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[ "Results-Based Accountability is a disciplined way of thinking and taking action that communities can use to improve the lives of children, youth, families, adults and the community as a whole." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Since 2007, the RBA's outstanding reputation has been affected by the 'Securency' or NPA scandal. These RBA subsidiaries were involved in bribing overseas officials so that Australia might win lucrative note-printing contracts. The assets of the bank include the gold and foreign exchange reserves of Australia, which is estimated to have a net worth of A$101 billion. Nearly 94% of the RBA's employees work at its headquarters in Sydney, New South Wales and at the Business Resumption Site.", "The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) came into being on 14 January 1960 as Australia 's central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank. The assets of the bank include the gold and foreign exchange reserves of Australia, which is estimated to have a net worth of A$101 billion. Nearly 94% of the RBA's employees work at its headquarters in Sydney, New South Wales and at the Business Resumption Site.", "RBA Recognized with the 2014 Microsoft US Regional Partner of the ... by PR Newswire. Contract Awarded for supply and support the. Securitisations System used for risk management and analysis. ", "The inner workings of a rebuildable atomizer are surprisingly simple. The coil inside the RBA is made of some type of resistance wire, normally Kanthal or nichrome. When a current is applied to the coil (resistance wire), it heats up and the heated coil then vaporizes the eliquid. 1 The bottom feed RBA is, perhaps, the easiest of all RBA types to build, maintain, and use. 2 It is filled from below, much like bottom coil clearomizer. 3 Bottom feed RBAs can utilize cotton instead of silica for the wick. 4 The Genesis, or genny, is a top feed RBA that utilizes a short woven mesh wire.", "Results-Based Accountability® (also known as RBA) is a disciplined way of thinking and taking action that communities can use to improve the lives of children, youth, families, adults and the community as a whole. RBA is also used by organizations to improve the performance of their programs. RBA improves the lives of children, families, and communities and the performance of programs because RBA: 1 Gets from talk to action quickly; 2 Is a simple, common sense process that everyone can understand; 3 Helps groups to surface and challenge assumptions that can be barriers to innovation;", "Results-Based Accountability® (also known as RBA) is a disciplined way of thinking and taking action that communities can use to improve the lives of children, youth, families, adults and the community as a whole. RBA is also used by organizations to improve the performance of their programs. Creating Community Impact with RBA. Community impact focuses on conditions of well-being for children, families and the community as a whole that a group of leaders is working collectively to improve. For example: “Residents with good jobs,” “Children ready for school,” or “A safe and clean neighborhood”.", "RBA uses a data-driven, decision-making process to help communities and organizations get beyond talking about problems to taking action to solve problems. It is a simple, common sense framework that everyone can understand. RBA starts with ends and works backward, towards means. The “end” or difference you are trying to make looks slightly different if you are working on a broad community level or are focusing on your specific program or organization. RBA improves the lives of children, families, and communities and the performance of programs because RBA: 1 Gets from talk to action quickly; 2 Is a simple, common sense process that everyone can understand; 3 Helps groups to surface and challenge assumptions that can be barriers to innovation;", "vs. NetIQ Identity Manager. Risk-based authentication (RBA) is a method of applying varying levels of stringency to authentication processes based on the likelihood that access to a given system could result in its being compromised. Risk-based authentication can be categorized as either user-dependent or transaction-dependent. User-dependent RBA processes employ the same authentication for every session initiated by a given user; the exact credentials that the site demands depend on who the user is.", "A rebuildable atomizer (RBA), often referred to as simply a “rebuildable,” is just a special type of atomizer used in the Vape Pen and Mod Industry that connects to a personal vaporizer. 1 The bottom feed RBA is, perhaps, the easiest of all RBA types to build, maintain, and use. 2 It is filled from below, much like bottom coil clearomizer. 3 Bottom feed RBAs can utilize cotton instead of silica for the wick. 4 The Genesis, or genny, is a top feed RBA that utilizes a short woven mesh wire.", "Get To Know Us. RBA is a digital and technology consultancy with roots in strategy, design and technology. Our team of specialists help progressive companies deliver modern digital experiences backed by proven technology engineering. " ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_Australia", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_Australia", "http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/RBA", "https://www.slimvapepen.com/rebuildable-atomizer-rba/", "http://rba-africa.com/about/what-is-rba/", "http://resultsleadership.org/what-is-results-based-accountability-rba/", "http://rba-africa.com/about/what-is-rba/", "http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/risk-based-authentication-RBA", "https://www.slimvapepen.com/rebuildable-atomizer-rba/", "http://www.rbaconsulting.com/" ] }
what is rba
19,699
description
[]
[ "Yes" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "In his younger years, Ronald Reagan was a member of the Democratic Party and campaigned for Democratic candidates; however, his views grew more conservative over time, and in the early 1960s he officially became a Republican. In November 1984, Ronald Reagan was reelected in a landslide, defeating Walter Mondale and his running mate Geraldine Ferraro (1935-), the first female vice-presidential candidate from a major U.S. political party.", "From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Reagan Democrat is a traditionally Democratic voter in the United States, especially a white working-class Northerner, who defected from their party to support Republican President Ronald Reagan in either or both the 1980 and 1984 elections. During the 1980 election a dramatic number of voters in the U.S., disillusioned with the economic 'malaise' of the 1970s and the presidency of Jimmy Carter (even more than, four years earlier, Liberal Republican Gerald Ford), supported former California governor (and former Democrat) Ronald Reagan.", "Ronald Reagan began his political life in the Democratic Party, but as he became more and more conservative, he ultimately changed to the Republican Party in the early 1960s. Yes, he switched parties in 1962. He said that he did not desert the Democrats but rather they deserted him. Yes, Ronald Reagan was a member of the Democratic Party until he s … witched to the Republican Party in 1962, at the age of 51. 8 people found this useful.", "Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈrɒnəld ˈwɪlsən ˈreɪɡən/ ; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. I think Ronald Reagan changed the trajectory of America in a way that Richard Nixon did not and in a way that Bill Clinton did not. He put us on a fundamentally different path because the country was ready for it.", "When Reagan was a 'liberal Democrat'. In 1948, a very different sounding Ronald Reagan campaigned on the radio for Democrat Harry Truman. Listen to the old audio recording. ... more Duration: {{video.duration.momentjs}}. ", "Ronald Reagan (1911-2004), a former actor and California governor, served as the 40th U.S. president from 1981 to 1989. Raised in small-town Illinois, he became a Hollywood actor in his 20s and later served as the Republican governor of California from 1967 to 1975. In November 1984, Ronald Reagan was reelected in a landslide, defeating Walter Mondale and his running mate Geraldine Ferraro (1935-), the first female vice-presidential candidate from a major U.S. political party.", "1984 Re-Election. In November 1984, Ronald Reagan was re-elected in a landslide, defeating Democratic challenger Walter Mondale. Reagan carried 49 of the 50 U.S. states in the election, and received 525 of 538 electoral votes—the largest number ever won by an American presidential candidate. " ], "url": [ "http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/ronald-reagan", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reagan_Democrat", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Was_Ronald_Reagan_a_republican_or_a_democrat", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan", "http://www.msnbc.com/the-last-word/watch/when-reagan-was-a-liberal-democrat-219696195576", "http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/ronald-reagan", "http://www.biography.com/people/ronald-reagan-9453198" ] }
was ronald reagan a democrat
19,700
description
[]
[ "20-25 minutes" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Sydney, New South Wales, Australia is located in a coastal basin bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area and covers 12,145 km² (4,689 mi²). This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other non-urban land.", "This itinerary will have you crossing the country to take in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia’s iconic reef in Queensland, before heading to Western Australia to see the breath taking Ningaloo Reef, one of Australia’s best kept secrets. View more information. 10 day-Sydney, rock and reef. It’s easy to see why Hamilton Island is one of the most popular spots for a getaway on the Great Barrier Reef. With palm-fringed beaches, top restaurants and stylish resorts, there’s plenty to do on land, while those keen to explore the clear waters of the Whitsundays will be richly rewarded.", "The Sydney central business district, Sydney harbour and outer suburbs from the West. North Sydney 's commercial district. The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into more than 300 suburbs for addressing and postal purposes, and administered as 38 local government areas. The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area and covers 12,145 km² (4,689 mi²). This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other non-urban land.", "1 Taxis to the city centre should cost approximately $40 (including tolls), and more to other Sydney destinations (The Rocks $40-45, North Sydney $45, Manly $50, Parramatta $80-100 etc.) You can expect to pay a $3.80 airport taxi levy and a $5.50 Eastern Distributor toll on top of the metered fare. Newtown in Sydney's inner-west (approx 4km from the CBD) is renowned for its inexpensive cafes and restaurants on King St, in particular Thai food. It is highly popular among students from the nearby Sydney University.", "Sydney is the capital city of the Australian state of New South Wales, and Australia's largest city. A week in Sydney will help you see many of the sights of Sydney and its surrounds, and understand the city and its culture. If you're up for exploring the area by bike (one of the best ways to do so as much of it is parkland), take the train to Concord West station on the Northern Line (red line on the Sydney Trains map-about 20-25 minutes from the city on a direct train).", "Sydney Attractions. Sydney is home to some of Australia’s most iconic attractions. The Sydney Opera House is a thriving hub of art, culture and history. 1km (return) - 1.5 hour (each way)Step out of your car and into the past. This short walk, perfect for walking with children and for visitors with ties to the local area, pulls you back thro... http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/scheyville-national-park/migrant-heritage-walk/walking.", "Sydney lies on a submergent coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood deep river valleys (rias) carved in the sandstone. There are more than 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach, in the urban area. Sydney's urban area covers 1,788 km² (690 mi²). The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area and covers 12,145 km² (4,689 mi²). This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other non-urban land.", "On your right across College Street, in the sandstone building on the corner, is the Australian Museum [3] ($12 adult/$6 children, $30 family (2+2)). This museum, which focuses on natural history, is worth a visit in its own right if you have more time in Sydney and will take a couple of hours to explore. If you're up for exploring the area by bike (one of the best ways to do so as much of it is parkland), take the train to Concord West station on the Northern Line (red line on the Sydney Trains map-about 20-25 minutes from the city on a direct train).", "The Rocks. This is a complete listing of the suburbs and localities in the greater Sydney area in alphabetical order. Sydney has about 38 local government areas, each consisting of several suburbs (suburbs in Australia are purely geographical, not political, divisions). See table below, Category:Suburbs of Sydney and Category:Local government areas in Sydney. Suburbs are listed here if they are inside the Sydney metro area, and are listed in the Geographical Names Register as being suburbs.", "Sydney is a very large city, and we haven't spent much time outside of the inner suburbs, apart from what you would have seen on the way to the Blue Mountains. On Day 5 we'll explore one of Sydney's parkland areas in the Sydney Olympic Park at Homebush Bay [63] . If you're up for exploring the area by bike (one of the best ways to do so as much of it is parkland), take the train to Concord West station on the Northern Line (red line on the Sydney Trains map-about 20-25 minutes from the city on a direct train)." ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Sydney", "http://www.australia.com/en-us", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Sydney", "http://wikitravel.org/en/Sydney", "http://wikitravel.org/en/One_week_in_Sydney", "http://www.sydney.com/things-to-do/attractions", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Sydney", "http://wikitravel.org/en/One_week_in_Sydney", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sydney_suburbs", "http://wikitravel.org/en/One_week_in_Sydney" ] }
how long do you need for sydney and surrounding areas
19,701
numeric
[]
[ "$11 to $22 per square foot" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "In regards to tile installation costs, consumers can expect to pay an average of $25 per square foot, depending on the grade of material that is used. For a medium-sized shower, the price can cost about $2,000. Tile installation materials include:", "1 Polished nickel faucets-Average cost is $400 each plus four hours of installation; 2 Install ceramic tile floor to match shower-Average prices for installation are between $11 to $22 per square foot; 3 A light/fan combination-Averages at $180 and one hour", "Enhancement and improvement costs. 1 Polished nickel faucets-Average cost is $400 each plus four hours of installation; 2 Install ceramic tile floor to match shower-Average prices for installation are between $11 to $22 per square foot; 3 A light/fan combination-Averages at $180 and one hour of installation; 4 Insulate and re-finish ceilings and 5 ... Painti", "Granite shower tile is available at an average of $3.49 per square foot to $6.99 per square foot. Polished stone wall tile comes in many choices, including pebble stone that costs about $10 per square foot and $12 per square foot for a smooth surface polished stone tile.", "1 Higher-end tile such as granite or marble is going to cost more than a standard ceramic tile. 2 On average, plan on spending anywhere from $2,500 to as much as $5,000 or more for a standard 3′ x 5′ shower. 3 Showers can widely vary in size, but most of the time the cost will be within this price range.", "Our free calculator uses recent, trusted data to estimate costs for your Bathroom Floor Tile Installation project. For a basic 120 square feet project in zip code 47474, the benchmark cost to Install Bathroom Floor Tile ranges between $9.53 - $13.80 per square foot* .", "The cost for a typical small bathroom remodel will range from about $4,000 to $12,000 with the average cost being about $8,000. Let’s look at how the costs breakout starting with the most basic remodel including a new toilet, shower, vanity & sink and tile.", "The national average for a new shower installation project, when performed by a capable contractor, is $2,689. At the low-end of the normal cost range, homeowners are paying $1,109, and at the high end of the average range they’re spending $2,459. More luxurious showers can cost in excess of $10,000 to install.", "1 Install ceramic tile floor to match shower-Average prices for installation are between $11 to $22 per square foot; 2 A light/fan combination-Averages at $180 and one hour of installation; 3 Insulate and re-finish ceilings and walls-Fiberglass wall insulation with R-30 value will cost $2.25 per square foot." ], "url": [ "http://www.improvenet.com/r/costs-and-prices/shower-tiling", "http://www.fixr.com/costs/install-shower-stall", "http://www.fixr.com/costs/install-shower-stall", "http://www.improvenet.com/r/costs-and-prices/shower-tiling", "http://www.howmuchisit.org/tile-shower-cost/", "http://www.homewyse.com/services/cost_to_install_bathroom_floor_tile.html", "http://trianglegranite.com/how-much-does-it-cost-to-remodel-a-bathroom.php", "http://www.improvenet.com/r/costs-and-prices/shower-installation-cost-estimator", "http://www.fixr.com/costs/install-shower-stall" ] }
price to install tile in shower
19,702
numeric
[]
[ "Due to symptoms in the body" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Conclusions: In adult body CT, dose to an organ fully encompassed by the primary radiation beam can be estimated from CTDI vol using a protocol-independent conversion coefficient. However, fully encompassed organs only account for 50% ± 19% of k factor and 46% ± 24% of q factor. Dose received by partially encompassed organs is also substantial. To estimate effective dose and risk index from DLP, it is necessary to use conversion coefficients specific to the anatomical region examined.", "The brain uses loads and loads of energy which is a major challenge for your metabolism-the organ which uses most energy prefers to run on the fuel that can be stored worst. Fatty acids can be converted to ketones, which can partly power the brain. More about the brain later, it is not that simple.", "Conversion disorder is a type of somatoform disorder where physical symptoms or signs are present that cannot be explained by a medical condition. Very importantly, unlike factitious disorders and malingering, the symptoms of somatoform disorders are not intentional or under conscious control of the patient.", "Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation.", "Conversion disorder symptoms may appear suddenly after a stressful event or trauma, whether physical or psychological. Signs and symptoms that affect movement function may include: 1 Weakness or paralysis. 2 Abnormal movement, such as tremors or difficulty walking. 3 Loss of balance.", "Glucose. Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is primarily glucose.", "Sometimes people with conversion disorder have tremors or symptoms that resemble fainting spells or seizures * . There also may be loss of feeling in various parts of the body, or loss of the sense of smell, and symptoms may occur together.", "Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is primarily glucose." ], "url": [ "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3482255/", "http://ds9a.nl/metabolism/conversion.html", "http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/287464-overview", "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000954.htm", "http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/conversion-disorder/basics/symptoms/CON-20029533", "http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/sugar.html", "http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-Br-Fe/Conversion-Disorder.html", "http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/sugar.html" ] }
why conversion observed in body
19,703
description
[]
[ "Inside the rib cage." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Get the Latest health and medical information delivered direct to your inbox! The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic. Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells called the interstitium, which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alveoli. The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue lines the inside of the chest cavity -- also called pleura.", "your lungs are just inside your ribcage, from the chest in. there is your heart, stomach, spine, some arm muscles, and big arteries and veins between your lungs and your back … skin. there is just the ribcage and a couple big blood vessels between the lungs and the chest. 4 people found this useful. ", "When you have pain in your lungs and back pain, or upper back pain from your lungs, it could be the earliest signs of some very serious problems such as lung cancer, or it may only be a coincidence. You may only have something as simple as mechanical back pain, and bronchitis. There are also many possible causes of lung or breathing pain, which are not associated with your back or spine. Among these would be a collapsed lung, or an infection of some type, such as pneumonia or an abscess. You may also have pleuritis or pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura that covers the lungs.", "© 2014 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved. The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic. ", "1. Get help from a doctor now ›. under ribs: The lungs in the front and back are inside the rib cage. This is why doctors will place a stethoscope on the back as well as the front to evaluate the function of the lungs. ...Read more. 1 Where are your kidneys located on your back in women. 2 Where are the lungs located in the back. 3 Where are lungs located in your body. 4 Ask a doctor a question free online. 5 Where are the lungs located in the human body.", "completely unrelated to the lungs. There are many possible causes of upper back pain, but the most common cause is muscle strain. Ligament and tendon strains and sprains may also occur in the upper back. Mechanical back pain or disc herniation is possible. There are also many possible causes of lung or breathing pain, which are not associated with your back or spine. Among these would be a collapsed lung, or an infection of some type, such as pneumonia or an abscess. You may also have pleuritis or pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura that covers", "your lungs are located on the right and left side of your body just up from your waistline. They are inside your ribs from front to back, top to bottom. Your heart sits in the space between them. They have different lobes, so your pneumonia could be in a part of your lungs that reflects to your back causing the pain. Take your medicine and rest, get well soon.", "In humans, the lungs are located on either side of the heart in the chest, with the left lung sharing the left side of the space with the heart, which sits in an impression called the cardiac notch. In this image, lung tissue has been dissected away to reveal the bronchioles. The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart.", "Your Lungs and Back Pain. When you are having pain in your lungs, and back pain, they may or may not be related. Learning the signs of lung cancer, the causes of lung disease, and understanding the causes of back pain will help you to find out if the pain in your lungs and the pain in your back are associated. There are also many possible causes of lung or breathing pain, which are not associated with your back or spine. Among these would be a collapsed lung, or an infection of some type, such as pneumonia or an abscess. You may also have pleuritis or pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura that covers the lungs.", "Your heart is located under your ribcage in the center of your chest between your right and left lungs. Its muscular walls beat, or contract, pumping blood to all parts of your body. The size of your heart can vary depending on your age, size, and the condition of your heart. Oxygen-rich blood from your lungs passes through the pulmonary veins (shown in red to the right of the left atrium in figure B above). The blood enters the left atrium and is pumped into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle, the oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the rest of your body through the aorta." ], "url": [ "http://www.medicinenet.com/image-collection/lungs_picture/picture.htm", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Lungs_in_front_or_back_of_body", "http://www.living-with-back-pain.org/lungs-back-pain.html", "http://www.webmd.com/lung/picture-of-the-lungs", "https://www.healthtap.com/topics/where-are-lungs-located-in-your-back", "http://www.living-with-back-pain.org/lungs-back-pain.html", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080212194118AA6RGIC", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung", "http://www.living-with-back-pain.org/lungs-back-pain.html", "http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hhw/anatomy" ] }
where are the lungs located in the back
19,704
location
[]
