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"SQuAD"
"Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary."
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"38cc2597b6624bd8af1e8ba7f693096f"
"To whom did the Virgin Mary allegedly appear in 1858 in Lourdes France?"
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{ "text": [ "Saint Bernadette Soubirous" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 515 ], "end": [ 540 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 102 ], "end": [ 104 ] } ] }
[ "Saint Bernadette Soubirous" ]
"SQuAD"
"Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary."
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"b17a05e67fd14669860a380d66aed5fb"
"What is in front of the Notre Dame Main Building?"
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{ "text": [ "a copper statue of Christ" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 188 ], "end": [ 212 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 37 ], "end": [ 41 ] } ] }
[ "a copper statue of Christ" ]
"SQuAD"
"Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary."
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"80a511ed750842d08ecdfaaaa257d95f"
"The Basilica of the Sacred heart at Notre Dame is beside to which structure?"
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{ "text": [ "the Main Building" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 279 ], "end": [ 295 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 57 ], "end": [ 59 ] } ] }
[ "the Main Building" ]
"SQuAD"
"Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary."
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"913477b8e7f84432a16e1594219815e5"
"What is the Grotto at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "a Marian place of prayer and reflection" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 381 ], "end": [ 419 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 76 ], "end": [ 82 ] } ] }
[ "a Marian place of prayer and reflection" ]
"SQuAD"
"Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary."
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"1c969af40a3248eb87a6d8c9c7c8d4ad"
"What sits on top of the Main Building at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "a golden statue of the Virgin Mary" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 92 ], "end": [ 125 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 17 ], "end": [ 23 ] } ] }
[ "a golden statue of the Virgin Mary" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching."
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"cdef8f34d6eb46c5b591aa47697f9583"
"Where is the headquarters of the Congregation of the Holy Cross?"
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{ "text": [ "Rome" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 119 ], "end": [ 122 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 22 ], "end": [ 22 ] } ] }
[ "Rome" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching."
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"bb50fb1bf7e14a2b9450298c2fd7dd02"
"What is the primary seminary of the Congregation of the Holy Cross?"
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{ "text": [ "Moreau Seminary" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 145 ], "end": [ 159 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 29 ], "end": [ 30 ] } ] }
[ "Moreau Seminary" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching."
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"5f90062fd311467287d3417e9d16eb3a"
"What is the oldest structure at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Old College" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 234 ], "end": [ 244 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 46 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "Old College" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching."
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"569b661b865643aaa37890831fd231b5"
"What individuals live at Fatima House at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Retired priests and brothers" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 356 ], "end": [ 383 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 68 ], "end": [ 71 ] } ] }
[ "Retired priests and brothers" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching."
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"65cde452a73841a9aeb0cc3e844afce6"
"Which prize did Frederick Buechner create?"
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{ "text": [ "Buechner Prize for Preaching" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 675 ], "end": [ 702 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 125 ], "end": [ 128 ] } ] }
[ "Buechner Prize for Preaching" ]
"SQuAD"
"The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively."
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"83ead65e09334e9ebcc7ccda771bf8e7"
"How many BS level degrees are offered in the College of Engineering at Notre Dame?"
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[ "eight" ]
"SQuAD"
"The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively."
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"55aac6d971f74ee788b641f82ae0635c"
"In what year was the College of Engineering at Notre Dame formed?"
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{ "text": [ "1920" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 46 ], "end": [ 49 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 7 ], "end": [ 7 ] } ] }
[ "1920" ]
"SQuAD"
"The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively."
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"e2dad95c08334554a22b385afe4f7f42"
"Before the creation of the College of Engineering similar studies were carried out at which Notre Dame college?"
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[ "the College of Science" ]
"SQuAD"
"The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively."
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"0e413afa4f65444fa504e75fe6a4cfaa"
"How many departments are within the Stinson-Remick Hall of Engineering?"
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[ "five" ]
"SQuAD"
"The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively."
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"7df04a5b7810494cb11fb97c969f8658"
"The College of Science began to offer civil engineering courses beginning at what time at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "the 1870s" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 163 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 27 ], "end": [ 28 ] } ] }
[ "the 1870s" ]
"SQuAD"
"All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding."
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"ce2e16533d0c433e98323f77e50b7bee"
"What entity provides help with the management of time for new students at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Learning Resource Center" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 496 ], "end": [ 519 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 92 ], "end": [ 94 ] } ] }
[ "Learning Resource Center" ]
"SQuAD"
"All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding."
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"f4d9caf76e9540ae87b455e0b322844d"
"How many colleges for undergraduates are at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "five" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 68 ], "end": [ 71 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 14 ], "end": [ 14 ] } ] }
[ "five" ]
"SQuAD"
"All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding."
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"bf2e0f1a70fd46d683a8dc9d5d457f11"
"What was created at Notre Dame in 1962 to assist first year students?"
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{ "text": [ "The First Year of Studies program" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 187 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 30 ], "end": [ 35 ] } ] }
[ "The First Year of Studies program" ]
"SQuAD"
"All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding."
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"b34ccda5a5614344b620767a6f910ac6"
"Which organization declared the First Year of Studies program at Notre Dame "outstanding?""
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{ "text": [ "U.S. News & World Report" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 647 ], "end": [ 670 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 115 ], "end": [ 119 ] } ] }
