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string (string)sectionName (string)label (class label)citingPaperId (string)citedPaperId (string)excerpt_index (int32)isKeyCitation (bool)label2 (class label)citeEnd (int64)citeStart (int64)source (class label)label_confidence (float32)label2_confidence (float32)id (string)
"Chapel, as well as X10 [2], UPC [3] , CoArray Fortran [6], and Titanium [5], rely on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) memory model, which enables The work has been performed under the HPC-EUROPA2 project (project number: 228398) with the support of the European Commission - Capacities Area - Research Infrastructures."
""
1 (background)
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"In addition, the result of the present study supports previous studies, which did not find increased rates of first-born children among individual with OCD (20,31,34)."
"Discussion"
2 (result)
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"20e23b4f76761d246a7c3b00b80e139e2008f77d"
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"fa7145adc9f8cfb8af7a189d9040c13c84ced094>20e23b4f76761d246a7c3b00b80e139e2008f77d"
"Several instruments that more specifically address patient-reported outcomes following gastrectomy are now available, albeit in Japanese [23, 24], and studies using these instruments that have shown some noteworthy results are now starting to be published [25–27]."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
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true
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0
"98a8d8c0c5dae246720d4f339b88e8a9f44e3002>bd222c7ec83dadefba513738290b3624f6dd6b21"
"Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures Interface hippocampal slice cultures were prepared as described previously (Stoppini et al. 1991; Boudkkazi et al. 2007; Debanne et al. 2008)."
"Methods"
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0
"aeb178ef1910a61152cd74209c28641199c82855>754c04953c261072fa367f4104e3deff082d9484"
"Activated PBMC are the basis of the standard PBMC blast assay for HIV-1 neutralization, whereas the various GHOST and HeLa cell lines have all been used in neutralization assays (42, 66)."
"RESULTS"
1 (background)
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0
"e4d2591ac3bb65e2ec59f092884a7b15b8018592>f0fb468a54fe8021bc7986a1618222c4fcd16df4"
"Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were also infected with EOS (early transposon promoter and Oct-4 and Sox2 enhancers) lentiviral vector selection system."
"Methods"
0 (method)
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"404608f26cdd2aea2b6cb25ef145cdb4e0535cfc"
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true
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0
"94d1e4dad2a7207052c2d815f30c4f1478ee165e>404608f26cdd2aea2b6cb25ef145cdb4e0535cfc"
"…the previous response, and as such, may be similar to the hippocampal “delay cells” described previously in both rats (Otto and Eichenbaum, 1992b; Hampson et al., 1993) and primates (Watanabe and Niki, 1985; Miyashita, 1988; Miyashita and Chang, 1988; Riches et al., 1991; Colombo and Gross, 1994)."
"DISCUSSION"
2 (result)
"8cb19a542da5f3f5a5250a6cd542478480994e55"
"435ccda1ceb8d3b95e3dc3a745d963fc09847a54"
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false
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0
"8cb19a542da5f3f5a5250a6cd542478480994e55>435ccda1ceb8d3b95e3dc3a745d963fc09847a54"
"Therefore, we can compare our findings only with the data obtained by Koubek et al. (2004) who obtained them in a way similar to the present study."
"Discussion"
2 (result)
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"None"
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false
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"…as an ocs element (Bouchez et al. 1989; Lam et al. 1989), which was first characterized in the promoter of the Agrobacterium ocs gene and subsequently found to regulate the expression of a number of other plant genes (Chen and Singh 1999; Ellis et al. 1987; Foley et al. 2006; Ulmasov et al. 1994)."
"Discussion"
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"After secondary review, 93 studies were included in the final report.(5-97) There were no randomized clinical trials."
"Results"
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"Another signi®cant result described in this report is the similarity of mNudE-L with the A. nidulans, mouse and rat NudE proteins (E®mov and Morris, 2000; Kitagawa et al., 2000)."
"3. Discussion"
1 (background)
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"5%) reported a statistically significant improvement in the QOL of the intervention group [14, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31], while five studies reported no statistically significant difference between intervention and control groups [16, 17, 22, 29, 36]; (Table 3)."
"Results"
1 (background)
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"50d4507f7bcc9426963e430258785a0d0a7e05d0>98230f3d8557f4d2ab5527ad8062b4c356e960f6"
"These data are consistent with previous reports that exposure of the developing brain to NMDA antagonists such as ketamine or PCP results in widespread and dose-dependent apoptotic neurodegeneration (Ikonomidou et al., 1999, 2001; JevtovicTodorovic et al., 2003; Olney et al., 2002)."
"DISCUSSION"
2 (result)
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0
"4bbc9c70677cc834e072477c695022cc36e2ddc6>92d46601194e18ce3e81ff2089e6230ea242a2f9"
"This was expected, as the literature has shown that ethylene has an inhibitory effect on some forms of growth, such as internode elongation (e.g. Love et al., 2009) and hypocotyl elongation (e.g. Pierik et al., 2006)."