[ "The most expensive patents are international patents, which can run up to $100,000 or higher.Domestically the costs can be $10,000 or above." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "“there will be post-filing costs once the Patent Examiner starts to examine the application filed, but those will be the subject of a future article. Still, you should budget at least another $5,000 to $7,500 for prosecution and issue fees to the Patent Office.”. By way of example, you could probably find an attorney to write a patent for a business method or computer software for quite cheap, but a cheap computer related patent would not be nearly as strong as a patent application costing $20,000 or more. The devil is always in the details.", "$8,000 - $15,000. Cost to patent an electronics invention. “If you've got a mechanical invention, [a patent will] cost between $5,000 to $10,000 including attorney's fees and filing fees. If you're talking about electronics, the cost goes up to more like $8,000 to $15,000. $100,000 or more for worldwide patent rights. “Getting even a simple patent approved -- a process known as ‘prosecuting’ the patent application -- can cost up to $10,000 domestically and $100,000 or more for worldwide rights…” Cost of getting a patent.", "“Patent attorneys are expensive — it's not unusual for the patent process to cost inventors $5,000 to $15,000.” (Don Dedelak, “How To Find A Company To Make And Market An Invention” Entrepreneur, April 1, 2001). $5000 to $7000 in attorney’s fees for a simple patent application. $100,000 or more for worldwide patent rights. “Getting even a simple patent approved -- a process known as ‘prosecuting’ the patent application -- can cost up to $10,000 domestically and $100,000 or more for worldwide rights…” Cost of getting a patent.", "The costs can add up quickly no doubt, and there will be post-filing costs once the Patent Examiner starts to examine the application filed, but those will be the subject of a future article. Still, you should budget at least another $5,000 to $7,500 for prosecution and issue fees to the Patent Office. By way of example, you could probably find an attorney to write a patent for a business method or computer software for quite cheap, but a cheap computer related patent would not be nearly as strong as a patent application costing $20,000 or more. The devil is always in the details.", "The filing fee is $130 for a small entity and drawings typically cost $100 to $125 per page, so a high quality provisional patent application for a mechanical or electrical device can typically be prepared and filed for $2,500 to $3,000. By way of example, you could probably find an attorney to write a patent for a business method or computer software for quite cheap, but a cheap computer related patent would not be nearly as strong as a patent application costing $20,000 or more. The devil is always in the details.", "The cost of a patent can vary widely depending on, not only the complexity of the invention, but also the intended market. The most expensive patents are international patents, which can run up to $100,000 or higher. Domestically the costs can be $10,000 or above. Patent applications involve lots of text and drawings, even for simpler inventions. The first step in the patent application process is to file a non provisional patent application, which involves paying attorney fees in the range of $5000 to $15,000 or more, depending on the intricacies of the invention. The amount you spend on a patent application will also depend on the market opportunities", "1 Rates for patent attorneys to prepare a patent application and defend it during the approval process range from $3,500 to $25,000 or more, depending on the complexity. 2 Attorneys fees may be based on hourly rates of $150-$400, depending on the services provided. 1 Computer software patents can be simple, moderately complex or extremely complex, depending on the nature of the application. 2 ", "$10,000. Potential cost of prosecuting a domestic U.S. patent application. “Getting even a simple patent approved -- a process known as ‘prosecuting’ the patent application -- can cost up to $10,000 domestically and $100,000 or more for worldwide rights…” Patent application cost. $100,000 or more for worldwide patent rights. “Getting even a simple patent approved -- a process known as ‘prosecuting’ the patent application -- can cost up to $10,000 domestically and $100,000 or more for worldwide rights…” Cost of getting a patent." ], "url": [ "http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2015/04/04/the-cost-of-obtaining-a-patent-in-the-us/id=56485/", "http://www.inventionstatistics.com/patent_cost.html", "http://www.inventionstatistics.com/patent_cost.html", "http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2015/04/04/the-cost-of-obtaining-a-patent-in-the-us/id=56485/", "http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2015/04/04/the-cost-of-obtaining-a-patent-in-the-us/id=56485/", "http://www.invents.com/how-much-does-a-patent-cost/", "http://smallbusiness.costhelper.com/patent.html", "http://www.inventionstatistics.com/patent_cost.html" ] }
cost to get a patent
19,705
numeric
[]
[]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Background. Metabolic acidosis is a clinical disturbance characterized by an increase in plasma acidity. Metabolic acidosis should be considered a sign of an underlying disease process. Identification of this underlying condition is essential to initiate appropriate therapy. Metabolic acidosis is a primary decrease in serum HCO 3. Rarely, metabolic acidosis can be part of a mixed or complex acid-base disturbance in which 2 or more separate metabolic or respiratory derangements occur together. In these instances, pH may not be reduced or the HCO 3 - concentration may not be low.", "1 Both diarrhea and vomiting can cause this type of acidosis. 2 Lactic acidosis occurs when there is too much lactic acid in your body. 3 Many things can cause a buildup of lactic acid. 4 These include chronic alcohol use, heart failure, cancer, seizures, liver failure, prolonged lack of oxygen, and low blood sugar. 1 This base helps to keep the blood neutral. 2 Both diarrhea and vomiting can cause this type of acidosis. 3 Lactic acidosis occurs when there is too much lactic acid in your body. 4", "Metabolic acidosis, as a disruption of the body's acid/base balance, can be a mild symptom brought on by a lack of insulin, a starvation diet, or a gastrointestinal disorder like vomiting and diarrhea. Metabolic acidosis can indicate a more serious problem with a major organ like the liver, heart, or kidneys. In compensated acidosis pH may be normal, with a high blood bicarbonate concentration (due to increased renal retention) when the cause was respiratory, or with a low blood carbon dioxide (due to hyperventilation) when the cause was metabolic. See also glycolysis, lactic acid.", "Acidosis is a serious metabolic imbalance in which there is an excess of acidic molecules in the body. This can occur as a result of acid overproduction, impaired acid transport, acid underexcretion, or any combination. With overproduction, the body makes too much acid. This can occur in sepsis, a life-threatening widespread infection in which the body makes too much lactic acid. With underexcretion, the body is unable to rid itself of excess acid. This can occur in renal failure and various lung diseases. In renal failure, the kidneys are unable to cleanse the blood of acid.", "A normal serum HCO 3 - level does not rule out the presence of metabolic acidosis, because a drop in HCO 3 - from a high baseline (ie, preexisting metabolic alkalosis) can result in a serum HCO 3 - level that is within the reference range, concealing the metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis is a primary decrease in serum HCO 3. Rarely, metabolic acidosis can be part of a mixed or complex acid-base disturbance in which 2 or more separate metabolic or respiratory derangements occur together. In these instances, pH may not be reduced or the HCO 3 - concentration may not be low.", "acidosis. 1. the accumulation of acid and hydrogen ions or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate content) in the blood and body tissues, resulting in a decrease in pH. 2. a pathologic condition resulting from this process, characterized by increase in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease in pH). In compensated acidosis pH may be normal, with a high blood bicarbonate concentration (due to increased renal retention) when the cause was respiratory, or with a low blood carbon dioxide (due to hyperventilation) when the cause was metabolic. See also glycolysis, lactic acid.", "For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. Acidosis is an increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue (i.e. an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus-see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes", "It is defined as excessive blood acidity caused by one of the following conditions: an overabundance of acid in the blood, a loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis), or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood due to poor lung function or slow breathing (respiratory acidosis). ", "Acidosis occurs when your kidneys and lungs can’t keep your body’s pH in balance. There are two types of acidosis--metabolic and respiratory. Metabolic acidosis occurs when your kidneys can’t get rid of acid buildup or when your body gets rid of too much base. Bases neutralize acids, and vice versa. Respiratory acidosis occurs when your lungs do not properly eliminate the carbon dioxide (CO2). 1 This base helps to keep the blood neutral. 2 Both diarrhea and vomiting can cause this type of acidosis. 3 Lactic acidosis occurs when there is too much lactic acid in your body. 4 Many things can cause a buildup of lactic acid." ], "url": [ "http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/242975-overview", "http://www.healthline.com/health/acidosis", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/metabolic+acidosis", "http://www.healthgrades.com/conditions/acidosis", "http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/242975-overview", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/metabolic+acidosis", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidosis", "http://www.vibranthealthandwealth.com/vibrance/articles/acid.html", "http://www.healthline.com/health/acidosis" ] }
what does a metabolic acidosis need to reverse the condition
19,706
description
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[ "Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Three well-known Greek tragedy playwrights of the fifth century are Sophocles, and Euripedes. Aeschylus, who was a competitor at the City Dionysia around 499 B.C., wrote some of the oldest tragedies in the world. Aeschylus is attributed with the introducing the second actor to the stage. Another Greek playwright was Sophocles, and only seven of his tragedies--including the still-popular Antigone, Electra, and Oedipus Rex --have survived. Sophocles won twenty-four contests for his plays, never placing lower than second place.", "Our knowledge of Greek tragedy is limited. Close to 900 tragedies were presented at Athens in the fifth century BC. We know that the three great tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote about 220 tragedies. We have seven surviving plays from Aeschylus and Sophocles each and nineteen from Euripides, of which at least one is not a tragedy, but a satyr play. All in all, only 32 tragedies have survived.", "(1777-1779, the final lines of Oedipus at Colonnus). Sophocles of Kolōnos (c. 496 - c. 406 BCE) was one of the most famous and celebrated writers of tragedy plays in ancient Greece and his surviving works, written throughout the 5th century BCE, include such classics as Oedipus the King, Antigone, and Women of Trachis. The most famous playwrights of the genre were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides and many of their works were still performed centuries after their initial premiere. Greek tragedy led to Greek comedy and, together, these... [ continue reading ].", "by Mark Cartwright. Greek tragedy was a popular and influential form of drama performed in theatres across ancient Greece from the late 6th century BCE. The most famous playwrights of the genre were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides and many of their works were still performed centuries after their initial premiere. Greek tragedy led to Greek comedy and, together, these genres formed the foundation upon which all modern theatre is based. In the Roman world, tragedy plays were translated and imitated in Latin, and the genre gave rise to a new art form from the 1st century BCE, pantomime, which drew inspiration from the presentation and subject matter of Greek tragedy.", "Occupation: Playwright. Euripides was an ancient writer of Greek tragedy -- the third of the famous trio (with Sophocles and Aeschylus). He wrote about women and mythological themes, like Medea and Helen of Troy. He enhanced the importance of intrigue in tragedy. ", "The best playwrights of the day were famous celebrities in Ancient Greece. There were often competitions during festivals and the playwright with the best play was presented an award. The most famous Greek playwrights were Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes. History Ancient Greece. 1 Tragedy-Greek tragedies were very serious plays with a moral lesson. 2 They usually told the story of a mythical hero who would eventually meet his doom because of his pride.", "Three well-known Greek tragedy playwrights of the fifth century are Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus. Comedy was also an important part of ancient Greek theatre. Comedy plays were derived from imitation; there are no traces of its origin. Aristophanes wrote most of the comedy plays. ", "Sophocles of Kolōnos (c. 496 - c. 406 BCE) was one of the most famous and celebrated writers of tragedy plays in ancient Greece and his surviving works, written throughout the 5th century BCE, include such classics as Oedipus the King, Antigone, and Women of Trachis. In the Roman world, tragedy plays were translated and imitated in Latin, and the genre gave rise to a new art form from the 1st century BCE, pantomime, which drew inspiration from the presentation and subject matter of Greek tragedy.", "Euripides (c. 484-407 BCE) was one of the greatest authors of Greek tragedy. In 5th century BCE Athens his classic works such as Medeia cemented his reputation for clever dialogues, fine choral lyrics and a gritty realism in both his text and stage presentations. In the Roman world, tragedy plays were translated and imitated in Latin, and the genre gave rise to a new art form from the 1st century BCE, pantomime, which drew inspiration from the presentation and subject matter of Greek tragedy." ], "url": [ "http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Theatre_History/Theahis_2.html", "http://cgim.dbq.edu/cgim/greece05/greek_tragedy.htm", "http://www.ancient.eu/sophocles/", "http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Tragedy/", "http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/medeaeuripides/p/Euripides.htm", "http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greece/drama_and_theatre.php", "http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Theatre/", "http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Tragedy/", "http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Tragedy/" ] }
best tragedies of ancient greece
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[ "A tree or shrub which produces distinctive cones as part of its sexual reproduction." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "All extant conifers are woody plants with secondary growth, the great majority being trees with just a few being shrubs. Typical examples of conifers include cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews. The conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late Carboniferous period; even many of the modern genera are recognizable from fossils 60–120 million years old.", "Since most conifers are evergreens, the leaves of many conifers are long, thin and have a needle-like appearance, but others, including most of the Cupressaceae and some of the Podocarpaceae, have flat, triangular scale-like leaves. The conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late Carboniferous period; even many of the modern genera are recognizable from fossils 60–120 million years old.", "The earliest conifers in the fossil record date to the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) period (about 300 million years ago), possibly arising from Cordaites, a seed-bearing plant with cone-like fertile structures. The conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late Carboniferous period; even many of the modern genera are recognizable from fossils 60–120 million years old.", "A conifer is a tree or shrub which produces distinctive cones as part of its sexual reproduction. These woody plants are classified among the gymnosperms, and they have a wide variety of uses, from trapping carbon in the environment to providing resins which can be used in the production of solvents. Several features beyond the cones set conifers apart from other types of woody plants. A conifer is typically evergreen, although some individuals are deciduous, and almost all conifers have needle or scale-like leaves.", "Full Definition of CONIFER. : any of an order (Coniferales) of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs having usually needle-shaped or scalelike leaves and including forms (as pines) with true cones and others (as yews) with an arillate fruit. — co·nif·er·ous \\kō-ˈni-f(ə-)rəs, kə-\\ adjective.", "Any of various trees or shrubs that bear cones. Conifers are dependent on the wind to blow pollen produced by the male cones to the female cones, where seeds develop. Conifers are usually evergreen, often have needle-shaped or scale-like leaves, and include the pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, and yew. See Note at pollination. 1. conifer-any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones. coniferous tree. pine, pine tree, true pine-a coniferous tree. larch tree, larch-any of numerous conifers of the genus Larix all having deciduous needlelike leaves.", "Conifer Health Solutions is a health services company like no other. What makes us exceptional is that we focus on strengthening both the financial health of your organization and the personal health of your patients, your community, your employees and your members. ", "The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 12 extant division-level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae (Viridiplantae) and 10 within the extant land plants. The conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late Carboniferous period; even many of the modern genera are recognizable from fossils 60–120 million years old.", "Definition of CONIFER for Kids. : any of a group of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs (as pines) that typically produce cones and have leaves resembling needles or scales in shape. — co·nif·er·ous \\kō-ˈni-fə-rəs, kə-\\ adjective. : any of an order (Coniferales) of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs having usually needle-shaped or scalelike leaves and including forms (as pines) with true cones and others (as yews) with an arillate fruit. — co·nif·er·ous \\kō-ˈni-f(ə-)" ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinophyta", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinophyta", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinophyta", "http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-conifer.htm", "http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conifer", "http://www.thefreedictionary.com/conifer", "http://coniferhealth.com/about-us/", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinophyta", "http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conifer" ] }
what is a conifer
19,708
description
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[ "Somatic cells are produced by mitosis and gametes produced by most organisms combine to form a zygote with n pairs of chromosomes." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "For an example, a human gamete contains only 23 chromosomes where as a human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes. Germ cells are the cells which give rise to gametes. Meiosis takes place during gametogenesis (process of gamete production) giving rise to haploid cells. • Somatic cells contain homologous pairs of chromosomes, whereas gametes contain only unpaired chromosomes. • Somatic cells form internal and external structures of the body, whereas gametes do not. • Somatic cells are found almost everywhere in the body, whereas gametes are restricted to certain parts.", "Unlike the somatic cells, gametes are haploid cells, which carry unpaired chromosomes. A gamete of a particular multicellular organism always carries only half the number of chromosomes carried by a somatic cell of that particular organism. • Somatic cells contain homologous pairs of chromosomes, whereas gametes contain only unpaired chromosomes. • Somatic cells form internal and external structures of the body, whereas gametes do not. • Somatic cells are found almost everywhere in the body, whereas gametes are restricted to certain parts.", "In humans, n = 23. Gametes contain half the chromosomes contained in normal diploid cells of the body, which are also known as somatic cells. Haploid gametes are produced during meiosis, which is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a parent diploid cell by half. The term haploid can also refer to the number of chromosomes in egg or sperm cells, which are also called gametes. In humans, gametes are haploid cells that contain 23 chromosomes, each of which a one of a chromosome pair that exists in diplod cells.", "In animals, somatic cells are produced by mitosis and ________ are produced by meiosis. After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is. A) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of a single chromatid. B) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. C) ha", "Haploid describes a cell that contains a single set of chromosomes. The term haploid can also refer to the number of chromosomes in egg or sperm cells, which are also called gametes. In humans, gametes are haploid cells that contain 23 chromosomes, each of which a one of a chromosome pair that exists in diplod cells. The number of chromosomes in a single set is represented as n, which is also called the haploid number", "Relevance. Rating Newest Oldest. Best Answer: A. gametes The reason gametes are produced by meiosis is because meiosis creates 4 'daughter' cells from the original 'parent' cell, but each daughter cell contains only half the chromosomes of the parent. ", "In animals somatic cells are produced by mitosis and answer here are produced by meiosis. a. gametes b. clones c. zygotes d. spores e. Gametes are your haploid sex cells which are formed by meiosis. Gametes combined to form a zygote which is a diploid cell. Spores are haploid plant sex cells. Clones doesn`t even make sense ..", "Gametes are an organism's reproductive cells. They are also referred to as sex cells. Female gametes are called ova or egg cells, and male gametes are called sperm. Gametes are haploid cells, and each cell carries only one copy of each chromosome. These reproductive cells are produced through a type of cell division called meiosi", "Gametes (sperm and ova) are haploid cells. The haploid gametes produced by most organisms combine to form a zygote with n pairs of chromosomes, i.e. 2 n chromosomes in total. The chromosomes in each pair, one of which comes from the sperm and one from the egg, are said to be homologous. Cells and organisms with pairs of homologous chromosomes are called diploid. For example, most animals are diploid and produce haploid gametes. During meiosis, sex cell precursors have their number of chromosomes halved by randomly choosing one member of each pair of chromosomes, resulting in" ], "url": [ "http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-somatic-cells-and-vs-gametes/", "http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-somatic-cells-and-vs-gametes/", "http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/haploid-309", "http://www.funnelbrain.com/c-607796-animals-somatic-cells-produced-mitosis-produced-meio.html", "http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/haploid-309", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120331124817AA4ykUu", "http://www.answers.com/Q/In_animals_somatic_cells_are_produced_by_mitosis_and_answer_here_are_produced_by_meiosis._a._gametes_b._clones_c._zygotes_d._spores_e._diploid_cells", "http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/gamete-gametes-311", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haploid" ] }
in animals somatic cells are produced by and gametic cells are produced by
19,709
entity
[]
[ "Dr. Seuss" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "For the TV special, see The Cat in the Hat (TV special) . For the 2003 film, see The Cat in the Hat (film) . For the disambiguation, see The Cat in the Hat (disambiguation) . The Cat in the Hat is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and first published in 1957. The story centers on a tall anthropomorphic cat, who wears a red and white-striped hat and a red bow tie", "While many children and adults have enjoyed books by Dr. Seuss, very few actually know anything about Dr. Seuss himself. Dr. Seuss was born in 1904 and was given the name Theodor Seuss Geisel. He grew up in Springfield, Massachusetts and left town as a young man to attend Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. ", "The Cat in the Hat is a farm cat of Dr. Seuss's short story The Cat in the Hat. With his book being an overwhelmingly successful best-seller, the Cat in the Hat has become a logo for Random House's beginner books, the production logo for all of Seuss's animated shorts, and Dr. Seuss's most popular character world wide. The Cat in the Hat emblem has been featured on most every book published by the company since the character’s debut. “The Cat in the Hat Productions” was also the name of the production company that animated the Dr. Seuss specials from 1966 to 1989, the Cat in the Hat of course being the mascot as well.", "Theodor Seuss Geisel (/ˈsɔɪs/ /ˈɡaɪ.zəl/ ; March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and illustrator best known for authoring popular children's books under the pen name Dr. Seuss (/suːs/). Geisel adopted his Dr. Seuss pseudonym during his university studies at Dartmouth College and the University of Oxford. After leaving Oxford in 1927 he began his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair, Life, and various other publications.", "The Cat in the Hat would change all that. Seuss wrote the book to teach children how to read, and its success allowed him to write full-time for children. Indeed, the Cat made Dr. Seuss a household name. With the publication of The Cat in the Hat in the spring of 1957 and of How the Grinch Stole Christmas! later that year, Dr. Seuss became an icon of American children's literature. He was born Theodor Seuss Geisel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on March 2, 1904.", "Returning to children's books, he wrote many works, including such favorites as If I Ran the Zoo, (1950), Horton Hears a Who! (1955), If I Ran the Circus (1956), The Cat in the Hat (1957), How the Grinch Stole Christmas (1957) and Green Eggs and Ham (1960). Geisel adopted his Dr. Seuss pseudonym during his university studies at Dartmouth College and the University of Oxford. After leaving Oxford in 1927 he began his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair, Life, and various other publications.", "Dr. Seuss is the pen name of American author, poet and cartoonist Theodor Seuss Geisel (1904-1991). During his career, he wrote nearly 50 children’s books full of imaginative characters and memorable rhymes. He also wrote under the pen names Theo LeSieg and Rosetta Stone. Among the characters he created were The Cat in the Hat, The Grinch, The Lorax, Horton (of “Hears a Who” fame) and many more. Dr. Seuss’ first book was And To Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, published in 1937.", "The cat in the hat is a giant cat who wears a striped red and white hat, found in Dr. Seuss books. Mike Myers stars in the film Cat in the Hat. He plays … him, Dakota Fanning plays Sally, Spencer Breslin plays Conrad, Kelly Preston plays the mum. 1 person found this useful. ", "After the war Geisel focused on his children's books, writing classics such as If I Ran the Zoo (1950), Horton Hears a Who! (1955), If I Ran the Circus (1956), The Cat in the Hat (1957), How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (1957), and Green Eggs and Ham (1960). Geisel adopted his Dr. Seuss pseudonym during his university studies at Dartmouth College and the University of Oxford. After leaving Oxford in 1927 he began his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair, Life, and various other publications.", "The Cat in the Hat is a children's book by Dr. Seuss, featuring a tall, anthropomorphic, mischievous cat, wearing a tall, red and white striped hat. With the series of Beginner Books that The Cat inaugurated, Seuss promoted both his name and the cause of elementary literacy in the United States. " ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cat_in_the_Hat", "http://www.ncsu.edu/project/lancet/fifth_grade/seuss5th.pdf", "http://seuss.wikia.com/wiki/The_Cat_in_the_Hat_(character)", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Seuss", "http://www.npr.org/2007/03/01/7651308/fifty-years-of-the-cat-in-the-hat", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Seuss", "http://www.orderofbooks.com/authors/dr-seuss/", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Who_is_the_author_of_%27The_Cat_in_the_Hat%27", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Seuss", "http://seuss.wikia.com/wiki/The_Cat_in_the_Hat_(book)" ] }