[ "U.S. News & World Report" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices."
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"35a15cbeb79b43d2915697c481fce99c"
"What institute at Notre Dame studies the reasons for violent conflict?"
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{ "text": [ "Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 57 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 8 ] } ] }
[ "Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices."
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"eb29a0b93a3d4f1784630bb4d0d9bb26"
"What is the title of Notre Dame's Theodore Hesburgh?"
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{ "text": [ "President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 466 ], "end": [ 515 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 87 ], "end": [ 94 ] } ] }
[ "President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame" ]
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"The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices."
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"bce1db938bca4589a6e39de55cc6709f"
"In what year was the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies founded?"
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{ "text": [ "1986" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 303 ], "end": [ 306 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 54 ], "end": [ 54 ] } ] }
[ "1986" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices."
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"de9b8ac04351420b92dcf9da9960b141"
"To whom was John B. Kroc married?"
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{ "text": [ "Ray Kroc" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 377 ], "end": [ 384 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 70 ] } ] }
[ "Ray Kroc" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices."
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"ee16bb8a915544c29c41399f07ad628a"
"What company did Ray Kroc own?"
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{ "text": [ "McDonald's" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 360 ], "end": [ 369 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 66 ], "end": [ 67 ] } ] }
[ "McDonald's" ]
"SQuAD"
"As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut."
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"8eb43a5278db484c9fa30cfa18650002"
"When did the Scholastic Magazine of Notre dame begin publishing?"
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{ "text": [ "September 1876" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 248 ], "end": [ 261 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 49 ], "end": [ 50 ] } ] }
[ "September 1876" ]
"SQuAD"
"As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut."
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"76ba802f720e4410b40a709ea50fb2b0"
"How often is Notre Dame's the Juggler published?"
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{ "text": [ "twice" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 441 ], "end": [ 445 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 82 ], "end": [ 82 ] } ] }
[ "twice" ]
"SQuAD"
"As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut."
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"4376ab9a6e10470c9b76aaa9af6acfd3"
"What is the daily student paper at Notre Dame called?"
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{ "text": [ "The Observer" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 598 ], "end": [ 609 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 108 ], "end": [ 109 ] } ] }
[ "The Observer" ]
"SQuAD"
"As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut."
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"cb7a57d6053648cbafeca09e2725bc30"
"How many student news papers are found at Notre Dame?"
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[ "three" ]
"SQuAD"
"As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut."
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"9e1012514eca49b1aa051db78deee2bf"
"In what year did the student paper Common Sense begin publication at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "1987" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 908 ], "end": [ 911 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 162 ], "end": [ 162 ] } ] }
[ "1987" ]
"SQuAD"
"The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown."
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"20bfe496576d47c8954ec3d3b3fe256d"
"What is the name of the main library at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Theodore M. Hesburgh Library" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 145 ], "end": [ 172 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 26 ], "end": [ 29 ] } ] }
[ "Theodore M. Hesburgh Library" ]
"SQuAD"
"The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown."
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"ee61155b4eab4e9786df691deed038d2"
"In what year was the Theodore M. Hesburgh Library at Notre Dame finished?"
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[ "1963" ]
"SQuAD"
"The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown."
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"cdc431f163354b5f87dc85f852f1712e"
"Which artist created the mural on the Theodore M. Hesburgh Library?"
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{ "text": [ "Millard Sheets" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 344 ], "end": [ 357 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 64 ], "end": [ 65 ] } ] }
[ "Millard Sheets" ]
"SQuAD"
"The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown."
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"24b7fce8889b4d9bb724f77334035a00"
"What is a common name to reference the mural created by Millard Sheets at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Touchdown Jesus" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 394 ], "end": [ 408 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 74 ], "end": [ 75 ] } ] }
[ "Touchdown Jesus" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years."
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"1519eadb737944148bff177c2bd88572"
"The granting of Doctorate degrees first occurred in what year at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "1924" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 358 ], "end": [ 361 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 69 ] } ] }
[ "1924" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years."
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"0423a09f2f5345cb899f757ea628ef65"
"What type of degree is an M.Div.?"
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{ "text": [ "Master of Divinity" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 624 ], "end": [ 641 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 114 ], "end": [ 116 ] } ] }
[ "Master of Divinity" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years."
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"19a36094b49e4a79a08b89068496643c"
"Which program at Notre Dame offers a Master of Education degree?"
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{ "text": [ "Alliance for Catholic Education" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1163 ], "end": [ 1193 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 207 ], "end": [ 210 ] } ] }
[ "Alliance for Catholic Education" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years."
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"e651e1f1ff424432a7734a6b55609ff8"
"Which department at Notre Dame is the only one to not offer a PhD program?"
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{ "text": [ "Department of Pre-Professional Studies" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 757 ], "end": [ 794 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 141 ], "end": [ 146 ] } ] }
[ "Department of Pre-Professional Studies" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics."
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"3f35e1b728d94ed7bf6af2c67c8d1454"
"In what year did Albert Zahm begin comparing aeronatical models at Notre Dame?"
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[ "1882" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics."
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"5a29b142c6f343ab80cd72ab82d80f3e"