"4. Discussion"
2 (result)
"1a8e2dac8bf06a7a2db9b9928b442921efa69061"
"533fdd3ebedaa0fdee7760ecbe828c9c4e11af08"
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true
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146
4 (explicit)
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0
"1a8e2dac8bf06a7a2db9b9928b442921efa69061>533fdd3ebedaa0fdee7760ecbe828c9c4e11af08"
"In order to compare our method with [11], the results of both methods were assessed by a cardiologist on DS1 and DS2 datasets."
"3.4 Quantitative evaluation of the proposed segmentation method"
0 (method)
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2
true
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36
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0
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"[12], is fast and simple to apply as positioning and irradiation can be performed in a short time."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
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"33780743b0d4fd2f73d4618f1fa6d833f3a6c1bb>6d8ce1bedc01f4020fe403a8e2237278bb664f07"
"Then, for each DCT band, the parity bit stream is structured into sub-blocks of size MN 16P bits (one for each convolutional encoder) [57], where M × N is the spatial resolution of the frames and 16 is the number of pixels per block."
"4.2 Adaptive validation"
0 (method)
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0
"769a6d671e10526778c9cd5ddfb2fed87a44fe84>da62d4186fb8cdf691f8ff7d49b4e4b5e95f8210"
"As shown in previous studies done in other settings, our results demonstrate that the most clinically effective treatment sequence is not necessarily the most cost-effective option [9, 48]."
"Discussion"
2 (result)
"3d0beff06c19e894644ff9448a92e9b3d6b14fa7"
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0
false
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181
4 (explicit)
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0
"3d0beff06c19e894644ff9448a92e9b3d6b14fa7>48be9f30756038a52f98334008571c62c0dbd4fd"
"Due to the positive correlation between the development of cancer and the upregulation of Src activity, SFKs inhibitors are emerging as a promising target for anticancer therapy [4,65]."
"Cancer"
1 (background)
"969529aceb5d315ce695793e407aba67bff244ca"
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4 (explicit)
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"Briefly, iMyoD-transduced cells were seeded onto 24-well culture plates (Thermo Fisher Scientific, 353047) or coverslips (Thermo Fisher Scientific, 12-545- 81) at a density of 30,000 cells/cm2 in proliferation media."
"Methods"
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"5b1930e7a3dc935871744adf631afa2d91b72ce6>3da92ebf5f495202bb4ebf09480d94083a944b48"
"Specifically, we used county-level 2013 rural-urban continuum codes linked to the national mortality database to analyze rural-urban disparities in mortality and life expectancy over time.[17] All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were age-adjusted by the direct method using the age composition of the 2000 US population as the standard."
"2. Methods"
0 (method)
"a4fb807c07eaf5f79ad252731b97ff4010c60956"
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"a4fb807c07eaf5f79ad252731b97ff4010c60956>c42ce9b622fcb0c5ff1f2c35d557a07916ac2859"
"disease patients who have had complete repair have a higher peak O2 compared to those have not, which is also a reflection of their better overall cardiac function (6, 27)."
"Heart Function"
1 (background)
"5f96ada12a032ce865cf863073ccd6dda7c55059"
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4 (explicit)
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"5f96ada12a032ce865cf863073ccd6dda7c55059>f8ff0677b7b345e96f345eafc7ea94cba90818bf"
"Removal of androgens by castration results in thymus enlargement, whereas androgen replacement accelerates CD4 CD8 thymocyte apoptosis (Olsen et al., 1998; Dulos and Bagchus, 2001)."
"Results"
1 (background)
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"3d7251993f61009cd4df26e5bef6c4fb7ee7ac4b>f456ce411f0e83ad2e4c2cadb68918406b2bb355"
"We adopted the dosage of tramadol (4 mg/kg IV) based on previous reports on pharmacokinetics of an IV injection of tramadol [11, 14], a clinical study [13] and our clinical investigations (data was not shown) in dogs."
"DISCUSSION"
0 (method)
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0
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4 (explicit)
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0
"16e5892c875cd6d839d6fd4fb7dc1c723f942146>8001c51ee47e01725f2476bb60c26d01c99cb116"
"1a), or individually via sharp electrode penetration within the ganglia (Krans and Chapple 2005)."
"Results"
1 (background)
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"5227ec6b6b9e6630d3eec53e8784b1d43b97febf>61ba484c3fd142d5ddf606eae1a549fe29594208"
"Similar biphasic profiles have been observed previously with reporter replicon systems derived from mosquito-borne flaviviruses (Alvarez et al., 2005; Filomatori et al., 2006; Holden et al., 2006; Lo et al., 2003)."