remembering the name of the author who wrote the cat in the hat
19,710
person
[]
[ "45 minutes to an hour" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Bake the chicken. Put the chicken in the oven and set a timer for 30 minutes. Check the chicken after 30 minutes. It should be ready when the skin is crispy and golden brown, or when the internal temperature has reached 180 degrees. Use a meat thermometer to check the temperature.", "Directions. 1 Put some olive oil in the bottom of a 9X13 pan (just enough to put the drumsticks on). 2 Add drumsticks (space enough apart so they aren't touching each other). 3 Sprinkle generously with pepper and garlic powder. 4 Bake at 375 for half an hour. 5 Bake another half an hour (or until cooked til 160 degrees)).", "1 Arrange chicken thighs/leg quarters skin side up in a shallow baking dish. 2 Sprinkle with garlic powder. 3 Drizzle about 1/2 teaspoon soy sauce on each piece. 4 Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 45 minutes to an hour, until the skin is crisp and brown and the meat is ready to fall off the bones.", "Preheat the oven to 400°F. Bake the chicken, uncovered, for 35 to 40 minutes or until the chicken is no longer pink inside. You can bake the chicken legs in a 375°F. oven, if desired. Increase the baking time to 45 to 50 minutes.", "Directions. 1 Arrange chicken thighs/leg quarters skin side up in a shallow baking dish. 2 Sprinkle with garlic powder. 3 Drizzle about 1/2 teaspoon soy sauce on each piece. 4 Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 45 minutes to an hour, until the skin is crisp and brown and the meat is ready to fall off the bones.", "1 Put some olive oil in the bottom of a 9X13 pan (just enough to put the drumsticks on). 2 Add drumsticks (space enough apart so they aren't touching each other). 3 Sprinkle generously with pepper and garlic powder. 4 Sprinkle lightly with salt. 5 Bake at 375 for half an hour.", "Heat canola oil in pan and place the coated chicken legs side by side in a pan turning to brown evenly. Cook 20 to 25 minutes until legs are cooked through.", "Directions. 1 Put some olive oil in the bottom of a 9X13 pan (just enough to put the drumsticks on). 2 Add drumsticks (space enough apart so they aren't touching each other). 3 Sprinkle generously with pepper and garlic powder. 4 Sprinkle lightly with salt. 5 Bake at 375 for half an hour." ], "url": [ "http://www.wikihow.com/Bake-Chicken-Legs", "http://www.food.com/recipe/simple-baked-chicken-drumsticks-443758", "http://www.food.com/recipe/baked-chicken-thighs-leg-quarters-199636", "http://www.bhg.com/recipes/how-to/cooking-basics/how-to-oven-bake-chicken-legs/", "http://www.food.com/recipe/baked-chicken-thighs-leg-quarters-199636", "http://www.food.com/recipe/simple-baked-chicken-drumsticks-443758", "http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-legs-recipe.html#!", "http://www.food.com/recipe/simple-baked-chicken-drumsticks-443758" ] }
how long cooking chicken legs in the big easy
19,711
numeric
[]
[ "$6-$16 a square foot" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Back to Top How much should a typical radiant system cost? On average, a radiant heating system will typically cost between $6-$12 per square foot to install. The variance in price is mainly affected by the amount of separate zoned areas and the overall size of the system.", "A well designed radiant system... will normally cost less than $3 per square foot, and less than $2 for a slab on grade .. Interestingly enough, the site also explains that the larger the home the lower the cost of the equipment, and gives a quote for a five thousand square foot installation at $2 per square foot.", "1 Expect to pay about $6-$16 a square foot for a professionally installed hydronic (hot water) radiant floor heating system, or $9,000-$22,500 or more for a 1,500 square foot home, depending on local rates, the number of temperature zones and the overall size of the system.", "Typical costs: 1 Expect to pay about $6-$16 a square foot for a professionally installed hydronic (hot water) radiant floor heating system, or $9,000-$22,500 or more for a 1,500 square foot home, depending on local rates, the number of temperature zones and the overall size of the system.", "Current electric charges in the area are about 15¢ per kWh, natural gas is about $1.40 a ccf, propane is about $3.00 a gallon, and oil is about $3.20 a gallon. The annual cost to heat a 2200 square foot existing house of average energy consumption for different combinations of fuels and furnaces: 1 Natural Gas in an 80% furnace: $1215.", "Our free calculator uses recent, trusted data to estimate costs for your Electric Radiant Floor Installation project. For a basic 125 square feet project in zip code 47474, the benchmark cost to Install Radiant Floor Heat ranges between $5.17 - $7.89 per square foot* . To estimate costs for your project: 1. Set Project Zip Code Enter the Zip Code for the location where labor is hired and materials purchased.", "On average the systems cost between $6-$12 per square foot of the conditioned space. In addition, an indirect fired storage option which we install for domestic water heating using the same space heating boiler will run between $4,500.00-$7,000.00." ], "url": [ "http://www.radiantheat.net/faq_equipment/", "http://www.fixr.com/costs/install-radiant-floor-heating", "http://home.costhelper.com/radiant-floor-heating.html", "http://home.costhelper.com/radiant-floor-heating.html", "http://www.energysvc.com/the-real-cost-of-heating/", "http://www.homewyse.com/services/cost_to_install_radiant_floor_heat.html", "http://www.radiantheat.net/faq_equipment/" ] }
average cost of heating per square foot
19,712
numeric
[]
[ "Granite.", "Granite." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Pumice is a light-colored, extremely porous igneous rock that forms during explosive volcanic eruptions. It is used as aggregate in lightweight concrete, as landscaping aggregate, and as an abrasive in a variety of industrial and consumer products. The second most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century was at Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The description below explains how enormous volumes of dissolved gas powered the eruption and how a cubic mile of ash and pumice lapilli was blasted from the volcano.", "There are four major groups of the igneous rocks: basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite. Each of these different rock groups form different types of volcanoes. Volcanic rocks forming during eruption of Kilauea, USGS. Rhyolite rocks. Rhyolite magma cooling underground forms granite. Granite has large interlocking crystals that can be easily seen if you hold the rock at arm's length. Rhyolite is associated super volcanoes and explosive volcanic eruptions that create calderas. Basalt rocks. Basalt rocks are formed from dark heavy lava that usually forms in the upper mantle. Pillow basalt covers all the ocean floors. It forms when lava erupts on the ocean floor at spreading ridges where two crustal plates are separating.", "The effects of the eruption were felt worldwide. It ejected roughly 10,000,000,000 tonnes (1.1 × 10 10 short tons) or 10 km 3 (2.4 cu mi) of magma, and 20,000,000 tonnes (22,000,000 short tons) SO 2, bringing vast quantities of minerals and metals to the surface environment. It injected more particulate into the stratosphere than any eruption since Krakatoa in 1883. Over the following months, the aerosols formed a global layer of sulfuric acid haze. Global temperatures dropped by about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) in the years 1991-93, and ozone depletion temporarily increased substantially", "Basalt and granite actually have quite a bit in common. Both are igneous rocks, which means that they cooled from a magma (the earth gets very hot just below the surface, and there is lots of liquid rock available). Both are made up of minerals from the silicate group, so both have large amounts of silicon and oxygen. Granite is the ultimate silicate rock. As discussed elsewhere in greater detail, on average oxygen and silicon account for 75% of the earth's crust. The remaining 25% is split among several other elements, with aluminum and potassium contributing the most to the formation of the continental granitic rocks.", "Mount Pinatubo is a volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is best known for its enormous eruption on June 15, 1991. This eruption was the second largest of … the twentieth century. 1 person found this useful. Similar to many other volcanoes it has a large assortment or rocks, a lot of granite as these rocks are carried out from the magma chamber. … There are other rocks such as basalt, Scoria, sandstone, mudstone, shale, limestone, quartize, hornfels, slate and marble. 4 people", "Mount Pinatubo (Filipino: Bundok Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Cabusilan Mountains on the island of Luzon, near the tripoint of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. Before the volcanic activities of 1991, its eruptive history was unknown to most people. It ejected roughly 10,000,000,000 tonnes (1.1 × 10 10 short tons) or 10 km 3 (2.4 cu mi) of magma, and 20,000,000 tonnes (22,000,000 short tons) SO 2, bringing vast quantities of minerals and metals to the surface environment. It injected more particulate into the stratosphere than any eruption since Krakatoa in 1883.", "Dacite rocks. Dacite contains less quartz than rhyolite lava and more than andesite lava. The lava when it flows out a a volcano vent is so sticky that it piles on top of a volcano's vent forming a dome. Lava domes often form in the craters of stratovolcanoes like Mount Saint Helens. Basalt rocks. Basalt rocks are formed from dark heavy lava that usually forms in the upper mantle. Pillow basalt covers all the ocean floors. It forms when lava erupts on the ocean floor at spreading ridges where two crustal plates are separating.", "Today, ancestral Pinatubo is exposed in relict walls of an old 3.5x4.5-km caldera, recognized by Delfin (1983, 1984) and named here the Tayawan caldera (fig. 3). Prominent points on the relict rim of that caldera include Mount Donald Macdonald (southeast caldera rim) and Mount Tayawan (north-northeast caldera rim). Radiocarbon ages suggest that eruptions from the modern Pinatubo have been clustered in at least six and possibly as many as a dozen eruptive periods. Each eruptive period is short in relation to intervening repose periods (table 1, fig. 5). Each of these six eruptive periods of modern Mount Pinatubo is described below.", "Igneous Rocks. magma: The term used to describe the liquid when it is within the Earth's crust or mantle. lava: The term used to describe the liquid when it has reached the surface of the Earth. Classification. The Classification of igneous rocks is based on a combination of chemical composition and texture. Andesite. As noted earlier, these rocks form above active subduction zones on both continental and oceanic plates. Eruptions typically result in the construction of large, steep-sided, composite or strato volcanoes made up of alternating lava flows and pyroclastic (ash) deposits.", "Rocks found at present day Mount Pinatubo are mostly dacite with andesitic xenoliths. Andesite is a volcanic rock that is gray to black in color. This rock mostly comes from stratovolcanoes in a form of thick lava flows. " ], "url": [ "http://geology.com/rocks/pumice.shtml", "http://www.kids-fun-science.com/volcano-rocks.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pinatubo", "http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/AskGeoMan/geoQuerry27.html", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_rock_type_is_found_at_mount_pinatubo", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pinatubo", "http://www.kids-fun-science.com/volcano-rocks.html", "http://pubs.usgs.gov/pinatubo/newhall/", "http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~drt/Classes/201_99/Rice/Igneous.html", "http://pinatubotours.blogspot.com/2007/12/mt-pinatubo-geology.html" ] }
is mount pinatubo made of granite or basalt
19,713
description
[]
[ "$4.64 - $6.36" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Basic concrete slab cost. I'll base my price on what my actual estimate would be to install a 6 thick concrete slab for one of my customers. Base cost for a 6 thick concrete slab -- $4.00 dollars per square foot --. Take the length of the concrete slab x the width of the slab to get the. total square footage. Multiply the total square footage by 4 (dollars) to get the total price. L x W x $4.00 in this example. ", "Get an INSTANT estimate of the cost to Install a Concrete Pad! Our free calculator uses recent, trusted data to estimate costs for your Concrete Pad Installation project. For a basic 120 square feet project in zip code 47474, the benchmark cost to Install a Concrete Pad ranges between $4.64 - $6.36 per square foot* . To estimate costs for your project: 1.", "Concrete Pads-Pricing and Installation Cost Notes. Homewyse cost estimates are approximate ranges for basic work in typical conditions. The estimates should only be used for preliminary planning. Homewyse estimates are NOT substitutes for quotes from qualified vendors. Do you need to know the average cost to install Concrete Pads in your zip code? Do you need an easy-to-understand 2015 estimate of Concrete Pad job options and costs? Get pricing INSTANTLY. Enter your options and zip code above-then select Update", "Labor. The cost to pour a concrete pad takes a big jump if you hire the pros, who charge per hour, per worker. If forming and pouring your pad takes three workers two days to complete at a cost of $30 per worker hour, it could add around $1,400 to your bill. That’s not counting concrete, reinforcement, excavation and fill sand costs.", "Rating Newest Oldest. Best Answer: Concrete needs to be poured about 4 inches deep. A 30ft x 30ft x 4 inch pad you would need about 11 cubic yards of concrete(this is how concrete is sold). Finished Concrete right now goes for anywhere from 120 to 150 dollars per cubic yard depending on where you live. SO thats about $1,200 to 1,500 dollars for the size your talking about, Source(s): ", "The Concrete Pads estimator will provide you with up to date pricing for your area. Simply enter your zip code and the square footage, next click update and you will see a breakdown on what it should cost to have Concrete Pads installed at your home. Example: a 10 x 10 area = 100 square feet. ", "In addition to the cubic yard cost, some delivery companies also have minimum purchase requirements. A cubic yard of concrete commonly runs between $80 and $165, and it’s standard to order a quarter of a yard extra in case you run short. For example, if you need 2 cubic yards to pour the pad, order 2 1/4 yards. If the pad is in a spot where a concrete truck cannot back up and dump the mix, you can order a pump truck, which can add another $300, or more, to the cost. If forming and pouring your pad takes three workers two days to complete at a cost of $30 per worker hour, it could add around $1,400 to your bill. That’s not counting concrete, reinforcement, excavation and fill sand costs.", "The average cost of the additional materials, including the limestone gravel, plastic sheeting, rebar and wire mesh adds an average of $3.44 per finished square foot of concrete pad. The average cost of labor to install a concrete pad is $54.50 per hour. Some cities may require inspections and permits in order to install a concrete pad. The fees associated with the permits and inspections will add to the overall cost of the project. 1 A stamper is used to create patterns after pouring. 2 Once hardened, the concrete is sealed to enhance the look and durability of the pad. 3 It is one of the most common subtypes of concrete used for concrete pads. 4 It costs an average of $2.45 per finished square foot due to the added chemicals in the concrete mix.", "1 The homewyse Concrete Pad cost estimates do not include costs for site regrading or excavation, or demolition and removal of existing hardscaping or structure(s). 2 The variation in installation costs for complex configurations (non-rectangular shape, many corners, multiple levels, etc.) can be considerable. Do you need to know the average cost to install Concrete Pads in your zip code? Do you need an easy-to-understand 2015 estimate of Concrete Pad job options and costs? Get pricing INSTANTLY. Enter your options and zip code above-then select Updat" ], "url": [ "http://www.everything-about-concrete.com/concrete-slab-cost.html", "http://homewyse.com/services/cost_to_install_concrete_pad.html", "http://homewyse.com/costs/cost_of_concrete_pads.html", "http://budgeting.thenest.com/much-concrete-pad-cost-29822.html", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081202111850AAEvbHT", "http://www.remodelingexpense.com/costs/cost-of-concrete-pads/", "http://budgeting.thenest.com/much-concrete-pad-cost-29822.html", "http://www.improvenet.com/r/costs-and-prices/concrete-pads", "http://homewyse.com/costs/cost_of_concrete_pads.html" ] }
concrete pads cost
19,714
numeric
[]
[ "Fish" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Known by multiple common names, such as humbug damselfish, three-striped damselfish and white-tailed damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus is a feisty little fish that adapts well to aquarium life. Three-striped damselfish can be pugnacious and are better introduced at the latter stages of setting up a marine fish community. Remove as many of the three-striped damselfish fry as you want to try and raise to a rearing aquarium, with an absence of adult fish and invertebrates that might look upon the young fish as tasty morsels for the taking. Dascyllus aruanus is a worthy first-time breeding project for up-and-coming marine aquarists.", "Damselfishes comprise the family Pomacentridae except those of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas, which are the anemonefishes. They can grow up to 14 inches (36 cm) long. While most are marine, a few species inhabit the lower stretches of rivers in fresh water. Damselfish usually have bright colors. Many species live in tropical coral reefs, and many of those are kept as marine aquarium pets. Their diets include small crustaceans, plankton, and algae.", "Size and appearance. The largest scientifically measured Striped Damsel was 10.0 cm / 3.9 in. The Striped Damsel is white and adorned with three black bars. A large brown spot is located on the dorsal part of the snout. The pelvic fins are black, the caudal fin is pale, and the pectoral fins are translucent. ", "Habits: Damselfish are found in all tropical and some semitropical seas, and certain species inhabit fresh or brackish water. Damselfish are most abundant in the Indo-Pacific region. They usually live in shallow water around coral reefs, mangroves, and beds of sea grass. More than 200 species of brightly colored damselfish can be found in the shallow waters of both tropical and semitropical seas. Even though these fish are small, they are extremely aggressive and vigorously defend their territory against competitive species and sometimes even against human divers.", "The following list of marine aquarium fish species commonly available in the aquarium trade is not a completely comprehensive list; certain rare specimens may available commercially yet not be listed here. ", "Care considerations: The three-striped damselfish can be kept by itself in setups of as little as 10 gallons, but a minimum aquarium size of 30 gallons is recommended. The three-striped damselfish needs to have plenty of crevices in the rockwork in which to occasionally hide and feel secure. Remove as many of the three-striped damselfish fry as you want to try and raise to a rearing aquarium, with an absence of adult fish and invertebrates that might look upon the young fish as tasty morsels for the taking. Dascyllus aruanus is a worthy first-time breeding project for up-and-coming marine aquarists.", "Blue Damselfish. Description of the Blue Damselfish The Blue Damselfish is also known as the Sapphire devil or Orangetail blue damselfish and is one of the most popular saltwater aquarium fish. The Blue Damselfish makes a beautiful addition to any aquarium, it is hardy and an ideal fish for the beginner. ", "1 Three Stripe Damsel Fish-These striking black and white fish are fairly aggressive and need a large aquarium with plenty of hiding places. 2 Cerulean Damsel Fish-These vividly coloured fish are very territorial and should be added to the aquarium only after more peaceful fish have had time to establish themselves. 1 Sulphur Damsel Fish-With exotic yellow colouration, these hardy and adaptable fish are aquarium favourites. 2 Blue Green Chromis-These stunningly beautiful iridescent fish are naturally hardy and peaceful by nature. 3 Despite being small they need a lot of swimming space.", "1 Yellowtail Damsel Fish-The most popular damsel fish available, these naturally resilient fish are comparatively peaceful if kept in a shoal in a tank where they feel secure. 2 Three Stripe Damsel Fish-These striking black and white fish are fairly aggressive and need a large aquarium with plenty of hiding places. 1 Sulphur Damsel Fish-With exotic yellow colouration, these hardy and adaptable fish are aquarium favourites. 2 Blue Green Chromis-These stunningly beautiful iridescent fish are naturally hardy and peaceful by nature. 3 Despite being small they need a lot of swimming space.", "The 3-Stripe Damselfish, also known as the Three Striped Damselfish, White-tailed Damselfish, and Humbug Dascyllus, is a popular fish. Three bold black bands are separated by two white bands with a smaller bar of white to offset the tail. QUICK STATS. " ], "url": [ "http://www.fishchannel.com/fish-species/saltwater-profiles/three-striped-damselfish-2.aspx", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damselfish", "http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/Damselfish/StripedDamsel.php", "http://ladywildlife.com/animals/damselfish.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_marine_aquarium_fish_species", "http://www.fishchannel.com/fish-species/saltwater-profiles/three-striped-damselfish-2.aspx", "http://www.fish-species.org.uk/marine-fish/07-blue-damselfish.htm", "http://www.allaquariuminfo.com/2014/01/damsel-fish-information-care-tankmates.html", "http://www.allaquariuminfo.com/2014/01/damsel-fish-information-care-tankmates.html", "http://www.liveaquaria.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=15+28+104&pcatid=104" ] }
what kind of organism is a black damsel
19,715
entity
[]
[ "In a New York State hermit's letter to the editor of an Adirondack Mountain newspaper." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "The first reference to the phrase, '...it is what it is,' that I've come across is from 1943, in a New York State hermit's letter to the editor of an Adirondack Mountain newspaper. The hermit was named Noah John Rondeau, and he concluded his letter with this particular phrase.", "While servant leadership is a timeless concept, the phrase “servant leadership” was coined by Robert K. Greenleaf in The Servant as Leader, an essay that he first published in 1970. In that essay, Greenleaf said:", "Related Questions. Who first coined the phrase, You got what you wanted, but you lost what you had or They got what they wanted, but they los... I know that this phrase is included in the Disney movie The Princess and the Frog, but I think it is much older than that.", "The phrase is stupid enough when rationalizing insufficient performance, but it’s especially damaging when “ It is what it is ” is used in framing a response to a problem. “Well, that route to the objective is blocked.", "While you’ll never hear me use the phrase “It is what it is”, there is value in maintaining a portion of your attitude that is stoic in nature. Know what you can control and what you can’t control. And the first thing to accept that you can’t control is the past.", "To say someone coined a phrase means that he or she first used it or is otherwise credited with its origin. Writer Francis Brett Young coined that particular phrase in 194 … 0.", "Brain (22,552). It is what it is, has become an all-purpose cliche used by celebrities, sports figures, politicians and population in general. In 1949, the adage was used in the Nebraska State Journal. In 1919, Edward Hegeler of The Monist, Vol 29, used the phrase in reference to a stick." ], "url": [ "http://painintheenglish.com/case/4284/", "https://www.greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/", "http://www.webanswers.com/social-sciences/language/origins-of-words/who-first-coined-the-phrase-it-is-what-it-is-66445f", "http://www.themilitaryleader.com/stupid-phrase-it-is-what-it-is/", "http://www.themilitaryleader.com/stupid-phrase-it-is-what-it-is/", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Who_coined_the_phrase_'coined_the_phrase'", "http://www.webanswers.com/social-sciences/language/origins-of-words/who-first-coined-the-phrase-it-is-what-it-is-66445f" ] }
who coined the phrase it is what it is
19,716
person
[]