"Which professor sent the first wireless message in the USA?"
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{ "text": [ "Professor Jerome Green" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 136 ], "end": [ 157 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 29 ], "end": [ 31 ] } ] }
[ "Professor Jerome Green" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics."
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"c5ba35720fdf4b58ae8afa123daf69fb"
"In what year did Jerome Green send his first wireless message?"
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[ "Around 1899" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics."
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"8e45af64cc16424ab58edf466f155d8d"
"Which individual worked on projects at Notre Dame that eventually created neoprene?"
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{ "text": [ "Father Julius Nieuwland" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 222 ], "end": [ 244 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 45 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "Father Julius Nieuwland" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics."
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"865060e58d004f8b8df7f42163c30f6b"
"What did the brother of John Zahm construct at Notre Dame?"
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[ "an early wind tunnel" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition."
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"f05b2c535ded4f00b6603d88b7608729"
"Gurian created what in 1939 at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "The Review of Politics" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 21 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 3 ] } ] }
[ "The Review of Politics" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition."
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"e89e9ece175d4c42841ea692268066cb"
"What was the Review of Politics inspired by?"
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{ "text": [ "German Catholic journals" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 68 ], "end": [ 91 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 13 ], "end": [ 15 ] } ] }
[ "German Catholic journals" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition."
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"94fa3f74b90d481b9b73cea8861d4bd9"
"Over how many years did Gurian edit the Review of Politics at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "44" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 233 ], "end": [ 234 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 38 ], "end": [ 38 ] } ] }
[ "44" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition."
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"3d2e3d47f22b4e11bbc89480ca743922"
"Thomas Stritch was an editor of which publican from Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Review of Politics" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 21 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 3 ] } ] }
[ "Review of Politics" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group."
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"d2d8d70442734955bc6eaea1d8f00646"
"Where did U.S. News & World Report rank Notre Dame in its 2015-2016 university rankings?"
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{ "text": [ "18th overall" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 32 ], "end": [ 43 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 8 ], "end": [ 9 ] } ] }
[ "18th overall" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group."
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"d4aa61642ba04c3b895385496de86ebe"
"Forbes.com placed Notre Dame at what position compared to other US research universities?"
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{ "text": [ "8th" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 362 ], "end": [ 364 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 69 ] } ] }
[ "8th" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group."
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"e2655e82c8494d22b717d1e71e1f28cb"
"The undergrad school at the Mendoza College of Business was ranked where according to BusinessWeek?"
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{ "text": [ "1st overall" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 565 ], "end": [ 575 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 104 ], "end": [ 105 ] } ] }
[ "1st overall" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group."
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"2451f6954c6f4945b177610257b11478"
"In 2014 what entity named Notre Dame 10th best of all American universities?"
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{ "text": [ "USA Today" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 163 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 33 ], "end": [ 34 ] } ] }
[ "USA Today" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group."
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"a243976dd0cb4531bdc1c3b5e0d72cc4"
"What percentage of Notre Dame students decide to study abroad?"
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[ "57.6%" ]
"SQuAD"
"Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon."
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"4e38d354d26e4707ad799e7c2a068723"
"What person was the Director of the Science Museum at Notre Dame in the late 19th century?"
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[ "Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C." ]
"SQuAD"
"Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon."
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"cd2d05a8332546a0809becdd0c488d27"
"What was the lifespan of John Augustine Zahm?"
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{ "text": [ "1851–1921" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 353 ], "end": [ 361 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 60 ], "end": [ 60 ] } ] }
[ "1851–1921" ]
"SQuAD"
"Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon."
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"8912254fc0ae4bb7949c8f974d60d9c1"
"What program did John Augustine Zahm come to co-direct at Nore Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "the Science Department" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 406 ], "end": [ 427 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 71 ], "end": [ 73 ] } ] }
[ "the Science Department" ]
"SQuAD"
"Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon."
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"499e37e286254fb592269c87af0b0595"
"What book did John Zahm write in 1896?"
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{ "text": [ "Evolution and Dogma" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 638 ], "end": [ 656 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 109 ], "end": [ 111 ] } ] }
[ "Evolution and Dogma" ]
"SQuAD"
"Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon."
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"c004aab9345341ae8dd54c6220d6231d"
"What professorship did Father Josh Carrier hold at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Professor of Chemistry and Physics" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 85 ], "end": [ 118 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 15 ], "end": [ 19 ] } ] }
[ "Professor of Chemistry and Physics" ]
"SQuAD"
"Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture."
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"99e82b66844545cda435e4d210d46ef0"
"How many incoming students did Notre Dame admit in fall 2015?"
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{ "text": [ "3,577" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 109 ], "end": [ 113 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 18 ], "end": [ 18 ] } ] }
[ "3,577" ]
"SQuAD"
"Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture."
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"8cbbbee3960d40cbac13fb29bebdfb15"
"What percentage of students were admitted to Notre Dame in fall 2015?"
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{ "text": [ "19.7%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 138 ], "end": [ 142 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 25 ], "end": [ 26 ] } ] }
[ "19.7%" ]
"SQuAD"
"Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture."