"Results"
1 (background)
"d57b13be1565299f80deeb988fc1f3ae76d9f6a8"
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4 (explicit)
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"d57b13be1565299f80deeb988fc1f3ae76d9f6a8>2254c587e7249acbb62b8c8f6b93b9568393132a"
"In addition, this study is also consistent with the results of the Colleoni et al [12] that more vessel invasions and HER2 overexpresed tumors were more frequently found in breast cancer occurred in patients of young age."
"Discussion"
2 (result)
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"In addition, pig cardiomyocytes have been shown to exhibit similar contraction rates and analogous action potential duration to humans (Stankovicova et al., 2000)."
"DISCUSSION"
1 (background)
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4 (explicit)
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"However, elevated levels of Fe (1537 mg/kg) and Cd (31.23 mg/kg) in agricultural soil samples (dry weight) were detected by Yadav et al. (2013) in India."
"Results and discussion"
1 (background)
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"0c610357d8682ecc3239863bf0ccf9c8d9090381"
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"This pattern of response is consistent with previous results reported in the literature (Kokel et al. 2010; MacPhail et al. 2009; Padilla et al. 2011)."
"4. Discussion"
2 (result)
"e2b2d980eca45afade166f1319e17816b6b77431"
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0
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"…measured immediately after each walking task. fNIRS measurement The details of the fNIRS system (OMM-2001; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), which used continuous-wave laser diodes with three wavelengths of near-infrared light (780, 805, and 830 nm), are described elsewhere (Miyai et al. 2001, 2002, 2003)."
"Methods"
0 (method)
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"…Ranomafana National Park in 1992–1993 and Vohibola III in 2003–2005, research on temporal and geographic variations in fruit availability led us to question the unimodal relationship to activity patterns of Cheirogaleus major (Ganzhorn et al., 1999; Hemingway, 1998; Johnson, 2002; Overdorff, 1991)."
"DISCUSSION"
1 (background)
"812e50bdbc19a822b0619ea835bed77415782d4b"
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"…and valid across a number of studies (Evins and Theofrastous 1997), displays good sensitivity and specificity (Eberhard-Gran et al. 2001; Evins and Theofrastous 1997), is sensitive to changes over time (Cox et al. 1987) and is acceptable to administer over the phone (Zelkowitz and Milet 1995)."
"Method"
0 (method)
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0.7448
0
"69116757e90b4cac5af3793c7e29e93cfd7eac55>68705f4785910ee33f7dca77b0ab256406826f98"
"According to the literature, the clinical results tend to worsen when more levels are involved in the fusion (3)."
"DISCUSSION"
1 (background)
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1
false
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"031a4d6f7ab525db9e782396b731d87fdc092cc1>92293f35ea20d289a5b638602e99d42aa3e1d8b5"
"The abnormal histological alterations observed in group-HFD rats are consistent with those of previous studies in HF diet induced obese rats [61,63]."
"4. Discussion"
2 (result)
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"None"
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"b84a6ebbf7328c48a4113f17818c60e4cbd4f3f7>None"
"In this study, blood glucose concentration was evaluated because hyperglycaemia has been shown to result in mitochondrial dysfunction [37] and is a common feature in humans exposed to excess glucocorticoid hormones."
"4. Discussion"
1 (background)
"76bba77c91adaf8263454fe033ff4eecaf819004"
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"76bba77c91adaf8263454fe033ff4eecaf819004>4c8c01ba710b2905d4b570f82de49f8b673d3629"
"The frequency of this behavior is of concern because of its potential association with impaired metabolic control and diabetes-related medical complications (2-4,6)."
"DISCUSSION"
1 (background)
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"Following evidence that the predictive power of SRH for subsequent morbidity and mortality risk may vary as a function of socioeconomic status [14, 52] we used a measure of financial strain as a control variable because it represents a major aspect of socioeconomic status."
"Methods"
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4 (explicit)
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"891373b6cdc72bb512bbb9c257009f4a8e9ab31f>e778198bbc17f6daa796eb7ec35a8e146b7cc74c"
"In [12,15], a list of trajectories, ordered in terms of risk, enables the surgeon to select the most suitable trajectory during the intervention."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
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"However, in these studies [5,13,15,16], patients generally had long-standing disease and were presumably receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), factors which may affect infection with PD pathogens and serum antibody responses."
"Introduction"
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"(ii) Velocity dependence of the sliding stress σs: For various types of such rough/rough multicontact interfaces (polymer glasses [2], rocks [4,5], paper [6]) the analysis of the sliding dynamics has led to conclude that, for ẋ typically in the 1–100 μm."
""
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"Given a source of prior knowledge, Gelly and Silver [3] proposed two directions to bootstrap UCT: 1."