[ "A macintosh made from cotton fabric treated with oil and pigment to make it waterproof." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Today's oilskins (or oilies) typically come in two parts, jackets and trousers. Oilskin jackets are generally similar to common rubberized waterproofs. The chief difference is a high spray collar. Some have hoods, often in a high-visibility colour to increase visibility if a wearer falls overboard. The cuffs of better oilskin jackets include an inner seal at the wrist similar to that on a scuba diver's drysuit to prevent water from being forced up the sleeve. Pockets on trousers and jackets are often lined with quick-drying synthetic fleece that is warm even when soaked.", "An oilskin is a waterproof garment, typically worn by sailors and by others in wet areas, such as fish-plant workers. The cuffs of better oilskin jackets include an inner seal at the wrist similar to that on a scuba diver's drysuit to prevent water from being forced up the sleeve. Pockets on trousers and jackets are often lined with quick-drying synthetic fleece that is warm even when soaked.", "Noun. 1. oilskin-a macintosh made from cotton fabric treated with oil and pigment to make it waterproof. slicker. mac, mack, mackintosh, macintosh-a waterproof raincoat made of rubberized fabric. 1. (Textiles). a. a cotton fabric treated with oil and pigment to make it waterproof. b. (as modifier): an oilskin hat. 2. (Clothing & Fashion) (often plural) a protective outer garment of this fabric.", "Adorable animal families that will make you aww. Oilskin is fabric that has been impregnated with oil to make it waterproof. Before the development of synthetic fibers, this was the material of choice for waterproof garments and coverings. Sailors, especially, grew familiar with oilskin, since it protected them from the elements on the job. It is still possible to buy oilskin fabric and garments made with it, and people can also make their own. Oils like beeswax make great waterproofers, and they smell pleasant, unlike the tar of old.", "n. 1. Cloth treated with oil to make it waterproof. 2. a. A garment made of oilskin or of a synthetic waterproof material, generally used by sailors. 1. (Textiles). a. a cotton fabric treated with oil and pigment to make it waterproof. b. (as modifier): an oilskin hat. 2. (Clothing & Fashion) (often plural) a protective outer garment of this fabric.", "Also known as foul weather gear, contemporary oilskins include such innovations as DWR-coated nylon on their low end and Gore-Tex and other proprietary waterproof membranes on the high. A Sou'wester, a traditional form of collapsible oilskin rain-hat, is longer in the back than the front to fully protect the neck. The cuffs of better oilskin jackets include an inner seal at the wrist similar to that on a scuba diver's drysuit to prevent water from being forced up the sleeve. Pockets on trousers and jackets are often lined with quick-drying synthetic fleece that is warm even when soaked.", "Fabric is sold by the running yard. If you purchase one yard of oilcloth you will be sent a piece that is 36 by 47. Fabric is sold in 1/4 yard increments, with a 1/2 yard minimum per fabric. Orders under 1/2 yard will automatically be increased to the minimum. If you need a lot of oilcloth you can buy it by the roll for $81.00. Each roll is 12 yards long", "True to the old adage they get along like oil and water, the reason oilskin works is the oil coating will not let the water pass through the fabric. This is why oilskin works, and is the Natural Waterproof Fabric. Cotton, as a natural fabric, does have a slight nap to it. ", "Outback Oilskin is produced from 100% Cotton, enabling the fabric to breathe. This property lends the fabric to not only high performance wet weather gear, but stylish casual clothing such as jackets and vests as well. ", "Oilcloth, also known as enameled cloth or (in England) American cloth, was close-woven cotton duck or linen cloth with a coating of boiled linseed oil to make it waterproof. " ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oilskin", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oilskin", "http://www.thefreedictionary.com/oilskin", "http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-oilskin.htm", "http://www.thefreedictionary.com/oilskin", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oilskin", "http://www.mendels.com/Oilcloth/", "http://outbacktrading.blogspot.com/2009/12/what-is-oilskin-weather-protection.html", "http://www.outbacktrading.com/faq", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oilcloth" ] }
what is oilskin fabric
19,717
description
[]
[ "7 days before to 7 days after the rash appears" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Measles is a highly contagious virus that lives in the nose and throat mucus of an infected person. It can spread to others through coughing and sneezing. Also, measles virus can live for up to two hours in an airspace where the infected person coughed or sneezed.", "Rubella is contagious but less so than measles and chickenpox. How long does it take to show signs of rubella after being exposed? The incubation period varies from 12 to 23 days (av-erage, 14 days). Symptoms are often mild and may be subclinical or inapparent up to half of the time.", "Quick Answer. The German measles are contagious for 7 days before to 7 days after the rash appears, as noted by the New York State Department of Health. Rubella is another term for the German measles, and the disease itself is highly contagious and can be seen in patients through a rash, swollen glands a fever. Know More.", "A: The German measles are contagious for 7 days before to 7 days after the rash appears, as noted by the New York State Department of Health. Rubella is another term for the German measles, and the disease itself is highly contagious and can be seen in patients through a rash, swollen glands a fever. Know More.", "German measles (rubella) is caused by a highly contagious virus. A patient is contagious in the week before the rash outbreak until two weeks after the rash clears. The virus is spread when you inhale or touch secretions from an infected person.", "For most patients, vaccination is a safe and effective way to prevent German measles (rubella). The German measles vaccine is typically combined with vaccines for the measles and mumps, as well as varicella, the virus that causes chicken pox. These shots are usually given between 12 and 15 months of age." ], "url": [ "http://www.cdc.gov/measles/about/transmission.html", "http://immunize.org/catg.d/p4218.pdf", "http://www.ask.com/health/long-german-measles-contagious-cfd952e15226a56d", "http://www.ask.com/health/long-german-measles-contagious-cfd952e15226a56d", "http://www.healthline.com/health/rubella", "http://www.healthline.com/health/rubella" ] }
how long is german measles contagious
19,718
numeric
[]
[ "The Camerata are a group of four powerful and influential individuals in the city of Cloudbank. Established by Grant Kendrell and Royce Bracket, the group circumvents the official administration and democratic nature of Cloudbank, in order to establish some form of stability in the ever-changing city." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Camerata, a dormitory or a comrade in Italian or an adjective meaning chambered in Latin, may refer to: 1 Camerata (music) , a small chamber orchestra or choir. 2 Florentine Camerata, an Italian musical association of the late sixteenth century. ", "Origin of CAMERATA. New Latin, from Latin, neuter plural of cameratus, past participle of camerare to arch, from camera arched roof — more at chamber. This word doesn't usually appear in our free dictionary, but the definition from our premium Unabridged Dictionary is offered here on a limited basis. Note that some information is displayed differently in the Unabridged. To access the complete Unabridged Dictionary, with an additional 300,000 words that aren't in our free dictionary, start a free trial.", "The Camerata are a group of four powerful and influential individuals in the city of Cloudbank. Established by Grant Kendrell and Royce Bracket, the group circumvents the official administration and democratic nature of Cloudbank, in order to establish some form of stability in the ever-changing city. The group uses the Transistor to integrate various individuals of influence. The true reason for integration is unknown, perhaps the Camerata had moral objection to outright killing their targets. Integration, however, does also appear to increase the functionality of the Transistor.", "They met at the house of Giovanni de' Bardi, and their gatherings had the reputation of having all the most famous men of Florence as frequent guests. After first meeting in 1573, the activity of the Camerata reached its height between 1577 and 1582. While propounding a revival of the Greek dramatic style, the Camerata's musical experiments led to the development of the stile recitativo. In this way it facilitated the composition of dramatic music and the development of opera. Unifying the Camerata members was the belief that music had become corrupt, and by returning to the forms and style of the ancient Greeks, the art of music could be improved, and thereby society could be improved as well.", "Definition of CAMERATA. : the largest order of crinoids including all Paleozoic species that have the lower brachial plates included in the cup and the mouth and food grooves closed. ADVERTISEMENT. Note that some information is displayed differently in the Unabridged. To access the complete Unabridged Dictionary, with an additional 300,000 words that aren't in our free dictionary, start a free trial.", "The Camerata had a hard time keeping up with the constant thirst of new and exciting attractions for the citizens of Cloudbank, so they began regulating the city. They used the Transistor to absorb influential individuals in hopes of creating constant new and interesting concepts for the city. The group uses the Transistor to integrate various individuals of influence. The true reason for integration is unknown, perhaps the Camerata had moral objection to outright killing their targets. Integration, however, does also appear to increase the functionality of the Transistor.", "Not much is known about The Camerata. Its members are Grant Kendrell, Asher Kendrell, Sybil Reisz, and Royce Bracket. As a group, they are responsible for the disappearances of high profile people in Cloudbank. The numerous individuals who disappeared were killed by the Camerata, their Trace Data downloaded into the Transistor. Together, they intended to improve Cloudbank, using The Process as a canvas, and the Transistor as a brush.", "The term camerata is entirely a new construct coined by the members of Bardi's circle, although apparently based on the Italian word for chamber, camera, a term used for a room where important meetings were held. Unifying the Camerata members was the belief that music had become corrupt, and by returning to the forms and style of the ancient Greeks, the art of music could be improved, and thereby society could be improved as well.", "Take a journey into three superb classics with Camerata Chicago: Dvořak, Dvořák beethoven And rossini at The Wheaton College Artist. Series watch a special series of videos of renowned Cellist Joshua roman Performing’dvorak Dvorák S cello Concerto With camerata chicago At The Wheaton College. artist series There will also be a concert at the Wheaton College Artist Series on Sep 26. See Details …. Spring 2016: Cellist Julian Schwarz plays Haydn. Julian Schwarz joins Camerata Chicago to play the delightful Haydn Cello Concerto in C for our exciting Rising Star Series." ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camerata", "http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Camerata", "http://transistor.wikia.com/wiki/The_Camerata", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florentine_Camerata", "http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Camerata", "http://transistor.wikia.com/wiki/The_Camerata", "http://transistor.gamepedia.com/Camerata", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florentine_Camerata", "http://www.cameratachicago.org/" ] }
what is a camerata
19,719
description
[]
[ "An hour to 1 hour 15 minutes." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "There's nothing like the taste of a cake you made in your own kitchen. Baking a cake is as simple as measuring ingredients, mixing them in the right order, and remembering to take the cake out of the oven before it burns. Read on to learn how to bake three basic cakes: chocolate cake, apple cake, and vanilla pound cake. Scroll to the bottom for tips on how to follow a cake recipe. ", "A steady 325-350 degrees is ideal when it comes to baking pound cake. Position the pan in the middle of the oven, and rotate it once, halfway through the baking time, as it bakes to account for any hot spots. ", "Baking time will be slightly longer for 10-inch cake. 3. CHOCOLATE POUND CAKE. Cream butter, sugar ... and floured bundt pan, 10 inch pan or 2 (9x5x3 inch) loaf pans. Bake at ... pans. Bake until cake tester inserted in ... to drizzle down sides. 4. BUTTERMILK LEMON POUND CAKE. To prepare the pound cake: Grease and flour a 10-inch bundt pan or two 8 1/2 x 4 1/2 inch loaf pans. Put the ... hours, the loaf cakes for 40 to ... into slices", "1 This results in a pound cake with maximum volume. 2 Be patient. Beat softened butter (and cream cheese or vegetable shortening) at medium speed with an electric mixer until creamy. 3 This can take from 1 to 7 minutes, depending on the power of your mixer. 4 Gradually add sugar, continuing to beat until light and fluffy. ", "1. Preheat your oven to 300ºF (150ºC). In your pan or pans (this recipe is quite large -- but pound cakes are perfect for a double-layer masterpiece), line them with cooking spray or butter; this prevents sticking. You could also sprinkle with flour (on top of the butter) or line with parchment paper. Pour batter into your pan(s) and place in the oven. Cook for 75 minutes, checking periodically. Some ovens cook unevenly or quickly -- if this describes yours, keep an eye on it. 1 If to be used for fancy ornamented cakes, bake 30 to 35 minutes in a dripping-pan. 2 Insert a skewer or toothpick to see if it's finished.", "How long does it take to bake a cake in a 9 by 9 cake pan? Baking a cake in a 9square pan at 350 degrees F will take approximately 35 to 40 minutes. It is best to follow the directions in a recipe for the best results. 1 person found this useful. As a general rule of thumb you can bake most cakes at 375 degrees Fahrenheit (which is 180 degrees Celsius) and check them after about 30 minutes and expect it to take at least 45 minutes.", "I've never seen a pound cake take less than an hour... most take 1 hr. 15 min, and I have one recipe that calls for 1½ hours. Those long times, tho, are for a slow oven (about 300-325ºF). Till a toothpick inserted in the center of the cake comes out clean. Depends on the heat of your oven but start checking at about 45 minutes and when the cake is golden brown. sonnyboy · 8 years ago. Thumbs up.", "1 Have ingredients at room temperature. 2 This results in a pound cake with maximum volume. 3 Be patient. Beat softened butter (and cream cheese or vegetable shortening) at medium speed with an electric mixer until creamy. 4 This can take from 1 to 7 minutes, depending on the power of your mixer. 1 This results in a pound cake with maximum volume. 2 Be patient. Beat softened butter (and cream cheese or vegetable shortening) at medium speed with an electric mixer until creamy. 3 This can take from 1 to 7 minutes, depending on the power of your mixer." ], "url": [ "http://www.wikihow.com/Bake-a-Cake", "http://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/common-mistakes/article/pound-cake-common-mistakes", "http://www.cooks.com/rec/search/0,1-0,loaf_pan_pound_cakes,FF.html", "http://www.southernliving.com/food/how-to/tips-for-baking-a-perfect-pound-cake", "http://www.wikihow.com/Bake-a-Pound-Cake", "http://www.answers.com/Q/How_long_does_it_take_to_bake_a_cake", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070620171615AAePh4H", "http://www.southernliving.com/food/how-to/how-to-bake-a-cake-tips-for-perfect-cakes" ] }
how long does it take to bake a pound cake
19,720
numeric
[]
[ "8 mg on the first day and 16 mg (the full dosage) on the second day." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Buprenorphine is the generic form of Subutex, a prescription drug used to treat dependence on opioid painkillers such as oxycodone (OxyContin). It's also prescribed in lower dosages to treat pain. If you are recovering from surgery, your doctor may start you on buprenorphine to treat your post-operative pain. ", "Subutex Dosage for Treating Opioid Dependence. One typical way to dose Subutex is to start with 8 mg on the first day and 16 mg (the full dosage) on the second day. Often, by the third day you can be switched to Suboxone ® (buprenorphine and naloxone). Typically, the initial dose for treating opioid dependence is 8 mg on the first day and 16 mg", "Buprenorphine Quantity Limits. Drugs containing buprenorphine and a combination of buprenorphine and naloxone are typically used for the treatment of opiate dependency. The manufacturer s recommended maintenance dose of buprenorphine is 16 mg per day and the maximum FDA approved dose is 32 mg per day. Buprenorphine Maximum Dose Limits Reduced. Nov. 19, 2014 MHCP Provider Update PRX-14-08. Effective Jan. 1, 2015, products containing buprenorphine will be limited to 24", "A maximum daily dosage of up to 24 mg/day (based on buprenorphine) will be. allowed for ninety consecutive days. After the ninety days has elapsed, a maximum daily dosage. of up to 16 mg/day (based on buprenorphine) will be allowed. Beginning with the first Suboxone@ claim submitted with a date of service on or after. February I, 2013, a maximum daily dosage of up to 24 mg/day (based on buprenorphine). is allowed per recipient for an initial ninety consecutive day period. After the initial ninety day period, a maximum daily dosage limit of up to 16 mg/day. (based on buprenorphine) is allowed per recipient. Subutex. The maximum daily dosage limit for Subutex@ is 16 mg/day", "Multiple clinical trials have compared buprenorphine with methadone for opioid maintenance. Most studies have shown that buprenorphine (less than 40 mg) is as effective as low-dose methadone (less than 40 mg). 17, 18 High-dose methadone (greater than 60 mg) may be more effective than buprenorphine, however. A meta-analysis 18 of five studies that compared the two therapies showed that 8 to 12 mg of buprenorphine is not as effective as 50 to 80 mg of methadone. 19 A 2004 Cochrane review 16 confirmed these findings. ", "The maximum dose in the BNF is 32 mg but in the RCGP guidelines it is 24 and I think 16 int he clinical guidelines. anyway as Simon says the main effect of this will be a longer lasting effect rather than intoixication. ", "Dosing Overview. The recommended buprenorphine daily dose is 12 to 16 mg/day* for patients with opioid use disorder. The minimum effective dose is typically around 8 mg/day, and the maximum recommended dose is 32 mg/day. Some patients do well on as little as 2 or 4 mg/day, however. Most patients should be started and maintained on the buprenorphine/naloxone combination formulation.", "SUBOXONE is supplied as hexagonal orange tablets in 2 dosage strengths: 2 mg buprenorphine + 0.5 mg naloxone embossed with a sword logo at the midline and N2 on the reverse side. and 8 mg buprenorphine + 2 mg naloxone embossed with a sword logo. " ], "url": [ "http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/buprenorphine", "http://pain.emedtv.com/subutex/subutex-dosage.html", "http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=dhs16_191032", "http://www.lamedicaid.com/provweb1/Pharmacy/Suboxone_Subutex_Ltr_2-14-13.pdf", "http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1573.html", "http://smmgp.groupee.net/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/1064030241/m/2507069126", "http://www.buppractice.com/node/4371", "http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM191533.pdf" ] }
what is the maximum dose of subutex
19,721
numeric
[]
[ "$56,000" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "The 14 teams participating in New Zealand's ITM Cup currently face a salary cap that is the lesser of $NZ 1.35 million or 36% of the union's commercial revenue. Maximum player salaries are $55,000, and minimum salaries are $18,000. The salary cap, known officially as Total Player Payments, is A$10,070,000 for the 2015 season with a salary floor of $9,566,500 except for Greater Western Sydney, whose salary cap is $10,500,000 with a floor of $9,996,500.", "For the 2005–06 NHL season, the salary cap was set at US$ 39 million per team, with a maximum of $7.8 million (20% of the team's cap) for a player. The CBA also mandated the payment of salaries in U.S. dollars, codifying what had been a universal practice for more than a decade. The salary cap, known officially as Total Player Payments, is A$10,070,000 for the 2015 season with a salary floor of $9,566,500 except for Greater Western Sydney, whose salary cap is $10,500,000 with a floor of $9,996,500.", "A salary cap existed in the early days of the National Hockey League (NHL). During the Great Depression, the league was under financial pressure to lower its salary cap to $62,500 per team and $7,000 per player, forcing some teams to trade away well-paid star players in order to fit the cap. The salary cap, known officially as Total Player Payments, is A$10,070,000 for the 2015 season with a salary floor of $9,566,500 except for Greater Western Sydney, whose salary cap is $10,500,000 with a floor of $9,996,500.", "The CBA also contains a salary floor which is formally titled the Lower Limit of the Payroll Range, the minimum that each team must pay in player salaries. The lower limit was originally set at 55% of the cap, but is now defined to be $16 million below the cap, therefore the 2011–12 minimum was $48.3 million. The salary cap, known officially as Total Player Payments, is A$10,070,000 for the 2015 season with a salary floor of $9,566,500 except for Greater Western Sydney, whose salary cap is $10,500,000 with a floor of $9,996,500.", "Education and Experience. It is common for companies to pay employees according to a scale. For example, a classified listing may state a job pays between $10 and $15 per hour. A qualified candidate who has a greater amount of education and/or experience than one who meets the basic job requirements is likely to earn more money. ", "In terms of minimum salary for each team, the salary floor is 89% of the cap. That became effective in 2013, as this requirement was by-passed in 2011 and 2012. Hence, there was in essence no salary floor in 2011 or 2012. For 2011, each team may designate up to 3 of their highest paid players (who must have at least 5 accrued seasons and make at least $1 M more than the league minimum salary for that year), toward whom the team will will receive $1 M cap credit. Repayment of this credit will be applied toward the 2014-2017 league years.", "* Salaries flatten when nurses are in a position for more than 10 years. Nurses working in the same position for 11 to 15 years report a salary of $56,000; those holding their positions for over 15 years made $56,700. * As in previous years, men in nursing made more money than women. The average salary for all male respondents was $54,600, compared with $50,600 for women-an 8% difference. ", "According to Sports Illustrated, Garnett now makes more than $10 million a year off the court with adidas; Anta, a Chinese sportswear brand; Gatorade; and Wheaties in addition to his $21 million salary. Catchings, who makes the league maximum $105,500 per season, is not one to measure quality of life by dollars. Today, the estimated median salary — half the players make more than that — is $2.5 million. The league minimum is $473,604. The salary cap for an entire WNBA team of 11 players is $878,000. Even prorated for the 34-game season, it's less than the median NBA salary" ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NFL_salary_cap", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NFL_salary_cap", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NFL_salary_cap", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NFL_salary_cap", "http://smallbusiness.chron.com/4-factors-can-result-different-pay-levels-employees-doing-same-job-17662.html", "http://www.askthecommish.com/SalaryCap/faq.aspx", "http://www.nursingcenter.com/journalarticle?Article_ID=671823", "http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/basketball/story/2012-05-19/nba-wnba-basketball-salary-disparity/55079608/1" ] }
salary difference in same team
19,722
numeric
[]
[ "The Tet Offensive was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31, 1968 by the forces of the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. " ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "In late January, 1968, during the lunar new year (or “Tet”) holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South Vietnam. The U.S. and South Vietnamese militaries sustained heavy losses before finally repelling the communist assault.", "The combined forces of the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese Regular Army (NVA), about 85,000 strong, launched a major offensive throughout South Vietnam. The attacks began on January 31, 1968, the first day of the Lunar New Year, Vietnam's most important holiday.", "The fighting that made up the Tet Offensive lasted for several days in some South Vietnamese cities. This map shows the route taken by North Vietnamese troops. During the Buddhist holiday of Tet, over 80,000 Vietcong troops emerged from their tunnels and attacked nearly every major metropolitan center in South Vietnam.", "The idea was for the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the Viet Cong fighters in South Vietnam to make attacks on every major city in South Vietnam simultaneously on the eve of … the Vietnamese New Year, Nguyen Tet (January 30, 1968).", "As the celebration of the lunar new year, Tet was the most important holiday on the Vietnamese calendar. In previous years, the holiday had been the occasion for an informal truce in South Vietnam’s long-running conflict with North Vietnam and their Communist southern allies, derisively known as Viet Cong.", "The Tet Offensive was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31, 1968 by the forces of the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. The purpose w … as to displace the invading army presently stationed in South Vietnam and regain control of the country by the Vietnamese.", "Tet Offensive. The Tet Offensive was a series of surprise attacks by the Vietcong (rebel forces sponsored by North Vietnam) and North Vietnamese forces, on scores of cities, towns, and hamlets throughout South Vietnam. It was considered to be a turning point in the Vietnam War.", "The Tet Offensive was a turning point in the Vietnam War (1954-75). The assault began during Tet, a festival of the lunar new year, on January 30, 1968.", "The Tet Offensive was a series of surprise attacks by the Vietcong (rebel forces sponsored by North Vietnam) and North Vietnamese forces, on scores of cities, towns, and hamlets throughout South Vietnam." ], "url": [ "https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/tet", "http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1862.html", "http://www.ushistory.org/us/55c.asp", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_'Tet_offensive'", "http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/tet-offensive", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_'Tet_offensive'", "http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1862.html", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_'Tet_offensive'", "http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1862.html" ] }
