.e. , @xmath3 , are expected to be removed or constrained . the detrending process is equivalent to be a high - pass filter in physical domain . meanwhile the intermittency nature is retained . we first validate the dsf method by using a synthesized fractional brownian motion for mono - fractal processes and a lognormal process for multifractal random walk processes . the numerical results show comparable scaling exponents @xmath0 and singularity spectra @xmath4 for the original sfs and dsfs . when applying the dsf to a turbulent velocity obtained from a high reynolds number wind tunnel experiment with @xmath5 , the 3rd - order dsf demonstrates a clear inertial range with @xmath6 on the range @xmath7 , corresponding to a wavenumber range @xmath8 . this inertial range is consistent with the one predicted by the fourier power spectrum . the directly measured scaling exponents @xmath0 ( resp . singularity spectrum @xmath4 ) agree very well with a lognormal model with an intermittent parameter @xmath9 . due to large - scale effects , the results provided by the sfs are biased . the method proposed here is general and can be applied to different dynamics systems in which the concepts of multiscale and multifractal are relevant . fully developed turbulence ; intermittency ; detrended structure - function . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: multiscale dynamics is present in many phenomena , e.g. , turbulence @xcite , finance @xcite , geosciences @xcite , etc , to quote a few . it has been found in many multiscale dynamics systems that the self - similarity is broken , in which the concept of multiscaling or multifractal is relevant @xcite . this is characterized conventionally by using the structure - functions ( sfs ) , i.e. , @xmath10 , in which @xmath11 is an increment with separation scale @xmath2 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
note that for the self - similarity process , e.g. , fractional brownian motion ( fbm ) , the measured @xmath0 is linear with @xmath12 . while for the multifractal process , e.g. , turbulent velocity , it is usually convex with @xmath12 . other methods are available to extract the scaling exponent . for example , wavelet based methodologies , ( e.g. , wavelet leaders , wavelet transform modulus maxima @xcite ) , hilbert - based method @xcite , or the scaling analysis of probability density function of velocity increments @xcite , to name a few .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: making online resources more accessible to physically challenged library users is a topic deserving informed attention from astronomy librarians . recommendations like wcag 2.0 standards and section 508 , in the united states , have proven valuable , and some vendors are already making their products compliant with them . but what about the wide variety of databases and other resources produced by astronomy information professionals themselves ? few , if any , of these are currently compliant with accessibility standards . here we discuss some solutions to these accessibility challenges . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: a fair number of astronomers and astronomy students have a physical challenge . it is our responsibility to learn the basics of accessibility to be able to help our library patrons to gain access to things that they need for their studies and work . astronomy is often seen as a very visual science .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
after all , its origins lie in looking at the skies . hence , it is a common belief that you need to use your sight to be able to study astronomy .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we present an analysis of intermediate - dispersion spectra and photometric data of the newly identified cool , polluted white dwarf nltt 19868 . the spectra obtained with x - shooter on the very large telescope ( vlt)-melipal show strong lines of calcium , and several lines of magnesium , aluminium and iron . we use these spectra and the optical - to - near infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the atmospheric parameters of nltt 19868 . our analysis shows that nltt 19868 is iron poor with respect to aluminium and calcium . a comparison with other cool , polluted white dwarfs shows that the fe to ca abundance ratio ( fe / ca ) varies by up to approximately two orders of magnitudes over a narrow temperature range with nltt 19868 at one extremum in the fe / ca ratio and , in contrast , nltt 888 at the other extremum . the sample shows evidence of extreme diversity in the composition of the accreted material : in the case of nltt 888 , the inferred composition of the accreted matter is akin to iron - rich planetary core composition , while in the case of nltt 19868 it is close to mantle or bulk - earth composition depleted by subsequent chemical separation at the bottom of the convection zone . [ firstpage ] diffusion stars : abundances stars : atmospheres stars : individual ( nltt 888 , nltt 19868 ) white dwarfs . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: polluted white dwarfs ( typed with a suffix `` z '' ) provide an opportunity to investigate the ultimate fate of planetary systems . although planets have not yet been detected around white dwarfs , the evidence for the presence of planetary debris around these objects lies in their polluted atmospheres . approximately one quarter of white dwarfs show the presence of elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres @xcite and approximately one fifth of these have a mid - infrared ( ir ) excess that is consistent with a circumstellar , debris disc @xcite . more recently using the cosmic origins spectrograph on the _ hubble space telescope _ @xcite have shown that about half of da white dwarfs with effective temperatures ranging from 17000 k to 27000 k have polluted atmospheres .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
several detailed studies of polluted white dwarfs have uncovered large variations in the composition of the accreted material . based on a study of ultraviolet ( uv ) spectra of a sample of white dwarfs ( 19000 < @xmath0 k ) , @xcite showed that the abundance diversity in the accreted material is similar to that observed among solar system meteorites , although the effect of selective radiative radiation pressure on accretion rate calculations was neglected .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the remarkable sensitivity of the @xmath0-axis resistivity and magnetoresistance in cuprates to the spin ordering is used to clarify the doping - induced transformation from an antiferromagnetic ( af ) insulator to a superconducting ( sc ) metal in @xmath1ba@xmath2cu@xmath3o@xmath4 ( @xmath1@xmath5lu , y ) single crystals . the established phase diagram demonstrates that the af and sc regions apparently overlap : the superconductivity in @xmath1ba@xmath2cu@xmath3o@xmath4 , in contrast to la@xmath6sr@xmath7cuo@xmath8 , sets in before the long - range af order is completely destroyed by hole doping . magnetoresistance measurements of superconducting crystals with low @xmath9@xmath10@xmath11k give a clear view of the magnetic - field induced superconductivity suppression and recovery of the long - range af state . what still remains to be understood is whether the af order actually persists in the sc state or just revives when the superconductivity is suppressed , and , in the former case , whether the antiferromagnetism and superconductivity reside in nanoscopically separated phases or coexist on an atomic scale . keywords : phase diagram , antiferromagnetism , magnetoresistance , c - axis conductivity . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the transformation , upon charge doping , of an antiferromagnetic ( af ) mott insulator into a superconducting ( sc ) metal and the role of af correlations in the appearance of superconductivity have challenged researchers since the discovery of high-@xmath12 superconductivity in cuprates . is the af order an indispensable component or a competitor for the high-@xmath12 phenomenon ? in a prototype high-@xmath12 cuprate la@xmath6sr@xmath7cuo@xmath8 , the long - range af order is destroyed by doped holes way before the superconductivity sets in @xcite , which has led to a general belief that the spin frustration is a prerequisite for metallic conduction and superconductivity .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the destructive impact of static spin order on superconductivity was further supported by the observation of sc suppression at a peculiar 1/8 doping in la@xmath6ba@xmath7cuo@xmath8 @xcite . on the other hand , spin excitations are often suggested to provide glue for sc pairing , implying the ultimate importance of af correlations , be they static or dynamic . besides , the incompatibility of static af order and sc may be not necessarily a general feature of cuprates . in @xmath1ba@xmath2cu@xmath3o@xmath4
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: @xmath0as , @xmath1rb and @xmath2rb nuclear quadrupole resonance ( nqr ) and @xmath1rb nuclear magnetic resonance ( nmr ) measurements in rbfe@xmath3as@xmath3 iron - based superconductor are presented . we observe a marked broadening of @xmath0as nqr spectrum below @xmath4 k which is associated with the onset of a charge order in the feas planes . below @xmath5 we observe a power - law decrease in @xmath0as nuclear spin - lattice relaxation rate down to @xmath6 k. below @xmath7 the nuclei start to probe different dynamics owing to the different local electronic configurations induced by the charge order . a fraction of the nuclei probes spin dynamics associated with electrons approaching a localization while another fraction probes activated dynamics possibly associated with a pseudogap . these different trends are discussed in the light of an orbital selective behaviour expected for the electronic correlations . the parent compounds of high temperature superconducting cuprates are emblematic examples of mott - hubbard insulators at half band filling,@xcite where the large electron coulomb repulsion @xmath8 overcomes the hopping integral @xmath9 and induces both charge localization and an antiferromagnetic ( af ) coupling among the spins . electronic correlations remain sizeable even when the cuprates become superconducting and give rise to a rich phase diagram at low hole doping levels characterized by the onset of a charge density wave ( cdw ) which progressively fades away as the doping increases @xcite and eventually , in the overdoped regime , a fermi liquid scenario is restored . the comprehension of the role of electronic correlations in iron - based superconductors ( ibs)@xcite is more subtle . at variance with the cuprates ibs are characterized by similar nearest neighbour and next - nearest neighbour hopping integrals , the parent compounds of the most studied families of ibs ( e.g. bafe@xmath3as@xmath3 and lafeaso)@xcite are not characterized by half - filled bands and , moreover ,.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: massimo capone is thanked for useful discussions . the sezione infn di pavia is acknowledged for granting the computing time necessary to perform dft calculations . this work was supported by miur - prin2012 project no .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
2012x3yfz2 . 99 n. f. mott , proc . phys london , sect .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics , we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing - point depression upon freezing of solutions . specifically , we devise an ising - based model of a solvent - solute system and show that , in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute , a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent . the boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asymptotically agree with the formulas used in heuristic analyses of freezing point depression . the limit of infinitesimal concentrations is described in a subsequent paper . = 1 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the statistical mechanics of pure systems most prominently the topic of phase transitions and their associated surface phenomena has been a subject of fairly intensive research in recent years . several physical principles for pure systems ( the gibbs phase rule , wulff construction , etc . ) have been put on a mathematically rigorous footing and , if necessary , supplemented with appropriate conditions ensuring their validity .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the corresponding phenomena in systems with several mixed components , particularly solutions , have long been well - understood on the level of theoretical physics . however , they have not received much mathematically rigorous attention and in particular have not been derived rigorously starting from a local interaction .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we report on a multi - frequency , multi - epoch campaign of very long baseline interferometry observations of the radio galaxy 1946 + 708 using the vlba and a global vlbi array . from these high - resolution observations we deduce the kinematic age of the radio source to be @xmath04000 years , comparable with the ages of other compact symmetric objects ( csos ) . ejections of pairs of jet components appears to take place on time scales of 10 years and these components in the jet travel outward at intrinsic velocities between 0.6 and 0.9 c. from the constraint that jet components can not have intrinsic velocities faster than light , we derive @xmath1 @xmath2 57 km s@xmath3 mpc@xmath3 from the fastest pair of components launched from the core . we provide strong evidence for the ejection of a new pair of components in @xmath01997 . from the trajectories of the jet components we deduce that the jet is most likely to be helically confined , rather than purely ballistic in nature . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: compact symmetric objects ( csos ) are a family of extragalactic radio sources comprising roughly 3% of flux - limited samples selected at high frequencies ( taylor , readhead , & pearson 1996 ; peck & taylor 2001 ) . their defining characteristic is the presence of high luminosity radio components on both sides of a central engine on sub - kiloparsec scales with little or no extended emission present . csos typically exhibit terminal hotspots which move apart at subluminal speeds ( owsianik & conway 1998 ; gugliucci et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