"2.3 Enhancement methods"
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"Over the past nearly 2 decades, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species have emerged as major causes of tick-transmitted diseases of humans and animals worldwide and are significant causes of human morbidity in the United States (1, 12, 30, 70, 71)."
"DISCUSSION"
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"Methods such as SBDS [2, 18] avoid this problem but adding constraints to a model does not, so measuring the search effort to find a solution would not be a meaningful way of evaluating the new encoding."
"4 Experiments"
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"[23] support this idea: only patients with DGF requiring more than one-time dialysis had an increased risk for death, lower renal function and higher incidence of acute rejections during the first perioperative year."
"DISCUSSION"
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"In [8], the authors proposed a wavelet-based MAR algorithm in which the missing projections are onedimensionally interpolated (along projection profiles) by a weighted sum of the wavelet coefficients of the corrupted projections and those of linearly interpolated projections."
""
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"…cortex, which is involved in taste pleasantness (Grabenhorst and Rolls, 2008), was more activated with sucrose stimulation than with quinine stimulation, which suggests a higher activation in this brain region with pleasant vs. unpleasant stimulation (Small et al., 2003; Green et al., 2015)."
"DISCUSSION"
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"In order to activate reporter gene expression, we first treated the cells with H2O2/vanadate (pervanadate), which causes rapid and efficient STAT92E phosphorylation [32,33] (Figure S5A) and is more efficient than transient transfection of hop in activating STAT."
"Results"
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"The Theory of Planned Behavior, introduced by Ajzen and his colleagues in social psychology [6], [8], [10], [55], posits three primary determinants of intention: perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and attitude."
"3.4 Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)"
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"For mtDNA sequences, the number of haplotypes, gene diversity (Nei 1973), nucleotide diversity (Tajima 1983), the number of segregating sites (S), and Tajima’s test of selective neutrality (Tajima 1989) were calculated for each collection location and across all samples in the program Arlequin 3.1…"
"Methods"
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"Activation of 7- nAChRs by prolonged exposure to nicotine is known to alter gene transcription (Chang and Berg, 2001; Dajas-Bailador and Wonnacott, 2004), and signaling through 7-nAChRs on hippocampal neurons has been shown to activate the transcription factor CREB in a manner at least partly independent of NMDA and AMPARs (Hu et al., 2002)."
"Results"
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"…d (subject to g > 0) gives the analytic solution ĝ = max { 1 d 1 c (β̂ML − ν) >(X>WX)(β̂ML − ν)− 1, 0 } ≈ max{zobs/d− 1, 0}, (5) here zobs denotes the observed deviance (relative to the null model with β = 0), obtained from fitting a standard GLM to the data at hand (Copas, 1983, 1997)."
"2. Methodology"
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"This suggestion is consistent with the current eye gaze literature, which indicates that human infants orient toward and increase their looking times at conspecific eyes that are directed toward them [Farroni et al., 2002]."
"DISCUSSION"
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"Most of the training parameters were fixed for all experiments: Adam [17] was used for optimisation with a learning rate of 10‚àí4 and asynchronous updates on 16 threads using the Hogwild! algorithm [23]; the initial halting unit bias mentioned in Equation (5) was 1; and the term from Equation (7) was 0.01."
"3 Experiments"
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"This type of extensive calcification within the lungs was first described by Harbitz (1918). The name "mikrolithiasis alveolaris pulmonum " was suggested first by Puhr (1933). Sosman, Dodd, Jones, and Pillmore (1957) have recently reviewed the literature on 22 previously reported cases (20 proved, two probable) and have described 23 new ones emphasizing the familial occurrence of the condition. Since their report further cases have been described by Gilsanz, Palacios, and Alonso Barrera (1956), Biressi and Casassa (1956), Finkbiner, Decker, and Cooper (1957), Greenberg (1957), and Chinachoti and Tangchai (1957)."
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"In the lateral pyloric (LP) neuron of the lobster, IA slows the initial rate of depolarization of PIR responses, creating a ‘‘ramp-like’’ trajectory (Harris-Warrick et al. 1995a)."
"Discussion"
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"Although a large number of open clinical trials confirmed that glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of sciatica [34–36], their efficiency is challenged by several prospective randomized double-blind experiments [37]."
"Discussion"
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"In vitro studies have showed that Cd suppressed the viability of P. monodon haemocytes (Jose et al. 2011; Xian et al. 2013), which could preliminarily explain the loss of haemocytes caused by environmental Cd. Oxidative stress is known to be a common toxic mechanism of heavy metals on organisms…"
"Results and Discussion"
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"In third-instar larvae, expression is seen in imaginal discs, including the eye imaginal disc, where sgl transcripts are primarily observed in the morphogenetic furrow (Haerry et al. 1997)."