what was tet
19,723
description
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[]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Answered by The Community. Making the world better, one answer at a time. Reflex arc is the path of impulse that travels from receptor (ex. skin) to spinal cord through sensory nerve and from spinal cord to effectors (ex. muscles) through motor nerve. This impulse helps us to perform reflex action. The somatic reflex arc is a neural circuit that travels through the spinal cord. It allows the body to respond to the stimulus before the brain interprets the message/ impulse … .", "1. the route followed by nerve impulses in the production of a reflex act, from the peripheral receptor organ through the afferent nerve to the central nervous system synapse and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ. 2. a neural pathway that involes both the peripheral and central nervous systems. reflex arc. the circuit traveled by impulses producing a reflex action: from the receptor organ, through the afferent nerve, nerve center, efferent nerve,", "The route followed by nerve impulses in the production of a reflex act, from the peripheral receptor organ through the afferent nerve to the central nervous system synapse and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ. re·flex arc. 1. the route followed by nerve impulses in the production of a reflex act, from the peripheral receptor organ through the afferent nerve to the central nervous system synapse and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ. 2. a neural pathway that involes both the peripheral and central nervous systems", "The route followed by nerve impulses in the production of a reflex act, from the peripheral receptor organ through the afferent nerve to the central nervous system synapse and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ. reflex arc. the circuit traveled by impulses producing a reflex action: from the receptor organ, through the afferent nerve, nerve center, efferent nerve,", "A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex action. In higher animals, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. ", "Answers. Best Answer: technical jargon; A reflex arc is the neural pathway that mediates a reflex action. In higher animals, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. ", "The nerve impulse travels through the reflex arc. It travels from the sensor through the sensory neurone, through the spinal cord and motor neurone to the effector muscle … . A reflex arc will travel from the receptor (reactor to stimuli) to sensory neurons, to the interneurons which will respond (unlike the brain in conscious action) and send the … message to motor neurons which will operate the effector (carries out response to stimuli).", "1. Route followed by nerve impulses in production of a reflex act, from peripheral receptor organ through afferent nerve to central nervous system synapse and then through efferent nerve to effector organ. 2. Neural pathway that involes both peripheral and central nervous systems. re·flex arc. 1. the route followed by nerve impulses in the production of a reflex act, from the peripheral receptor organ through the afferent nerve to the central nervous system synapse and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ. 2. a neural pathway that involes both the", "In a simple reflex arc, such as the knee jerk, a stimulus is detected by a receptor cell, which synapses with a sensory neurone. The sensory neurone carries the impulse from site of the stimulus to the central nervous system (the brain or spinal cord), where it synapses with an interneurone. The interneurone synapses with a motor neurone, which carries the nerve impulse out to an effector, such as a muscle, which responds by contracting." ], "url": [ "http://www.answers.com/Q/Describe_the_reflex_arc", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/reflex+arc", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Reflex-arc", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/reflex+arc", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflex_arc", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101219121152AAUolJO", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_pathway_that_nerve_impulses_travel_in_reflex_arc", "http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Reflex-arc", "http://biologymad.com/NervousSystem/nervoussystemintro.htm" ] }
describe the pathway of a nerve impulse through a reflex arc
19,724
description
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[ "Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "Energize! Plants use a process called photosynthesis to make food. During photosynthesis, plants trap light energy with their leaves. Plants use the energy of the sun to change water and carbon dioxide into a sugar called glucose. Glucose is used by plants for energy and to make other substances like cellulose and starch. Cellulose is used in building cell walls.", "PHOTOSYNTHESIS. INTRODUCTION. Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose", "Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. This glucose can be converted into pyruvate which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by cellular respiration. Oxygen is also formed. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water.", "In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water. Photosynthesis Summary. In summary, photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds. In plants, photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant leaves. Photosynthesis consists of two stages, the light reactions and the dark reactions", "Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and certain bacteria to harness energy from sunlight into chemical energy. There are two types of photosynthetic processes: oxygenic photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most common and is seen in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. ", "Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the fuel used by all living things. ", "Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. However, not all organisms that use light as a source of energy carry out photosynthesis, since photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen." ], "url": [ "http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwepphotosynthesis.htm", "http://www.life.illinois.edu/govindjee/encyc/encarta.htm", "http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/Photosynthesis.htm", "http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm", "http://www.livescience.com/51720-photosynthesis.html", "http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookPS.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis" ] }
what energy is used in photosynthesis
19,725
description
[]
[ "Capillaries." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream.", "Arterioles branch into capillaries, the smallest of all blood vessels. Capillaries are the sites of nutrient and waste exchange between the blood and body cells. Capillaries are microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system.", "Arterioles are the smallest arteries and regulate blood flow into capillary beds through vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Capillaries are the smallest vessels and allow for exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid. Continuous capillaries are most common and allow passage of fluids and small solutes. Fenestrated capillaries are more permeable to fluids and solutes than continuous capillaries.", "Tweet. The smallest blood vessels in the human body are capillaries. They are responsible for the absorption of oxygen into the blood stream and for removing the deoxygenated red blood cells for return to the heart and lungs for reoxygenation.", "2. Capillaries-these are the sites of gas exchange between the tissues. 3. Veins-these return oxygen poor blood to the heart, except for the vein that carries blood from the lungs. On the right is a diagram showing how the three connect. Notice the artery and vein are much larger than the capillaries.", "Gas exchange occurs in the capillaries which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. Each artery that comes from the heart is surrounded by capillaries so that they can ta … ke it to the various parts of the body." ], "url": [ "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000059.htm", "http://www.biosbcc.net/doohan/sample/htm/vessels.htm", "http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio211/chap19/chap19.html", "http://www.wereyouwondering.com/what-is-the-smallest-blood-vessel-in-the-human-body/", "http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/module_4/whatweknow_circulation.htm", "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_smallest_blood_vessels_where_exchange_occurs_called" ] }
The smallest blood vessels in your body,where gas exchange occurs are called
19,726
description
[]
[ "Rappelling is the process of coming down from a mountain that is usually done with two pieces of rope." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "5. Cancel. Rappelling is the process of coming down from a mountain that is usually done with two pieces of rope. Use a natural anchor or a set of bolts to rappel from with help from an experienced rock climber in this free video on rappelling techniques. Part of the Video Series: Rappelling & Rock Climbing.", "Rappelling is the process of coming down from a mountain that is usually done with two pieces of rope. Use a natural anchor or a set of bolts to rappel from with help from an experienced rock climber in this free video on rappelling techniques. Expert: Scott Kiesling. Contact: www.climbon.biz.", "Abseiling (/ˈaebseɪl/ ˈæbseɪl /or/ ; ˈɑːpzaɪl From german, abseilen meaning to rope), down also called, rappelling is the controlled descent of a vertical, drop such as a rock, face using a. Rope climbers use this technique when a cliff or slope is too steep/and or dangerous to descend without. protection", "1. rappel - (mountaineering) a descent of a vertical cliff or wall made by using a doubled rope that is fixed to a higher point and wrapped around the body. abseil. mountain climbing, mountaineering-the activity of climbing a mountain. descent-the act of changing your location in a downward direction." ], "url": [ "http://www.ehow.com/video_4951636_what-rappelling.html", "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uhkRtGhqTM", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abseiling", "http://www.thefreedictionary.com/rappelling" ] }
what is rappelling
19,727
description
[]
[ "They are the soldiers on the ground that Boost Beer Sales.Selling Beer is by far one of the most amazing jobs that any person can have." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Brewery Representative. Have passion for craft beer & sales. 2+ years of sales experience. We are passionate about our company and our beer, and we work each day to create great beer... 6 days ago-save job-email-more... 1 View all Harpoon Brewery jobs in Boston, MA-Boston jobs.", "Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery. A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC; in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction and divine protection from the goddess Ninkasi. 1 Farm brewery – A farm brewery, or farmhouse brewery, is a brewery that primarily brews its beer on a farm. 2 Crops and other ingredients grown on the farm, such as barley, wheat, rye, hops, herbs, spices, and fruits are used in the beers brewed.", "CB A is a unique Alliance of four craft beer brands: Widmer Brothers, Redhook, Kona Brewing and our newest brand, Omission. As an Alliance, together, we are able to satisfy more consumers, at more times, in more locations, through more authentic, distinct craft beers and brands than any other brewery. ", "A Beer Sales Representative is an important member of a beer manufacturers business. They are the soldiers on the ground that Boost Beer Sales. Selling Beer is by far one of the most amazing jobs that any person can have. Becoming a Beer Sales Representative. Beer jobs are not that easy to find or get because every guy in their right mind wants to become a beer rep. Beer companies are looking for guys that know how to Sell and Market a product. They want people that have a passion for the beer business", "A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces a small amount of beer. Exact definitions vary, but the terms are typically applied to breweries that are much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries and are independently owned. ", "As a brewery field sales representative, the RAS is expected to be the authority on product knowledge, brand positioning and programming in the marketplace.... ", "Marketing. Marketing is a significant part of many beer sales rep jobs. Sales reps often deliver and set up product displays, or even work with the management of businesses to organize on-site or off-site promotional activities such as concerts or sporting or cultural activities. Beer sales reps need to be able to intelligently discuss the difference in beers.", "Average Brewery Representative Salaries. The average salary for brewery representative jobs is $63,000. Average brewery representative salaries can vary greatly due to company, location, industry, experience and benefits. This salary was calculated using the average salary for all jobs with the term brewery representative anywhere in the job listing. The brewery representative salary comparisons feature allows job seekers to get the information required to make important career decisions and negotiate salary ranges. For additional brewery representative salary information, we recommend visiting Payscale.com." ], "url": [ "http://www.indeed.com/q-Beer-Sales-Representative-jobs.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brewery", "http://craftbrew.com/careers/", "http://www.boostmyproduct.com/beer-sales-representative.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbrewery", "http://www.indeed.com/q-brewery-jobs.html", "http://work.chron.com/beer-rep-do-21506.html", "http://www.simplyhired.com/salaries-k-brewery-representative-jobs.html" ] }
what does a brewery representative do
19,728
person
[]
[ "An overnight stay for a keyhole surgery and three to five days stay for an open surgery." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "How long does the surgery for removing a gallbladder take. Laparoscopic gallbladder surgery to remove the gallbladder or stones usually takes about 2-1/2 hours. ", "Laparoscopic gallbladder surgery requires a shorter hospital stay; usually the patient is home within 24 hours. In some cases you may need to stay overnight. In contrast, patients undergoing open cholecystectomy are often in the hospital three to seven days. ", "You will need general anesthesia for this surgery, which usually lasts 2 hours or less. After surgery, bile flows from the liver (where it is made) through the common bile duct and into the small intestine. Because the gallbladder has been removed, the body can no longer store bile between meals. What To Think About. Recovery is much faster and less painful after laparoscopic surgery than after open surgery. 1 The hospital stay after laparoscopic surgery is shorter than after open surgery. 2 People generally go home the same day or the next day, compared with 2 to 4 days or longer for open surgery.", "You may have gallbladder surgery as an outpatient, or you may stay 1 or 2 days in the hospital. Most people can return to their normal activities in 7 to 10 days. People who have laparoscopic gallbladder surgery are sore for about a week. But in 2 to 3 weeks they have much less discomfort than people who have open surgery. No special diets or other precautions are needed after surgery. What To Think About. Recovery is much faster and less painful after laparoscopic surgery than after open surgery. 1 The hospital stay after laparoscopic surgery is shorter than after open surgery. 2 People generally go home the same day or the next day, compared with 2 to 4 days or longer for open surgery.", "Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a procedure in which the gallbladder is removed by laparoscopic techniques. Laparoscopic surgery also referred to as minimally invasive surgery describes the performance of surgical procedures with the assistance of a video camera and several thin instruments. ", "Timing of Surgery. Cholecystectomy may be performed within days to weeks after hospitalization for an acute gallbladder attack, depending on the severity of the condition. 1 Emergency gallbladder removal within 24 - 48 hours is warranted in about 20% of patients with acute cholecystitis. ", "You will be in the operating room for about 2-5 hours with at least another 1 - 2 hours in the recovery room afterwards. Your hospital stay will depend on the extent of your surgery and may be up to 7-10 days in length if the surgery is extensive. 1 Your incision(s) will be watertight in about 24-36 hours allowing you to shower carefully if you don't have any plastic drainage tubes in place. 2 The incision normally heals fully within a few weeks. 3 There is also swelling and a feeling of firmness under the incision that may last for a couple of months.", "Surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) is the treatment of choice for gallstones that cause moderate to severe pain or other symptoms. Symptoms usually do not return after the gallbladder has been removed. In a small number of cases, surgery may be done to prevent complications of gallstones. Laparoscopic surgery is often the best method to remove the gallbladder. Open gallbladder surgery requires a longer recovery period and causes more pain. Surgery may be done for: 1 Gallstones that cause symptoms.", "Recovering from a gallbladder removal. Recovery after keyhole surgery to remove your gallbladder (laparoscopic cholecystectomy) is usually quick. Most people are able to eat and drink and leave hospital on the same day as the surgery. In some cases you may be advised to stay overnight and go home the next day. After open surgery, you will have to stay three to five days in hospital and your recovery time will be longer. Typically, it takes around four to six weeks to recover fully from the effects of open surgery. " ], "url": [ "http://www.themedicalquestions.com/Med/how-long-does-the-surgery-for-removing-a-gallbladder-take.html", "http://umm.edu/programs/surgery/services/minimally-invasive/cholecystectomy", "http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/laparoscopic-gallbladder-surgery-for-gallstones", "http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/laparoscopic-gallbladder-surgery-for-gallstones", "http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/tumor/pancreasdiseases/web%20pages/Biliary%20SYSTEM/laparoscopic%20chole.html", "http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/gallstones-and-gallbladder-disease", "http://surgery.med.umich.edu/general/endocrine/patient/surgery/pancreas_surgery.shtml", "http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/gallstones-surgery", "http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Laparoscopiccholecystectomy/Pages/Recoverypage.aspx" ] }
how long will i be in hospital after a gallbladder surgery last
19,729
numeric
[]
[ "65" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "If you want Part B coverage to begin the month you turn age 65, you. must sign up for it during the first 3 months of your Initial Enrollment Period. If you wait until you are age 65, or sign up during the last 3 months of your. Initial Enrollment Period, your Part B start date will be delayed.", "You can sign up for Medicare beginning three months before you turn 65, and coverage can start as soon as the first day of your birthday month. The initial enrollment period lasts until three months after your 65th birthday.", "If you sign up within 6 months of your 65th birthday, your coverage will start the first day of the month you turn 65, or the month before you turn 65 (if your birthday is the first of the month).", "Founder, Georgia Medicare Plans, Atlanta,GA. For most people, Medicare starts when you turn age 65. It can start earlier if you are disabled under Social Security definitions and are receiving SSDI. It can also begin before age 65 if you have ALS (amyoptropic lateral sclerosis) or ESRD (end stage renal disease).", "If your birthday is on the first day of the month, your coverage starts the first day of the prior month. Example. Mr. Kim's 65th birthday is July 1, 2016. If he signs up for Medicare in March, April, or May, his coverage will start on June 1, 2016.", "If you want your Medicare coverage to begin when you turn age 65, you should. contact Social Security during the 3 months before your 65th birthday. If you wait. until your 65th birthday or later, your Part B coverage will be delayed. I am age 65, still working, and covered by a group. health plan.", "For most people, Medicare starts the 1st day of the month you turn age 65. You can sign up for Medicare Part A & B which covers about 80% of the costs of care. You can also sign up for a Medicare Supplement plan (Medigap) to cover the difference. Medicare along with a Medicare Supplement is great health insurance." ], "url": [ "http://www.tamus.edu/assets/files/benefits/pdf/programs/MedicareEnrollmentInformation.pdf", "http://money.usnews.com/money/retirement/articles/2013/04/01/10-things-everyone-should-know-about-medicare", "https://www.medicare.gov/sign-up-change-plans/get-parts-a-and-b/when-coverage-starts/when-coverage-starts.html", "http://www.insurancelibrary.com/medicare-insurance/at-what-age-does-medicare-start", "https://www.medicare.gov/sign-up-change-plans/get-parts-a-and-b/when-coverage-starts/when-coverage-starts.html", "http://www.tamus.edu/assets/files/benefits/pdf/programs/MedicareEnrollmentInformation.pdf", "http://www.insurancelibrary.com/medicare-insurance/at-what-age-does-medicare-start" ] }
at what age does medicare begin
19,730
numeric
[]
[ "$85 ($125.00 for a pair)" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ], "passage_text": [ "Subscribe to MRRChat. Adoption Fees Michigan Rabbit Rescue is a not-for-profit organization. The adoption donation fee is $85 ($125.00 for a pair), payable to Michigan Rabbit Rescue. This fee also includes the cost of a copy of the House Rabbit Handbook ($9.00) which is provided with all adoptions. The book fee will not be charged twice for adopting a pair, or if you already own the book.", "1 $60 adoption fee for a single rabbit for members, $78 for nonmembers ($18 sent in for HRS membership). 2 $100 adoption fee for a pair of rabbits for members, $118 for nonmembers. 3 The fee helps cover the cost of spaying and neutering.", "Our rabbits are spayed or neutered and litterbox trained. Our adoption fee is $85.00 for a single rabbit or $125.00 for a bonded pair. The adoption fee covers the cost of the spay or neuter which normally costs well over $150.00 per rabbit. Your donation is tax deductable. Adoption applications can be filled out at the Burrow, at our off site adoption events or online.", "There is a $65 adoption fee per rabbit or $95 per pair of rabbits to help cover the alteration costs. (Neuter costs $80 per male, Spay costs $80-100 per female) Adoption fees for small animals vary.", "Adoption Fees Michigan Rabbit Rescue is a not-for-profit organization. The adoption donation fee is $85 ($125.00 for a pair), payable to Michigan Rabbit Rescue. This fee also includes the cost of a copy of the House Rabbit Handbook ($9.00) which is provided with all adoptions. The book fee will not be charged twice for adopting a pair, or if you already own the book." ], "url": [ "http://www.michiganrabbitrescue.org/fees.php", "http://rabbitsinthehouse.org/?p=74", "http://www.bunnybunch.org/pages/adopt-a-rabbit/", "http://www.rabbitadoption.org/info.html", "http://www.michiganrabbitrescue.org/fees.php" ] }
Adoption fees for rabbits
19,731
numeric
[]
[ "A complication of type 1 or type 2 diabetes caused by damage to the kidneys' delicate filtering system. " ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy, is a complication of type 1 or type 2 diabetes caused by damage to the kidneys' delicate filtering system. Your kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood.", "Nephropathy means kidney disease or damage. Diabetic nephropathy is damage to your kidneys caused by diabetes. In severe cases it can lead to kidney failure. But not everyone with diabetes has kidney damage. The kidneys have many tiny blood vessels that filter waste from your blood.", "Kidney disease in type 1 diabetes is slightly different than in type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, kidney disease rarely begins in the first 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, some patients already have kidney disease by the time they are diagnosed with diabetes.", "One of the more common long-term complications of diabetes is diabetic renal disease (renal refers to the kidneys). Also known as diabetic nephropathy, this condition is a result of direct vascular abnormalities that accompany diabetes.", "High blood pressure is the other leading cause of kidney disease in people with diabetes. High blood pressure also is a result of damage from kidney disease. If you have high blood pressure, your kidneys may already be damaged. Even a small rise in blood pressure can quickly make kidney disease worse.", "Diabetic nephropathy -- kidney disease that results from diabetes -- is the number one cause of kidney failure. Almost a third of people with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. People with diabetes and kidney disease do worse overall than people with kidney disease alone. This is because people with diabetes tend to have other long-standing medical conditions, like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and blood vessel disease (atherosclerosis)." ], "url": [ "http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetic-nephropathy/basics/definition/CON-20035589", "http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/tc/diabetic-nephropathy-topic-overview", "http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/diabetes-kidney-disease", "http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Diabetes/WhyDiabetesMatters/Kidney-Disease-Diabetes_UCM_313867_Article.jsp", "http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/prevent-diabetes-problems/Pages/keep-your-kidneys-healthy.aspx", "http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/diabetes-kidney-disease" ] }
what is a diabetic kidney
19,732
description
[]