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"4bfa040fe0fa476db74bb959386d7416"
"Where does Notre Dame rank in terms of academic profile among research universities in the US?"
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{ "text": [ "the top 10 to 15 in the nation" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 213 ], "end": [ 242 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 40 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "the top 10 to 15 in the nation" ]
"SQuAD"
"Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture."
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"9ac77b45bf3648088f2d4208a8557c61"
"What percentage of students at Notre Dame participated in the Early Action program?"
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{ "text": [ "39.1%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 488 ], "end": [ 492 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 90 ], "end": [ 91 ] } ] }
[ "39.1%" ]
"SQuAD"
"Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture."
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"0b1aca0b1bdd4f6e8e2d8f9c5e4ed5c4"
"How many miles does the average student at Notre Dame travel to study there?"
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[ "more than 750 miles" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics."
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"2ced79bf765d412195ec3423261c0ff4"
"Work on a germ-free-life ended up in the creation of which Notre Dame institute?"
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{ "text": [ "The Lobund Institute" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 19 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 2 ] } ] }
[ "The Lobund Institute" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics."
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"108fc941026a46ad86874c25c1448b3d"
"Around what time did Lobund of Notre Dame become independent?"
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{ "text": [ "the 1940s" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 963 ], "end": [ 971 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 174 ], "end": [ 175 ] } ] }
[ "the 1940s" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics."
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"52b30b958ae141a2b70f627bdffebc7a"
"In what year did Lobund at Notre Dame become an Institute?"
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{ "text": [ "1950" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1049 ], "end": [ 1052 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 187 ], "end": [ 187 ] } ] }
[ "1950" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics."
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"294dba6481e241c3bc9b1ada3fe412b9"
"The Lobund Institute was merged into the Department of Biology at Notre Dame in what year?"
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{ "text": [ "1958" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1099 ], "end": [ 1102 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 198 ], "end": [ 198 ] } ] }
[ "1958" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Lobund Institute grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Though others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur's question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master's degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics."
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"183d0f460e71405d805413831f079e44"
"When did study of a germ-free-life begin at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "1928" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 86 ], "end": [ 89 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 17 ], "end": [ 17 ] } ] }
[ "1928" ]
"SQuAD"
"As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns. Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, genome mapping, the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, studies in fluid mechanics, computational science and engineering, and marketing trends on the Internet. As of 2013, the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt."
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"c4073febd4574dd695a31eea58340992"
"Who was the president of Notre Dame in 2012?"
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[ "John Jenkins" ]
"SQuAD"
"As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns. Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, genome mapping, the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, studies in fluid mechanics, computational science and engineering, and marketing trends on the Internet. As of 2013, the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt."
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"e90533456e0d4887b128aaa5db9721e0"
"The Kellogg Institute for International Studies is part of which university?"
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{ "text": [ "Notre Dame" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 118 ], "end": [ 127 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 21 ], "end": [ 22 ] } ] }
[ "Notre Dame" ]
"SQuAD"
"As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns. Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, genome mapping, the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, studies in fluid mechanics, computational science and engineering, and marketing trends on the Internet. As of 2013, the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt."
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"038c287526f04d3a9499ff973ac5f177"
"What does the Kroc Institute at Notre Dame focus on?"
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{ "text": [ "International Peace studies" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 427 ], "end": [ 453 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 74 ], "end": [ 76 ] } ] }
[ "International Peace studies" ]
"SQuAD"
"As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns. Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, genome mapping, the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, studies in fluid mechanics, computational science and engineering, and marketing trends on the Internet. As of 2013, the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt."
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"79f81493b4ee4464985452e084f3025f"
"In what year did Notre Dame begin to host the Global Adaptation Index?"
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[ "2013" ]
"SQuAD"
"As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns. Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, genome mapping, the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, studies in fluid mechanics, computational science and engineering, and marketing trends on the Internet. As of 2013, the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt."
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"fbe49e507ab74290b9f3cd9247faeb2c"
"What threat does the Global Adaptation Index study?"
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{ "text": [ "climate change" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 891 ], "end": [ 904 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 153 ], "end": [ 154 ] } ] }
[ "climate change" ]
"SQuAD"
"About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls. Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms. The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium."
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"73f76301bfee45259898f829a4e78f7a"
"What percentage of undergrads live on the Notre Dame campus?"
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[ "80%" ]
"SQuAD"
"About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls. Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms. The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium."
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"ea85ab3c58ff4c71b2028e0a3bd2b667"
"How many student housing areas are reserved for Notre Dame's graduate students?"
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[ "four" ]
"SQuAD"
"About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls. Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms. The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium."
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"582ef386a2064d9ba5018dda10fa43d1"
"How many dorms for males are on the Notre Dame campus?"
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[ "15" ]