"Results"
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"In diabetes mellitus, the choice of drugs or dosages is influenced by GFR.[57] Finally, we searched for articles about 8) other chronic diseases in which reduced muscle mass (mainly due to immobility and malnutrition) can be present, which may render the MDRD formula less valid."
"Methods"
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"Primers targeting RNase P/MRP 30 kDa subunit gene (RPP30; Gene ID: 10556; OMIM: 606115) were used for normalization (Appendix 1) [9,10]."
"METHODS"
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"For both analyses, we first employ a Monte Carlo sampling technique for modeling the data [6]."
"Results"
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" While presenting the statistics of sample companies distribution, authors say that size of the companies is around [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]/ [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]/ [1] [2] [3] [4]."
"Results and analysis"
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"Similar to [15], we also applied four popular subspace learning methods including PCA, LDA, LPP and ONPP for appearance-based facial expression recognition with spatial misalignments."
"3.2 Results"
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"Conceptual Model For BN model development we followed the guidelines provided by Cain (2001), Marcot et al. (2006), Henriksen et al. (2007a) and Chen and Pollino (2012)."
"Methods"
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"We choose the NYU dataset to conduct ablation experiments and compare against the baseline methods since it has a wider coverage of hand poses as opposed to the other two."
"4. Experiments"
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"NSE levels are notably higher in extensive than limited stage disease (Carney et al., 1982; Johnson et al., 1984; Akoun et al., 1985; Cooper et al., 1985; Esscher et al., 1985 ), and our results confirm this."
"Discussion"
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"DNA-based replicons (for DENV type 1) expressing secreted Gaussia luciferase (DGL2 and DGL2-mut) [30], were generously provided by Dr."
"Methods"
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"The nuclear-targeted cameleon calcium sensor (Sieberer et al., 2009) was excitedwith the argon ion 458-nm laser and imaged using emission filters 476 to 486 nm for CFP and 529 to 540 nm for YFP."
"METHODS"
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"It has also been reported that monensin is more toxic to humanmonocytes in peripheral blood (Schuerwegh et al., 2001) or mouse T cells in spleen preparations (Nylander and Kalies, 1999) resulting in lower viability after in vitro stimulation."
"4. Discussion"
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"In order to examine the availability of the negotiation protocol, we have employed the ASCML[8](Agent-Society Configuration Manager and Launcher) as a platform sup­ ported by JADE[9] where the service agents can be de­ ployed."
""
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"Cobalamin is required for conversion of methylfolate to the active form tetrahydrofolate, which is required for DNA synthesis.(20,24) Therefore, severe hypocobalaminemia may result in decreased folate utilization."
"Discussion"
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"Lactate is thought to instantaneously replenish neuronal energy needs by generating NADH (Pellerin and Magistretti, 2004)."
"Results"
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"Secondary structure match score between the predicted secondary structures from sequence by PSIPRED [29] and the actual secondary structures calculated from decoy by DSSP [30]."
"Methods"
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"In further examining the styles of fractionation present in natural systems, fractionations are often further subdivided into equilibrium [e.g. (Miller, 2002; Young et al., 2002)] and kinetic [e.g. (Kaplan, 1975)] isotope effects."
"2.1. Theoretical considerations"
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"This effect has been ascribed to relief from the inhibition of cell firing exerted by endogenous 5-HT at 5-HT1A receptors (Craven et al., 1994; Gartside et al., 1995; Corradetti et al., 1996; Fornal et al., 1996; Mundey et al., 1996), and the variability of responses likely results from different…"
"Discussion"
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"There have been several studies reporting the association between low or high dose of statin and acute pancreatitis.(33,34) However, a larger scale meta-analysis reported a contradictory result."
"Discussion"
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"Moreover, with the number of reported patients usually varying from less than 15 to about 50 [6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14–17, 19–24], and only a few studies reporting about a hundred patients [10, 13, 18, 25], there has been relatively little discussion of the prognostic factors for RPA [13–18]."
"Discussion"
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"Competitors We compared the proposed SLST model with five state-of-the-art alternative detection approaches: (1) Faster R-CNN [24]: A competitive region proposal driven object detection model which is characterised by jointly learning region proposal generation and object classification in a single deep model In our scalable webly learning context, the Faster R-CNN is optimised with synthetic training data generated by the SCL [32] method, exactly the same as our SLST model."
"5. Experiments"
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"In head and neck cancers, expression of the S100A3 gene is upregulated in comparison to normal mucosa [40]."
"3. Discussion"
1 (background)
"18455b1232a197eb9442b7ad76d764eb43142cde"
"58bef8edd76693310ffdaf7cc930a676b1e00392"
0
false
3 (none)
106
102
4 (explicit)
0
0
"18455b1232a197eb9442b7ad76d764eb43142cde>58bef8edd76693310ffdaf7cc930a676b1e00392"
"Intercept terms were excluded from these trivariate probit models to facilitate identification on latent scales (Mahabadi and Ganjali, 2010)."