jet components en route between the core and the hot spots where they terminate , appear to move faster , and superluminal speeds in the jets are seen in a few sources ( taylor , readhead & pearson 2000 ) . the jets can be similar or much brighter than the counterjets .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: one of the open problems in higher category theory is the systematic construction of the higher dimensional analogues of the gray tensor product . in this paper we continue the work of @xcite to adapt the machinery of globular operads @xcite to this task . the resulting theory includes the gray tensor product of 2-categories and the crans tensor product @xcite of gray categories . moreover much of the previous work on the globular approach to higher category theory is simplified by our new foundations , and we illustrate this by giving an expedited account of many aspects of cheng s analysis @xcite of trimble s definition of weak @xmath0-category . by way of application we obtain an `` ekmann - hilton '' result for braided monoidal 2-categories , and give the construction of a tensor product of @xmath1-infinity algebras . [ multiblock footnote omitted ] [ multiblock footnote omitted ] [ multiblock footnote omitted ] . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in @xcite the problem of how to give an explicit combinatorial definition of weak higher categories was solved , and the development of a conceptual framework for their further analysis was begun . in the aftermath of this , the expository work of other authors , most notably street @xcite and leinster @xcite , contributed greatly to our understanding of these ideas . the central idea of @xcite is that the description of any @xmath0-dimensional categorical structure @xmath2 , may begin by starting with just the underlying @xmath0-globular set , that is , the sets and functions @xmath3^{t } \ar@<-1ex>[l]_{s } & { x_2 } \ar@<1ex>[l]^{t } \ar@<-1ex>[l]_{s } & { x_3 } \ar@<1ex>[l]^{t } \ar@<-1ex>[l]_{s } & { ... } \ar@<1ex>[l]^{t } \ar@<-1ex>[l]_{s } & { x_n } \ar@<1ex>[l]^{t } \ar@<-1ex>[l]_{s}}\ ] ] satisfying the equations @xmath4 and @xmath5 , which embody the the objects ( elements of @xmath6 ) , arrows ( elements of @xmath7 ) and higher cells of the structure in question . at this stage no compositions have been defined , and when they are , one has a globular set with extra structure . in this way. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the problem of defining an n - categorical structure of a given type is that of defining the monad on the category @xmath8 of @xmath0-globular sets whose algebras are these structures . as explained in the introduction to @xcite , this approach works because the monads concerned have excellent formal properties , which facilitate their explicit description and further analysis .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the longitudinal polarization of fermions ( tops and taus ) produced in sfermion decays to neutralinos or charginos can be a useful tool for the determination of susy parameters . we discuss this fermion polarization in the context of the mssm with complex parameters . we show that the dependence on cp - violating phases can be large and that the fermion polarization may hence be used as a sensitive probe of cp phases in the mssm . cern - ph - th/2004 - 086 + hephy - pub 790/04 + iisc - chep/7/04 + fi2004 - 15 + hep - ph/0405167 * fermion polarization in sfermion decays as + a probe of cp phases in the mssm * + thomas gajdosik@xmath0 , rohini m. godbole@xmath1 , sabine kraml@xmath2 + _ @xmath3 institute of physics , vilnius lt-2600 , lithuania + @xmath4 centre for high energy physics , indian institute of science , bangalore 560012 , india + @xmath5 inst . f. hochenergiephysik , sterr . akademie d. wissenschaften , 1050 vienna , austria + @xmath6 department of physics , cern , theory division , 1211 geneva 23 , switzerland + _ . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: cp violation , initially observed @xcite only in the @xmath7@xmath8 system , is one feature of the standard model ( sm ) that still defies clear theoretical understanding . the ckm picture , which describes _ all _ the _ observed _ cp violation in terms of a single phase in the quark - mixing matrix , has been vindicated by the recent measurements of @xmath9@xmath10 mixing at belle and babar @xcite . cp violation is in fact one of the necessary ingredients for generating the observed excess of baryons over antibaryons in the universe @xcite . the amount of cp violation present in the quark sector is , however , too small to generate a baryon asymmetry of the observed level of @xmath11 @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
new sources of cp violation _ beyond _ the sm are therefore a necessity @xcite . supersymmetry ( susy ) is arguably the most attractive extension of the sm , as it solves , for instance , the problem of the instability of the electroweak symmetry - breaking scale against radiative corrections .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we have observed an outburst of the t tauri star ex lup in march 1994 . we present both photometric ( bvr ) and spectroscopic ( low and medium resolution ) observations carried out during the decline after outburst . the star appears much bluer during outburst due to an increased emission of a hot continuum . this is accompanied by a strong increase of the veiling of photospheric lines . we observe inverse p cygni profiles of many emission lines over a large brightness range of ex lup . we briefly discuss these features towards the model of magnetospherically supported accretion of disk material . 2.5 cm # 1to -1.5pt#1 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the variability of ex lup was discovered by miss e. janssen in 1944 while examining spectral plates at the harvard observatory ( mclaughlin 1946 ) . herbig ( 1950 ) first pointed out the similarity of ex lupi s spectral characteristics and t tauri stars with strong emission lines of h , caii , feii , and hei . in one of the spectrograms he obtained in 1949/1950 the h and caii lines clearly show an inverse p cygni profile .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
herbig ( 1977a ) assigned the spectral type of m0:ev using the 5850 - 6700 range . photographic and visual light - curves covering a century of observations revealed the irregular photometric behaviour of the star ( mclaughlin 1946 , bateson et al .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the liquid - gas phase transition in hot neutron - rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self - consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence . the boundary of the phase - coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the liquid - gas ( lg ) phase transition in nuclear matter remains illusive and a hot research topic despite of the great efforts devoted to understanding its nature and experimental manifestations by the nuclear physics community over many years@xcite . for a recent review , see , e.g. , refs.@xcite . most of the previous studies have focused on the lg phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter . while in an asymmetric nuclear matter. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
, the lg phase transition is expected to display some distinctly new features because of the isospin degree of freedom and the associated interactions and additional conservation laws@xcite . this expectation together with the need to understand better properties of asymmetric nuclear matter relevant for both nuclear physics and astrophysics have stimulated a lot of new work recentlyliko97,ma99,wang00,su00,lee01,li01,natowitz02,li02,chomaz03,sil04,lizx04,chomaz06,li07 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the phase transition of the quantum spin-@xmath0 frustrated heisenberg antiferroferromagnet on an anisotropic square lattice is studied by using a variational treatment . the model is described by the heisenberg hamiltonian with two antiferromagnetic interactions : nearest - neighbor ( nn ) with different coupling strengths @xmath1 and @xmath2 along x and y directions competing with a next - nearest - neighbor coupling @xmath3 ( nnn ) . the ground state phase diagram in the ( @xmath4 ) space , where @xmath5 and @xmath6 , is obtained . depending on the values of @xmath7 and @xmath8 , we obtain three different states : antiferromagnetic ( * af * ) , collinear antiferromagnetic ( * caf * ) and quantum paramagnetic ( * qp * ) . for an intermediate region @xmath9 we observe a * qp * state between the ordered * af * and * caf * phases , which disappears for @xmath7 above some critical value @xmath10 . the boundaries between these ordered phases merge at the _ quantum critical endpoint _ ( * qce * ) . below this * qce * there is again a direct first - order transition between the * af * and * caf * phases , with a behavior approximately described by the classical line @xmath11 . * pacs numbers * : 75.10.jm , 05.30.-d , 75.40.-s , 75.40.cx . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the study of the phase transition of frustrated spin systems on two - dimensional ( 2d ) lattices is a central problem in modern condensed mater physics . a competition of exchange interaction can lead to frustration , where spatial arrangement of magnetic ions in a crystal for which a simultaneous antiparallel ordering of all interacting spin is impossible . in particular , one of the frustrated 2d models most discussed is the quantum spin-@xmath0 heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice with competing nearest - neighbor ( nn ) and next - nearest - neighbor ( nnn ) antiferromagnetic exchange interactions ( known as @xmath12 model ) @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the criticality of this @xmath12 heisenberg model on a square lattice are relatively well known at @xmath13 . there are two magnetically long - range ordered phases at small and at large values of @xmath6 separated by an intermediate quantum paramagnetic phase without magnetic long - range order in the region between @xmath14 and @xmath15 , where the properties of these disordered phase are still under intensive debate . for @xmath16 @xmath17 , the system possesses antiferromagnetic ( af ) long - range order with wave vector @xmath18 , with a staggered magnetization smaller than the saturated value ( quantum fluctuations ) , which vanished continuously when @xmath19 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study the generalized mutual information @xmath0 of the ground state of different critical quantum chains . the generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the rnyi divergence . we calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete @xmath1 symmetries ( q - state potts model with @xmath2 and @xmath1 parafermionic models with @xmath3 and also ashkin - teller model with different anisotropies ) or the @xmath4 continuous symmetries ( klein - gordon field theory , xxz and spin-1 fateev - zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies ) . for the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground - state wavefunctions in two special basis . our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter @xmath5 that defines @xmath0 . for a system , with total size @xmath6 and subsystem sizes @xmath7 and @xmath8 , the @xmath0 has a logarithmic leading behavior given by @xmath9 where the coefficient @xmath10 is linearly dependent on the central charge @xmath11 of the underlying conformal field theory ( cft ) describing the system s critical properties . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the entanglement entropy , as a tool to detect and classify quantum phase transitions , has been playing an important role in the last fifteen years ( see @xcite and references therein ) . in one dimension , where most of the critical quantum chains are conformal invariant , the entanglement entropy provides a powerful tool to detect , as well to calculate , the central charge @xmath11 of the underlying cft . for example , for quantum chains , the ground - state entanglement entropy of a subsystem formed by contiguous @xmath7 sites of an infinite system , with respect to the complementary subsystem has the leading behavior @xmath12 if the system is critical or @xmath13 , when the system is noncritical with correlation length @xmath14 @xcite . although there are plenty of proposals to measure this quantity in the lab @xcite the actual experiments were out of reach so far . strictly speaking. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the central charge of quantum spin chains has never been measured experimentally . recently other quantities , that are also dependent of the central charge has been proposed @xcite . among these proposals interesting measures that , from the numerical point of view , are also efficient in detecting the phase transitions as well as the universality class of critical behavior , are the shannon and rnyi mutual informations @xcite ( see also the related works @xcite ) .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the quasiregular singularities ( horizons ) that form in the collision of cross polarized electromagnetic waves are , as in the linear polarized case , unstable . the validity of the helliwell - konkowski stability conjecture is tested for a number of exact backreaction cases . in the test electromagnetic case the conjecture fails to predict the correct nature of the singularity while in the scalar field and in the null dust cases the aggrement is justified . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: it has been known for a long time that owing to planar property and mutual focussing , colliding plane waves ( cpw ) result in spacelike singularities [ 1 ] . these singularities are somewhat weakened when the waves are endowed with a relative cross polarization prior to the collision . a solution given by chandrasekhar and xanthopoulos ( cx ) [ 2 ] , however constitutes an example contrasting this category , namely , it possesses a cauchy horizon ( ch ) instead of a spacelike singularity .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