"SQuAD"
"About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls. Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms. The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium."
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"1f75a30cf9e743a6bf998c9535eef7fd"
"What amount of the graduate student body at Notre Dame live on the campus?"
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{ "text": [ "20%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 32 ], "end": [ 34 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 6 ], "end": [ 7 ] } ] }
[ "20%" ]
"SQuAD"
"About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 29 residence halls. Because of the religious affiliation of the university, all residence halls are single-sex, with 15 male dorms and 14 female dorms. The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students' dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender. Many residence halls have at least one nun and/or priest as a resident. There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. Some intramural sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. At the end of the intramural season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium."
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"0aaa354f95e04726a701cbb6564402cb"
"There are how many dorms for females at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "14" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 368 ], "end": [ 369 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 71 ], "end": [ 71 ] } ] }
[ "14" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, M.Ed.) students. Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni, and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. As of March 2007[update] The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest 'dream school' for parents to send their children. As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest. The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity, and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative." It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos, and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students. With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country, while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports." The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year, while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh."
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"72b64abd20a34284b0e98d3e42273ad4"
"How many undergrads were attending Notre Dame in 2014?"
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[ "8,448" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, M.Ed.) students. Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni, and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. As of March 2007[update] The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest 'dream school' for parents to send their children. As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest. The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity, and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative." It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos, and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students. With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country, while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports." The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year, while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh."
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"5e75aca17b314d38bde2b3d8af4d6b00"
"What percentage of students at Notre Dame are the children of former Notre Dame students?"
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{ "text": [ "21–24%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 196 ], "end": [ 201 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 37 ], "end": [ 38 ] } ] }
[ "21–24%" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, M.Ed.) students. Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni, and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. As of March 2007[update] The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest 'dream school' for parents to send their children. As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest. The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity, and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative." It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos, and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students. With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country, while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports." The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year, while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh."
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"c2f70ced3c294f00b11600c7476448de"
"How many teams participate in the Notre Dame Bookstore Basketball tournament?"
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{ "text": [ "over 700" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1446 ], "end": [ 1453 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 262 ], "end": [ 263 ] } ] }
[ "over 700" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, M.Ed.) students. Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni, and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. As of March 2007[update] The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest 'dream school' for parents to send their children. As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest. The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity, and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative." It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos, and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students. With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country, while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports." The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year, while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh."
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"13b1763518064178adbf4b5fc4d279ac"
"For what cause is money raised at the Bengal Bouts tournament at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1588 ], "end": [ 1624 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 287 ], "end": [ 292 ] } ] }
[ "the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh" ]
"SQuAD"
"In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, M.Ed.) students. Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni, and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. As of March 2007[update] The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest 'dream school' for parents to send their children. As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest. The school has been previously criticized for its lack of diversity, and The Princeton Review ranks the university highly among schools at which "Alternative Lifestyles [are] Not an Alternative." It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos, and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students. With 6,000 participants, the university's intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country, while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports." The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year, while the Notre Dame Men's Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh."
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"09437e5e32644322aeff591ef05baee9"
"How many students in total were at Notre Dame in 2014?"
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{ "text": [ "12,179" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 49 ], "end": [ 54 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 9 ], "end": [ 9 ] } ] }
[ "12,179" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: "CSC"). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix. There are many religious clubs (catholic and non-Catholic) at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus."
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"fc62711ede7445a68f8abff8aee7f865"
"What is Congregation of Holy Cross in Latin?"
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{ "text": [ "Congregatio a Sancta Cruce" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 73 ], "end": [ 98 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 13 ], "end": [ 16 ] } ] }