"METHODS"
0 (method)
"a5362071e0b77a518cbcd829019b91791cd75ab7"
"d99c11cf2503c97e492ff0133c0c201d6df7c55f"
0
false
3 (none)
139
113
4 (explicit)
0.7348
0
"a5362071e0b77a518cbcd829019b91791cd75ab7>d99c11cf2503c97e492ff0133c0c201d6df7c55f"
"A multiple alignment of the hypervariable region of 95 18S rRNA gene sequences comprising selected and analysed sequences including the 18S rRNA gene of Cardiosporidium cionae was done using MUSCLE [29]."
"Phylogenetic analysis"
0 (method)
"099255a4e8f3784f07e5129992369b06c1317fa0"
"ff599c9a2ac46df95bd417864039cc96d32bbc99"
1
false
3 (none)
202
198
4 (explicit)
0
0
"099255a4e8f3784f07e5129992369b06c1317fa0>ff599c9a2ac46df95bd417864039cc96d32bbc99"
"GATA3 inhibits tumor formation in the breast, but promotes carcinogenesis in lymphoid precursor cells and lung cancer cells (24,28,29)."
"Results"
1 (background)
"77c44480d6b1709b5e7902da77b92feca924713c"
"15a36574b22490e93fc27401fb8dc328c9c9eaa2"
0
false
3 (none)
134
124
4 (explicit)
0
0
"77c44480d6b1709b5e7902da77b92feca924713c>15a36574b22490e93fc27401fb8dc328c9c9eaa2"
"Up to date, the high GC content (Blacket et al. 2012) and modified M13-based universal primers with suggestion of high cycle number (Culley et al."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"40f5e8623a1d4f8975942aed336db381ce9b2752"
"3b23a95d1f6e8374e142d0d016cc2b3456b03c9f"
0
false
3 (none)
53
32
4 (explicit)
0
0
"40f5e8623a1d4f8975942aed336db381ce9b2752>3b23a95d1f6e8374e142d0d016cc2b3456b03c9f"
"Lately, interesting reports have been issued on prognostic significance of beta-catenin nuclear expression in colon cancers [24, 25]."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"408d3d7e0d1879c36cac58472856f0de9bdea75e"
"83bd196e92e04c37b583a31d59591d9b25ad3644"
1
false
3 (none)
132
124
4 (explicit)
0
0
"408d3d7e0d1879c36cac58472856f0de9bdea75e>83bd196e92e04c37b583a31d59591d9b25ad3644"
"Indeed, obstructive sleep apnoea is commonly caused by failure to maintain the patency of the upper respiratory tract (Kahn et al., 1994; Hoeve et al., 1999)."
"4. Discussion"
1 (background)
"3b904803f8837f99f60591dd5630f7940ea53eac"
"04e4fffe704e41a4f0288ec2d184a4807cdf33a4"
0
false
3 (none)
156
138
4 (explicit)
0
0
"3b904803f8837f99f60591dd5630f7940ea53eac>04e4fffe704e41a4f0288ec2d184a4807cdf33a4"
"There is increasing mechanistic evidence providing biological plausibility that smoking increases the likelihood of TB infection [32,33,34]."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"f48caf4767ff816c3c009f0f6323fb28dbdc0637"
"88ec4985e8e85ed967dd105d5d5caedbaa26287d"
0
false
3 (none)
139
129
4 (explicit)
0
0
"f48caf4767ff816c3c009f0f6323fb28dbdc0637>88ec4985e8e85ed967dd105d5d5caedbaa26287d"
"Conventional TEM has shown the presence of these outer membrane derived vesicles, particularly for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Beveridge and Graham, 1991; Beveridge, 1999), as well as for Vibrio cholerae and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which have been used in the production of OMV-based vaccine development (Oster et al., 2005; Schild et al., 2008; Holst et al., 2009; Bishop et al., 2012)."
""
1 (background)
"56922e16a66eac8656e722291ade263c6a41d8f5"
"7f34a31a94e2bbd6531e024dfaf1c015dca66672"
0
false
3 (none)
394
312
4 (explicit)
0
0
"56922e16a66eac8656e722291ade263c6a41d8f5>7f34a31a94e2bbd6531e024dfaf1c015dca66672"
"Secondary 57 (31) 99 (41) 91 (37) 97 (39) 66 (37) 84 (34) 83 (34) 78 (38) 86 (40)"
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"a50bbb785ab092622c59e859d6e73201e860a69a"
"266743f402c527d5c57258c47cb41f16481e924c"
0
true
3 (none)
81
77
4 (explicit)
1
0
"a50bbb785ab092622c59e859d6e73201e860a69a>266743f402c527d5c57258c47cb41f16481e924c"
"More sensitive that IgM ELISA - Small sample volume required and rapid completion rate - Requires specialized equipment and correct antibody pair Wong et al., 2017 (Continued) Frontiers in Microbiology | www.frontiersin.org 7 January 2018 | Volume 8 | Article 2677 TABLE 1 | Continued S."