naturally , this solution initiated a literature devoted entirely on the quest of stability of horizons formed hitherto . ch formed in spacetimes of cpw was shown by yurtsever to be unstable against plane - symmetric perturbations [ 3 ]
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we propose a tuner , suitable for adaptive control and ( in its discrete - time version ) adaptive filtering applications , that sets the second derivative of the parameter estimates rather than the first derivative as is done in the overwhelming majority of the literature . comparative stability and performance analyses are presented . * key words : * adaptive control ; parameter estimation ; adaptive filtering ; covariance analysis . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in adaptive control and recursive parameter estimation one often needs to adjust recursively an estimate @xmath0 of a vector @xmath1 , which comprises @xmath2 constant but unknown parameters , using measurements of a quantity @xmath3 here @xmath4 is a vector of known data , often called the regressor , and @xmath5 is a measurement error signal . the goal of tuning is to keep both the estimation error @xmath6 and the parameter error @xmath7 as small as possible . there are several popular methods for dealing with the problem above , for instance least - squares .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
maybe the most straightforward involve minimizing the prediction error via gradient - type algorithms of the form : @xmath8 where @xmath9 is a constant , symmetric , positive - definite gain matrix . let us define @xmath10 and analyze differential equations and , which under the assumption that @xmath11 is identically zero read : @xmath12 the nonnegative function @xmath13 has time derivative @xmath14 hence @xmath15 inspection of the equation above reveals that @xmath16 is limited in time , thus @xmath17 , and also that the error @xmath18 ( norms are taken on the interval @xmath19 where all signals are defined ) .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we introduce a new background field method for n=2 superspace . ( we treat projective hyperspace , but similar remarks apply for the harmonic case . ) in analogy to n=1 , background gauge fields are in the real representation , so the lowest - dimension potentials are spinor and the usual non - renormalization theorems are manifest . another consequence is that the r - coordinates disappear from the effective action . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the construction of background field formalism for n=2 super - yang - mills theory ( sym ) in projective hyperspace ( @xmath0 ) @xcite is an open problem . such a formalism is desirable for any ( non-)supersymmetric theory as it simplifies ( loop ) calculations and even intermediate steps respect gauge covariance . a major obstacle in solving this problem for the n=2 case seems to be the lack of knowledge relating the gauge connections to the tropical hyperfield @xmath1 , which describes the sym multiplet for all practical purposes @xcite . we note that the closely related @xcite n=2 harmonic superspace ( @xmath2 ) @xcite does nt encounter this issue as the hyperfield , @xmath3 describing the sym multiplet is itself a connection , @xmath4 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
in fact , background field formalism in harmonic superspace has quite a straightforward construction @xcite . although the construction has some subtleties , it has been refined in a series of papers along with relevant calculations @xcite . in this paper
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: a new numerical method is proposed for a 1-d inverse medium scattering problem with multi - frequency data . this method is based on the construction of a weighted cost functional . the weight is a carleman weight function ( cwf ) . in other words , this is the function , which is present in the carleman estimate for the undelying differential operator . the presence of the cwf makes this functional strictly convex on any a priori chosen ball with the center at @xmath0 in an appropriate hilbert space . convergence of the gradient minimization method to the exact solution starting from any point of that ball is proven . computational results for both computationally simulated and experimental data show a good accuracy of this method . * key words * : global convergence , coefficient inverse problem , multi - frequency data , carleman weight function * 2010 mathematics subject classification : * 35r30 . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the experimental data used in this paper were collected by the forward looking radar of the us army research laboratory @xcite . that radar was built for detection and possible identification of shallow explosive - like targets . since targets are three dimensional objects , one needs to measure a three dimensional information about each target . however , the radar measures only one time dependent curve for each target , see figure 5 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
therefore , one can hope to reconstruct only a very limited information about each target . so , we reconstruct only an estimate of the dielectric constant of each target . for each target ,
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: given a real number @xmath0 , we study the associated @xmath1-shift introduced in @xcite . we compares some aspects of the @xmath2-shift to the @xmath3-shift . when the expansion in base @xmath4 of @xmath5 is periodic with odd period or when @xmath6 is strictly less than the golden ratio , the @xmath1-shift , as defined in @xcite can not be coded because its language is not transitive . this intransitivity of words explains the existence of gaps in the interval . we observe that an intransitive word appears in the @xmath2-expansion of a real number taken in the gap . furthermore , we determine the zeta function @xmath7 of the @xmath2-transformation and the associated lap - counting function @xmath8 . these two functions are related by @xmath9 . we observe some similarities with the zeta function of the @xmath3-transformation . the function @xmath7 is meromorphic in the unit disk , is holomorphic in the open disk @xmath10 , has a simple pole at @xmath11 and no other singularities @xmath12 such that @xmath13 . we also note an influence of gaps ( @xmath3 less than the golden ratio ) on the zeta function . in factors of the denominator of @xmath7 , the coefficients count the words generating gaps . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the @xmath3-transformation has been extensively studied since the seminal paper of rnyi in 1957 . there is a huge amount of literature on the map itself and on the associated symbolic dynamics . over the past decade , people became interested in the @xmath2-transformation , changing the slope of the map from positive to negative .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
various studies have focused on the similarities and differences between the two maps from several points of view . this paper fits in this last line of research .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the sunspot number varies roughly periodically with time . however the individual cycle durations and the amplitudes are found to vary in an irregular manner . it is observed that the stronger cycles are having shorter rise times and vice versa . this leads to an important effect know as the waldmeier effect . another important feature of the solar cycle irregularity are the grand minima during which the activity level is strongly reduced . we explore whether these solar cycle irregularities can be studied with the help of the flux transport dynamo model of the solar cycle . we show that with a suitable stochastic fluctuations in a regular dynamo model , we are able to reproduce many irregular features of the solar cycle including the waldmeier effect and the grand minimum . however , we get all these results only if the value of the turbulent diffusivity in the convection zone is reasonably high . [ firstpage ] . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: although the sunspot number varies periodically with time with an average period of 11 year , the individual cycle period ( length ) and also the strength ( amplitude ) vary in a random way . it is observed that the stronger cycles have shorter periods and vice versa . this leads to an important feature of solar cycle known as waldmeier effect .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
it says that there is an anti - correlation between the rise time and the peak sunspot number . we call this as we1 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: phylogenetic networks are mathematical structures for modeling and visualization of reticulation processes in the study of evolution . galled networks , reticulation visible networks , nearly - stable networks and stable - child networks are the four classes of phylogenetic networks that are recently introduced to study the topological and algorithmic aspects of phylogenetic networks . we prove the following results . * a binary galled network with @xmath0 leaves has at most @xmath1 reticulation nodes . * a binary nearly - stable network with @xmath0 leaves has at most @xmath2 reticulation nodes . * a binary stable - child network with @xmath0 leaves has at most @xmath3 reticulation nodes . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: reticulation processes refer to the transfer of genetic material between living organisms in a non - reproduction manner . horizontal gene transfer is believed to be a highly significant reticulation process occurring between single - cell organisms ( doolittle and bapteste 2007 ; treangen and rocha 2011 ) . other reticulation processes include introgression , recombination and hybridization ( fontaine et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
2015 ; mcbreen and lockhart 2006 ; marcussen et al . 2014 ) . in the past two decades , phylogenetic networks
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the jhu turbulence database @xcite can be used with a state of the art visualisation tool @xcite to generate high quality link : anc / dfdsubmissionquarterres.mpg[fluid dynamics videos ] . in this work we investigate the classical idea that smaller structures in turbulent flows , while engaged in their own internal dynamics , are advected by the larger structures . they are not advected undistorted , however . we see instead that the small scale structures are sheared and twisted by the larger scales . this illuminates the basic mechanisms of the turbulent cascade . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in @xcite a database containing a solution of the 3d incompressible navier - stokes ( ns ) equations is presented . the equations were solved numerically with a standard pseudo - spectral simulation in a periodic domain , using a real space grid of @xmath0 grid points . a large - scale body force drives a turbulent flow with a taylor microscale based reynolds number @xmath1 . out of this solution ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
@xmath2 snapshots were stored , spread out evenly over a large eddy turnover time . more on the simulation and on accessing the data can be found at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu . in practical terms
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: electron injection from an adsorbed molecule to the substrate ( heterogeneous electron transfer ) is studied . one reaction coordinate is used to model this process . the surface phonons and/or the electron - hole pairs together with the internal degrees of freedom of the adsorbed molecule as well as possibly a liquid surrounding the molecule provide a dissipative environment , which may lead to dephasing , relaxation , and sometimes excitation of the relevant system . in the process studied the adsorbed molecule is excited by a light pulse . this is followed by an electron transfer from the excited donor state to the quasi - continuum of the substrate . it is assumed that the substrate is a semiconductor . the effects of dissipation on electron injection are investigated . electron transfer , density matrix theory , molecules at surfaces . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in recent years electron transfer ( et ) between molecular adsorbates and semiconductor nanomaterials and surfaces has been subject of much research @xcite . the injection of an electron into the conduction band is a prototype reaction for a lot of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical interfacial processes such as photography , solar energy conversion , quantum dot devices , etc . interfacial et between discrete molecular levels and a conducting surface is the simplest of all surface reactions : it involves only the exchange of an electron , and so no bonds are broken @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the ultrafast nature of the charge injection from adsorbed molecules to the conduction band of semiconductor surfaces was shown in recent experiments @xcite . the theoretical description of such experiments demands an adequate treatment of the et dynamics to be able to describe short time - scale phenomena such as coherences . this can be done within the reduced density matrix ( rdm ) description used in the present contribution .