Datasets: mwong /climate-evidence-related

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 100K<n<1M
Language Creators: crowdsourced
Annotations Creators: crowdsourced
Source Datasets: extended|climate_fever
Dataset Preview
claim (string)evidence (string)labels (class label)input_ids (sequence)attention_mask (sequence)
"A cold day in Chicago in winter has nothing to do with the trend of global warming."
""A novel probabilistic forecast system predicting anomalously warm 2018–2022 reinforcing the long-term global warming trend"."
0 (not_related)
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"“…climate change will also reduce the number of cold days and cold spells."
"An alternative criticism is that the Church opposed particular scientific discoveries that it felt challenged its authority and power – particularly through the Reformation and on through the Enlightenment."
0 (not_related)
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"Donald Trump thinks that climate change is a hoax, invented by the Chinese."
"With Gift and in Conversation, Vatican Presses Trump on Climate Change."
1 (related)
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"Climate sensitivity can be calculated empirically by comparing past temperature change to natural forcings at the time."
"The amount of gas and ash emitted by volcanic eruptions has a significant effect on the Earth's climate."
0 (not_related)
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"Greenland has only lost a tiny fraction of its ice mass"
"Criticism of the MBH99 reconstruction in a review paper, which was quickly discredited in the Soon and Baliunas controversy, was picked up by the Bush administration, and a Senate speech by US Republican senator James Inhofe alleged that "manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people"."
0 (not_related)
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"The costs of emissions regulations, which will be paid by everyone, will be punishingly high and will provide no benefits to most people anywhere in the world."
"It has been established that the region is at its warmest for at least 4,000 years and the Arctic-wide melt season has lengthened at a rate of 5 days per decade (from 1979 to 2013), dominated by a later autumn freeze-up."
0 (not_related)
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"Scotland's climate targets are toughest in the world"
"A 2018 published study points at a threshold at which temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees compared to the pre-industrial levels, through self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate system, suggesting this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target, agreed upon by the Paris climate deal."
0 (not_related)
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"CO2 increase is natural, not human-caused."
"A Fibonacci pseudoprime is often defined as a composite number n not divisible by 5 for which congruence (1) holds with P = 1 and Q = −1 (but n is )."
0 (not_related)
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"The ­atmospheric residency time of carbon dioxide is five years"
"The atmospheric lifetime of CO 2 is estimated of the order of 30–95 years."
1 (related)
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"Since rock weathering reduces atmospheric CO2, this again reinforces the scientific fact that CO2 is a strong driver of climate."
"It is a major aspect of climate change and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming."
1 (related)
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"[T]he raw data, the actual thermometer data[...] shows that the US has been cooling for 80 to 90 years."
""From new estimates of the combined anthropogenic forcing due to greenhouse gases, aerosols, and land surface changes, it is extremely likely (>95%) that human activities have exerted a substantial net warming influence on climate since 1750.""
0 (not_related)
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"The science is clear, climate change is making extreme weather events, including tornadoes, worse."
"The global temperature increase since the beginning of the industrial period (taken as 1750) is about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), and the radiative forcing due to CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases – mainly methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons – emitted since that time is about 2.6 W/m2."
0 (not_related)
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"Together, these two unaltered [ sea level ] datasets indicate that global mean sea level trend has remained stable over the entire period 1992-2007, altogether eliminating the apparent 3.2 mm / year rate of sea-level rise arising from the “adjusted” data."
"Measurements by Jason-1 indicate that mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of 2.28 millimeters ( .09 inches ) per year since 2001."
1 (related)
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"there is no relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide emissions by Â­humans[...]"
"In November 2017, a second warning to humanity signed by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries stated that "the current trajectory of potentially catastrophic climate change due to rising greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agricultural production – particularly from farming ruminants for meat consumption" is "especially troubling"."
0 (not_related)
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"While changes in cloud cover & aerosols lead to more sunlight hitting the surface, this can be compensated by the cooling effect on the atmosphere due to fewer clouds trapping less warmth and fewer absorbing aerosols absorbing less sunlight."
"With average temperature +8.1 °C (47 °F)."
0 (not_related)
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"But there is also good data showing sea levels"
"Water levels have been recorded since 1875, averaging about 4,200 feet ( 1,280 m ) above sea level."
1 (related)
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"Global warming' and 'climate change' mean different things and have both been used for decades."
"Global warming and climate change are often used interchangeably."
1 (related)
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"‘We could be decades too fast, or decades too slow,’said one of them, Robert M. DeConto of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst."
"A temperature interval of 1 °F is equal to an interval of ​5⁄9 degrees Celsius."
0 (not_related)
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"The models predicted about three times the amount of warming in the world we’ve seen since [ 1988 ]."
"Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C ( 0.5 to 3.1 °F ) in a moderate scenario, or as much as 2.6 to 4.8 °C ( 4.7 to 8.6 °F ) in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects."
1 (related)
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"Australia’s signed a suicide note [ with the Paris Accord ] yet didn’t seem to notice that China, India, Indonesia and the US did not commit to reducing their large carbon dioxide emissions."
"U.S. and China announce steps to join the Paris accord that set nation-by-nation targets for cutting carbon emissions."
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"Humans are too insignificant to affect global climate"
"In a 2007 court case, a British judge said that while he had "no doubt ...the film was broadly accurate" and its "four main scientific hypotheses ...are supported by a vast quantity of research", he upheld nine of a "long schedule" of alleged errors presented to the court."
0 (not_related)
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"There may have been regions of Greenland that were 'greener' than today"
"Is Iceland Really Green and Greenland Really Icy?"
1 (related)
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"Coral bleaching has devastated 93% of the Great Barrier Reef"
"The Little Ice Age was a period of several centuries during the last millennium during which global temperatures were depressed; the cooling was associated with volcanic eruptions."
0 (not_related)
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"Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as ‘calving.’"
"Physical climate models are also unable to reproduce the rapid warming observed in recent decades when taking into account only variations in solar output and volcanic activity."
0 (not_related)
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"'Antarctic sea ice set a new record in October 2007, as photographs distributed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration showed penguins and other cold-weather creatures able to stand farther north on Southern Hemisphere sea ice than has ever been recorded."
"The overall trend indicated in the passive microwave record from 1978 through mid-1995 shows that the extent of Arctic sea ice is decreasing 2.7% per decade."
1 (related)
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"Measurements of carbon isotopes and falling oxygen in the atmosphere show that rising carbon dioxide is due to the burning of fossil fuels and cannot be coming from the ocean."
"Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) from the atmosphere."
1 (related)
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"Over the past 250 years, humans have added just one part of CO2 in 10,000 to the atmosphere."
"Global annual mean CO 2 concentration has increased by more than 45% since the start of the Industrial Revolution, from 280 ppm during the 10,000 years up to the mid-18th century to 415 ppm as of May 2019."
