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Global sea level rise surged between November 2014 and February 2016, with the El Nino event helping the oceans rise by 15mm.
As El Nino conditions started to develop during early 2014, sea levels in western Micronesia including in waters surrounding the island nations of Palau and Guam dropped by 6–9 feet ( 1.8–2.7 m ).
1related
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the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is misleading humanity about climate change and sea levels, and that in fact a new solar-driven cooling period is not far off.
Over the six years studied, the actual temperature rise was near the top end of the range given by IPCC's 2001 projection, and the actual sea level rise was above the top of the range of the IPCC projection.
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Reef material is calcium carbonate, which contains 44 per cent carbon dioxide.
Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.
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A windmill could spin until it falls apart and never generate as much energy as was invested in building it.
A wind turbine is a windmill-like structure specifically developed to generate electricity.
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The Alaskan tundra is warming so quickly it has become a net emitter of carbon dioxide ahead of schedule, a new study finds
Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded.
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They were going to be gone by now, but now they're setting records
The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level.
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There is long-term correlation between CO2 and global temperature; other effects are short-term.
During the glacial cycles, there was a high correlation between CO 2 concentrations and temperatures.
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Sea-level rise does not seem to depend on ocean temperature, and certainly not on CO2
This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.
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‘We don’t expect record years every year, but the ongoing long-term warming trend is clear.’”
While record-breaking years attract considerable public interest, individual years are less significant than the overall trend.
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it’s not a pollutant that threatens human civilization.
An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem.
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Global warming is driving polar bears toward extinction
Bear hunting caught in global warming debate.
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Temperatures cooled from about 1940 to 1975, and then they rose from about ’75 to about 2005 or so, and since then they’ve been flat or cooling.
September 16, 1972.
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The climate-change agreement between the United States and China "requires the Chinese to do nothing at all for 16 years."
According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F).
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The minute increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere ( 0.008% ) was not the cause of the warming—it was a continuation of natural cycles that occurred over the past 500 years.
Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution ( around 1750 ) have produced a 45% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 415 ppm in 2019.
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The most recent IPCC report lays out a future if we limit global heating to 1.5°C instead of the Paris Agreement’s 2°C.
In 2018 the IPCC published a Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C which warned that, if the current rate of greenhouse gas emissions is not mitigated, global warming is likely to reach 1.5 °C ( 2.7 °F ) between 2030 and 2052, risking major crises.
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'Mauna Loa has been producing a readout which supports Manning's predetermined goal by showing steady growth in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since 1959.
"One-Third of Reef-Building Corals Face Elevated Extinction Risk from Climate Change and Local Impacts".
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A recent Nature study expecting more severe hurricanes from global warming still found that damages would halve from 0.04 per cent to 0.02 per cent of global GDP, because the increased ferocity would be more than made up by increased prosperity and resilience.
Providence is home to a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) park system, notably Waterplace Park and Riverwalk, Roger Williams Park, Roger Williams National Memorial, and Prospect Terrace Park.
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Germany managed to increase its use of renewables and its output of carbon dioxide at the same time -- because it resorted to cheap coal to keep the lights on at a price its people could afford.
Even if the current and future projected human effects on Earth's climate are not negligible, the changes are generally going to be good for us.
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Thousands of coral atolls have drowned in the past when they were unable to grow fast enough to maintain a presence at sea level
More than 80 per cent of the country's land is composed of coral islands which rise less than one metre above sea level.
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The costs of emissions regulations, which will be paid by everyone, will be punishingly high and will provide no benefits to most people anywhere in the world.
The National Health Service was set up in 1946 to provide everyone free health care, regardless of class or income, paid for by progressive taxation.
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Environment Minister Greg Hunt the Coalition's emissions reduction fund, at $13.95 per tonne of carbon, is around 1 per cent of the cost of reducing carbon under the former Labor government's carbon pricing scheme, which he cost $1,300 a tonne.
The average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880; Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20 °C per decade.
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Klaus-Martin Schulte examined all papers published from 2004 to February 2007.
In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
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Sea-level rise does not seem to depend on ocean temperature, and certainly not on CO2
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean as the North Atlantic Current.
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The result did suggest the sea level was increasing in the western Pacific, but this was offset by a drop in the level near the Alaskan coast.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the atmosphere.
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The long term warming trend indicates the total energy in the Earth's climate system is increasing due to an energy imbalance.
It is, however, expected that future warming will follow a similar geographical pattern to that seen already, with greatest warming over land and high northern latitudes, and least over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean.