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: during the past two years , the galactic black hole microquasar grs 1915 + 105 has exhibited a bewildering diversity of large amplitude , chaotic variability in x - rays . although it is generally accepted that the variability in this source results from an accretion disk instability , the exact nature of the instability remains unknown . here we investigate different accretion disk models and viscosity prescriptions in order to provide a basic explanation for the exotic temporal behavior in grs 1915 + 105 . we discuss a range of possible accretion flow geometries . based on the fact that the overall cycle times are very much longer than the rise / fall time scales in grs 1915 , we rule out the geometry of advection dominated accretion flow ( adaf ) or a hot quasi - spherical region plus a cold outer disk for this source . a cold disk extending down to the last inner stable orbit plus a hot corona above it , on the other hand , is allowed . we thus concentrate on geometrically thin ( though not necessarily standard ) shakura - sunyaev type disks ( shakura & sunyaev 1973 ; hereafter ss73 ) . we argue that x - ray observations clearly require a quasi - stable accretion disk solution at high accretion rates where radiation pressure begins to dominate , which excludes the standard @xmath0-viscosity prescription . to remedy this deficiency , we have therefore devised a modified viscosity law that has a quasi - stable upper branch , and we have developed a code to solve the time - dependent equations to study such an accretion disk . via numerical simulations , we show that the model does account for several gross observational features of grs 1915 + 105 , including its overall cyclic behavior on time scales of @xmath1 100 - 1000 s. on the other hand , the rise / fall time scales are not short enough , no rapid oscillations on time scales @xmath2 10 s emerge naturally from the model , and the computed cycle - time dependence on the average luminosity is stronger than is found in grs 1915.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: compact x - ray sources exhibit a wide range of temporal variabilities ( from milliseconds to years ) . perhaps none of these is as exotic and diverse as the x - ray temporal variability observed from the black hole microquasar grs 1915 + 105 ( castro - tirado , brandt , & lund 1992 ; greiner , morgan , & remillard 1996 ; morgan , remillard & greiner 1997 ; muno , morgan & remillard 1999 ) . this object is one of two known galactic x - ray sources that exhibit superluminal radio jets ( mirabel & rodrigues 1994 ) .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the combination of relativistic constraints and radio measurements at hi indicate that the source lies behind the sagittarius arm at a distance of 12.5 @xmath3 kpc ( mirabel & rodrigues 1994 ) . interstellar extinction limits optical / ir studies to weak detections at wavelengths less than 1 micron ( mirabel et al .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: recent studies of lensing clusters reveal that it might be fairly common for a galaxy cluster that the x - ray center has an obvious offset from its gravitational center which is measured by strong lensing . we argue that if these offsets exist , then x - rays and lensing are indeed measuring different regions of a cluster , and may thus naturally result in a discrepancy in the measured gravitational masses by the two different methods . here we investigate theoretically the dynamical effects of such lensing - x - ray offsets , and compare with observational data . we find that for typical values , the offset alone can give rise to a factor of two difference between the lensing and x - ray determined masses for the core regions of a cluster , suggesting that such `` offset effect '' may play an important role and should not be ignored in our dynamical measurements of clusters . [ firstpage ] dark matter - gravitational lensing - x - rays : galaxies : clusters . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: galaxy clusters , the largest gravitationally - bound structures in the universe , are ideal cosmological tools . accurate measurements of their masses provide a crucial observational constraint on cosmological models . several dynamical methods have been available to estimate cluster masses , such as ( 1 ) optical measurements of the velocity dispersions of cluster galaxies , ( 2 ) measurements of the x - ray emitting gas , and ( 3 ) gravitational lensing .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
good agreements between these methods have been found on scales larger than cluster cores . however , joint measurements of lensing and x - rays often identify large discrepancies in the gravitational masses within the central regions of clusters by the two methods , and the lensing mass has always been found to be @xmath0 times higher than the x - ray determined mass .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study a family of double confluent heun equations that are linearizations of nonlinear equations on two - torus modeling the josephson effect in superconductivity . they have the form @xmath0 , where @xmath1 is a family of differential operators of order two acting on germs of holomorphic functions in one complex variable . they depend on parameters @xmath2 , @xmath3 , @xmath4 . we show that for every @xmath5 and @xmath6 satisfying a certain `` non - resonance condition '' and every parameter values @xmath7 , @xmath8 there exists a unique entire function @xmath9 ( up to multiplicative constant ) such that @xmath10 for some @xmath11 . the latter @xmath12 are expressed as functions of the parameters . this result has several applications . first of all , it gives the description of those parameter values for which the monodromy operator of the corresponding heun equation has given eigenvalues . this yields the description of the non - integer level curves of the rotation number of the family of equations on two - torus as a function of parameters . in the particular case , when the monodromy is parabolic ( has multiple eigenvalue ) , we get the complete description of those parameter values that correspond to the boundaries of the phase - lock areas : integer level sets of the rotation number , which have non - empty interiors . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: we study the problem to find solutions of _ non - homogeneous _ double - confluent heun equations that are monodromy eigenfunctions . our study is motivated by applications to nonlinear equations modeling the josephson effect in superconductivity .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the main results , their existence and uniqueness ( theorems [ noncom ] and [ xi=0 ] ) are stated in subsection 1.1 . applications to monodromy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of homogeneous double confluent heun equations and to nonlinear equations modeling josephson effect are presented in subsection 1.1 , sections 4 and 5 .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the statistical model of chase and mekjian , which offers an analytic solution for the canonical ensemble of non - interacting fragments , is investigated for it s thermodynamic behavior . various properties of the model , which exhibits a first - order phase transition , are studied . the effects of finite particle number are investigated . three extensions of the model are considered , excluded volume , coulomb effects and inclusion of isospin degrees of freedom . a formulation of a microcanonical version of the model is also presented . 2.0 cm . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: nuclear fragmentation resulting from heavy ion collsions is a complex phenomenon . the role of equilibration and dynamics has not yet been determined as a plethora of approaches have been investigated . examples of approaches are evaporative pictures@xcite , percolation models@xcite , lattice gas models , and dynamical models based on boltzmann simulations@xcite . in this paper. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
we consider the statistical approach@xcite where one considers sampling all configurations of non - interacting clusters . recently , chase and mekjian@xcite derived relations which allow the exact calculation of the canonical partition function for such a system . by eliminating the need for computationally intensive monte carlo procedures and associated approximations , this technique allows a deeper insight into the thermodynamic principles which drive the statistics of fragmentation . in the next section we present the recursive technique of chase and mekjian and
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study the implication of the time - dependent cp asymmetry in @xmath0 decays on the extraction of weak phases taking into account the precise measurement of @xmath1 , obtained from the `` gold - plated''mode @xmath2 . predictions and uncertainties for the hadronic parameters are investigated in qcd factorization . furthermore , independent theoretical and experimental tests of the factorization framework are briefly discussed . finally , a model - independent bound on the unitarity triangle from cp violation in @xmath0 and @xmath2 is derived . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in the standard model ( sm ) , the only source of cp violation is the kobayashi - maskawa phase @xcite , localized in the unitarity triangle ( ut ) of the cabibbo - kobayashi - maskawa ( ckm ) matrix @xcite . thanks to the precise measurements at the current @xmath3-factories , cp violation could be established in @xmath4 @xcite , leading to a precise measurement of @xmath5 , where the current world average yields @xcite @xmath6 . the extractions of the other two angles @xmath7 and @xmath8 are expected mainly through cp violation in the charmless @xmath3 decays , such as @xmath9 and similar modes @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the current @xmath3-factories measurements have been averaged to yield @xcite : @xmath10 on the theoretical side , the analysis is challenging due to the need to know the ratio of penguin - to - tree amplitude contributing to this process . in this talk , we present the result of @xcite , where a transparent method of exploring the ut through the cp violation in @xmath11 , combined with the `` gold - plated '' mode @xmath4 has been proposed .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the stability of a recently proposed general relativistic model of galaxies is studied in some detail . this model is a general relativistic version of the well known miyamoto - nagai model that represents well a thick galactic disk . the stability of the disk is investigated under a general first order perturbation keeping the spacetime metric frozen ( no gravitational radiation is taken into account ) . we find that the stability is associated with the thickness of the disk . we have that flat galaxies have more not - stable modes than the thick ones i.e. , flat galaxies have a tendency to form more complex structures like rings , bars and spiral arms . [ firstpage ] relativity galaxies : kinematics and dynamics . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the natural shape of an isolated self - gravitating fluid is axially symmetric . for this reason , exact axial symmetric solutions of einstein field equations are good candidates to model astrophysical bodies in general relativity . in the last decades , several exact solutions were studied as possible galactic models .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
static thin disk solutions were first studied by @xcite and @xcite , where they considered disks without radial pressure . disks with radial pressure and with radial tension had been considered by @xcite and @xcite , respectively .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: * _ abstract _ : * in this paper , we present a new pipeline which automatically identifies and annotates axoplasmic reticula , which are small subcellular structures present only in axons . we run our algorithm on the kasthuri11 dataset , which was color corrected using gradient - domain techniques to adjust contrast . we use a bilateral filter to smooth out the noise in this data while preserving edges , which highlights axoplasmic reticula . these axoplasmic reticula are then annotated using a morphological region growing algorithm . additionally , we perform laplacian sharpening on the bilaterally filtered data to enhance edges , and repeat the morphological region growing algorithm to annotate more axoplasmic reticula . we track our annotations through the slices to improve precision , and to create long objects to aid in segment merging . this method annotates axoplasmic reticula with high precision . our algorithm can easily be adapted to annotate axoplasmic reticula in different sets of brain data by changing a few thresholds . the contribution of this work is the introduction of a straightforward and robust pipeline which annotates axoplasmic reticula with high precision , contributing towards advancements in automatic feature annotations in neural em data . + 2 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the open connectome project ( located at http://openconnecto.me ) aims to annotate all the features in a 3d volume of neural em data , connect these features , and compute a high resolution wiring diagram of the brain , known as a connectome . it is hoped that such work will help elucidate the structure and function of the human brain . the aim of this work is to automatically annotate axoplasmic reticula , since it is extremely time consuming to hand - annotate them .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