"Surface Plasmon Resonance"
1 (background)
"84ebe271c8ed07f675a4a5fd06304729bb8368d3"
"8e973348aed6a181c6faee7d06b9d4329303d584"
1
false
3 (none)
163
146
4 (explicit)
0
0
"84ebe271c8ed07f675a4a5fd06304729bb8368d3>8e973348aed6a181c6faee7d06b9d4329303d584"
"The plasma levels of FFA and total cholesterol were determined using their respective enzymatic kits (Cayman, Ann Arbor, MI, USA and Biovision, Mountain View, CA, USA) [24,25]."
"Materials and Methods"
0 (method)
"cfda6f1a7d6992d3451e5783ea11012786bffc3b"
"9a9d521e3736d7ec02da44e9df7768cbd8d02e15"
0
false
3 (none)
175
168
4 (explicit)
0
0
"cfda6f1a7d6992d3451e5783ea11012786bffc3b>9a9d521e3736d7ec02da44e9df7768cbd8d02e15"
"%) from Dianthus caryophyllus(Britsch et al., 1993), and a leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase fromPerilla frutescens (29%, GenBank accession number AB003779)."
"Sequence analysis"
0 (method)
"e26309d3c9c6d5324b3a7b2f4d2d444daa7c598a"
"192a5af24f95a45c550c0ccabd4e468a5638b37e"
0
true
3 (none)
50
30
4 (explicit)
0
0
"e26309d3c9c6d5324b3a7b2f4d2d444daa7c598a>192a5af24f95a45c550c0ccabd4e468a5638b37e"
"Furthermore, the fear-related behaviour is closely associated with the stress response regulated by the HPA axis [7,16]."
"92 piglets"
1 (background)
"92662c74093287c58802b3ed741b07e6f22afc22"
"9a51e7fcaed66234e607f8e5896122c7abcfa8b8"
8
true
3 (none)
119
113
4 (explicit)
0
0
"92662c74093287c58802b3ed741b07e6f22afc22>9a51e7fcaed66234e607f8e5896122c7abcfa8b8"
"Variability in pain sensitivity over time and between subjects is typical following human SCI (Cruz-Almeida et al. 2012; Finnerup et al. 2007b; Siddall et al. 1999; Vierck et al. 2000; White and Sweet 1969), and escape from nociceptive thermal stimulation was decreased following spinal hemisection…"
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"d027944b763cf6b75a4a22f0e6234b6bb8d705b7"
"a05abcbf3ae4ca37dde0e44cf7c4adc76b5f4920"
2
true
3 (none)
142
121
4 (explicit)
0
0
"d027944b763cf6b75a4a22f0e6234b6bb8d705b7>a05abcbf3ae4ca37dde0e44cf7c4adc76b5f4920"
"…Rosenhall, 1971; Hirokawa, 1978; Tanaka and Smith, 1978; Firbas and Mtiller, 1983; Tilney and Saunders, 1983; Chandler, 1984; &ring et al., 1985; Smith et al., 1985; Counter Correspondence to: Geoffrey A. Manley, Institut ftir Zoologie der Technischen Universit&t Miinchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4,…"
""
1 (background)
"32f783b7f4771f754ddb7d4ac8c26688b25cf1c8"
"38f57995a5b7b37c041140c2c512dd36e2e93e38"
1
true
3 (none)
165
147
4 (explicit)
0.597
0
"32f783b7f4771f754ddb7d4ac8c26688b25cf1c8>38f57995a5b7b37c041140c2c512dd36e2e93e38"
"The inclination with respect to gravity of the IMU located on the wheelchair backrest was computed during the stationary phase (which lasted about five seconds) at the beginning of each trial using IMU data and following the pitch-roll-yaw rotation sequence [29]."
"2. Methods"
0 (method)
"099b3e2faeb0e739ab888574dc1051df2a56f15b"
"c2cec2e4602cadfc8c595bfe581aa35dbef8a973"
0
false
3 (none)
262
258
4 (explicit)
0
0
"099b3e2faeb0e739ab888574dc1051df2a56f15b>c2cec2e4602cadfc8c595bfe581aa35dbef8a973"
"Our study is among the first to evaluate both PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression status in trastuzumab-treated patients, and it confirms the results of previous investigators that these two markers are involved in the development of resistance to trastuzumab [5–12, 22, 23]."