1 (related)
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"“Unlike genuine pollutants, carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) is an odorless, colorless gas."
"Carbon monoxide ( CO ) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air."
1 (related)
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"in 1995 one scientist at the IPCC – Jonathan Overpeck – wrote an email to a colleague claiming ‘we have to get rid of the Medieval Warm Period.’"
"Consequently, summers are 2.3 °C (4 °F) warmer in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere under similar conditions."
0 (not_related)
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"“Catherine Senior, head of understanding climate change at the Met Office Hadley Centre, said more studies and more data were needed to fully understand the role of clouds and aerosols."
"In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases."
0 (not_related)
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""I mean, it - I mean - and I tell somebody, I said, just because you have a group of scientists that have stood up and said here is the fact, Galileo got outvoted for a spell" (Texas Governor Rick Perry)"
"Compared to plant milks, cow's milk requires the most land and water, and its production results in the greatest amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollution, and water pollution."
0 (not_related)
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"describes a world of worsening food shortages and wildfires, and a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040"
"As shown in the seventh image on this page, an optical thickness of less than 0.1 (palest yellow) indicates a crystal clear sky with maximum visibility, whereas a value of 1 (reddish-brown) indicates very hazy conditions."
0 (not_related)
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"As a result, the planet as a whole is becoming less reflective and absorbing more sunlight, which is accelerating global warming."
"Not only does this increase the absorption of sunlight, it also increases melting and sea level rise."
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"there were no ice sheets covering either Greenland or West Antarctica, and much of the East Antarctic ice sheet was gone."
"Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) in a moderate scenario, or as much as 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects."
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"Climate Change ‘Heat Records’ Are a Huge Data Manipulation"
"As measuring technology changes over time, records of data cannot be compared directly."
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"“While record low sea ice is nothing new in the Arctic, this is a surprising turn of events for the Antarctic."
"The extent of sea ice around Antarctica ( in terms of square kilometers of coverage ) has remained roughly constant in recent decades, although the amount of variation it has experienced in its thickness is unclear."
1 (related)
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"For the past 4567 million years, the sun and the Earth’s orbit have driven climate change cycles."
"When combined with the Earth–Moon system's common orbit around the Sun, the period of the synodic month, from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days."
1 (related)
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"Rapid assessment of average temperatures in France between 26-28 June showed a “substantial” increase in the likelihood of the heatwave happening as a result of human-caused global warming, experts at the World Weather Attribution group said."
"( 2012 ) attributed the 2010 Moscow and 2011 Texas heat waves to human-induced global warming."
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"Arctic sea ice has been retreating over the past 30 years."
"What drove the dramatic arctic sea ice retreat during summer 2007?."
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"Global methane levels published by CSIRO are now relatively stable showing fluctuations during El Nino events."
"The clumping of the soil textural components of sand, silt and clay causes aggregates to form and the further association of those aggregates into larger units creates soil structures called peds (a contraction of the word pedolith)."
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"No one ever says it, but in many ways global warming will be a good thing"
"At the time of construction in late 2017, it was billed as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world."
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"Hocker is claiming that his model shows that the long-term upward trend in CO2 is explained by temperature, when his methods actually removed the long-term trend."
"For example, within the urban microclimate, less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat (but have fewer means of coping with it)."
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"Sea level rise of 65 centimeters, or roughly 2 feet would cause significant problems for coastal cities around the world."
"A rise of 2.4 m ( 8 feet ) is physically possible under a high emission scenario but the authors were unable to say how likely."
1 (related)
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"When the measuring equipment gets old and needs replacing, it often requires re-calibration."
"While heat flux sensors are typically supplied with a sensitivity by the manufacturer, there are times and situations that call for a re-calibration of the sensor."
1 (related)
[ 0, 1779, 5, 14978, 2104, 1516, 793, 8, 782, 8119, 6, 24, 747, 3441, 769, 12, 11762, 1452, 8475, 4, 2, 2, 5771, 2859, 34903, 10075, 32, 3700, 12359, 19, 10, 15608, 30, 5, 7508, 6, 89, 32, 498, 8, 5458, 14, 486, 13, 10, 769, 12, 11762, 1452, 8475, 9, 5, 9626, 4, 2 ]
[ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]
"Gov. Palin ... is somebody who actually doesn't believe that climate change is man-made."
"A changing environment will affect Alaska more than any other state...I'm not one though who would attribute it to being man-made Goldman, Russell ( September 11, 2008 )."
1 (related)
[ 0, 21964, 4, 30898, 1666, 16, 4909, 54, 888, 630, 75, 679, 14, 2147, 464, 16, 313, 12, 7078, 4, 2, 2, 250, 2992, 1737, 40, 3327, 7227, 55, 87, 143, 97, 194, 734, 100, 437, 45, 65, 600, 54, 74, 21643, 24, 7, 145, 313, 12, 7078, 6765, 6, 4849, 36, 772, 365, 6, 2266, 32801, 2 ]
[ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]
"The amount of energy used to construct solar and wind facilities is greater than they produce in their working lives."