specifically , the objective is to achieve an operating point with high precision , to enable robust contextual inference . there has been very little previous work towards this end @xcite .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the recent data on @xmath0dijet excess reported by cdf may be interpreted as the associated production of a @xmath1 and a new particle of mass about 150 gev which subsequently decays into two hadron jets . we study the possibility of explaining the @xmath0dijet excess by colored scalar bosons . there are several colored scalars which can have tree level renormalizable yukawa couplings with two quarks , @xmath2 , @xmath3 , @xmath4 . if one of these scalars has a mass about 150 gev , being colored it can naturally explain why the excess only shows up in the form of two hadron jets . although the required production cross section and mass put constraints on model parameters and rule out some possible scenarios when confronted with other existing data , in particular fcnc data , we find that there are strong constraints on the yukawa couplings of these scalars . without forcing the couplings to be some special texture forms most of the scalars , except the @xmath5 , are in trouble with fcnc data . we also study some features for search of these new particles at the rhic and the lhc and find that related information can help further to distinguish different models . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the cdf collaboration has reported an excess in the production of two jets in association with a @xmath1 boson production @xcite from data collected at the tevatron with a center - of - mass energy of 1.96 tev and an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb@xmath6 . the @xmath1 boson is identified through a charged lepton ( electron or muon ) with large transverse momentum . the invariant mass of the dijet system is found to be in the range of 120 - 160 gev .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the @xmath0dijet production has a few pb cross - section which is much larger than standard model ( sm ) expectation . the dijet system may be interpreted as an unidentified resonance with mass around 150 gev which predominantly decays into two hadron jets .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we present a statistical x - ray study of spiral galaxies in the hubble deep field - north and its flanking fields using the chandra deep field north 1 ms dataset . we find that @xmath0 galaxies with @xmath1 have ratios of x - ray to @xmath2-band luminosity similar to those in the local universe , although the data indicate a likely increase in this ratio by a factor of @xmath33 . we have also determined that typical spiral galaxies at @xmath1 should be detected in the 0.52 kev band in the flux range ( @xmath46@xmath5 erg @xmath6 s@xmath7 . 1_heao-1 _ . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: x - ray studies of fairly normal " galaxies , with high - energy emission not obviously dominated by a luminous active galactic nucleus ( agn ) , have recently been extended to cosmologically interesting distances in the deep field ( cdf ) surveys , which have now reached 1 ms of exposure ( cdf - n : hornschemeier et al . 2001 , hereafter paper ii ; brandt et al . 2001b , hereafter paper v ; cdf - s : tozzi et al . 2001 ; p.. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
rosati et al . , in prep . ) . galaxies with @xmath8 are detected in appreciable numbers at 0.52 kev fluxes below @xmath9 erg @xmath6 s@xmath7 ( e.g. , paper ii ) ; the cdf - n survey goes almost two orders of magnitude fainter , detecting significant numbers of normal galaxies among the population of x - ray sources making the diffuse x - ray background ( xrb ; paper ii ; a.j .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the asymmetric spin - orbit interactions play a crucial role in realizing topological phases in noncentrosymmetric superconductor ( ncs ) . we investigate the edge states and the vortex core states in the @xmath0-wave ncs with dresselhaus ( 110 ) spin - orbit coupling by both numerical and analytical methods . in particular , we demonstrate that there exists a novel semimetal phase characterized by the flat andreev bound states in the phase diagram of the @xmath0-wave dresselhaus ncs which supports the emergence of majorana fermions . the flat dispersion implies a peak in the density of states which has a clear experimental signature in the tunneling conductance measurements and the majorana fermions proposed here should be experimentally detectable . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: topological phase of condensed matter systems is a quantum many - body state with nontrivial momentum or real space topology in the hilbert spaces @xcite . recent newly discovered topological superconductor ( tsc ) has spawned considerable interests since this kind of topological phase supports the emergence of majorana fermion ( mf ) @xcite which is a promising candidate for the fault - tolerant topological quantum computation ( tqc ) @xcite . there are several proposals for hosting mfs in tsc , for example , chiral @xmath1-wave superconductor @xcite , cu - doped topological insulator @xmath2 @xcite , superconducting proximity devices @xcite and noncentrosymmetric superconductor ( ncs ) @xcite .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the signatures of mfs have also been reported in the superconducting insb nanowire @xcite , @xmath3 @xcite and topological insulator josephson junction @xcite . to obtain a readily manipulated majorana platform for tqc , more experimental confirmations and theoretical proposals are therefore highly desirable . in this paper , we study the topological phase and majorana fermion at the edge and in the vortex core of the @xmath0-wave dresselhaus ( 110 ) spin - orbit ( so ) coupled ncs .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: in this work , we consider a tight binding lattice with two non - hermitian impurities . the system is described by a non - hermitian generalization of the aubry andre model . we show for the first time that there exists topologically nontrivial edge states with real spectra in the @xmath0 symmetric region . non - hermitian hamiltonian , @xmath0 symmetry , topological phase . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the discovery of topological insulators in 2d and 3d has recently attracted a great deal of attention @xcite ( reference therein ) . the appearance of the gapless edge states within the bulk gap is generally believed to be a signature of the topological insulator . generally speaking , a topological insulator has gapless robust edge states while it s energy spectrum is gapped in the bulk . the bulk energy gap closes if a system is deformed adiabatically to a topologically nonequivalent system .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
remarkably , topological phase is not restricted to two and three dimensional systems . of special importance in the context of localization and topological phase in 1d is the aubry and andre ( aa ) model @xcite .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: an important concern in the application of gamma - ray bursts ( grbs ) to cosmology is that the calibration of grb luminosity / energy relations depends on the cosmological model , due to the lack of a sufficient low - redshift grb sample . in this paper , we present a new method to calibrate grb relations in a cosmology - independent way . since objects at the same redshift should have the same luminosity distance and since the distance moduli of type ia supernovae ( sne ia ) obtained directly from observations are completely cosmology independent , we obtain the distance modulus of a grb at a given redshift by interpolating from the hubble diagram of sne ia . then we calibrate seven grb relations without assuming a particular cosmological model and construct a grb hubble diagram to constrain cosmological parameters . from the 42 grbs at @xmath0 , we obtain @xmath1 , @xmath2 for the flat @xmath3cdm model , and for the dark energy model with a constant equation of state @xmath4 , which is consistent with the concordance model in a 1-@xmath5 confidence region . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in the past decade , observations of type ia supernovae ( sne ia ; riess et al . 1998 ; schmidt et al . 1998 ; perlmutter et al . 1999 ) , cosmic microwave background ( cmb ) fluctuations ( bennett et al . 2003 ; spergel et al . 2003 , 2007 ) , and large - scale structures ( lss ; tegmark et al . 2004 , 2006 ) have been used to explore cosmology extensively . these observations are found to be consistent with the so - called concordance cosmology , in which the universe is spatially flat and contains pressureless matter and dark energy , with fractional energy densities of @xmath6 and @xmath7 ( davis et al .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
observations of sn ia provide a powerful probe in the modern cosmology . phillips ( 1993 ) found that there is an intrinsic relation between the peak luminosity and the shape of the light curve of sne ia .
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Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the question of which two - qubit states are steerable ( i.e. permit a demonstration of epr - steering ) remains open . here , a strong necessary condition is obtained for the steerability of two - qubit states having maximally - mixed reduced states , via the construction of local hidden state models . it is conjectured that this condition is in fact sufficient . two provably sufficient conditions are also obtained , via asymmetric epr - steering inequalities . our work uses ideas from the quantum steering ellipsoid formalism , and explicitly evaluates the integral of @xmath0 over arbitrary unit hemispheres for any positive matrix @xmath1 . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: quantum systems can be correlated in ways that supersede classical descriptions . however , there are degrees of non - classicality for quantum correlations . for simplicity , we consider only bipartite correlations , with the two , spatially separated , parties being named alice and bob as usual . at the weaker end of the spectrum are quantum systems whose states can not be expressed as a mixture of product - states of the constituents . these are called non - separable or entangled states .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the product - states appearing in such a mixture comprise a local hidden state ( lhs ) model for any measurements undertaken by alice and bob . at the strongest end of the spectrum are quantum systems whose measurement correlations can violate a bell inequality @xcite , hence demonstrating ( modulo loopholes @xcite ) the violation of local causality @xcite .
74
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: although the generation of disoriented chiral condensates ( dccs ) , where the order parameter for chiral symmetry breaking is misaligned with respect to the vacuum direction in isospin state , is quite natural in the theory of strong interactions , they have so far eluded experiments in accelerators and cosmic rays . if dccs are formed in high - energy nuclear collisions , the relevant outcome are very large event - by - event fluctuations in the neutral - to - charged pion fraction . in this note we search for fingerprints of dcc formation in observables of ultra - high energy cosmic ray showers . we present simulation results for the depth of the maximum ( @xmath0 ) and number of muons on the ground , evaluating their sensitivity to the neutral - to - charged pion fraction asymmetry produced in the primary interaction . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: almost forty years ago exotic , apparently hybrid and unexpected events , dubbed centauros , were observed in cosmic ray ( cr ) experiments in emulsion chambers in chacaltaya by lattes and collaborators @xcite . those events were very different from what is commonly observed in crs , exhibiting a large number of hadrons and a small number of electrons and gammas , which suggests the presence of very few rapid - gamma - decaying hadrons . so , a possible imbalance in the number of neutral to charged pions could be envisaged .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the nature and reality of centauro events started a long debate , that includes the reexamination of the original emulsion chamber plates , and is still not resolved @xcite . nevertheless , centauro events were certainly an experimental motivation for the development of the theory of disoriented chiral condensates ( dccs ) that started in the early 1990s @xcite . for a detailed review , see ref . @xcite . assuming that a given nuclear system could be heated above the critical ( crossover ) transition region for chiral symmetry restoration , i.e. for temperatures of the order of @xmath1mev @xcite , then quenched to low temperatures , the chiral condensate initially melted to zero could grow in any direction in isospin space . besides the vacuum ( stable ) direction
75
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study the cool gas around a galaxy at @xmath0 using keck / lris spectroscopy of a bright ( @xmath1 ) background galaxy at @xmath2 at a transverse distance of @xmath3 kpc . the background galaxy spectrum reveals strong , , , and absorption at the redshift of the foreground galaxy , with a @xmath4 rest equivalent width of @xmath5 , indicative of a velocity width exceeding @xmath6 . because the background galaxy is large ( @xmath7 kpc ) , the high covering fraction of the absorbing gas suggests that it arises in a spatially extended complex of cool clouds with large velocity dispersion . spectroscopy of the massive ( @xmath8 ) host galaxy reveals that it experienced a burst of star formation about 1 gyr ago and that it harbors a weak agn . we discuss the possible origins of the cool gas in its halo , including multiphase cooling of hot halo gas , cold inflow , tidal interactions , and galactic winds . we conclude the absorbing gas was most likely ejected or tidally stripped from the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or its progenitors during the past starburst event . adopting the latter interpretation , these results place one of only a few constraints on the radial extent of cool gas driven or stripped from a galaxy in the distant universe . future studies with integral field unit spectroscopy of spatially extended background galaxies will provide multiple sightlines through foreground absorbers and permit analysis of the morphology and kinematics of the gas surrounding galaxies with a diverse set of properties and environments . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: several decades ago , @xcite postulated that the absorption lines observed in the spectra of distant qsos are due to the extended gaseous halos of intervening galaxies . since that time , astronomers have identified the galaxies associated with the observed absorption ( e.g. , * ? ? ? * ; * ? ? ? * ; * ? ? ?. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
* ) and have used qso spectroscopy of various rest - frame ultraviolet transitions to constrain the nature of baryonic processes in the outer regions of galaxies , e.g. , feedback , accretion , and cooling @xcite . these transitions include ly@xmath9 and lines that probe cooler , photoionized gas @xcite , and and doublets that trace warmer , more diffuse material @xcite .
76