[ "Congregatio a Sancta Cruce" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: "CSC"). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix. There are many religious clubs (catholic and non-Catholic) at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus."
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"c732bcfe9c444b1b9e2d3a19d0a2690e"
"What percentage of Notre Dame students feel they are Christian?"
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{ "text": [ "more than 93%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 197 ], "end": [ 209 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 36 ], "end": [ 39 ] } ] }
[ "more than 93%" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: "CSC"). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix. There are many religious clubs (catholic and non-Catholic) at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus."
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"479ae11b8ffd4831ac6a7f0ffc1d5965"
"How often is Catholic mass held at Notre Dame in a week?"
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{ "text": [ "over 100 times" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 331 ], "end": [ 344 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 62 ], "end": [ 64 ] } ] }
[ "over 100 times" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: "CSC"). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix. There are many religious clubs (catholic and non-Catholic) at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus."
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"5b196f79d4f84f708d70a561cb7504eb"
"How many chapels are on the Notre Dame campus?"
{ "tokens": [ "How", "many", "chapels", "are", "on", "the", "Notre", "Dame", "campus", "?" ], "offsets": [ 0, 4, 9, 17, 21, 24, 28, 34, 39, 45 ] }
{ "text": [ "Fifty-seven" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1237 ], "end": [ 1247 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 234 ], "end": [ 236 ] } ] }
[ "Fifty-seven" ]
"SQuAD"
"The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: "CSC"). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. There are multitudes of religious statues and artwork around campus, most prominent of which are the statue of Mary on the Main Building, the Notre Dame Grotto, and the Word of Life mural on Hesburgh Library depicting Christ as a teacher. Additionally, every classroom displays a crucifix. There are many religious clubs (catholic and non-Catholic) at the school, including Council #1477 of the Knights of Columbus (KOC), Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more. The Notre Dame KofC are known for being the first collegiate council of KofC, operating a charitable concession stand during every home football game and owning their own building on campus which can be used as a cigar lounge. Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus."
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"af5c53cca25241c4a07675152b553c1b"
"What amount of the student body of Notre Dame identifies as Catholic?"
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{ "text": [ "over 80%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 251 ], "end": [ 258 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 47 ], "end": [ 49 ] } ] }
[ "over 80%" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (1917–2015) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500."
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"a2d35ccb5d6b4d419bd5e44700f68a09"
"What was the lifespan of Theodore Hesburgh?"
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{ "text": [ "1917–2015" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 37 ], "end": [ 45 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 8 ], "end": [ 8 ] } ] }
[ "1917–2015" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (1917–2015) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500."
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"6fd270f67dec4c8985cf867291478620"
"In the time that Hesburgh was president of Notre Dame by what factor did the operating budget increase?"
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{ "text": [ "18" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 181 ], "end": [ 182 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 35 ], "end": [ 35 ] } ] }
[ "18" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (1917–2015) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500."
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"ab7d16ee852b485b81831673c0710895"
"What was the size of the Notre Dame endowment when Theodore Hesburgh became president?"
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{ "text": [ "$9 million" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 262 ], "end": [ 271 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 54 ], "end": [ 56 ] } ] }
[ "$9 million" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (1917–2015) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500."
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"af138d607d774e76b1570ed52a5277a1"
"During what years was Theodor Hesburgh president of Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "1952–87" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 82 ], "end": [ 88 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 17 ], "end": [ 17 ] } ] }
[ "1952–87" ]
"SQuAD"
"The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C., (1917–2015) served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of dramatic transformations. In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500."
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"f2f8b8d00d734f9eb821304eb654a4f8"
"How many faculty members were at Notre Dame when Hesburgh left the role of president?"
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{ "text": [ "950" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 439 ], "end": [ 441 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 92 ], "end": [ 92 ] } ] }
[ "950" ]
"SQuAD"
"Holy Cross Father John Francis O'Hara was elected vice-president in 1933 and president of Notre Dame in 1934. During his tenure at Notre Dame, he brought numerous refugee intellectuals to campus; he selected Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football.""
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"487f6ef2931d4bd1a37b5fc496f5c937"
"Which person became vice-president of Notre Dame in 1933?"
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{ "text": [ "Father John Francis O'Hara" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 11 ], "end": [ 36 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 2 ], "end": [ 5 ] } ] }
[ "Father John Francis O'Hara" ]
"SQuAD"
"Holy Cross Father John Francis O'Hara was elected vice-president in 1933 and president of Notre Dame in 1934. During his tenure at Notre Dame, he brought numerous refugee intellectuals to campus; he selected Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football.""
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"905d60e9c52e4534976b028faa75843b"
"Who was the president of Notre Dame in 1934?"
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{ "text": [ "Father John Francis O'Hara" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 11 ], "end": [ 36 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 2 ], "end": [ 5 ] } ] }
[ "Father John Francis O'Hara" ]
"SQuAD"
"Holy Cross Father John Francis O'Hara was elected vice-president in 1933 and president of Notre Dame in 1934. During his tenure at Notre Dame, he brought numerous refugee intellectuals to campus; he selected Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football.""
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"dd927235a9e84125b79d28a387715f67"
"Irvin Abell was given what award by Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "Laetare Medal" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 292 ], "end": [ 304 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 55 ], "end": [ 56 ] } ] }
[ "Laetare Medal" ]
"SQuAD"
"Holy Cross Father John Francis O'Hara was elected vice-president in 1933 and president of Notre Dame in 1934. During his tenure at Notre Dame, he brought numerous refugee intellectuals to campus; he selected Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football.""
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"4cf2fe6d269f4bfe90559569ea2a1c3d"
"Which year was the Laetare Medal first given out at Notre Dame?"