"Estimates for providing clean water and sanitation for the whole population of all continents have been as high as US$200 billion." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 133, 1280, 9, 1007, 341, 7, 12558, 4118, 8, 2508, 2644, 16, 2388, 87, 51, 2592, 11, 49, 447, 1074, 4, 2, 2, 27602, 34129, 13, 1976, 2382, 514, 8, 21212, 13, 5, 1086, 1956, 9, 70, 27382, 33, 57, 25, 239, 25, 382, 1629, 2619, 325, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The global trend is calculated from hundreds of CO2 measuring stations and confirmed by satellites." "The brightening trend is corroborated by other data, including satellite analyses." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 720, 2904, 16, 9658, 31, 2213, 9, 6247, 176, 14978, 4492, 8, 1474, 30, 16350, 4, 2, 2, 133, 4520, 4226, 2904, 16, 25223, 1070, 30, 97, 414, 6, 217, 7595, 20070, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The Greenland ice sheet is at least 400,000 years old and warming was not global when Europeans settled in Greeland 1,000 years ago" "Ice sheet models project that such a warming would initiate the long-term melting of the ice sheet, leading to a complete melting of the ice sheet ( over centuries ), resulting in a global sea level rise of about 7 metres ( 23 ft )." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 31709, 2480, 5462, 16, 23, 513, 3675, 6, 151, 107, 793, 8, 8232, 21, 45, 720, 77, 19836, 5668, 11, 6879, 9999, 112, 6, 151, 107, 536, 2, 2, 38136, 5462, 3092, 695, 14, 215, 10, 8232, 74, 14646, 5, 251, 12, 1279, 23187, 9, 5, 2480, 5462, 6, 981, 7, 10, 1498, 23187, 9, 5, 2480, 5462, 36, 81, 11505, 31311, 5203, 11, 10, 720, 3342, 672, 1430, 9, 59, 262, 7472, 36, 883, 50141, 2543, 32801, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Sea-level rise does not seem to depend on ocean temperature, and certainly not on CO2" "Since the mid-20th century, most of the observed warming is "likely" (greater than 66% probability, based on expert judgement) due to human activities." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 37697, 12, 4483, 1430, 473, 45, 2045, 7, 6723, 15, 6444, 5181, 6, 8, 1819, 45, 15, 6247, 176, 2, 2, 11321, 5, 1084, 12, 844, 212, 3220, 6, 144, 9, 5, 6373, 8232, 16, 22, 30266, 113, 36, 12338, 254, 87, 5138, 207, 18102, 6, 716, 15, 3827, 17219, 43, 528, 7, 1050, 1713, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Concentrated in the atmosphere, these gases do not allow the warmth of the sun’s rays reflected by the earth to be dispersed in space." "Ozone acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth." 1 (related) [ 0, 9157, 6342, 8358, 11, 5, 5466, 6, 209, 20038, 109, 45, 1157, 5, 20310, 9, 5, 3778, 17, 27, 29, 28496, 7680, 30, 5, 6872, 7, 28, 32807, 11, 980, 4, 2, 2, 673, 13930, 4504, 25, 10, 11832, 1123, 6, 31781, 103, 9, 5, 30175, 1007, 37141, 30, 5, 6872, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "By regulating the Earth’s cloud cover, the Sun can turn the temperature up and down. ..." "This last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect : trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground, thereby raising the average temperature." 1 (related) [ 0, 2765, 24555, 5, 3875, 17, 27, 29, 3613, 1719, 6, 5, 2083, 1437, 64, 1004, 5, 5181, 62, 8, 159, 4, 1666, 2, 2, 713, 94, 10632, 16, 684, 25, 5, 11832, 1683, 4832, 13946, 20237, 624, 5, 5466, 1807, 7, 5604, 17210, 1007, 37141, 31, 5, 1255, 6, 12679, 3282, 5, 674, 5181, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The 30 most costly hurricanes in U.S. history (according to federal data from January) show no increase in intensity over time." "In his first paper on the matter, he estimated that global temperature would rise by around 5 to 6 °C (9.0 to 10.8 °F) if the quantity of CO 2 was doubled." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 133, 389, 144, 9400, 16387, 11, 121, 4, 104, 4, 750, 36, 39388, 7, 752, 414, 31, 644, 43, 311, 117, 712, 11, 10603, 81, 86, 4, 2, 2, 1121, 39, 78, 2225, 15, 5, 948, 6, 37, 2319, 14, 720, 5181, 74, 1430, 30, 198, 195, 7, 231, 50141, 12938, 347, 36, 466, 4, 288, 7, 158, 4, 398, 50141, 12938, 597, 43, 114, 5, 16363, 9, 6247, 132, 21, 7113, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Nevertheless over the last decade, daily record high temperatures occurred twice as often as record lows." "This is predicted to produce changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, more extreme temperature ranges, significant changes in weather and a global rise in average sea levels." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 43872, 81, 5, 94, 2202, 6, 1230, 638, 239, 3971, 2756, 2330, 25, 747, 25, 638, 6917, 4, 2, 2, 713, 16, 6126, 7, 2592, 1022, 215, 25, 5, 23187, 9, 35823, 8, 2480, 12208, 6, 55, 5004, 5181, 16296, 6, 1233, 1022, 11, 1650, 8, 10, 720, 1430, 11, 674, 3342, 1389, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Eleven percent of all global greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans are caused by deforestation — comparable to the emissions from all of the cars and trucks on the planet." "If sea level changes are too drastic, time will be insufficient for wave action to accumulate sand into a dune, which will eventually become a barrier island through aggradation." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 28888, 2987, 135, 9, 70, 720, 11832, 1123, 5035, 1726, 30, 5868, 32, 1726, 30, 35552, 93, 10451, 7, 5, 5035, 31, 70, 9, 5, 1677, 8, 5875, 15, 5, 5518, 4, 2, 2, 1106, 3342, 672, 1022, 32, 350, 19167, 6, 86, 40, 28, 16429, 13, 4605, 814, 7, 29196, 6255, 88, 10, 385, 4438, 6, 61, 40, 2140, 555, 10, 9639, 2946, 149, 5951, 47055, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Solar Cycle Length proves its the sun." "Carbon dioxide mole fractions in the atmosphere have gone up by approximately 35 percent since the 1900s, rising from 280 parts per million by volume to 387 parts per million in 2009." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 44559, 31188, 41852, 14476, 63, 5, 3778, 4, 2, 2, 9518, 12573, 15746, 39120, 44807, 11, 5, 5466, 33, 1613, 62, 30, 2219, 1718, 135, 187, 5, 23137, 29, 6, 2227, 31, 20688, 1667, 228, 153, 30, 3149, 7, 43366, 1667, 228, 153, 11, 2338, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The cement, iron and steel, and petroleum refining industries could see their production cut by 21% 19%, and 11% respectively.”" "The hardest hit sectors in the worst recession years ( 2002–2003 ) were construction ( −55.9% ), petroleum ( −26.5% ), commerce ( −23.6% ) and manufacturing ( −22.5% )." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 10546, 6, 6440, 8, 3689, 6, 8, 14304, 19218, 4510, 115, 192, 49, 931, 847, 30, 733, 207, 753, 4234, 8, 365, 207, 4067, 4, 17, 46, 2, 2, 133, 11111, 478, 4723, 11, 5, 2373, 7306, 107, 36, 5241, 2383, 35153, 4839, 58, 1663, 36, 42736, 3118, 4, 466, 207, 31311, 14304, 36, 42736, 2481, 4, 245, 207, 31311, 13715, 36, 42736, 1922, 4, 401, 207, 4839, 8, 3021, 36, 42736, 2036, 4, 245, 207, 32801, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "a study that totally debunks the whole concept of man-made Global Warming" "Warming 'very likely' human-made." 1 (related) [ 0, 102, 892, 14, 4940, 10189, 29201, 5, 1086, 4286, 9, 313, 12, 7078, 1849, 305, 21728, 2, 2, 771, 21728, 128, 5525, 533, 108, 1050, 12, 7078, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "In 1990 the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted that temperatures would rise by 0.54F (0.3C) per decade." "The introduction includes this statement: There is strong evidence that the warming of the Earth over the last half-century has been caused largely by human activity, such as the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use, including agriculture and deforestation." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 1121, 4525, 5, 315, 5857, 17, 27, 29, 3870, 21494, 19413, 15, 11001, 7229, 36, 3808, 3376, 43, 6126, 14, 3971, 74, 1430, 30, 321, 4, 4283, 597, 36, 288, 4, 246, 347, 43, 228, 2202, 4, 2, 2, 133, 7740, 1171, 42, 445, 35, 345, 16, 670, 1283, 14, 5, 8232, 9, 5, 3875, 81, 5, 94, 457, 12, 11046, 34, 57, 1726, 2743, 30, 1050, 1940, 6, 215, 25, 5, 6574, 9, 11422, 12174, 8, 1022, 11, 1212, 304, 6, 217, 6300, 8, 35552, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "“[ T ]he 1079 emails and 72 documents seem indeed evidence of a scandal involving most of the most prominent scientists pushing the man-made warming theory - a scandal that is one of the greatest in modern science." "An editorial in Nature said that many in the media were led by the nose, by those with a clear agenda, to a sizzling scandal that steadily defused as the true facts and context were made clear." 1 (related) [ 0, 17, 48, 10975, 255, 27779, 700, 158, 5220, 5575, 8, 4801, 2339, 2045, 5329, 1283, 9, 10, 4220, 1437, 3329, 144, 9, 5, 144, 5395, 4211, 3784, 5, 313, 12, 7078, 1437, 8232, 6680, 111, 10, 4220, 14, 16, 65, 9, 5, 3968, 11, 2297, 1437, 2866, 4, 2, 2, 4688, 8161, 11, 10053, 26, 14, 171, 11, 5, 433, 58, 669, 30, 5, 8658, 6, 30, 167, 19, 10, 699, 4026, 6, 7, 10, 579, 6352, 1527, 4220, 14, 11844, 3816, 6199, 25, 5, 1528, 4905, 8, 5377, 58, 156, 699, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "They changed the name from 'global warming' to 'climate change'" "Plants, algae and cyanobacteria are the major groups of organisms that carry out photosynthesis, a process that uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 1213, 1714, 5, 766, 31, 128, 9424, 8232, 108, 7, 128, 36695, 464, 108, 2, 2, 16213, 3277, 6, 25237, 8, 39493, 2413, 42069, 32, 5, 538, 1134, 9, 28340, 14, 2324, 66, 2356, 43122, 6, 10, 609, 14, 2939, 5, 1007, 9, 20843, 7, 10304, 514, 8, 4363, 15746, 88, 34625, 14, 64, 28, 341, 258, 25, 10, 1300, 9, 4747, 1007, 8, 9, 6523, 20237, 14, 32, 341, 11, 5, 9825, 6411, 9, 4590, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Last year, scientists published evidence that the conditions leading up to “stuck jet streams” are becoming more common, with warming in the Arctic seen as a likely culprit." "Trends such as Arctic sea ice decline, reduced snow cover, evapotranspiration patterns, and other weather anomalies have caused the Arctic to heat up faster than other parts of the globe ( polar amplification )." 1 (related) [ 0, 10285, 76, 6, 4211, 1027, 1283, 14, 5, 1274, 981, 62, 7, 44, 48, 620, 5858, 4900, 12923, 17, 46, 32, 1959, 55, 1537, 6, 19, 8232, 11, 5, 12351, 450, 25, 10, 533, 17685, 4, 2, 2, 44439, 29, 215, 25, 12351, 3342, 2480, 2991, 6, 2906, 1958, 1719, 6, 7630, 1115, 1242, 28584, 41678, 8117, 6, 8, 97, 1650, 36071, 33, 1726, 5, 12351, 7, 2859, 62, 3845, 87, 97, 1667, 9, 5, 7183, 36, 13744, 45156, 32801, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Many lines of evidence, including simple accounting, demonstrate beyond a shadow of a doubt that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is due to human fossil fuel burning." ""Diversity of Corals, Algae in Warm Indian Ocean Suggests Resilience to Future Global Warming"." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 10787, 2301, 9, 1283, 6, 217, 2007, 6846, 6, 8085, 1684, 10, 9099, 9, 10, 2980, 14, 5, 712, 11, 24486, 6247, 176, 16, 528, 7, 1050, 11422, 2423, 6574, 4, 2, 2, 113, 495, 31104, 9, 2812, 1536, 6, 726, 34211, 11, 19516, 1362, 5860, 35825, 29, 4787, 718, 11465, 7, 7543, 1849, 305, 21728, 845, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The most notorious was 252 million years ago; it began when carbon warmed the planet by five degrees, accelerated when that warming triggered the release of methane in the Arctic, and ended with 97 percent of all life on Earth dead.”" "The OISM website states that "several members of the Institute's staff are also well known for their work on the Petition Project", and that the petition has "more than 31,000" signatures by scientists." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 133, 144, 13940, 21, 34660, 153, 107, 536, 131, 24, 880, 77, 4363, 28163, 5, 5518, 30, 292, 4176, 6, 13072, 77, 14, 8232, 7544, 5, 800, 9, 25139, 11, 5, 12351, 6, 8, 1249, 19, 8783, 135, 9, 70, 301, 15, 3875, 1462, 4, 17, 46, 2, 2, 133, 384, 33881, 998, 982, 14, 22, 30453, 337, 453, 9, 5, 2534, 18, 813, 32, 67, 157, 684, 13, 49, 173, 15, 5, 40505, 3728, 1297, 8, 14, 5, 5265, 34, 22, 4321, 87, 1105, 6, 151, 113, 13743, 30, 4211, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "…obsessing about climate change is avoiding a frank discussion about the here-and-now problems of budget deficits, the federal debt, school choice, entitlement reform, and so on." "He suggested using discussions about raising the federal debt ceiling as leverage to reduce federal spending." 1 (related) [ 0, 1174, 14247, 29905, 59, 2147, 464, 16, 11473, 10, 26486, 3221, 59, 5, 259, 12, 463, 12, 8310, 1272, 9, 1229, 16567, 6, 5, 752, 1126, 6, 334, 2031, 6, 28610, 3114, 6, 8, 98, 15, 4, 2, 2, 894, 2528, 634, 4404, 59, 3282, 5, 752, 1126, 9920, 25, 6270, 7, 1888, 752, 1408, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "CO2 is not powerful in that sense, the only thing it does in the system is make the planet greener." "He also thinks that the rest of the world should impose a carbon-adjustment tax (a protectionist measure) on American exports that do not comply with global standard." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 6335, 176, 16, 45, 2247, 11, 14, 1472, 6, 5, 129, 631, 24, 473, 11, 5, 467, 16, 146, 5, 5518, 14382, 5777, 4, 2, 2, 894, 67, 4265, 14, 5, 1079, 9, 5, 232, 197, 7828, 10, 4363, 12, 42009, 1757, 629, 36, 102, 2591, 661, 2450, 43, 15, 470, 4302, 14, 109, 45, 8096, 19, 720, 2526, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "“As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation." "This is especially useful studying diseases in adults by allowing expression after a certain period of growth, thus eliminating the deleterious effect of gene expression seen during stages of development in model organisms." 1 (related) [ 0, 17, 48, 1620, 24, 2594, 6, 19924, 189, 67, 28, 10, 205, 1421, 9, 5, 200, 12648, 1683, 93, 2199, 31425, 4, 2, 2, 713, 16, 941, 5616, 7739, 6357, 11, 3362, 30, 2455, 8151, 71, 10, 1402, 675, 9, 434, 6, 4634, 13209, 5, 32169, 1334, 6514, 1683, 9, 10596, 8151, 450, 148, 5612, 9, 709, 11, 1421, 28340, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Global methane levels published by CSIRO are now relatively stable showing fluctuations during El Nino events." "Linear trends in sea surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean and implications for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation." 1 (related) [ 0, 18811, 25139, 1389, 1027, 30, 7038, 16790, 32, 122, 3487, 4375, 2018, 22798, 148, 1448, 234, 1696, 1061, 4, 2, 2, 40253, 4352, 3926, 11, 3342, 4084, 5181, 9, 5, 10602, 3073, 5860, 8, 8819, 13, 5, 1448, 234, 1696, 12, 35984, 384, 46003, 1258, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Elementary radiative-transfer calculations demonstrate that a natural surface global brightening amounting to ~1.9 Wm–2 over the 18-year period of study would be expected – using the IPCC’s own methodology – to have caused a transient warming of 1 K ( 1.8 F° )." "Solar irradiance is about 0.9 W / m2 brighter during solar maximum than during solar minimum, which correlated in measured average global temperature over the period 1959-2004." 1 (related) [ 0, 46331, 1766, 22750, 3693, 12, 40095, 11840, 8085, 14, 10, 1632, 4084, 720, 4520, 4226, 1280, 154, 7, 14434, 134, 4, 466, 305, 119, 2383, 176, 81, 5, 504, 12, 180, 675, 9, 892, 74, 28, 421, 126, 634, 5, 41206, 17, 27, 29, 308, 18670, 126, 7, 33, 1726, 10, 35588, 8232, 9, 112, 229, 36, 112, 4, 398, 274, 12938, 32801, 2, 2, 44559, 45708, 9862, 16, 59, 321, 4, 466, 305, 1589, 475, 176, 19129, 148, 4118, 4532, 87, 148, 4118, 3527, 6, 61, 34852, 11, 9550, 674, 720, 5181, 81, 5, 675, 23342, 12, 34972, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "it later emerged that its creator Dr Michael Mann had spliced too [ sic ] datasets together – tree-rings showing temperatures going back hundreds of years, then recent thermometer readings for the more recent decades." "published on 10 February 2005 used a wavelet transform technique to reconstruct Northern Hemisphere temperatures over the last 2,000 years, combining low-resolution proxy data such as lake and ocean sediments for century-scale or longer changes, with tree ring proxies only used for annual to decadal resolution." 1 (related) [ 0, 405, 423, 4373, 14, 63, 12475, 925, 988, 11892, 56, 11743, 12646, 350, 646, 579, 636, 27779, 42532, 561, 126, 3907, 12, 19706, 2018, 3971, 164, 124, 2213, 9, 107, 6, 172, 485, 26898, 12687, 16569, 13, 5, 55, 485, 1724, 4, 2, 2, 34167, 15, 158, 902, 4013, 341, 10, 4605, 2716, 7891, 9205, 7, 30254, 2874, 34765, 3971, 81, 5, 94, 132, 6, 151, 107, 6, 15224, 614, 12, 29646, 16453, 414, 215, 25, 8037, 8, 6444, 10195, 25132, 13, 3220, 12, 8056, 50, 1181, 1022, 6, 19, 3907, 3758, 37117, 129, 341, 13, 1013, 7, 5044, 23073, 3547, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Postma disproved the greenhouse effect." "One reason for the difference between the two values is due to the greenhouse effect, which increases the average temperature of the Earth's surface." 1 (related) [ 0, 21585, 1916, 39792, 5202, 5, 11832, 1683, 4, 2, 2, 3762, 1219, 13, 5, 2249, 227, 5, 80, 3266, 16, 528, 7, 5, 11832, 1683, 6, 61, 3488, 5, 674, 5181, 9, 5, 3875, 18, 4084, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "whenever in the past there was an explosion of plant life, the carbon dioxide content was far higher than at present." "Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming." 1 (related) [ 0, 28884, 20042, 11, 5, 375, 89, 21, 41, 6986, 9, 2195, 301, 6, 5, 4363, 15746, 1383, 21, 444, 723, 87, 23, 1455, 4, 2, 2, 11321, 5, 6741, 13340, 32117, 23982, 5035, 126, 4212, 31, 304, 9, 11422, 12174, 8, 35552, 126, 33, 6042, 1130, 63, 11772, 11, 5, 5466, 6, 981, 7, 720, 8232, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "No known natural forcing fits the fingerprints of observed warming except anthropogenic greenhouse gases." "The 2007 Fourth Assessment Report compiled by the IPCC (AR4) noted that "changes in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation alter the energy balance of the climate system", and concluded that "increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations is very likely to have caused most of the increases in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century"." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 3084, 684, 1632, 6437, 10698, 5, 28113, 9, 6373, 8232, 4682, 32117, 23982, 11832, 20038, 4, 2, 2, 133, 3010, 11035, 22261, 2872, 11603, 30, 5, 41206, 36, 2747, 306, 43, 1581, 14, 22, 34980, 11, 24486, 26069, 9, 11832, 20038, 8, 40161, 11925, 6, 1212, 1719, 8, 4118, 13785, 11330, 5, 1007, 2394, 9, 5, 2147, 467, 1297, 8, 4633, 14, 22, 33008, 9354, 11, 32117, 23982, 11832, 1123, 26069, 16, 182, 533, 7, 33, 1726, 144, 9, 5, 3488, 11, 720, 674, 3971, 187, 5, 1084, 12, 844, 212, 3220, 845, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Before human burning of fossil fuels triggered global warming, the continent’s ice was in relative balance" "The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age." 1 (related) [ 0, 17206, 1050, 6574, 9, 11422, 12174, 7544, 720, 8232, 6, 5, 9183, 17, 27, 29, 2480, 21, 11, 5407, 2394, 2, 2, 133, 12456, 9, 1007, 88, 980, 4596, 11, 10, 720, 13281, 6, 16902, 5, 18486, 661, 42416, 8761, 8927, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "A new peer-reviewed study on Surface Warming and the Solar Cycle found that times of high solar activity are on average 0.2°C warmer than times of low solar activity, and that there is a polar amplification of the warming." "Also, average solar activity in the 2010s was no higher than in the 1950s ( see above ), whereas average global temperatures had risen markedly over that period." 