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we propose a scheme for tunable coupling of phase - coupled flux qubits . the phase - coupling scheme can provide a strong coupling strength of the order of josephson coupling energy of josephson junctions in the connecting loop , while the previously studied inductive coupling scheme can not provide due to small mutual inductance and induced currents . we show that , in order to control the coupling , we need _ two _ dc - squid s in the connecting loop and the control fluxes threading the dc - squid s must be in _ opposite _ directions . the coupling strength is analytically calculated as a function of the control flux at the co - resonance point . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: superconducting josephson junction qubit is one of the most promising candidates for implementing quantum computation @xcite . single qubit coherent oscillations in superconducting qubits have been demonstrated experimentally @xcite and furthermore two qubit coupling and entanglement have been performed in charge @xcite , flux @xcite and phase @xcite qubits . scalable quantum computing requires controllable and selective coupling between two remote as well as nearest neighbor qubits .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
recently much theoretical efforts have been devoted on the study about the controllable coupling of charge @xcite , charge - phase @xcite and flux qubits @xcite . for flux qubits the controllable coupling schemes use inductive coupling , but it is too weak to perform efficient two - qubit gate operations . hence , while in superconducting charge qubit two - qubit coherent oscillations and cnot gate operations were experimentally observed @xcite , only spectroscopy measurement was done for inductively coupled flux qubit @xcite . in this study
77
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: proposition algebra is based on hoare s conditional connective , which is a ternary connective comparable to if - then - else and used in the setting of propositional logic . conditional statements are provided with a simple semantics that is based on evaluation trees and that characterizes so - called free valuation congruence : two conditional statements are free valuation congruent if , and only if , they have equal evaluation trees . free valuation congruence is axiomatized by the four basic equational axioms of proposition algebra that define the conditional connective . valuation congruences that identify more conditional statements than free valuation congruence are repetition - proof , contractive , memorizing , and static valuation congruence . each of these valuation congruences is characterized using a transformation on evaluation trees : two conditional statements are c - valuation congruent if , and only if , their c - transformed evaluation trees are equal . these transformations are simple and natural , and only for static valuation congruence a slightly more complex transformation is used . also , each of these valuation congruences is axiomatized in proposition algebra . a spin - off of our approach is `` basic form semantics for proposition algebra '' : for each valuation congruence c considered , two conditional statements are c - valuation congruent if , and only if , they have equal c - basic forms , where c - basic forms are obtained by a syntactic transformation of conditional statements , which is a form of normalization . conditional composition , evaluation tree , proposition algebra , short - circuit evaluation , side effect . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: in 1985 , hoare s paper _ a couple of novelties in the propositional calculus _ @xcite was published . in this paper the ternary connective @xmath0 is introduced as the _ conditional_. with @xmath1 and @xmath2 denoting programs and @xmath3 a boolean expression . ] a more common expression for a conditional statement @xmath4 is @xmath5 but in order to reason systematically with conditional statements , a notation such as @xmath6 is preferable . in a conditional statement. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
@xmath6 , first @xmath2 is evaluated , and depending on that evaluation result , then either @xmath1 or @xmath7 is evaluated ( and the other is not ) and determines the evaluation value . this evaluation strategy is a form of _ short - circuit _ evaluation . in @xcite , hoare proves that propositional logic is characterized by eleven equational axioms , some of which employ constants @xmath8 and @xmath9 for the truth values @xmath10 and @xmath11 . in 2011
78
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: a theoretical study is presented of surface waves at a monomolecular surfactant film between an isotropic liquid and a nematic liquid crystal for the case when the surfactant film is in the isotropic two - dimensional fluid phase and induces homeotropic ( normal to the interface ) orientation of the nematic director . the dispersion relation for the surface waves is obtained , and different surface modes are analyzed with account being taken of the anchoring induced by the surfactant layer , the curvature energy of the interface , and the anisotropy of the viscoelastic coefficients . the dispersion laws for capillary and dilatational surface modes retain structure similar to that in isotropic systems , but involve anisotropic viscosity coefficients . additional modes are related to relaxation of the nematic director field due to anchoring at the interface . the results can be used to determine different properties of nematic - surfactant - isotropic interfaces from experimental data on surface light scattering . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the presence of a surfactant film at a fluid - fluid interface alters the dynamics of the interface . this is manifested in behavior of the interfacial waves , induced either externally or by thermal fluctuations @xcite . the interfacial dynamics can be probed by measuring the light scattered on such surface waves ( see the review by earnshaw @xcite ) .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
the scattering of light on surface waves is a powerful tool for probing the properties of surfactant films at fluid interfaces @xcite , and a variety of systems have been recently investigated using this method ( e.g. refs @xcite , see also the review by cicuta and hopkinson @xcite ) . recently , the application of surfactant films to modify the interfacial properties has been extended to the systems in which one of the fluids is in liquid - crystalline phase ( e.g. liquid crystal colloids @xcite ) .
79
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we study three - dimensional bosonic cluster interacting through van der waals potential at large scattering length . we use faddeev - type decomposition of the many - body wave function which includes all possible two - body correlations . at large scattering length , a series of efimov - like states appear which are spatially extended and exhibit the exponential dependence on the state number . we also find the existence of generalized tjon lines for @xmath0- body clusters . signature of universal behaviour of weakly bound clusters can be observed in experiments of ultracold bose gases . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: one of the most interesting topic of quantum physics in recent days is the characterization of universal properties of bosonic many - body system in the unitary regime @xcite . by using the feshbach resonance the two - body scattering length @xmath1 is tuned to very large values . the unitary regime is characterized by simple universal laws . for. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
weakly interacting dilute bose gas , the gas like state becomes unstable as @xmath1 increases @xcite . however the efimov effect in quantum three - body systems leads to different concept of universality .
80
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: this article reviews the use of single electron spins to compute . in classical computing schemes , a binary bit is represented by the spin polarization of a single electron confined in a quantum dot . if a weak magnetic field is present , the spin orientation becomes a binary variable which can encode logic 0 and logic 1 . coherent superposition of these two polarizations represent a qubit . by engineering the exchange interaction between closely spaced spins in neighboring quantum dots , it is possible to implement either classical or quantum logic gates . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: the visionary who first thought of using the spin polarization of a single electron to encode a binary bit of information has never been identified conclusively . folklore has it that feynman mentioned this notion in casual conversations ( circa 1985 ) , but to this author s knowledge there did not exist concrete schemes for implementing spintronic logic gates till the mid 1990s . encoding information in spin may have certain advantages .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
first , there is the possibility of lower power dissipation in switching logic gates . in charge based devices , such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors , switching between logic 0 and logic 1 is accomplished by moving charges into and out of the transistor channel .
81
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the last part of sps5 dealt with the circumstellar environment . structures are indeed found around several types of massive stars , such as blue and red supergiants , as well as wrs and lbvs . as shown in the last years , the potential of ir for their study is twofold : first , ir can help discover many previously unknown nebulae , leading to the identification of new massive stars as their progenitors ; second , ir can help characterize the nebular features . current and new ir facilities thus pave the way to a better understanding of the feedback from massive stars . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: circumstellar material holds clues about the mass - loss history of massive stars . indeed , as the winds interact with the interstellar medium ( wind - blown bubbles , bow shocks ) , they leave a characteristic signature that depends on the wind properties . moreover , the material ejected during short eruptive phases is visible as nebulae around massive stars . the analysis of these features reveals which material was ejected and in which quantity . with the recent reduction in mass - loss rates ,. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
these episodes of enhanced mass - loss have gained more attention , as they seem more crucial than ever in the evolution of massive stars . another reason to study the close environment of massive stars is to better understand the evolution of supernova remnants ( snrs ) .
82
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: this paper presents the i - band data obtained by the eso imaging survey ( eis ) over two patches of the sky , 6 square degrees each , centered at @xmath0 , @xmath1 , and @xmath2 , @xmath3 . the data are being made public in the form of object catalogs and , photometrically and astrometrically calibrated pixel maps . these products together with other useful information can be found at `` http://www.eso.org/eis '' . the overall quality of the data in the two fields is significantly better than the other two patches released earlier and cover a much larger contiguous area . the total number of objects in the catalogs extracted from these frames is over 700,000 down to @xmath4 , where the galaxy catalogs are 80% complete . the star counts are consistent with model predictions computed at the position of the patches considered . the galaxy counts and the angular two - point correlation functions are also consistent with those of the other patches showing that the eis data set is homogeneous and that the galaxy catalogs are uniform . 1@xmath5 # 1 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: this paper presents data for the last two patches ( c and d ) of the sky observed by the public eso imaging survey ( eis ) , being carried out in preparation for the first year of regular operation of vlt . the i - band data reported here covers a total area of 12 square degrees , down to @xmath6 , corresponding to two patches probing separated regions of the sky , 6 square degrees each . the present work complements earlier papers in the series ( nonino 1998 ; paper i , prandoni 1998 ; paper iii ) and completes the presentation of the data accumulated by the eis observations carried out in the period july 1997-march 1998 as part of the wide - angle imaging survey originally described by renzini and da costa ( 1997 ) and in paper i. the primary science goal for surveying patches c and d was to search for and produce a list of distant galaxy cluster candidates that would complement those of the other two patches ( a and b ) reported earlier ( olsen 1998a , b : paper ii and v ) , providing vlt targets nearly year - round . patches c and d were also selected to overlap with the ongoing 92 cm westerbork survey in the southern hemisphere ( wish ) being carried out in the region @xmath7 and @xmath8 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
originally , the eis observations were expected to be carried out in two passbands ( v and i ) . however , because of time constraints and the prospect of supplementing the eis observations at the ntt with the new wide - field imager for the 2.2 m eso / mpia telescope , preference was given to increase the area covered by the i - band observations , more suitable for identifying distant clusters with @xmath9 ( see paper v ) . this decision allowed the full coverage of the selected patches , yielding a total coverage of 12 square degrees .
83