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However, volcanoes have had very little impact on the last 40 years of global warming.
The consensus is that several factors are important : atmospheric composition, such as the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane ( the specific levels of the previously mentioned gases are now able to be seen with the new ice core samples from EPICA Dome C in Antarctica over the past 800,000 years ); changes in the earth's orbit around the Sun known as Milankovitch cycles; the motion of tectonic plates resulting in changes in the relative location and amount of continental and oceanic crust on the earth's surface, which affect wind and ocean currents; variations in solar output; the orbital dynamics of the Earth–Moon system; the impact of relatively large meteorites and volcanism including eruptions of supervolcanoes.
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“[ Carbon dioxide ] just crossed 400 parts per million, and high-end estimates extrapolating from current trends suggest it will hit 1,000 ppm by 2100.
For an ideal gas mixture this is equivalent to parts per million by volume ( ppmv ).
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warmer oceans have also begun to destabilize glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica
In Greenland, glacier retreat has been observed in outlet glaciers, resulting in an increase of the ice flow rate and destabilization of the mass balance of the ice sheet that is their source.
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The influence of the volcano is easily spotted and removed, together with other even more important spurious influences.
This tremendous variation in the erupted magmas and influence of adjacent vents gave rise to a high and volumnous complex bimodal stratovolcano centrally located atop the shield.
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The team of climate scientists notes that in failing to predict the warming ‘hiatus’ in the beginning of the 21st century, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) models overestimated temperature increases…
The observed increase in hurricane intensity is larger than climate models predict for the sea surface temperature changes we have experienced.
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Elementary radiative-transfer calculations demonstrate that a natural surface global brightening amounting to ~1.9 Wm–2 over the 18-year period of study would be expected – using the IPCC’s own methodology – to have caused a transient warming of 1 K ( 1.8 F° ).
The Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum was an approximate 200,000 year long event where the global average temperature rose by some 5 to 8 °C ( 9 to 14 °F ), and mid-latitude and polar areas may have exceeded modern tropical temperatures of 24–29 °C ( 75–84 °F ).
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January 2008 capped a 12 month period of global temperature drops on all of the major well respected indicators.
Its average duration is 365.256363004 days ( 365 d 6 h 9 min 9.76 s ) ( at the epoch J2000.0 = January 1, 2000, 12 :00 :00 TT ).
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This argument originates from Angstrom's work in 1901.
Anders Jonas Angstrom ( Swedish : [ ˈanːdɛʂ ˈjuːnas ˈɔŋːstrœm ]; 13 August 1814 – 21 June 1874 ) was a Swedish physicist and one of the founders of the science of spectroscopy.
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This was the case last year too, while earlier years in the DMI analysis period ( 1958-2010 ) hardly ever shows Arctic melt season temperatures this cold ( Frank Lansner )
The 2007 melt season let to a minimum 39% below the 1979–2000 average, and for the first time in human memory, the fabled Northwest Passage opened completely.
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But more than 7% of deaths are related to cold—counting hypothermia, as well as increased blood pressure and risk of heart attack that results when the body restricts blood flow in response to frigid temperatures.”
The cold water can also cause heart attack due to vasoconstriction; the heart has to work harder to pump the same volume of blood throughout the body, and for people with heart disease, this additional workload can cause the heart to go into arrest.
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'Another global warming myth comes crashing down.
Climate Change Myths and Realities.
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says Sweet, who has authored several sea-level rise studies.
"Former foes Clinton, Gingrich band up on health care plan".
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Greg Hunt CSIRO research shows carbon emissions can be reduced by 20 per cent over 40 years using nature, soils and trees.
Global warming has led to decades of shrinking and thinning of the Arctic sea ice, making it vulnerable to atmospheric anomalies.
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“We almost take forests as a given but we lose forest every year, which means we are diminishing them as a carbon sink.
The average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880; Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20 °C per decade.
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Heatwaves occur in any climate, but we know that heatwaves are becoming much more likely due to climate change.
The effects of climate change on human systems, mostly due to warming and shifts in precipitation, have been detected worldwide.
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The error was incorrect citation, failing to mention the peer-reviewed papers where the data came from.
The Ordovician spans 41.6 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya.
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But that conclusion holds true only if there are no other sources of c12 increases which are not human caused.
The surprising effect of this is that the global warming potential of CO is three times that of CO 2.
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However, it is unable to explain the long term warming trend over the past few decades.
