Dataset Card for "scicite"

Dataset Summary

This is a dataset for classifying citation intents in academic papers. The main citation intent label for each Json object is specified with the label key while the citation context is specified in with a context key. Example: { 'string': 'In chacma baboons, male-infant relationships can be linked to both formation of friendships and paternity success [30,31].' 'sectionName': 'Introduction', 'label': 'background', 'citingPaperId': '7a6b2d4b405439', 'citedPaperId': '9d1abadc55b5e0', ... } You may obtain the full information about the paper using the provided paper ids with the Semantic Scholar API ( The labels are: Method, Background, Result

Supported Tasks

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Dataset Structure

We show detailed information for up to 5 configurations of the dataset.

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 22.12 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 4.91 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 27.02 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

    "citeEnd": 68,
    "citeStart": 64,
    "citedPaperId": "5e413c7872f5df231bf4a4f694504384560e98ca",
    "citingPaperId": "8f1fbe460a901d994e9b81d69f77bfbe32719f4c",
    "excerpt_index": 0,
    "id": "8f1fbe460a901d994e9b81d69f77bfbe32719f4c>5e413c7872f5df231bf4a4f694504384560e98ca",
    "isKeyCitation": false,
    "label": 2,
    "label2": 0,
    "label2_confidence": 0.0,
    "label_confidence": 0.0,
    "sectionName": "Discussion",
    "source": 4,
    "string": "These results are in contrast with the findings of Santos et al.(16), who reported a significant association between low sedentary time and healthy CVF among Portuguese"

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.


  • string: a string feature.
  • sectionName: a string feature.
  • label: a classification label, with possible values including method (0), background (1), result (2).
  • citingPaperId: a string feature.
  • citedPaperId: a string feature.
  • excerpt_index: a int32 feature.
  • isKeyCitation: a bool feature.
  • label2: a classification label, with possible values including supportive (0), not_supportive (1), cant_determine (2), none (3).
  • citeEnd: a int64 feature.
  • citeStart: a int64 feature.
  • source: a classification label, with possible values including properNoun (0), andPhrase (1), acronym (2), etAlPhrase (3), explicit (4).
  • label_confidence: a float32 feature.
  • label2_confidence: a float32 feature.
  • id: a string feature.

Data Splits Sample Size

name train validation test
default 8194 916 1859

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

  author={Arman Cohan and Waleed Ammar and Madeleine Van Zuylen and Field Cady},
  title={Structural Scaffolds for Citation Intent Classification in Scientific Publications},


Thanks to @lewtun, @patrickvonplaten, @mariamabarham, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

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