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{ "text": [ "1883" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 321 ], "end": [ 324 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 60 ], "end": [ 60 ] } ] }
[ "1883" ]
"SQuAD"
"Holy Cross Father John Francis O'Hara was elected vice-president in 1933 and president of Notre Dame in 1934. During his tenure at Notre Dame, he brought numerous refugee intellectuals to campus; he selected Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football.""
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"006a65e2a72a4d81bc5126b47f52f76d"
"For whos glory did Father O'Hara believed that the Notre Dame football team played?"
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[ "God" ]
"SQuAD"
"One of the main driving forces in the growth of the University was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five ties. During his 13 years the Irish won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp and the "Four Horsemen". Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne's offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme. The last game Rockne coached was on December 14, 1930 when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City."
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"82e0c6a730df4a27982471e1c105074d"
"The Notre Dame football team got a new head coach in 1918, who was it?"
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{ "text": [ "Knute Rockne" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 117 ], "end": [ 128 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 23 ], "end": [ 24 ] } ] }
[ "Knute Rockne" ]
"SQuAD"
"One of the main driving forces in the growth of the University was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five ties. During his 13 years the Irish won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp and the "Four Horsemen". Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne's offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme. The last game Rockne coached was on December 14, 1930 when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City."
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"bb2ed94a845a48fb9b058c2a20d66128"
"What was the amount of wins Knute Rockne attained at Notre Dame while head coach?"
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{ "text": [ "105" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 204 ], "end": [ 206 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 41 ], "end": [ 41 ] } ] }
[ "105" ]
"SQuAD"
"One of the main driving forces in the growth of the University was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five ties. During his 13 years the Irish won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp and the "Four Horsemen". Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne's offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme. The last game Rockne coached was on December 14, 1930 when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City."
{ "tokens": [ "One", "of", "the", "main", "driving", "forces", "in", "the", "growth", "of", "the", "University", "was", "its", "football", "team", ",", "the", "Notre", "Dame", "Fighting", "Irish", ".", "Knute", "Rockne", "became", "head", "coach", "in", "1918", ".", "Under", "Rockne", ",", "the", "Irish", "would", "post", "a", "record", "of", "105", "wins", ",", "12", "losses", ",", "and", "five", "ties", ".", "During", "his", "13", "years", "the", "Irish", "won", "three", "national", "championships", ",", "had", "five", "undefeated", "seasons", ",", "won", "the", "Rose", "Bowl", "in", "1925", ",", "and", "produced", "players", "such", "as", "George", "Gipp", "and", "the", "\"", "Four", "Horsemen", "\"", ".", "Knute", "Rockne", "has", "the", "highest", "winning", "percentage", "(", ".881", ")", "in", "NCAA", "Division", "I", "/", "FBS", "football", "history", ".", "Rockne", "'s", "offenses", "employed", "the", "Notre", "Dame", "Box", "and", "his", "defenses", "ran", "a", "7–2–2", "scheme", ".", "The", "last", "game", "Rockne", "coached", "was", "on", "December", "14", ",", "1930", "when", "he", "led", "a", "group", "of", "Notre", "Dame", "all", "-", "stars", "against", "the", "New", "York", "Giants", "in", "New", "York", "City", "." ], "offsets": [ 0, 4, 7, 11, 16, 24, 31, 34, 38, 45, 48, 52, 63, 67, 71, 80, 84, 86, 90, 96, 101, 110, 115, 117, 123, 130, 137, 142, 148, 151, 155, 157, 163, 169, 171, 175, 181, 187, 192, 194, 201, 204, 208, 212, 214, 217, 223, 225, 229, 234, 238, 240, 247, 251, 254, 260, 264, 270, 274, 280, 289, 302, 304, 308, 313, 324, 331, 333, 337, 341, 346, 351, 354, 358, 360, 364, 373, 381, 386, 389, 396, 401, 405, 409, 410, 415, 423, 424, 426, 432, 439, 443, 447, 455, 463, 474, 475, 479, 481, 484, 489, 498, 499, 500, 504, 513, 520, 522, 528, 531, 540, 549, 553, 559, 564, 568, 572, 576, 585, 589, 591, 597, 603, 605, 609, 614, 619, 626, 634, 638, 641, 650, 652, 654, 659, 664, 667, 671, 673, 679, 682, 688, 693, 696, 697, 703, 711, 715, 719, 724, 731, 734, 738, 743, 747 ] }
"40a5ae7586634496992c2661badc776f"
"In what year did the team lead by Knute Rockne win the Rose Bowl?"
{ "tokens": [ "In", "what", "year", "did", "the", "team", "lead", "by", "Knute", "Rockne", "win", "the", "Rose", "Bowl", "?" ], "offsets": [ 0, 3, 8, 13, 17, 21, 26, 31, 34, 40, 47, 51, 55, 60, 64 ] }
{ "text": [ "1925" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 354 ], "end": [ 357 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 72 ], "end": [ 72 ] } ] }
[ "1925" ]
"SQuAD"
"One of the main driving forces in the growth of the University was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five ties. During his 13 years the Irish won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp and the "Four Horsemen". Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne's offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme. The last game Rockne coached was on December 14, 1930 when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City."
{ "tokens": [ "One", "of", "the", "main", "driving", "forces", "in", "the", "growth", "of", "the", "University", "was", "its", "football", "team", ",", "the", "Notre", "Dame", "Fighting", "Irish", ".", "Knute", "Rockne", "became", "head", "coach", "in", "1918", ".", "Under", "Rockne", ",", "the", "Irish", "would", "post", "a", "record", "of", "105", "wins", ",", "12", "losses", ",", "and", "five", "ties", ".", "During", "his", "13", "years", "the", "Irish", "won", "three", "national", "championships", ",", "had", "five", "undefeated", "seasons", ",", "won", "the", "Rose", "Bowl", "in", "1925", ",", "and", "produced", "players", "such", "as", "George", "Gipp", "and", "the", "\"", "Four", "Horsemen", "\"", ".", "Knute", "Rockne", "has", "the", "highest", "winning", "percentage", "(", ".881", ")", "in", "NCAA", "Division", "I", "/", "FBS", "football", "history", ".", "Rockne", "'s", "offenses", "employed", "the", "Notre", "Dame", "Box", "and", "his", "defenses", "ran", "a", "7–2–2", "scheme", ".", "The", "last", "game", "Rockne", "coached", "was", "on", "December", "14", ",", "1930", "when", "he", "led", "a", "group", "of", "Notre", "Dame", "all", "-", "stars", "against", "the", "New", "York", "Giants", "in", "New", "York", "City", "." ], "offsets": [ 0, 4, 7, 11, 16, 24, 31, 34, 38, 45, 48, 52, 63, 67, 71, 80, 84, 86, 90, 96, 101, 110, 115, 117, 123, 130, 137, 142, 148, 151, 155, 157, 163, 169, 171, 175, 181, 187, 192, 194, 201, 204, 208, 212, 214, 217, 223, 225, 229, 234, 238, 240, 247, 251, 254, 260, 264, 270, 274, 280, 289, 302, 304, 308, 313, 324, 331, 333, 337, 341, 346, 351, 354, 358, 360, 364, 373, 381, 386, 389, 396, 401, 405, 409, 410, 415, 423, 424, 426, 432, 439, 443, 447, 455, 463, 474, 475, 479, 481, 484, 489, 498, 499, 500, 504, 513, 520, 522, 528, 531, 540, 549, 553, 559, 564, 568, 572, 576, 585, 589, 591, 597, 603, 605, 609, 614, 619, 626, 634, 638, 641, 650, 652, 654, 659, 664, 667, 671, 673, 679, 682, 688, 693, 696, 697, 703, 711, 715, 719, 724, 731, 734, 738, 743, 747 ] }
"c967ffb0d1e140d1982c971b340a9a44"
"How many years was Knute Rockne head coach at Notre Dame?"
{ "tokens": [ "How", "many", "years", "was", "Knute", "Rockne", "head", "coach", "at", "Notre", "Dame", "?" ], "offsets": [ 0, 4, 9, 15, 19, 25, 32, 37, 43, 46, 52, 56 ] }
{ "text": [ "13" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 251 ], "end": [ 252 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 53 ], "end": [ 53 ] } ] }
[ "13" ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for MRQA 2019