1 (related) [ 0, 250, 92, 10995, 12, 33111, 892, 15, 17111, 305, 21728, 8, 5, 11400, 31188, 303, 14, 498, 9, 239, 4118, 1940, 32, 15, 674, 321, 4, 176, 12938, 347, 13933, 87, 498, 9, 614, 4118, 1940, 6, 8, 14, 89, 16, 10, 13744, 45156, 9, 5, 8232, 4, 2, 2, 22412, 6, 674, 4118, 1940, 11, 5, 1824, 29, 21, 117, 723, 87, 11, 5, 9323, 29, 36, 192, 1065, 31311, 9641, 674, 720, 3971, 56, 7408, 32581, 81, 14, 675, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "There is long-term correlation between CO2 and global temperature; other effects are short-term." "Gore's use of long ice core records of CO2 and temperature ( from oxygen isotope measurements ) in Antarctic ice cores to illustrate the correlation between the two drew some scrutiny; Schmidt, Steig and Michael E. Mann back up Gore's data." 1 (related) [ 0, 970, 16, 251, 12, 1279, 22792, 227, 6247, 176, 8, 720, 5181, 131, 97, 3038, 32, 765, 12, 1279, 4, 2, 2, 534, 1688, 18, 304, 9, 251, 2480, 2731, 2189, 9, 6247, 176, 8, 5181, 36, 31, 11747, 40640, 9877, 19851, 4839, 11, 31769, 2480, 29829, 7, 23168, 5, 22792, 227, 5, 80, 4855, 103, 7731, 131, 13128, 6, 5527, 1023, 8, 988, 381, 4, 11892, 124, 62, 16603, 18, 414, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia." "Conclusions of AR5 are summarized below : Working Group I Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia." 1 (related) [ 0, 771, 21728, 9, 5, 2147, 467, 16, 39754, 21103, 6, 8, 187, 5, 9323, 29, 6, 171, 9, 5, 6373, 1022, 32, 7071, 81, 1724, 7, 40887, 4, 2, 2, 9157, 41092, 9, 5495, 245, 32, 38152, 874, 4832, 11214, 826, 38, 305, 21728, 9, 5, 2147, 467, 16, 39754, 21103, 6, 8, 187, 5, 9323, 29, 6, 171, 9, 5, 6373, 1022, 32, 7071, 81, 1724, 7, 40887, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "[ The 1990 IPCC report said ] that the Antarctic ice sheets were stable" "The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is stable so long as the Ross Ice Shelf is constrained by drag along its lateral boundaries and pinned by local grounding." 1 (related) [ 0, 10975, 20, 4525, 41206, 266, 26, 27779, 14, 5, 31769, 2480, 12208, 58, 4375, 2, 2, 133, 580, 31769, 8761, 25538, 16, 4375, 98, 251, 25, 5, 4012, 8761, 264, 13491, 16, 26525, 30, 8386, 552, 63, 30972, 10156, 8, 19044, 30, 400, 36788, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Britain's big freeze is the start of a worldwide trend towards colder weather that seriously challenges global warming theories, eminent scientists claimed yesterday." "The consensus theory of the scientific community is that the resulting greenhouse effect is a principal cause of the increase in global warming which has occurred over the same period, and a chief contributor to the accelerated melting of the remaining glaciers and polar ice." 1 (related) [ 0, 29246, 18, 380, 11346, 16, 5, 386, 9, 10, 3612, 2904, 1567, 19727, 1650, 14, 3640, 2019, 720, 8232, 14831, 6, 33015, 4211, 1695, 2350, 4, 2, 2, 133, 2899, 6680, 9, 5, 6441, 435, 16, 14, 5, 5203, 11832, 1683, 16, 10, 5402, 1303, 9, 5, 712, 11, 720, 8232, 61, 34, 2756, 81, 5, 276, 675, 6, 8, 10, 834, 12390, 7, 5, 13072, 23187, 9, 5, 2405, 35823, 8, 13744, 2480, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Satellite measurements of infrared spectra over the past 40 years observe less energy escaping to space at the wavelengths associated with CO2." "The three channels use the same frequency but different carbon dioxide cell pressure, the corresponding weighting functions peaks at 29 km for channel 1, 37 km for channel 2 and 45 km for channel 3." 1 (related) [ 0, 104, 43089, 19851, 9, 30175, 19416, 763, 81, 5, 375, 843, 107, 14095, 540, 1007, 23042, 7, 980, 23, 5, 43105, 3059, 19, 6247, 176, 4, 2, 2, 133, 130, 6237, 304, 5, 276, 13135, 53, 430, 4363, 15746, 3551, 1164, 6, 5, 12337, 2408, 154, 8047, 21414, 23, 1132, 50141, 7203, 13, 4238, 112, 6, 2908, 50141, 7203, 13, 4238, 132, 8, 2248, 50141, 7203, 13, 4238, 155, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The IPCC also made false predictions on the Amazon rain forests, referenced to a non peer-reviewed paper produced by an advocacy group working with the WWF." "Examples of non-peer-reviewed sources include model results, reports from government agencies and non-governmental organizations, and industry journals." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 41206, 67, 156, 3950, 12535, 15, 5, 1645, 1895, 14275, 6, 19800, 7, 10, 786, 10995, 12, 33111, 2225, 2622, 30, 41, 8973, 333, 447, 19, 5, 38929, 4, 2, 2, 48684, 9, 786, 12, 33828, 12, 33111, 1715, 680, 1421, 775, 6, 690, 31, 168, 2244, 8, 786, 12, 21494, 2665, 6, 8, 539, 28059, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Far from contradicting global warming, record snowfall is predicted by climate models and consistent with our expectation of more extreme precipitation events." "It is a major aspect of climate change and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 20680, 31, 28204, 154, 720, 8232, 6, 638, 1958, 7349, 16, 6126, 30, 2147, 3092, 8, 4292, 19, 84, 9250, 9, 55, 5004, 13273, 1061, 4, 2, 2, 243, 16, 10, 538, 6659, 9, 2147, 464, 8, 34, 57, 7646, 30, 2228, 5181, 19851, 8, 30, 19851, 9, 1337, 3038, 9, 5, 8232, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "More importantly, the OISM list only contains 39 scientists who specialise in climate science." "In 2001, Scientific American took a random sample of 30 of the 1,400 signatories claiming to hold a Ph.D. in a climate-related science." 1 (related) [ 0, 9690, 7769, 6, 5, 384, 33881, 889, 129, 6308, 3191, 4211, 54, 780, 1496, 11, 2147, 2866, 4, 2, 2, 1121, 5155, 6, 17141, 470, 362, 10, 9624, 7728, 9, 389, 9, 5, 112, 6, 4017, 1203, 28172, 4564, 7, 946, 10, 4129, 4, 495, 4, 11, 10, 2147, 12, 3368, 2866, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "When CO2 emissions are compared directly to CO2 levels, there is a strong correlation in the long term trends." "Further research has demonstrated a reliable correlation between CO 2 levels and the temperature calculated from ice isotope data." 1 (related) [ 0, 1779, 6247, 176, 5035, 32, 1118, 2024, 7, 6247, 176, 1389, 6, 89, 16, 10, 670, 22792, 11, 5, 251, 1385, 3926, 4, 2, 2, 37666, 557, 34, 7646, 10, 7058, 22792, 227, 6247, 132, 1389, 8, 5, 5181, 9658, 31, 2480, 40640, 9877, 414, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The 2007's early start to Daylight Saving Time contributed to global warming." "In Western Australia during summer 2006–2007, DST increased electricity consumption during hotter days and decreased it during cooler days, with consumption rising 0.6% overall." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 3010, 18, 419, 386, 7, 41992, 31289, 3421, 3162, 7, 720, 8232, 4, 2, 2, 1121, 2027, 1221, 148, 1035, 3503, 2383, 30741, 6, 211, 4014, 1130, 4382, 4850, 148, 29448, 360, 8, 8065, 24, 148, 12924, 360, 6, 19, 4850, 2227, 321, 4, 401, 207, 1374, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "So this is a government which is proposing to put at risk our manufacturing industry, to penalise struggling families, to make a tough situation worse for millions of households right around Australia." "John McDonnell said the IFS analysis showed a “clear threat” to working people’s living standards, while the Liberal Democrats said that the “savage cuts” would make millions of households poorer." 