[ "James Madison made a great contribution by writing The federalist paper for the constitution of United states." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "James Madison, Father of the U.S. Constitution. Portrait of James Madison. In May, 1787 the 55 Delegates to the United States Constitutional Convention set off to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Traveling in the late 18th century wasn't easy, and what would take modern Americans just hours took the Founding Fathers weeks.", "James Madison was called the father of the constitution because he was the author of the basic plan of government that the Convention adopted. Not only that, but he kept careful notes at Convention which was not open to the public.", "The very first man at the convention was renowned Father of the Constitution. James Madison. While waiting for the others, he began drafting a blueprint which would eventually be known as the Virginia Plan.", "James Madison. James Madison, America's fourth President (1809-1817), made a major contribution to the ratification of the Constitution by writing The Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In later years, he was referred to as the Father of the Constitution..", "In later years, when he was referred to as the Father of the Constitution, Madison protested that the document was not the off-spring of a single brain, but the work of many heads and many hands.. In Congress, he helped frame the Bill of Rights and enact the first revenue legislation.", "James Madison was called the father of the constitution because he was the author of the basic plan of government that the Convention adopted. Not only that, but he kept … careful notes at Convention which was not open to the public. These notes are by far the best record of the convention in existence.", "James Madison is generally regarded as the father of the United States Constitution. No other delegate was better prepared for the Federal Convention of 1787, and no one contributed more than Madison to shaping the ideas and contours of the document or to explaining its meaning." ], "url": [ "http://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-constitution-amendments/james-madison/", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_is_James_Madison_called_the_father_of_the_Constitution", "http://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-constitution-amendments/james-madison/", "https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/jamesmadison", "https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/jamesmadison", "http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_was_James_Madison_known_as_the_Father_of_the_Constitution", "http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/04/james-madison-father-of-the-constitution" ] }
why is james madison father of constitution
19,733
description
[]
[ "160° F to 165° F." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Cook Pork and Pork Products to an internal temperature of at least 155°F. Pork ordered medium should be cooked to at least 155°F. Pork ordered well done should be cooked to at least 170°F. Temperatures should be taken at the thickest portion of pork. Meat should be firm, not mushy. Juices should be clear, not pink. Cook Eggs and Foods Containing Raw Eggs to an internal temperature of at least 145°F. This requirement does not apply to foods made with pasteurized eggs. Temperatures should be taken in the center of the egg-containing food. Cooked egg whites and yolks should be firm after cooking, not runny..", "Cooking thermometers take the guesswork out of cooking, as they measure the internal temperatures of your cooked meat, poultry, seafood, baked goods, and/or casseroles, to assure that a safe temperature has been reached, harmful bacteria have been destroyed, and your food is cooked perfectly. ", "The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends cooking ground beef, pork and lamb patties or mixtures such as meat loaf to 160°F. Whole pork cuts such as chops and roasts should be cooked to 145°F (medium), or 170°F (well done). 1 All meat should be thawed before cooking in the microwave (even it is thawed in the microwave) to produce a high quality product. 2 For safety reasons, do not cook poultry from the frozen state. 3 Arrange meat uniformly in the cookware. 4 Boneless meat cooks most evenly so debone large pieces of meat.", "If you are cooking at high temps, carryover can be up to 10°F. If you are cooking at low temps, it might not go up the full 5°F. But 5°F is a good rule of thumb for most roasts. Medium rare is the best temp for beef, lamb, venison steaks, roasts, and duck breasts. Food scientists have equipment to measure tenderness and juiciness. But at that temp, it takes at least two hours to kill them to 7D. The time gets lower as the temperature goes higher. So beef at 140°F degrees will get to a 7D kill rate in just 12 minutes, while at 160°F degrees, pathogens are destroyed in just 7.3 seconds, hence the USDA guidelines for the consumer.", "Cooking Raw meat and poultry should always be cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature. When roasting meat and poultry, use an oven temperature no lower than 325 °F. Use a food thermometer to assure that meat and poultry have reached a safe minimum internal temperature. • Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three minutes before carving or consuming.", "Report Abuse. Bacteria need time, food and moisture to grow. They do not grow well unless they are in the danger zone which is between 40-140. Some bacteria are found naturally in food. They can be killed if the food is cooked to the correct temperature. BUT.....some bacteria produce poisons. (when left in the danger zone) heating the food will kill the bacteria. However, the poisons will not be destroyed and can still cause a foodborne illness", "1 Use a food thermometer to measure the internal temperature of cooked foods. 2 Check the internal temperature in several places to make sure that the meat, poultry, seafood, eggs or dishes containing eggs are cooked to safe minimum internal temperatures as shown in the Safe Cooking Temperatures Chart. To chill foods properly: 1 Refrigerate or freeze meat, poultry, eggs, seafood and other perishables within 2 hours of cooking or purchasing. 2 Refrigerate within 1 hour if the temperature outside is above 90ºF. 3 Never thaw food at room temperature, such as on the counter top.", "Marinated Grilled Steak. The proper temperature to cook a medium-rare steak is 130° - 135° F. Although, according to foodsafety.gov, beef, lamb, and pork should be cooked to at least 145° (or above, if desired). Ground meat must be cooked to at least 160° F. Ground poultry must be cooked to at least 165°. ", "According to USDA, ribs are done when they are 145°F internal temp, but they may still be tough. If you take them up to 180°F, drop the oven temp to about 180°F and hold them at this temp for about 30 minutes, the collagens and fats melt some more at this temp and make the meat more tender and juicy. On most cookers, when the oven temp is 225°F at sea level, it takes about three to four hours to cook a slab of baby backs and about five to six hours to cook a slab of St. Louis cut ribs or spares. They are slightly undercooked at that stage.", "If you’re going to use a meat thermometer, you want to be sure your thermometer is accurate. You can test it for accuracy easily by inserting the thermometer two inches into boiling water. At sea level, it should read 212°F. It will be 2°F lower than 212°F for every 1,000 feet above sea level. 1 All meat should be thawed before cooking in the microwave (even it is thawed in the microwave) to produce a high quality product. 2 For safety reasons, do not cook poultry from the frozen state. 3 Arrange meat uniformly in the cookware. 4 Boneless meat cooks most evenly so debone large pieces of meat." ], "url": [ "http://psbweb.co.kern.ca.us/EH_Internet/cookingTemp.aspx", "http://whatscookingamerica.net/Information/MeatTemperatureChart.htm", "http://web.extension.illinois.edu/meatsafety/cooking.cfm", "http://amazingribs.com/tips_and_technique/meat_temperature_guide.html", "http://www.fsis.usda.gov/shared/PDF/How_Temperatures_Affect_Food.pdf", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070505182454AAM7tyE", "http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/BuyStoreServeSafeFood/ucm255180.htm", "http://southernfood.about.com/od/foodsafety/fl/Meat-and-Poultry-Temperature-Chart.htm", "http://amazingribs.com/tips_and_technique/are_they_ready.html", "http://web.extension.illinois.edu/meatsafety/cooking.cfm" ] }
what temp does meat need to be cooked to
19,734
numeric
[]
[ "Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is an analog mobile cell phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas on October 13, 1983, Israel in 1986, Australia in 1987, and Pakistan in 1990." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Broadcast and telephone transmission have conventionally used analog technology. An analog signal can be represented as a series of sine wave s. The term originated because the modulation of the carrier wave is analogous to the fluctuations of the human voice or other sound that is being transmitted. Part of the Electronics glossary: 1) In telecommunications, an analog signal is one in which a base carrier's alternating current frequency is modified in some way, such as by amplifying the strength of the signal or varying the frequency, in order to add information to the signal.", "Analog is also rather limited in terms of mobile phone technology. With a cordless device (such as a mobile or home phone), analog is limited in the range that it is able to pick up (of course, that more or less depends on the environment in which one uses the phone). Digital phones allow more users to use their mobile phones within a single area of coverage. Analog phones use technology that translates audio or video signals into electronic pulses; digital phones use technology that translates audio or video signals into binary code. 2. Analog phones have a substantially higher sound quality; digital phones have a slightly clearer sound.", "An analog telephone adapter (ATA) is a device for connecting traditional analog telephones, fax machines, and similar customer-premises devices to a digital telephone system or a voice over IP telephony network. ", "How do you tell if the phone line is analog or digital? Look at the back of the telephone connected to it. If you see complies with part 68, FCC Rules and a Ringer Equivalence Number (REN), then the phone and the line are analog. Also, look at the phone's dialpad. Let's say you connect your home analog phone to your office's digital line. When you lift the receiver, the phone tries to draw an electrical current to operate. Typically this is regulated by the phone company's central office.", "Analog vs. Digital Phones. An analog phone is one which makes use of analog technology. Analog technology is simply the process by which the technology takes an audio or video signal and translates it into electronic pulses (the human voice being transmitted over the phone, for instance). Analog phones use technology that translates audio or video signals into electronic pulses; digital phones use technology that translates audio or video signals into binary code. 2. Analog phones have a substantially higher sound quality; digital phones have a slightly clearer sound.", "Analog at a glance. As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (in most cases, the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of 1s and 0s. Let's say you connect your home analog phone to your office's digital line. When you lift the receiver, the phone tries to draw an electrical current to operate. Typically this is regulated by the phone company's central office.", "In 1983, the analog cell phone standard called AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) was approved by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and first used in Chicago. AMPS uses a range of frequencies between 824 megahertz (MHz) and 894 MHz for analog cell phones. ", "Motorola DynaTAC 8000X TACS mobile phone. Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is an analog mobile cell phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas on October 13, 1983, Israel in 1986, Australia in 1987, and Pakistan in 1990. It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s. As of February 18, 2008, carriers in the United States were no longer required to support AMPS and companies such as AT&T and Verizon have discontinued this service permanently.", "Analog Phone System vs. Digital Phone System. This is a great time to purchase a new business telephone system, with more options and available features than ever before. Many buyers start by choosing between an analog and digital phone system. Finding the right combination of features and capabilities to meet your business needs requires a basic understanding of the technical and functional differences between both types of systems", "What is an analog telephone line? A simple analog telephone line is a voice circuit historically made from copper wire that runs from your local phone company's Central Office (C.O.) building to your business location. The central office houses telephone switching equipment that connects you to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Analog telephone lines transmit voice as electrical signals. When you speak into the handset of your phone, the microphone converts the sound waves into analog electrical waves. These waves propagate over the telephone line to their destination." ], "url": [ "http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/analog", "http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-analog-and-digital-phones/", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_telephone_adapter", "http://telecom.hellodirect.com/docs/Tutorials/AnalogVsDigital.1.051501.asp", "http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-analog-and-digital-phones/", "http://telecom.hellodirect.com/docs/Tutorials/AnalogVsDigital.1.051501.asp", "http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cell-phone4.htm", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Mobile_Phone_System", "https://www.shoretel.com/analog-phone-system-vs-digital-phone-system", "http://www.metrolinedirect.com/what-is-an-analog-telephone-line.html" ] }
what is a mobile analog phone
19,735
description
[]
[ "Homologous" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ ". Primitive trait: same as plesiomorphy; a character that is present in the common ancestor of a clade; a primitive trait is inferred to be the original character state of that character within the clade under consideration; compare to derived trait. Process cladism: see Phylogenetic Systematics. Evolutionary Systematics is based on identifying and determining the traits of an ancestral species or, more usually, supra-specific taxa. Cladistics rejects the possibity of knowing the actual common ancestor, and instead posits a hypothetical common ancestor.", "1 A homoplasy is a shared trait found among different taxa but inferred to have been independently derived and not to have occurred in their common ancestor (i.e., a trait considered to be the same emerged in different taxa independently of each other). 2 An example of this is homeothermy in birds and mammals. Simplicity is often secondarily derived. For example, the absence of mitochondria in the anaerobic protist Entamoeba histolytica is a result of their secondary loss, and when considered in the context of eukaryotes as a whole, is a derived trait.", "Primitive trait: same as plesiomorphy; a character that is present in the common ancestor of a clade; a primitive trait is inferred to be the original character state of that character within the clade under consideration; compare to derived trait. Evolutionary Systematics is based on identifying and determining the traits of an ancestral species or, more usually, supra-specific taxa. Cladistics rejects the possibity of knowing the actual common ancestor, and instead posits a hypothetical common ancestor.", "D. derived characters. E. novel characters. 12. Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be ______________ characteristics. A. homologous B. homoplastic C. adaptive D. derived E. ancestral 13. One day after a biology class four of your friends argue about the difference between phylogeny and systematics.", "1 This trait is a derived character-state (in relation to poikilothermy, the character-state inferred to have been that of the last common ancestor of both groups), which therefore is hypothesized to have evolved independently in these two groups (or at least in the larger clades to which these groups belong). Simplicity is often secondarily derived. For example, the absence of mitochondria in the anaerobic protist Entamoeba histolytica is a result of their secondary loss, and when considered in the context of eukaryotes as a whole, is a derived trait.", "Primitive traits are those inherited from distant ancestors. Derived traits are those that just appeared (by mutation) in the most recent ancestor -- the one that gave rise to a newly formed branch. Of course, what's primitive or derived is relative to what branch an organism is on. Now let's compare traits on the lamprey-dolphin-shark-wolf branch. ", "Derived characters are used to infer evolutionary relationships, as derived characters evolved after primitive characters. In comparing humans and apes, it can be said that an upright stance in humans is a derived character. diversity -- Term used to describe numbers of taxa, or variation in morphology. ", "Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or function, but that were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups. The cladistic term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy, from Greek for same form. The recurrent evolution of flight is a classic example of convergent evolution. Functionally similar features arising through convergent evolution are termed analogous, in contrast to homologous structures or traits, which have a common origin, but not necessarily similar function.", "I want to ask my audience this question... Traits that are derived from a common ancestor, like similarity in the bones of human arms and bird wings, are said to be ______. Poll responses are kept private. Poll Everywhere lets your audience respond using text messages (SMS), Twitter, or the web in real-time. The best part is you can embed live audience responses and live charts right inside your Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, free!", "Whether or not a trait is considered derived depends on the group in question. For example, among the (crown group) tetrapods, having five fingers is the primitive trait-as their last common ancestor bore a five-digit hand. Simplicity is often secondarily derived. For example, the absence of mitochondria in the anaerobic protist Entamoeba histolytica is a result of their secondary loss, and when considered in the context of eukaryotes as a whole, is a derived trait." ], "url": [ "http://palaeos.com/phylogeny/glossary.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synapomorphy", "http://palaeos.com/phylogeny/glossary.html", "http://www.sps186.org/downloads/basic/230787/ch023.pdf", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synapomorphy", "http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/family/page04.html", "http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/glossary_1.html", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_evolution", "http://www.polleverywhere.com/polls/4023085-traits-that-are-derived-from-a-common-ancestor-like-similarity-in-t", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synapomorphy" ] }
traits that are derived from a common ancestor are said to be
19,736
description
[]
[ "$15,000 and $40,000" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "System Costs. As mentioned in the introduction, residential solar systems are typically sized from 3 to 8kW and end up costing somewhere between $15,000 and $40,000. In this section, we will look at the costs of the various components of a solar system (not installation or operational costs). Solar Panels. The solar panels themselves usually account for about 30% of total costs. Residential solar panels with a combined capacity of 3-8kW typically cost between $4,000-$16,000. The best solar panels are not necessarily the most expensive.", "Free consultation. Schedule a free consultation with one of our knowledgeable consultants to learn about the price of a solar panel system for your home and how much you can save every month on your electricity bills. The initial call will be about 10 minutes. Our residential solar power systems are custom designed for your home. Getting a solar panel system price estimate is easy: you can start with a quick online quote, talk with one of our friendly consultants or request a free consultation and written proposal.", "A typical residential solar PV panel system in the U.S. costs $3.60/watt after installation, and the solar panels typically save the customer over $20,000 (net) over the course of 20 years. Learn more about the many advantages of solar energy. ", "The bulk of the price of going solar is now the “soft costs” (installation, permitting, etc.) rather than the solar panel cost. Again referencing the latest US Solar Market Insight report, the average installed cost of a residential solar panel system was $4.72/watt. However, prices vary tremendously by region. “Common residential system prices ranged from less than $3.00/W to just above $7.00/W,” the Solar Energy Industries Association writes. The total price of a system, of course, varies tremendously based on the size of your roof and your electricity needs. I got a quote for my 2,000 square foot house in the Dallas area and it was $85,000 installed. Financed over 30 years that comes out to $509/month. My electric bill is about $140/month on average. So over 30 years solar would cost over $100,000 more than electricity from the grid (gas, coal, wind).", "The cost of home solar panels depends on the size of the system that you need. As of June 2011, one company offered a medium-sized system capable of generating 480 KWh per month for approximately $9,000 before the state rebates and tax incentives. You also must factor in the cost of labor to determine the cost of residential solar panels. How much the installation of the system will cost depends on the size of the panels and your home. In some cases, installation can double the cost of the system. Call local contractors who are experienced with installing solar panels for an estimate", "Once these were factored in, the actual cost of the system was around $6,000 plus the cost of installation. The current federal tax credit is 30 percent of the cost of home solar panels. You will receive that back as a refund on your next year’s taxes. You also must factor in the cost of labor to determine the cost of residential solar panels. How much the installation of the system will cost depends on the size of the panels and your home. In some cases, installation can double the cost of the system. Call local contractors who are experienced with installing solar panels for an estimate", "Figuring out exactly how much your solar system will cost can take a little detective work. Electricity rates vary, and each state has different rebates that may affect the overall price of your system. The average system costs a little over $10,000. When we installed solar, the value of our home was increased by more than the cost of the system. We know that electricity prices will continue to climb, but not for us! - Ellen, Wholesale Solar Employee-Owner.", "With Wholesale Solar’s current pricing (Jan. 2015), a medium sized gridtie system that generates about 815 kWh a month would cost about $10,500 BEFORE the 30% federal tax credit and rebates offered by your state or utility company. When we installed solar, the value of our home was increased by more than the cost of the system. We know that electricity prices will continue to climb, but not for us! - Ellen, Wholesale Solar Employee-Owner." ], "url": [ "http://energyinformative.org/solar-panels-cost/", "http://www.solarcity.com/residential/solar-panel-prices", "http://costofsolar.com/", "http://cleantechnica.com/2014/02/04/current-cost-solar-panels/", "http://www.residentialsolarpanels.org/install-solar-powered-panels", "http://www.residentialsolarpanels.org/install-solar-powered-panels", "http://www.wholesalesolar.com/solar-information/solar-cost", "http://www.wholesalesolar.com/solar-information/solar-cost" ] }
residential solar cost
19,737
numeric
[]
[ "5 percent of the unpaid taxes for each month" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "1 The late filing penalty is 5% of the additional taxes owed amount for every month (or fraction thereof) your return is late, up to a maximum of 25%. 2 If you file more than 60 days after the due date, the minimum penalty is $135 or 100% of your unpaid tax, whichever is smaller.", "Late Filing Penalty. You need to file your federal income tax return by the due date, or at least request an extension. Otherwise, the IRS automatically assesses a late-filing penalty, usually 5 percent of the amount of unpaid taxes, for every month or part of a month that you are late, up to 25 percent.", "The IRS assesses a late-payment penalty if you do not pay 90 percent or more of your unpaid tax by April 15, even if you file Form 4868. For example, let's say you owe $5,000 in taxes: If you don't pay at least $4,500 when you file Form 4868, the IRS will assess a late-payment penalty.", "1 Minimum late filing penalty. 2 If you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty for late filing is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax. 3 Penalty for late payment. 4 The failure-to-pay penalty is generally 0.5 percent per month of your unpaid taxes.", "1 It will not exceed 25 percent of your unpaid taxes. 2 Minimum late filing penalty. 3 If you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty for late filing is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax. 4 Penalty for late payment.", "1 The penalty for filing late is normally 5 percent of the unpaid taxes for each month or part of a month that a tax return is late. 2 That penalty starts accruing the day after the tax filing due date and will not exceed 25 percent of your unpaid taxes.", "Even if you file a return, you will incur a late payment penalty if the full amount of tax owed is not paid on time. This penalty is 0.5% of your unpaid tax; charged each month (or part of a month) that your tax is overdue, up to a maximum of 25%.", "If you file your tax return on time and apply for an installment agreement, the IRS reduces your late-payment penalty to 0.25 percent per month. $5,000 x 0.0025 = $12.50 per month. If you do not apply for the filing extension, the late-filing payment fee is 4.5 percent of the unpaid tax per month up to five months. $5,000 x 0.045 = $225 per month. In addition to late-payment penalties, any tax you owe after April 15 will accrue interest." ], "url": [ "https://ttlc.intuit.com/questions/2547642-what-s-the-irs-penalty-for-filing-late", "http://budgeting.thenest.com/irs-late-fees-penalties-26152.html", "http://money.howstuffworks.com/personal-finance/personal-income-taxes/filing-tax-extensions2.htm", "https://www.irs.gov/uac/what-to-know-about-late-filing-and-late-paying-penalties", "https://www.irs.gov/uac/what-to-know-about-late-filing-and-late-paying-penalties", "https://www.irs.gov/uac/newsroom/eight-facts-on-late-filing-and-late-payment-penalties", "http://www.taxextension.com/resources/irs-interest-late-fees-and-penalties", "http://money.howstuffworks.com/personal-finance/personal-income-taxes/filing-tax-extensions2.htm" ] }