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: a multi - resolution bead - spring model for polymer dynamics is developed as a generalization of the rouse model . a polymer chain is described using beads of variable sizes connected by springs with variable spring constants . a numerical scheme which can use different timesteps to advance the positions of different beads is presented and analyzed . the position of a particular bead is only updated at integer multiples of the timesteps associated with its connecting springs . this approach extends the rouse model to a multiscale model on both spatial and temporal scales , allowing simulations of localized regions of a polymer chain with high spatial and temporal resolution , while using a coarser modelling approach to describe the rest of the polymer chain . a method for changing the model resolution on - the - fly is developed using the metropolis - hastings algorithm . it is shown that this approach maintains key statistics of the end - to - end distance and diffusion of the polymer filament and makes computational savings when applied to a model for the binding of a protein to the dna filament . polymer dynamics , dna , rouse model , brownian dynamics , multiscale modelling 60h10 , 60j70 , 82c31 , 82d60 , 92b99 . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: over the past 70 years , there have been multiple attempts to dynamically model the movement of polymer chains with brownian dynamics @xcite , which have more recently been used as a model for dna filament dynamics @xcite . one of the first and simplest descriptions was given as the rouse model @xcite , which is a bead - spring model @xcite , where the continuous filament is modelled at a mesoscopic scale with beads connected by springs . the only forces exerted on beads are spring forces from adjacent springs , as well as gaussian noise .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
hydrodynamic forces between beads and excluded volume effects are neglected in the model in favour of simplicity and computational speed , but the model manages to agree with several properties of polymer chains from experiments @xcite . other models exist , for example the zimm model introduces hydrodynamic forces @xcite between beads , or bending potentials can be introduced to form a wormlike chain and give a notion of persistence length @xcite , see , for example , review article @xcite or books @xcite on this subject .
84
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: interval exchange maps are related to geodesic flows on translation surfaces ; they correspond to the first return maps of the vertical flow on a transverse segment . the rauzy - veech induction on the space of interval exchange maps provides a powerful tool to analyze the teichmller geodesic flow on the moduli space of abelian differentials . several major results have been proved using this renormalization . danthony and nogueira introduced in @xmath0 a natural generalization of interval exchange transformations , namely the linear involutions . these maps are related to general measured foliations on surfaces ( orientable or not ) . in this paper we are interested by such maps related to geodesic flow on ( orientable ) flat surfaces with @xmath1 linear holonomy . we relate geometry and dynamics of such maps to the combinatorics of generalized permutations . we study an analogue of the rauzy - veech induction and give an efficient combinatorial characterization of its attractors . we establish a natural bijection between the extended rauzy classes of generalized permutations and connected components of the strata of meromorphic quadratic differentials with at most simple poles , which allows , in particular , to classify the connected components of all exceptional strata . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: a geodesic flow in a given direction on a translation surface induces on a transverse segment an interval exchange map . dynamic of such transformations has been extensively studied during these last thirty years providing applications to billiards in rational polygons , to measured foliations on surfaces , to teichmller geometry and dynamics , etc . interval exchange transformations are closely related to abelian differentials on riemann surfaces .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
it is well known that the continued fractions encode cutting sequences of hyperbolic geodesics on the poincar upper half - plane . similarly , the rauzy - veech induction ( analogous to euclidean algorithm ) provides a discrete model for the teichmller geodesics flow ( @xcite ) . using this relation h. masur in @xcite and w. a. veech in @xcite
85
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: we investigate if consequential angular momentum losses ( caml ) or an intrinsic deformation of the donor star in cvs could increase the cv bounce period from the canonical theoretical value @xmath0 min to the observed value @xmath1 min , and if a variation of these effects in a cv population could wash out the theoretically predicted accumulation of systems near the minimum period ( the period spike ) . we are able to construct suitably mixed cv model populations that a statisticial test can not rule out as the parent population of the observed cv sample . however , the goodness of fit is never convincing , and always slightly worse than for a simple , flat period distribution . generally , the goodness of fit is much improved if all cvs are assumed to form at long orbital periods . the weighting suggested by king , schenker & hameury ( 2002 ) does not constitute an improvment if a realistically shaped input period distribution is used . binaries : close stars : evolution stars : mass - loss novae , cataclysmic variables . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: cataclysmic variables ( cvs ) are short - period binaries containing a white dwarf ( wd ) primary ( with mass @xmath2 ) and a low mass main sequence secondary ( with mass @xmath3 ) . the secondary fills its roche lobe and transfers mass to the wd through the inner lagrangian ( @xmath4 ) point . the main features of the orbital period distribution of cvs with hydrogen rich donors are the lack of systems in the 2 - 3 hr period range ( the so - called period gap ) and the sharp cut off of the distribution at around 77 minutes , as can be seen in figure [ combined ] ( upper frame ; e.g. ritter & kolb 1998 ) .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
so far theoretical models have been unable to reproduce the precise position of the observed short - period cut - off and observed shape of the cv orbital period distribution near this cut - off . this is summarised in figure [ combined ] .
86
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: building on work of saxl , we classify the multiplicity - free permutation characters of all symmetric groups of degree @xmath0 or more . a corollary is a complete list of the irreducible characters of symmetric groups ( again of degree @xmath0 or more ) which may appear in a multiplicity - free permutation representation . the multiplicity - free characters in a related family of monomial characters are also classified . we end by investigating a consequence of these results for specht filtrations of permutation modules defined over fields of prime characteristic . _ keywords : _ multiplicity - free , symmetric group , permutation character , monomial character , specht filtration _ email address : _ ` wildon@maths.ox.ac.uk ` _ affiliation : _ mathematics department , swansea university , singleton park , swansea , sa2 8pp _ address for correspondence : _ department of mathematics , university of bristol , university walk , bristol , bs8 1tw . _ tel : _ 07747 636959 in this paper we prove three theorems on the multiplicity - free representations of symmetric groups . these theorems have interesting consequences for the permutation actions of symmetric groups , and for the theory of specht filtrations of permutation modules , while also being of interest in their own right . our notation is standard . let @xmath1 denote the symmetric group of degree @xmath2 , and let @xmath3 denote the ordinary irreducible character of @xmath1 canonically labelled by the partition @xmath4 of @xmath2 . ( for an account of the character theory of the symmetric group see fulton & harris ( * ? ? ? * chapter 4 ) , or james @xcite . we shall use james lecture notes as the main source for the deeper results we need . ) a character @xmath5 of @xmath1 is said to be _ multiplicity - free _ if @xmath6 for all partitions @xmath4 of @xmath2 . if @xmath7 is a character of a subgroup of @xmath1 then we write @xmath8 for the character of @xmath1 induced by @xmath7 . dually , the arrow .... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: we first classify the multiplicity - free permutation characters given by the actions of symmetric groups on their conjugacy classes . for this we shall need the following lemma , ultimately due to frobenius , which implies that multiplicity - free permutation characters only come from permutation actions with relatively high degrees of homogeneity . [ lemma : tworow ] let @xmath95 be a permutation group acting on @xmath96 .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
let @xmath5 be the permutation character of the action of @xmath1 on the cosets of @xmath37 . let @xmath97 be the number of orbits of @xmath37 on @xmath98-subsets of @xmath96 .
87
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic ( em ) electron - cyclotron waves ( whistlers ) along an external magnetic field , and their modulation by electrostatic small but finite amplitude ion - acoustic density perturbations are investigated in a uniform quantum plasma with intrinsic spin of electrons . the effects of the quantum force associated with the bohm potential and the combined effects of the classical as well as the spin - induced ponderomotive forces ( cpf and spf respectively ) are taken into consideration . the latter modify the local plasma density in a self - consistent manner . the coupled modes of wave propagation is shown to be governed by a modified set of nonlinear schrdinger - boussinesq - like equations which admit exact solutions in form of stationary localized envelopes . numerical simulation reveals the existence of large - scale density fluctuations that are self - consistently created by the localized whistlers in a strongly magnetized high density plasma . the conditions for the modulational instability ( mi ) and the value of its growth rate are obtained . possible applications of our results , e.g. , in strongly magnetized dense plasmas and in the next generation laser - solid density plasma interaction experiments are discussed . . And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: having been discovered more than a century ago @xcite , whistler waves become one of the most important waves in plasmas . such waves ( also known as helicons in solid state plasmas ) are low - frequency ( lf ) ( in comparison with the electron - cyclotron frequency , @xmath0 ) right - hand circularly polarized ( rcp ) electromagnetic ( em ) waves guided almost along the external magnetic field in dense plasmas . because of the increase of their group velocity with the frequency , @xmath1 ( see , e.g. ref . @xcite ) , the lf waves arrive later giving rise a whistling down - effect observed at ground level .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
stenzel in his classic paper stenzel demonstrated experimentally the creation of magnetic field - aligned density perturbations excited by the ponderomotive force exerted by the em whistlers . whistler waves are important not only in space plasmas due to wave - particle interactions , but also in laboratory plasmas as helicons for efficient plasma production as well as in dense astrophysical environments whistlertheory1,whistlertheory2,mi , whistlertheory3(nearsonic),whistlertheory4,whistlertheory5,whistlerparametricinstability . on the other hand , large amplitude whistlers propagating in a magnetized plasma
88
Suppose that you have an abstract for a scientific paper: interference of fractionally charged quasi - particles is expected to lead to aharonov - bohm oscillations with periods larger than the flux quantum @xmath0 . however , according to the byers - yang theorem , observables of an electronic system are invariant under adiabatic insertion of a quantum of singular flux . we resolve this seeming paradox by considering a _ microscopic _ model of an electronic mach - zehnder interferometer made from a quantum hall liquid at filling factor @xmath1 . such interferometers have the shape of a corbino disk and utilize quantum hall edge states in place of optical beams and quantum point contacts as beam splitters connecting different edge channels . an approximate ground state of such an interferometer is described by a laughlin type wave function , and low - energy excitations are incompressible deformations of this state . we construct a low - energy effective theory by projecting the state space of the liquid onto the space of such incompressible deformations and show that the theory of the quantum hall edge so obtained is a generalization of a chiral conformal field theory . amplitudes of quasi - particle tunneling in this theory are found to be insensitive to the magnetic flux threading through the hole in the corbino disk . this behavior is a consequence of _ topological screening _ of the singular flux by the quantum hall liquid . we describe strong coupling of the edges of the liquid to ohmic contacts and the resulting quasi - particle current through the interferometer with the help of a master equation . as a function of the singular magnetic flux , the current oscillates with the electronic period @xmath0 , i.e. , our theory conforms to the byers - yang theorem . these oscillations , which originate from the coulomb blockade effect , are suppressed with increasing system size . in contrast , when the magnetic flux through the interferometer is varied with a modulation gate , current oscillations have the quasi - particle period @xmath2 and.... And you have already written the first three sentences of the full article: since its discovery , in 1980 , the quantum hall ( qh ) effect @xcite has been a very rich source of interesting problems related to topological and correlation effects in condensed matter systems . the qh effect is observed in two - dimensional electron gases@xcite ( 2deg ) exposed to a strong magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the gas . at appropriate electron densities , the 2deg forms an incompressible liquid . the qh effect manifests itself in the precise and universal quantization of the hall conductance .. Please generate the next two sentences of the article
this behavior originates from an interplay between the landau quantization of the orbital motion of electrons @xcite and interaction effects , which leads to the formation of a bulk energy gap . as a consequence an incompressible state is formed in the bulk of the 2deg . at the edge of