1 (related) [ 0, 2847, 42, 16, 10, 168, 61, 16, 15670, 7, 342, 23, 810, 84, 3021, 539, 6, 7, 14914, 1496, 3306, 1232, 6, 7, 146, 10, 1828, 1068, 3007, 13, 2535, 9, 8195, 235, 198, 1221, 4, 2, 2, 10567, 26894, 26, 5, 38, 7881, 1966, 969, 10, 44, 48, 18763, 1856, 17, 46, 7, 447, 82, 17, 27, 29, 1207, 2820, 6, 150, 5, 7612, 1574, 26, 14, 5, 44, 48, 29, 25571, 2599, 17, 46, 74, 146, 2535, 9, 8195, 22555, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades." "Several studies, including and have compiled box and gravity cores in the North Pacific analyzing them for palynological content to determine the distribution of dinocysts and their relationships with sea surface temperature, salinity, productivity and upwelling." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 16991, 5, 5239, 8, 31345, 9, 12351, 3342, 2480, 34, 1981, 6042, 81, 5, 94, 484, 1724, 4, 2, 2, 29182, 3218, 6, 217, 8, 33, 11603, 2233, 8, 17244, 29829, 11, 5, 369, 3073, 18999, 106, 13, 8750, 3892, 9779, 1383, 7, 3094, 5, 3854, 9, 5917, 30321, 5019, 8, 49, 4158, 19, 3342, 4084, 5181, 6, 6641, 16838, 6, 8106, 8, 62, 3056, 154, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "...there is the contention by Wolfgang Knorr of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol in England that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are about where they were 160 years ago. ( as quoted by Ken Ward Jr. )" "At a meeting of the American Geophysical Union ( December 17, 2008 ), scientists detailed evidence in support of the controversial idea that the introduction of large-scale rice agriculture in Asia, coupled with extensive deforestation in Europe began to alter world climate by pumping significant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over the last 1,000 years." 1 (related) [ 0, 734, 8585, 16, 5, 12007, 30, 30310, 8622, 33085, 9, 5, 641, 9, 3875, 8841, 23, 5, 589, 9, 10600, 11, 1156, 14, 4363, 15746, 1389, 11, 5, 5466, 32, 59, 147, 51, 58, 10572, 107, 536, 4, 36, 25, 5304, 30, 3410, 5986, 2385, 4, 4839, 2, 2, 3750, 10, 529, 9, 5, 470, 4177, 37846, 1332, 36, 719, 601, 6, 2266, 31311, 4211, 4271, 1283, 11, 323, 9, 5, 4456, 1114, 14, 5, 7740, 9, 739, 12, 8056, 7666, 6300, 11, 1817, 6, 11531, 19, 4935, 35552, 11, 1005, 880, 7, 11330, 232, 2147, 30, 17741, 1233, 5353, 9, 11832, 20038, 88, 5, 5466, 81, 5, 94, 112, 6, 151, 107, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "We know the Northwest Passage had been open before."" "A 2013 study found that significant climatic changes were associated with a higher risk of conflict worldwide, and predicted that "amplified rates of human conflict could represent a large and critical social impact of anthropogenic climate change in both low- and high-income countries."" 0 (not_related) [ 0, 170, 216, 5, 8535, 38622, 56, 57, 490, 137, 72, 2, 2, 250, 1014, 892, 303, 14, 1233, 23377, 5183, 1022, 58, 3059, 19, 10, 723, 810, 9, 3050, 3612, 6, 8, 6126, 14, 22, 424, 2911, 3786, 1162, 9, 1050, 3050, 115, 3594, 10, 739, 8, 2008, 592, 913, 9, 32117, 23982, 2147, 464, 11, 258, 614, 12, 8, 239, 12, 7214, 749, 72, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "whenever in the past there was an explosion of plant life, the carbon dioxide content was far higher than at present." "Global climate change has contributed to the higher sea surface and ocean temperatures, and a warmer and moister atmosphere, and its effects are in the range of 5 to 10%." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 28884, 20042, 11, 5, 375, 89, 21, 41, 6986, 9, 2195, 301, 6, 5, 4363, 15746, 1383, 21, 444, 723, 87, 23, 1455, 4, 2, 2, 18811, 2147, 464, 34, 3162, 7, 5, 723, 3342, 4084, 8, 6444, 3971, 6, 8, 10, 13933, 8, 7458, 4742, 5466, 6, 8, 63, 3038, 32, 11, 5, 1186, 9, 195, 7, 158, 2153, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Of the rise in temperature during the 20th century, the bulk occurred from 1900 to 1940." "The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C ( 100.8 °F ) at the VVC weather station and 39.0 °C ( 102.2 °F ) in the center of Moscow and Domodedovo airport on July 29, 2010 during the unusual 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves." 1 (related) [ 0, 10643, 5, 1430, 11, 5181, 148, 5, 291, 212, 3220, 6, 5, 8533, 2756, 31, 23137, 7, 16863, 4, 2, 2, 133, 1609, 5181, 655, 2673, 21, 2843, 4, 176, 50141, 12938, 347, 36, 727, 4, 398, 50141, 12938, 597, 4839, 23, 5, 468, 14858, 1650, 1992, 8, 3191, 4, 288, 50141, 12938, 347, 36, 12747, 4, 176, 50141, 12938, 597, 4839, 11, 5, 1312, 9, 3467, 8, 11349, 31819, 22864, 3062, 15, 550, 1132, 6, 1824, 148, 5, 5425, 1824, 2874, 34765, 1035, 2859, 6995, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "CO2 emissions from all commercial operations in 2018 totaled 918 million metric tons—2.4% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use." ""Patterns of zooplankton diversity through the depths of the Arctic's central basins"." 0 (not_related) [ 0, 6335, 176, 5035, 31, 70, 1861, 1414, 11, 199, 15137, 361, 1366, 153, 14823, 7741, 578, 176, 4, 306, 207, 9, 720, 6247, 176, 5035, 31, 11422, 2423, 304, 4, 2, 2, 113, 48689, 29, 9, 992, 18042, 462, 3153, 1054, 5845, 149, 5, 24297, 9, 5, 12351, 18, 1353, 11909, 1344, 845, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "Less than half of published scientists endorse global warming" "Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming." 1 (related) [ 0, 38294, 87, 457, 9, 1027, 4211, 18839, 720, 8232, 2, 2, 40816, 16054, 727, 207, 9051, 28376, 15, 42725, 23982, 1849, 305, 21728, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "The Conservatives' recent budget made no mention of climate change." "Bill C-30 : Canada's Clean Air and Climate Change Act." 1 (related) [ 0, 133, 13251, 108, 485, 1229, 156, 117, 4521, 9, 2147, 464, 4, 2, 2, 19993, 230, 12, 541, 4832, 896, 18, 10326, 1754, 8, 11001, 7229, 1783, 4, 2 ] [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] "A recent Nature study expecting more severe hurricanes from global warming still found that damages would halve from 0.04 per cent to 0.02 per cent of global GDP, because the increased ferocity would be more than made up by increased prosperity and resilience." "Nevertheless, one recent study has found that potential global economic gains if countries implement mitigation strategies to comply with the 2°C target set at the Paris Agreement are in the vicinity of US$17,000 billion per year up to 2100 compared to a very high emission scenario."