"Discussion"
2 (result)
"0c99ee6d724355e13c2a1eb31ca4e66913a356ad"
"2e79b4a6066fe07d1641f94cd6e87e25da89883d"
0
false
0 (supportive)
283
269
4 (explicit)
0
0
"0c99ee6d724355e13c2a1eb31ca4e66913a356ad>2e79b4a6066fe07d1641f94cd6e87e25da89883d"
"…et al. (1995) suggested that there is a strong relationship between the structure of zooplankton assemblages and the size of reservoirs, and other studies have suggested that a long retention time favors the development of microcrustaceans (Santos-Wisniewski & Rocha, 2007; Sartori et al., 2009)."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"0a4619b65905995c9dc2b324f14b07236c46588b"
"2ec9f0a512ec3c1b168646a37c53918155a38428"
15
true
3 (none)
295
275
4 (explicit)
0
0
"0a4619b65905995c9dc2b324f14b07236c46588b>2ec9f0a512ec3c1b168646a37c53918155a38428"
"[11] report that increased dietary calcium was associated with increased risk of RCC, but the effect disappeared after adjusting for caloric intake, and a Danish study did not observe an association between dietary calcium and RCC [8]."
"Discussion"
1 (background)
"6e5799966a3915af0d3434d5553104b4c7286d14"
"4c289d10508f021e8c806b52f5673d51008b307f"
1
true
3 (none)
234
231
4 (explicit)
0
0
"6e5799966a3915af0d3434d5553104b4c7286d14>4c289d10508f021e8c806b52f5673d51008b307f"
"Prisoners completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), from which we obtained a neuroticism score, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) (Barratt, 1965), and the BussDurkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) (Buss & Durkee, 1957)."
"METHODS"
0 (method)
"f026df6cfdf6cc68c06f493740ca9905ed0dc5fe"
"013f0a53c68f63879e375fb50bc16f076b11a3cf"
0
false
3 (none)
185
172
4 (explicit)
0
0
"f026df6cfdf6cc68c06f493740ca9905ed0dc5fe>013f0a53c68f63879e375fb50bc16f076b11a3cf"
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "scicite"

Dataset Summary

This is a dataset for classifying citation intents in academic papers. The main citation intent label for each Json object is specified with the label key while the citation context is specified in with a context key. Example: { 'string': 'In chacma baboons, male-infant relationships can be linked to both formation of friendships and paternity success [30,31].' 'sectionName': 'Introduction', 'label': 'background', 'citingPaperId': '7a6b2d4b405439', 'citedPaperId': '9d1abadc55b5e0', ... } You may obtain the full information about the paper using the provided paper ids with the Semantic Scholar API (https://api.semanticscholar.org/). The labels are: Method, Background, Result

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

default

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 22.12 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 4.91 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 27.02 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

{
    "citeEnd": 68,
    "citeStart": 64,
    "citedPaperId": "5e413c7872f5df231bf4a4f694504384560e98ca",
    "citingPaperId": "8f1fbe460a901d994e9b81d69f77bfbe32719f4c",
    "excerpt_index": 0,
    "id": "8f1fbe460a901d994e9b81d69f77bfbe32719f4c>5e413c7872f5df231bf4a4f694504384560e98ca",
    "isKeyCitation": false,
    "label": 2,
    "label2": 0,
    "label2_confidence": 0.0,
    "label_confidence": 0.0,
    "sectionName": "Discussion",
    "source": 4,
    "string": "These results are in contrast with the findings of Santos et al.(16), who reported a significant association between low sedentary time and healthy CVF among Portuguese"
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

default

  • string: a string feature.
  • sectionName: a string feature.
  • label: a classification label, with possible values including method (0), background (1), result (2).
  • citingPaperId: a string feature.
  • citedPaperId: a string feature.
  • excerpt_index: a int32 feature.
  • isKeyCitation: a bool feature.
  • label2: a classification label, with possible values including supportive (0), not_supportive (1), cant_determine (2), none (3).
  • citeEnd: a int64 feature.
  • citeStart: a int64 feature.
  • source: a classification label, with possible values including properNoun (0), andPhrase (1), acronym (2), etAlPhrase (3), explicit (4).
  • label_confidence: a float32 feature.
  • label2_confidence: a float32 feature.
  • id: a string feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 8194 916 1859

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information

@inproceedings{cohan-etal-2019-structural,
    title = "Structural Scaffolds for Citation Intent Classification in Scientific Publications",
    author = "Cohan, Arman  and
      Ammar, Waleed  and
      van Zuylen, Madeleine  and
      Cady, Field",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North {A}merican Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)",
    month = jun,
    year = "2019",
    address = "Minneapolis, Minnesota",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://aclanthology.org/N19-1361",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/N19-1361",
    pages = "3586--3596",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @lewtun, @patrickvonplaten, @mariamabarham, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on scicite