Over the past five decades there has been a global warming of approximately 0.65 °C ( 1.17 °F ) at the Earth's surface ( see historical temperature record ).
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No one ever says it, but in many ways global warming will be a good thing
Adaptation is especially important in developing countries since they are predicted to bear the brunt of the effects of global warming.
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But [climate scientists] say that aspects of the case of Hurricane Harvey—and the recent history of tropical cyclones worldwide—suggest global warming is making a bad situation worse.
Scientists do not predict that a natural ice age will occur anytime soon.
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Even as sea ice in the Arctic has seen a rapid and consistent decline over the past decade, its counterpart in the Southern Hemisphere has seen its extent increasing.”
While increased CO 2 levels help crop growth at lower temperature increases, those crops do become less nutritious.
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Maximum warming occurs over the surface during winter while less surface warming is found in summer when heat is being used to melt sea ice.
While snow and ice act to insulate the surface from large energy losses in winter, they also act to retard warming in the spring and summer because of the large amount of energy required to melt ice ( the latent heat of fusion, 3.34 x 105 J / kg at 0 °C ).
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Peer-reviewed research, physics, and math all tell us that a grand solar minimum would have no more than a 0.3°C cooling effect, barely enough to put a dent in human-caused global warming.
The equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) refers to the equilibrium change in global mean near-surface air temperature that would result from a sustained doubling of the atmospheric equivalent CO 2 concentration (ΔT2×).
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"the temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century could have taken place in steps driven by major ENSO events" (Jens Raunsø Jensen)
These, together with other anthropogenic drivers, are "extremely likely" (where that means more than 95% probability) to have been the dominant cause of the observed global warming since the mid-20th century.
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[ climate scientists ] say that aspects of the case of Hurricane Harvey suggest global warming is making a bad situation worse.
Global warming not only causes changes in tropical cyclones, it may also make some impacts from them worse via sea level rise.
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As of today,JAXA shows that we have more ice than any time on this date for the past 8 years of Aqua satellite measurement for this AMSRE dataset."
The Newswatch branding was dropped after 28 years to coincide with the switch.
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Cosmic rays show no trend over the last 30 years & have had little impact on recent global warming.
Since the start of the 20th century, the global mean surface temperature of the Earth has increased by more than 0.7°C and the rate of warming has been largest in the last 30 years.
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We have also been told the problem is DEFINITELY NOT a billions-year-old planet running through cycles where the temperature might fluctuate a bit.
The greater the eccentricity the greater the temperature fluctuation on a planet's surface.
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Climate policy must compete with other long-term threats for always-scarce resources.”
Economics has been subject to criticism that it relies on unrealistic, unverifiable, or highly simplified assumptions, in some cases because these assumptions simplify the proofs of desired conclusions.
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However, it is unable to explain the long term warming trend over the past few decades.
Between 1850 and 1950 a long-term trend of gradual climate warming is observable, and during this same period the Marsham record of oak-leafing dates tended to become earlier.
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Once natural influences, in particular the impact of El Niño and La Niña, are removed from the recent termperature record, there is no evidence of a significant change in the human contribution to climate change.
Fossil-fueled power plants, which wind turbines generally require to make up for their weather dependent intermittency, kill almost 20 times as many birds per gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity according to Sovacool.
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There are fundamental faults in the statistical and scientific analyses used to justify the need for early and comprehensive mitigatory action by governments.
This phrase next appeared in a November 1957 report in The Hammond Times which described Roger Revelle's research into the effects of increasing human-caused CO 2 emissions on the greenhouse effect: "a large scale global warming, with radical climate changes may result".
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In 1990 the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) predicted that temperatures would rise by 0.54F ( 0.3C ) per decade.
The projections apply to the end of the 21st century ( 2090–99 ), relative to temperatures at the end of the 20th century ( 1980–99 ).
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Armed conflicts over resources may become a reality, and have the potential to escalate into nuclear war.
When the permafrost melts, it releases carbon in the form of carbon dioxide and methane, both of which are greenhouse gases.
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It’s not carbon dioxide, it’s not methane… Scientists estimate that somewhere between 75% and 90% of Earth greenhouse effect is caused by water vapor in clouds.”
Of these emissions, 65% was carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning and industry, 11% was carbon dioxide from land use change, which is primarily due to deforestation, 16% was from methane, 6.2% was from nitrous oxide, and 2.0% was from fluorinated gases.
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In the early 20th century, state and federal governments began aggressively fighting wildfires and trying to keep them as small as possible.