1 (related)
[ 0, 250, 485, 10053, 892, 4804, 55, 3814, 16387, 31, 720, 8232, 202, 303, 14, 8357, 74, 12193, 548, 31, 321, 4, 3387, 228, 715, 7, 321, 4, 4197, 228, 715, 9, 720, 6250, 6, 142, 5, 1130, 16022, 36139, 74, 28, 55, 87, 156, 62, 30, 1130, 12536, 8, 13790, 4, 2, 2, 43872, 6, 65, 485, 892, 34, 303, 14, 801, 720, 776, 3077, 114, 749, 5731, 23336, 4964, 7, 8096, 19, 5, 132, 12938, 347, 1002, 278, 23, 5, 2201, 8759, 32, 11, 5, 22592, 9, 382, 1629, 1360, 6, 151, 325, 228, 76, 62, 7, 32160, 1118, 7, 10, 182, 239, 22679, 5665, 4, 2 ]
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"[…]until we develop a practical, cost-competitive alternative to fossil fuels, it is unlikely that renewable energy will ever make up more than 15-20% of global energy requirements."
"The controversy occurred against the backdrop of Clinton's 2016 presidential election campaign and hearings held by the House Select Committee on Benghazi."
0 (not_related)
[ 0, 10975, 48021, 29510, 52, 2179, 10, 7708, 6, 701, 12, 29288, 3626, 7, 11422, 12174, 6, 24, 16, 3752, 14, 8741, 1007, 40, 655, 146, 62, 55, 87, 379, 12, 844, 207, 9, 720, 1007, 3471, 4, 2, 2, 133, 6170, 2756, 136, 5, 11379, 9, 2235, 18, 336, 1939, 729, 637, 8, 9445, 547, 30, 5, 446, 10908, 1674, 15, 30473, 4, 2 ]
[ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]
"“Unlike genuine pollutants, carbon dioxide (CO2) is an odorless, colorless gas."
"Of these, 97% agree, explicitly or implicitly, that global warming is happening and is human-caused."
0 (not_related)
[ 0, 17, 48, 38243, 8916, 29791, 6, 4363, 15746, 36, 6335, 176, 43, 16, 41, 27794, 1672, 6, 3195, 1672, 1123, 4, 2, 2, 10643, 209, 6, 8783, 207, 2854, 6, 16369, 50, 41030, 6, 14, 720, 8232, 16, 2909, 8, 16, 1050, 12, 3245, 6199, 4, 2 ]
[ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]
"From 1970 until 1998 there was a warming period that raised temperatures by about 0.7 F that helped spawn the global warming alarmist movement."
"Some economists have argued that the Review overestimates the present value of the costs of climate change, and underestimates the costs of emission reduction."
0 (not_related)
[ 0, 7605, 6200, 454, 6708, 89, 21, 10, 8232, 675, 14, 1179, 3971, 30, 59, 321, 4, 406, 274, 14, 1147, 38176, 5, 720, 8232, 8054, 661, 2079, 4, 2, 2, 6323, 9019, 33, 3811, 14, 5, 5872, 39694, 34129, 5, 1455, 923, 9, 5, 1042, 9, 2147, 464, 6, 8, 39959, 34129, 5, 1042, 9, 22679, 4878, 4, 2 ]
[ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ]
"Australian households will benefit to the tune of $550 a year if the carbon tax is axed." "As of the year 2002, the standard carbon tax rate since 1996 amounts to 100 DKK per tonne of CO 2, equivalent to approximately €13 or US$18."
1 (related)
[ 0, 31054, 8195, 40, 1796, 7, 5, 8859, 9, 68, 17953, 10, 76, 114, 5, 4363, 629, 16, 18884, 196, 4, 2, 2, 1620, 9, 5, 76, 5241, 6, 5, 2526, 4363, 629, 731, 187, 8008, 5353, 7, 727, 211, 26228, 228, 4866, 858, 9, 6247, 132, 6, 6305, 7, 2219, 4480, 1558, 50, 382, 1629, 1366, 4, 2 ]
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"2009-2010 winter saw record cold spells."
"Overall it was the coldest winter since 1978–79, with a mean temperature of 1.5 °C ( 34.7 °F )."
1 (related)
[ 0, 23301, 12, 24789, 2608, 794, 638, 2569, 20154, 4, 2, 2, 28965, 24, 21, 5, 2569, 990, 2608, 187, 14428, 2383, 5220, 6, 19, 10, 1266, 5181, 9, 112, 4, 245, 50141, 12938, 347, 36, 2631, 4, 406, 50141, 12938, 597, 32801, 2 ]
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"Peer review process was corrupted"
"In 2010, the US Senate Finance Committee released a report that found this practice was widespread, that it corrupted the scientific literature and increased prescription rates."
1 (related)
[ 0, 23029, 254, 1551, 609, 21, 40124, 2, 2, 1121, 1824, 6, 5, 382, 1112, 4090, 1674, 703, 10, 266, 14, 303, 42, 1524, 21, 5859, 6, 14, 24, 40124, 5, 6441, 13144, 8, 1130, 9243, 1162, 4, 2 ]
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End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Summary

This dataset is extracted from Climate Fever dataset (https://www.sustainablefinance.uzh.ch/en/research/climate-fever.html), pre-processed and ready to train and evaluate. The training objective is a text classification task - given a claim and evidence, predict if evidence is related to claim.