Dataset Card for "scientific_papers"

Dataset Summary

Scientific papers datasets contains two sets of long and structured documents. The datasets are obtained from ArXiv and PubMed OpenAccess repositories.

Both "arxiv" and "pubmed" have two features:

  • article: the body of the document, paragraphs separated by "/n".
  • abstract: the abstract of the document, paragraphs separated by "/n".
  • section_names: titles of sections, separated by "/n".

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

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Languages

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Dataset Structure

Data Instances

arxiv

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 4.50 GB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 7.58 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 12.09 GB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\" we have studied the leptonic decay @xmath0 , via the decay channel @xmath1 , using a sample of tagged @xmath2 decays collected...",
    "article": "\"the leptonic decays of a charged pseudoscalar meson @xmath7 are processes of the type @xmath8 , where @xmath9 , @xmath10 , or @...",
    "section_names": "[sec:introduction]introduction\n[sec:detector]data and the cleo- detector\n[sec:analysys]analysis method\n[sec:conclusion]summary"
}

pubmed

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 4.50 GB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 2.51 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 7.01 GB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\" background and aim : there is lack of substantial indian data on venous thromboembolism ( vte ) . \\n the aim of this study was...",
    "article": "\"approximately , one - third of patients with symptomatic vte manifests pe , whereas two - thirds manifest dvt alone .\\nboth dvt...",
    "section_names": "\"Introduction\\nSubjects and Methods\\nResults\\nDemographics and characteristics of venous thromboembolism patients\\nRisk factors ..."
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

arxiv

  • article: a string feature.
  • abstract: a string feature.
  • section_names: a string feature.

pubmed

  • article: a string feature.
  • abstract: a string feature.
  • section_names: a string feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
arxiv 203037 6436 6440
pubmed 119924 6633 6658

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

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Annotations

Annotation process

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

@article{Cohan_2018,
   title={A Discourse-Aware Attention Model for Abstractive Summarization of
            Long Documents},
   url={http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/n18-2097},
   DOI={10.18653/v1/n18-2097},
   journal={Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of
          the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language
          Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)},
   publisher={Association for Computational Linguistics},
   author={Cohan, Arman and Dernoncourt, Franck and Kim, Doo Soon and Bui, Trung and Kim, Seokhwan and Chang, Walter and Goharian, Nazli},
   year={2018}
}

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Thanks to @thomwolf, @jplu, @lewtun, @patrickvonplaten for adding this dataset.

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