irs late penalty fees
19,738
numeric
[]
[ "In the quadratic formula, the expression under the square root sign, b 2 – 4 ac, is called the discriminant." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Polynomial Discriminant. A polynomial discriminant is the product of the squares of the differences of the polynomial roots. The discriminant of a polynomial is defined only up to constant factor, and several slightly different normalizations can be used.", "Then the answer is: x = –1.24, x = 3.24, rounded to two places. For reference, here's what the graph looks like: There is a connection between the solutions from the Quadratic Formula and the graph of the parabola: you can tell how many x-intercepts you're going to have from the value inside the square root.", "Standard Form. The Standard Form of a Quadratic Equation looks like this: 1 a, b and c are known values. a can't be 0. 2 x is the variable or unknown (we don't know it yet). ", "Definition of Discriminant. The Discriminant of an equation gives an idea of the number of roots and the nature of roots of the equation. If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 is a quadratic equation, then the Discriminant of the equation, i.e. D = b 2 - 4ac. ", "Introduction. You can solve any quadratic equation by completing the square—rewriting part of the equation as a perfect square trinomial. If you complete the square on the generic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 and then solve for x, you find that. ", "Quadratic Formula Calculator & Solver. Calculator for solutions to any Quadratic equation. The calculator uses the quadratic formula to find solutions to any quadratic equation. The formula is: The quadratic formula calculator below will solve any quadratic equation that you type in.", "The Discriminant. In the quadratic formula, the expression under the square root sign, b 2 – 4 ac, is called the discriminant. The sign of the discriminant can be used to find the number of solutions of the corresponding quadratic equation, ax 2 + bx + c = 0. If the discriminant b 2 – 4 ac is negative, then there are no real solutions of the equation. If the discriminant is positive, then the ± symbol means you get two answers. The solutions of this equation correspond to the x-intercepts of the parabola. y = ax 2 + bx + c. So, you can also use the discriminant to find the number of x-intercepts of a parabola.", "If the discriminant is zero, there is only one solution. If the discriminant is positive, then the ± symbol means you get two answers. The solutions of this equation correspond to the x-intercepts of the parabola. y = ax 2 + bx + c. So, you can also use the discriminant to find the number of x-intercepts of a parabola.", "ADVERTISEMENT. Probably the most important thing to remember when using the Quadratic Formula (other than the Formula itself, which you should memorize) is that you must do each step clearly and completely, so you don't lose your denominators or plus-minuses or square roots. ", "Because the quadratic equation involves only one unknown, it is called univariate . The quadratic equation only contains powers of x that are non-negative integers, and therefore it is a polynomial equation, and in particular it is a second degree polynomial equation since the greatest power is two. " ], "url": [ "http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PolynomialDiscriminant.html", "http://www.purplemath.com/modules/quadform2.htm", "http://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/quadratic-equation.html", "http://www.icoachmath.com/math_dictionary/discriminant.html", "http://www.montereyinstitute.org/courses/DevelopmentalMath/COURSE_TEXT2_RESOURCE/U16_L5_T2_text_final.html", "http://www.mathwarehouse.com/quadratic/quadratic-formula-calculator.php", "http://hotmath.com/hotmath_help/topics/discriminant.html", "http://hotmath.com/hotmath_help/topics/discriminant.html", "http://www.purplemath.com/modules/quadform3.htm", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratic_equation" ] }
what is the discriminant of an equation
19,739
description
[]
[ "Festive party" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "In English, the name Gayla means-festive party.The name Gayla originated as an English name. The name Gayla is most often used as a girl name or female name. Meaning of Gayla. English name. In English, the name Gayla means-festive party.The name Gayla originated as an English name. The name Gayla is most often used as a girl name or female name. English Name Meaning-festive party.", "Gayla /gay-la/ [2 sylls.] as a name for girls is of Hebrew and English derivation, and the name Gayla means father of exaltation. Gayla is an alternate spelling of Gail (Hebrew): short variant of Abigail. Gayla is also a derivative of Gayle (English). Kreatif forms: Gaella, Gayma, Gayta. (2000 U.S. Census). Displayed below is the birth name popularity of Gayla for girls. Gayla was first listed in 1940-1949 and reached its highest position of #493 in the U.S. during 1950-1959, but is not found in the list currently.", "English Meaning: The name Gayla is an English baby name. In English the meaning of the name Gayla is: Festive party. American Meaning: The name Gayla is an American baby name. In American the meaning of the name Gayla is: Festive party. SoulUrge Number: 2. Expression Number: 1. People with this name have a deep inner desire for love and companionship, and want to work with others to achieve peace and harmony.", "The name Gayla has the following meaning: My father's joy. An elaborated form of Gail, in turn a variant of Abigail. Also a variant of the French name Gala, meaning merry maker. The following names are baby names related to Gayla and are suitable names for brothers and sisters of Gayla: Boys-Amon, Areli, Asher, Elzie, Enoch, Jadon, Javon, Joel, Raphael, Girls-Anais, Derora, Diza, Mikaila, Ona, Yadira, Both genders-Jesse.", "As a baby girl name, Gayla is currently not a popular baby name in the USA. The following chart shows the popularity of the name Gayla in the USA, over the past 100 years. USA baby name statistics. You'll need the Adobe Flash Player and a browser with JavaScript enabled to see all baby name popularity charts. The following names are baby names related to Gayla and are suitable names for brothers and sisters of Gayla: Boys-Amon, Areli, Asher, Elzie, Enoch, Jadon, Javon, Joel, Raphael, Girls-Anais, Derora, Diza, Mikaila, Ona, Yadira, Both genders-Jesse.", "[ syll. gay-la, ga-yla ] The baby girl name Gayla is pronounced G EY-LAH †. Gayla is of Old Norse and English origin. It is used mainly in English. Gayla is a variation of Gail (English). Gayla is also a variation of Gala (Scandinavian, Hebrew, Russian, and Slavic). Gayla is also a variation of Gay (English). Gayla is rare as a baby girl name. At the modest peak of its usage in 1954, 0.031% of baby girls were named Gayla. ", "Meaning of Gayla: This is a modern variant of the name Gail, which is a variant of the name Abigail, which is derived from the Hebrew name Avigail (joy of the father). Origin and meaning of Gayla. 3 5. The meaning of Gayla is Joy of the Father . Its origin is Variant of the name Gail . Gayla is a form of Gail and is generally pronounced like GAY lah and GALE ah . This name is mostly being used as a girls name", "Gayla is a very prominent first name for females (#1027 out of 4276, Top 24%) but an unusual surname for both adults and children. (2000 U.S. Census). Displayed below is the birth name popularity of Gayla for girls. Gayla was first listed in 1940-1949 and reached its highest position of #493 in the U.S. during 1950-1959, but is not found in the list currently." ], "url": [ "http://www.meaning-of-names.com/english-names/gayla.asp", "http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Gayla", "http://www.sheknows.com/baby-names/name/gayla", "http://www.quickbabynames.com/meaning-of-Gayla.html", "http://www.quickbabynames.com/meaning-of-Gayla.html", "http://www.babynamespedia.com/meaning/Gayla", "http://www.ebabynames.com/#!meaning-of-Gayla", "http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Gayla" ] }
gayla name meaning
19,740
description
[]
[ "Foxes, cats and birds.", "A possum (plural form: possums) is any of about 70 small-to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi (and introduced to New Zealand and China)." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Confidence votes 242K. Passionate about all things Australian. Possums and opossums are mammals, specifically marsupials, as their young develop in the pouch. Possums are native to Australia, New Guinea and Sulawesi, whilst opossums are native to North America. They are quite different animals. ", "When an opossum is playing possum, the animal's lips are drawn back, the teeth are bared, saliva foams around the mouth, the eyes close or half-close, and a foul-smelling fluid is secreted from the anal glands. Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails. Like all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, and the females have a pouch. The tail and parts of the feet bear scutes. The stomach is simple, with a small cecum.", "The opossum is a medium-sized animal that is found inhabiting farmland and forested areas of North America. The opossum is thought to have evolved from the basic marsupials that lived in the jungles of South America. The opossum is often referred to as a possum, although there is no direct link between the possums of Australia and the opossum of America. The opossum is the only species of marsupial that is found outside of Australia an it's surrounding islands. The opossum is found inhabiting areas of grassland, farmland and woodland in", "Foxes, cats and birds of prey are the main predators of the possum but other animals such as Tasmanian devils, dogs, dingos and snakes also prey on the possum. The possum is a very solitary animal, and possum individuals only really come together to mate. The pygmy possum is the smallest species of possum in the world, growing to just 10cm tall, where the brushtail possum can reach more than a meter in height.", "There are more than 60 different species of opossum, which are often called possums. The most notable is the Virginia opossum or common opossum—the only marsupial (pouched mammal) found in the United States and Canada. A female opossum gives birth to helpless young as tiny as honeybees. ", "Possums are quadrupedal diprotodont marsupials with long tails. The smallest possum, indeed the smallest diprotodont marsupial, is the Tasmanian pygmy possum, with an adult head-body length of 70 mm (2 3⁄4 in) and a weight of 10 g (3⁄8 oz). The common brushtail possum was introduced to New Zealand by European settlers in an attempt to establish a fur industry. There are no native predators of the possum in New Zealand, so its numbers in New Zealand have risen to the point where it is considered a serious pest.", "The possum is a medium-sized marsupial that is natively found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Sulawesi, which is a tropical island found in the Indonesian Archipelago. Today the possum has also been introduced to New Zealand and parts of China. The pygmy possum is the smallest species of possum in the world, growing to just 10cm tall, where the brushtail possum can reach more than a meter in height.", "A possum (plural form: possums) is any of about 70 small-to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi (and introduced to New Zealand and China). The common brushtail possum was introduced to New Zealand by European settlers in an attempt to establish a fur industry. There are no native predators of the possum in New Zealand, so its numbers in New Zealand have risen to the point where it is considered a serious pest.", "Possums have long prehensile tails, which are naked on the underside which gives the possum more grip when it is in the trees. Possums also have sharp claws which enable them to climb up tree trunks more easily. Possums are omnivorous animals so possums naturally eat a variety of both plants and other animals. The pygmy possum is the smallest species of possum in the world, growing to just 10cm tall, where the brushtail possum can reach more than a meter in height." ], "url": [ "http://www.answers.com/Q/What_type_of_animal_is_a_possum", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opossum", "http://a-z-animals.com/animals/opossum/", "http://a-z-animals.com/animals/possum/", "http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/opossum/", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Possum", "http://a-z-animals.com/animals/possum/", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Possum", "http://a-z-animals.com/animals/possum/" ] }
what animal is a possum
19,741
entity
[]
[ "It is basically of two types aerobic and anaerobic which may be obligate or facultative." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "Bacterial infections may develop after a viral illness such as a cold or the flu. Bacterial infections may affect the upper or lower respiratory system, and symptoms tend to localize to one area. The most common sites of bacterial infections in the upper respiratory system are the sinuses and throat. Pneumonia is the most common bacterial infection of the lower respiratory system. Antibiotics are effective against bacterial infections only after they have developed, so most doctors do not prescribe them until a bacterial infection is suspected or confirmed", "In many cases, the chemical process of respiration requires oxygen, although some organisms are able to carry out respiration in the absence of oxygen. This page will explain the three types of respiration found in microorganisms, as well as how these types of respiration affect the wastewater treatment plant. Aerobic Respiration. Aerobic respiration is respiration in the presence of oxygen. Most multicellular organisms and many microorganisms produce their energy using aerobic respiration. In aerobic respiration, sugars are broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Without oxygen, aerobic microorganisms are unable to produce energy and quickly die", "Bacterial pneumonia. This type is caused by various bacteria, the most common of which is streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). It usually occurs when the body is weakened in some way, such as by illness, malnutrition, old age, or impaired immunity, and the bacteria are able to work their way into the lungs. ", "Some species of bacteria go through the process of cellular respiration. This is a more complex process that doesn t need oxygen, and the energy of the organic molecules is more efficient in the creation of ATP. Carbon dioxide and water are the byproducts most usually produced. To get energy from molecules such as sugars, bacteria must use fermentation or cellular respiration. These are processes that use the energy in the molecules to make adenosine triphosphate, known as ATP.", "Anaerobic bacteria basically mean bacteria that respire anaerobically. All living cells need to respire in order to release energy for vital cell activities. Anaerobic respiration is respiration in the absence of oxygen, hence anaerobic bacteria does not breathe at all. The purpose of respiration is to provide the cell with the appropriate molecules for creating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP Many types of bacteria respire anaerobically. In other words, they can go through the process of respiration without oxygen present. ", "The respiration in bacteria is basically of two types aerobic and anaerobic which may be obligate or facultative. They are further classified as: Obligate aerobes: These are strict aerobes that mean they always require oxygen for their survival. They are not able to withstand anaerobic conditions. ", "Aerobically respiring forms of bacteria require oxygen to live. They utilize oxygen as fuel to help burn energy and provide them with the energy needed for life. This type of bacterial respiration is the same kind that human beings use, hence the term aerobic exercise.. The major byproduct of aerobic respiration from bacteria is carbon dioxide. Other forms, such as the bacteria that causes the Bubonic Plague, can kill a person if left untreated. There are many different types of bacteria and they respire using different methods. The two primary methods of bacterial respiration are aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.", "Respiration is a process by which organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats (or) organic acids are degraded to release energy. It is a catabolic process. All living organisms require a continuous supply of energy for carrying out various functions of the body related to growth, development and movement. • Mitochondria is the seat of cellular respiration. • Energy is stored in the form of ATP in cells. • Glycolysis is also called as EMP pathway. • Formation of ATP during electron trasnsport chain is called oxidative phosphorylation.", "Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. In the final stage of respiration, ATP is formed through a series of electron transfer reactions within the cytoplasmic membrane that drive the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. Bacteria use various flavins, cytochrome, and non-heme iron components as well as multiple cytochrome oxidases for this process. ", "Quick Fact: With the exception of the ribosomes, prokaryotes lack organelles. To get energy from molecules such as sugars, bacteria must use fermentation or cellular respiration. These are processes that use the energy in the molecules to make adenosine triphosphate, known as ATP. This is used for growth, movement, temperature regulation, and many other processes that require energy" ], "url": [ "http://www.webmd.com/lung/bacterial-or-viral-infections-of-the-respiratory-tract", "http://www.ehelp.com/questions/10437119/list-and-explain-the-three-types-of-respiration-found-in-bacteria", "http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/respiratory_disorders/pneumonia_85,P01321/", "http://www.cbv.ns.ca/mchs/diversity/Respiration.html", "http://www.studymode.com/essays/Anaerobic-Respiration-In-Bacteria-1180985.html", "http://www.thebigger.com/biology/monera/explain-the-respiration-process-in-bacteria/", "http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4565280_bacteria-respire.html", "http://www.tutornext.com/science/respiration.html", "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7919/", "http://www.cbv.ns.ca/mchs/diversity/Respiration.html" ] }
types of bacterial respiration
19,742
description
[]
[ "Monocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes)." ]
{ "is_selected": [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "3D Rendering of a Monocyte. Monocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes). They are the largest of all leukocytes. They are part of the innate immune system of vertebrates including all mammals (humans included), birds, reptiles, and fish. Monocytes which migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues will then differentiate into tissue resident macrophages or dendritic cells. Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances, but are also suspected to be important in the formation of important organs like the heart and brain.", "Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from precursors called monoblasts, bipotent cells that differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three days and then typically move into tissues throughout the body. Monocytes which migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues will then differentiate into tissue resident macrophages or dendritic cells. Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances, but are also suspected to be important in the formation of important organs like the heart and brain.", "Report Abuse. A high level of monocytes could mean a number of things. They're a type of phagocyte-a type of cell found in your blood that 'eats' many types of attacking bacteria and other microorganisms when it matures. High levels could mean that you have an infection as more develop to fight it. ", "Our immune system has a key component called the white blood cells, of which there are several different kinds. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights off bacteria, viruses and fungi. Monocytes are the biggest type of white blood cell in the immune system. Originally formed in the bone marrow, they are released into our blood and tissues. When certain germs enter the body, they quickly rush to the site for attack. ", "Monocyte. Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from stem cell precursors called monoblasts. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three days and then typically move into tissues throughout the body. They make up three to eight percent of the leukocytes in the blood. Monocyte under a light microscope (40x) from a peripheral blood smear surrounded by red blood cells. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell, part of the human body 's immune system. They are usually identified in stained smears by their large two-lobed nucleus.", "A monocyte (pictured below) is a large type of white blood cell with one large, smooth, well-defined, indented, slightly folded, oval, kidney-shaped, or notched nucleus (the cell s control center). White blood cells help protect the body against diseases and fight infections. ", "Monocytes are white blood cells that are common to the blood of all vertebrates and they help the immune system to function properly. There are a number of reasons for a high monocyte count, which can also be called monocytosis. Some of the reasons can include stress, viral fevers, inflammation and organ necrosis. A physician may order a monocyte blood count test to check for raised levels of monocytes. There are a number of reasons for this test, from a simple health check up to people suffering from heart attacks and leukemia. Complications with the blood and cancer are two other reasons that this test may be performed.", "Monocytes are considered the largest white blood cell. These cells are part of the innate immune system. Monocytes also play important roles in the immune function of the body. These cells are often found when doing a stained smear and appear large kidney shaped. Many of these re found in the spleen area. ", "This is taken directly from-http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-monocytes.htm#. Monocytes are a type of leukocyte or white blood cell which play a role in immune system function. Depending on a patient's level of health, monocytes make up between one and three percent of the total white blood cells in the body. For example, if monocytes are elevated because of an inflammation caused by a viral infection, the patient would be given medication to kill the virus and bring down the inflammation. Typically, when a monocyte count is requested, the lab will also run other tests on the blood to generate a complete picture." ], "url": [ "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocyte", "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocyte", "https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090212105109AAhP5ZS", "http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-monocytes-definition-function-blood-test.html", "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocyte", "http://www.medfriendly.com/monocyte.html", "http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-causes-a-high-monocyte-count.htm", "http://www.justanswer.com/topics-monocytes/", "http://www.medhelp.org/posts/Undiagnosed-Symptoms/High-monocyte-levels-in-blood-test/show/1812502" ] }
what are monocytes
19,743
description
[]
[ "$50 and $200" ]
{ "is_selected": [ 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ], "passage_text": [ "1 Some decorators work for free; they're earning commissions from merchants and may steer you to the highest priced products. 2 Others charge a fixed fee, of $500-$10,000 or more depending on location and reputation. 3 Hourly rates can be $35-$500, again based", "The cost of hiring an interior designer varies greatly. Most charge per hour, with the current market rate between $50 and $200 per hour. You would pay this in addition to the cost of furniture, accessories, artwork, etc. Some interior designers charge their clients by marking up the decor they choose.", "If the interior decorator charges for his services by the hour, the hourly rate may range between $50 and $200 per hour depending on the square footage of the space and the amount of work needed to complete the job.", "Interior Decorators usually cost less than Interior Designers as they are not certified professional designers with a degree and/or education in design. Decorators are not the same as Designers. Decorators will charge between $50 - $85 an hour depending on their location.", "This eliminates you paying an unknown amount when all is said and done. The cost of hiring an interior designer varies greatly. Most charge per hour, with the current market rate between $50 and $200 per hour. You would pay this in addition to the cost of furniture, accessories, artwork, etc. Some interior designers charge their clients by marking up the decor they choose.", "On average nationally, hiring an interior decorator or designer costs $7,125, with most homeowners spending between $5,544 and $8,706. If you decide to hire a professional for decorating your house, make sure you know the right kind of one that you need.", "1 On the other end of the spectrum are premiere interior decorating companies who might charge $400 to $500 per hour or more. 2 Flat fee: some interior design decorators charge a pre-determined rate for certain services.", "It depends on the interior decorator or interior designer and yes there is a difference! For newer designers fees usually start around $75 per hour. More established designers charge $100+ per hour depending on expertise and location. Sometimes the designers decided to choose a flat (fixed fee or Cost Plus." ], "url": [ "http://home.costhelper.com/interior-decorator.html", "http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/1019319/the-cost-of-hiring-an-interior-designer-is-it-worth-it", "http://budgeting.thenest.com/much-interior-decorators-cost-24932.html", "http://www.remodelqa.com/decor-interior-design/543/how-much-does-an-interior-decorator-cost", "http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/1019319/the-cost-of-hiring-an-interior-designer-is-it-worth-it", "http://www.homeadvisor.com/cost/home-design-and-decor/hire-an-interior-decorator-or-designer/", "http://costowl.com/home-improvement/design-interior-decorator-cost.html", "http://www.remodelqa.com/decor-interior-design/543/how-much-does-an-interior-decorator-cost" ] }
interior decorator cost per hour
19,744
numeric
[]