In the hockey stick controversy, the data and methods used in reconstructions of the temperature record of the past 1000 years have been disputed.
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Worry about global warming impacts in the next 100 years, not an ice age in over 10,000 years.
These global climatic changes occurred slowly, prior to the rise of human civilization about 10 thousand years ago near the end of the last Major Ice Age when the climate became more stable.
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Sea level rise due to climate change is not going to happen.
Between 1993 and 2017, the global mean sea level rose on average by 3.1 ± 0.3 mm per year, with an acceleration detected as well.
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It has occurred during the warmest year on record, which occurred in 2015, and the two most unusually mild months on Earth, which took place in January and February, respectively.”
April 2007 was also the warmest month in history, the average temperature being 5 °C warmer than normal.
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They all confirm the original hockey stick conclusion : the 20th century is the warmest in the last 1000 years and that warming was most dramatic after 1920.
They concluded that although the 20th century was almost certainly the warmest of the millennium, the amount of anthropogenic warming remains uncertain.
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Note that computer models are just concatenations of calculations you could do on a hand-held calculator, so they are theoretical and cannot be part of any evidence."
Global warming has led to decades of shrinking and thinning of the Arctic sea ice, making it vulnerable to atmospheric anomalies.
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Preventing global warming is relatively cheap; business-as-usual will cause accelerating climate damage costs that economists struggle to even estimate.
Global losses reveal rapidly rising costs due to extreme weather-related events since the 1970s.
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at the end of recent ice ages, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere started to rise only after temperatures began to climb.
He tells Friedman that "you've got to recognize [that global warming] is going to be one of the most significant long-term challenges, if not the most significant long-term challenge, that this country faces and that the planet faces.
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The top five countries for passenger aviation-related carbon emissions were rounded out by China, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany.
Over this time period, the US accounted for 28% of emissions; the EU, 23%; Russia, 11%; China, 9%; other OECD countries, 5%; Japan, 4%; India, 3%; and the rest of the world, 18%.
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“We’ve known about [ the greenhouse effect ] for more than a century.
The greenhouse effect, substantially responsible for Earth's global warming, was first described in 1824 by the French mathematician Joseph Fourier.
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Barack Obama will help the Gulf Coast restore the wetlands, marshes and barrier islands that are critical to tamping down the force of hurricanes.
Water flowing down the headwall gains energy, which melts the surrounding ice, creating channels.
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More specifically, around 95% of active climate researchers actively publishing climate papers endorse the consensus position.
( i ) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field support the tenets of ACC ( Anthropogenic Climate Change ) outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and ( ii ) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.
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Previous IPCC reports tended to assume that clouds would have a neutral impact because the warming and cooling feedbacks would cancel each other out.
The main reinforcing feedbacks are the water vapour feedback, the ice–albedo feedback, and probably the net effect of clouds.
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The consequences of climate change become increasingly bad after each additional degree of warming, with the consequences of 2°C being quite damaging and the consequences of 4°C being potentially catastrophic.
"How do we know more CO2 is causing warming?".
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'Another global warming myth comes crashing down.
The conspiracy behind the Anthropogenic Global Warming myth ( aka AGW; aka ManBearPig ) has been suddenly, brutally and quite deliciously exposed, and A contretemps with a Climate Bully who wonders whether I have a science degree.
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While there are minor errors in An Inconvenient Truth, the main truths presented - evidence to show mankind is causing global warming and its various impacts is consistent with peer reviewed science.
The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of roughly 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north, down towards the Weddell Sea.
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Every four minutes, another American home or business goes solar.
The wheel moves continuously, removing garbage and dumping it into an attached dumpster using only hydro and solar renewable power to keep its wheel turning.
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The Arctic’s carbon bomb might be even more potent than we thought [ … ] methane, a shorter-lived but far harder-hitting gas that could cause faster bursts of warming
Warming is also the triggering variable for the release of carbon ( potentially as methane ) in the arctic.
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Our evolving dynamic planet has survived[ … ] mass extinctions
The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals.
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Peer-reviewed research, physics, and math all tell us that a grand solar minimum would have no more than a 0.3°C cooling effect, barely enough to put a dent in human-caused global warming.
The associated mortality rates of heatstroke is between 40-64%.
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The planet’s average ground temperature has risen by around 1.62F (0.9C)
The Arctic is home to millions of seals, which become prey when they surface in holes in the ice in order to breathe, or when they haul out on the ice to rest.