Dataset Card for "ms_marco"

Dataset Summary

Starting with a paper released at NIPS 2016, MS MARCO is a collection of datasets focused on deep learning in search.

The first dataset was a question answering dataset featuring 100,000 real Bing questions and a human generated answer. Since then we released a 1,000,000 question dataset, a natural langauge generation dataset, a passage ranking dataset, keyphrase extraction dataset, crawling dataset, and a conversational search.

There have been 277 submissions. 20 KeyPhrase Extraction submissions, 87 passage ranking submissions, 0 document ranking submissions, 73 QnA V2 submissions, 82 NLGEN submisions, and 15 QnA V1 submissions

This data comes in three tasks/forms: Original QnA dataset(v1.1), Question Answering(v2.1), Natural Language Generation(v2.1).

The original question answering datset featured 100,000 examples and was released in 2016. Leaderboard is now closed but data is availible below.

The current competitive tasks are Question Answering and Natural Language Generation. Question Answering features over 1,000,000 queries and is much like the original QnA dataset but bigger and with higher quality. The Natural Language Generation dataset features 180,000 examples and builds upon the QnA dataset to deliver answers that could be spoken by a smart speaker.

version v1.1

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

v1.1

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 168.69 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 434.61 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 603.31 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.


v2.1

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 1.38 GB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 4.29 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 5.67 GB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.


Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

v1.1

  • answers: a list of string features.
  • passages: a dictionary feature containing:
    • is_selected: a int32 feature.
    • passage_text: a string feature.
    • url: a string feature.
  • query: a string feature.
  • query_id: a int32 feature.
  • query_type: a string feature.
  • wellFormedAnswers: a list of string features.

v2.1

  • answers: a list of string features.
  • passages: a dictionary feature containing:
    • is_selected: a int32 feature.
    • passage_text: a string feature.
    • url: a string feature.
  • query: a string feature.
  • query_id: a int32 feature.
  • query_type: a string feature.
  • wellFormedAnswers: a list of string features.

Data Splits

name train validation test
v1.1 82326 10047 9650
v2.1 808731 101093 101092

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information


@article{DBLP:journals/corr/NguyenRSGTMD16,
  author    = {Tri Nguyen and
               Mir Rosenberg and
               Xia Song and
               Jianfeng Gao and
               Saurabh Tiwary and
               Rangan Majumder and
               Li Deng},
  title     = {{MS} {MARCO:} {A} Human Generated MAchine Reading COmprehension Dataset},
  journal   = {CoRR},
  volume    = {abs/1611.09268},
  year      = {2016},
  url       = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09268},
  archivePrefix = {arXiv},
  eprint    = {1611.09268},
  timestamp = {Mon, 13 Aug 2018 16:49:03 +0200},
  biburl    = {https://dblp.org/rec/journals/corr/NguyenRSGTMD16.bib},
  bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography, https://dblp.org}
}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @mariamabarham, @thomwolf, @lewtun for adding this dataset.

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Models trained or fine-tuned on ms_marco