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Coastal lake sediments along the Gulf of Mexico shoreline from 1,000 to 2,000 years ago suggest more frequent and intense hurricanes than occur today.
Intense Southwest Florida hurricane landfalls over the past 1000 years.
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Evidence is growing that the comparatively cold zone within the Northern Atlantic could be due to a slowdown of this global ocean water circulation.
In 2014, President Barack Obama proposed a series of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, known as the Clean Power Plan that would reduce carbon pollution from coal-fired power plants.
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at the end of recent ice ages, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere started to rise only after temperatures began to climb.
Reconstructed temperature records for the last 420 million years indicate that atmospheric CO 2 concentrations peaked at ~2000 ppm during the Devonian ( ∼400 Myrs ago ) period, and again in the Triassic ( 220–200 Myrs ago ) period.
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Lindzen and Choi find low climate sensitivity
It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.
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Greenland has only lost a tiny fraction of its ice mass.
A question that frequently arises in popular discussion is whether there is a scientific consensus on climate change.
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The public understand it, in that if you get a fall evening or spring evening and the sky is clear the heat will escape and the temperature will drop and you get frost.
when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow.
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carbon dioxide has had a minuscule effect on global climate.
A significant hydrological drought occurred in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1998, when the warm, dry summers were followed by dry, cool winters.
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Within a decade, certain kinds of branching and plate coral could be extinct, reef scientists say, along with a variety of small fish that rely on them for protection from predators.
Attributing detected temperature changes and extreme events to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases requires scientists to rule out known internal climate variability and natural external forcings.
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(Kerr 2007) points out that the sunlight-reflecting haze that cools much of the planet seems to have thinned over the past decade or so.
Since global warming is attributed to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and methane, scientists closely monitor atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and their impact on the present-day biosphere.
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Had he used the currently accepted value of approximately 3°C warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2, Hansen would have correctly projected the ensuing global warming.
Decades ago, they correctly predicted how much Earth's temperature would rise due to increasing atmospheric CO2.
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Sea level rise is decelerating.
More importantly, the GMSL curve shows a net acceleration, estimated to be at 0.08mm / yr2.
1related
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Even if the warming were as big as the IPCC imagines, it would not be as dangerous as Mr. Brown suggests.
For at least the last 100 years, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 1.8 mm (0.07 in) per year.
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Brooks added that Antarctic ice is growing.
A new study used field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing to account for thermokarst lakes, the authors concluded that, "..methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century."
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Migration patterns show people heading for warm states like Texas and Florida, not snowy Minnesota and Michigan.”
This could lead to changing, and for all emissions scenarios more unpredictable, weather patterns around the world, less frost days, more extreme events (droughts and storm or flood disasters), and warmer sea temperatures and melting glaciers causing sea levels to rise.
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that likewise determined that the actual increases in warming post-2000 was ‘generally smaller than trends estimated’ from the models.”
Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change.
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Other parts of the earth got colder when Greenland got warmer.
In the higher latitudes, the North Atlantic Drift, warms the atmosphere over the oceans, keeping the British Isles and north-western Europe mild and cloudy, and not severely cold in winter like other locations at the same high latitude.
1related
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A recent study in Nature Geoscience, for instance, called into question whether the Arctic’s melting, and in particular its sea ice loss, has been causing winter cooling over Eurasia, another idea that has been swept up in the debate over the jet stream and weather extremes.”
In 2011, a Nature Geoscience study using general circulation models linked Pacific Rossby waves generated by increasing central tropical Pacific temperatures to warming of the Amundsen Sea region, leading to winter and spring continental warming of Ellsworth Land and Marie Byrd Land in West Antarctica via an increase in advection.
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The April low temperatures here are now about 6 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than they used to be.
At O'Hare, temperatures as low as 7 °F ( −14 °C ) and 31 °F ( −1 °C ) have been recorded as late as April 7 and May 21, respectively.
1related
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The CERN CLOUD experiment only tested one-third of one out of four requirements necessary to blame global warming on cosmic rays, and two of the other requirements have already failed.
The Holocene glacial retreat is a geographical phenomenon that involved the global deglaciation of glaciers that previously had advanced during the Last Glacial Maximum.
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Dataset Summary

This dataset is extracted from Climate Fever dataset (https://www.sustainablefinance.uzh.ch/en/research/climate-fever.html), pre-processed and ready to train and evaluate. The training objective is a text classification task - given a claim and evidence, predict if evidence is related to claim.

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