Dataset Summary

The MRQA 2019 Shared Task focuses on generalization in question answering. An effective question answering system should do more than merely interpolate from the training set to answer test examples drawn from the same distribution: it should also be able to extrapolate to out-of-distribution examples — a significantly harder challenge.

The dataset is a collection of 18 existing QA dataset (carefully selected subset of them) and converted to the same format (SQuAD format). Among these 18 datasets, six datasets were made available for training, six datasets were made available for development, and the final six for testing. The dataset is released as part of the MRQA 2019 Shared Task.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

From the official repository:

The format of the task is extractive question answering. Given a question and context passage, systems must find the word or phrase in the document that best answers the question. While this format is somewhat restrictive, it allows us to leverage many existing datasets, and its simplicity helps us focus on out-of-domain generalization, instead of other important but orthogonal challenges.

We have adapted several existing datasets from their original formats and settings to conform to our unified extractive setting. Most notably:

  • We provide only a single, length-limited context.
  • There are no unanswerable or non-span answer questions.
  • All questions have at least one accepted answer that is found exactly in the context.

A span is judged to be an exact match if it matches the answer string after performing normalization consistent with the SQuAD dataset. Specifically:

  • The text is uncased.
  • All punctuation is stripped.
  • All articles {a, an, the} are removed.
  • All consecutive whitespace markers are compressed to just a single normal space ' '.

Answers are evaluated using exact match and token-level F1 metrics. One can refer to the mrqa_official_eval.py for evaluation.

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

An examples looks like this:

{
  'qid': 'f43c83e38d1e424ea00f8ad3c77ec999',
  'subset': 'SQuAD'

  'context': 'CBS broadcast Super Bowl 50 in the U.S., and charged an average of $5 million for a 30-second commercial during the game. The Super Bowl 50 halftime show was headlined by the British rock group Coldplay with special guest performers Beyoncé and Bruno Mars, who headlined the Super Bowl XLVII and Super Bowl XLVIII halftime shows, respectively. It was the third-most watched U.S. broadcast ever.',
  'context_tokens': {
    'offsets': [0, 4, 14, 20, 25, 28, 31, 35, 39, 41, 45, 53, 56, 64, 67, 68, 70, 78, 82, 84, 94, 105, 112, 116, 120, 122, 126, 132, 137, 140, 149, 154, 158, 168, 171, 175, 183, 188, 194, 203, 208, 216, 222, 233, 241, 245, 251, 255, 257, 261, 271, 275, 281, 286, 292, 296, 302, 307, 314, 323, 328, 330, 342, 344, 347, 351, 355, 360, 361, 366, 374, 379, 389, 393],
    'tokens': ['CBS', 'broadcast', 'Super', 'Bowl', '50', 'in', 'the', 'U.S.', ',', 'and', 'charged', 'an', 'average', 'of', '$', '5', 'million', 'for', 'a', '30-second', 'commercial', 'during', 'the', 'game', '.', 'The', 'Super', 'Bowl', '50', 'halftime', 'show', 'was', 'headlined', 'by', 'the', 'British', 'rock', 'group', 'Coldplay', 'with', 'special', 'guest', 'performers', 'Beyoncé', 'and', 'Bruno', 'Mars', ',', 'who', 'headlined', 'the', 'Super', 'Bowl', 'XLVII', 'and', 'Super', 'Bowl', 'XLVIII', 'halftime', 'shows', ',', 'respectively', '.', 'It', 'was', 'the', 'third', '-', 'most', 'watched', 'U.S.', 'broadcast', 'ever', '.']
  },

  'question': "Who was the main performer at this year's halftime show?",
  'question_tokens': {
      'offsets': [0, 4, 8, 12, 17, 27, 30, 35, 39, 42, 51, 55],
      'tokens': ['Who', 'was', 'the', 'main', 'performer', 'at', 'this', 'year', "'s", 'halftime', 'show', '?']
  },

  'detected_answers': {
    'char_spans': [
      {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }, {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }, {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }
    ],
    'text': ['Coldplay', 'Coldplay', 'Coldplay'],
    'token_spans': [
      {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
      }, {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
        }, {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
      }
    ]
  },

  'answers': ['Coldplay', 'Coldplay', 'Coldplay'],
}

Data Fields

  • subset: which of the dataset does this examples come from?
  • context: This is the raw text of the supporting passage. Three special token types have been inserted: [TLE] precedes document titles, [DOC] denotes document breaks, and [PAR] denotes paragraph breaks. The maximum length of the context is 800 tokens.
  • context_tokens: A tokenized version of the supporting passage, using spaCy. Each token is a tuple of the token string and token character offset. The maximum number of tokens is 800.
    • tokens: list of tokens.
    • offets: list of offsets.
  • qas: A list of questions for the given context.
  • qid: A unique identifier for the question. The qid is unique across all datasets.
  • question: The raw text of the question.
  • question_tokens: A tokenized version of the question. The tokenizer and token format is the same as for the context.
    • tokens: list of tokens.
    • offets: list of offsets.
  • detected_answers: A list of answer spans for the given question that index into the context. For some datasets these spans have been automatically detected using searching heuristics. The same answer may appear multiple times in the text --- each of these occurrences is recorded. For example, if 42 is the answer, the context "The answer is 42. 42 is the answer.", has two occurrences marked.
    • text: The raw text of the detected answer.
    • char_spans: Inclusive (start, end) character spans (indexing into the raw context).
      • start: start (single element)
      • end: end (single element)
    • token_spans: Inclusive (start, end) token spans (indexing into the tokenized context).
      • start: start (single element)
      • end: end (single element)

Data Splits

Training data

Dataset Number of Examples
SQuAD 86,588
NewsQA 74,160
TriviaQA 61,688
SearchQA 117,384
HotpotQA 72,928
NaturalQuestions 104,071

Development data

This in-domain data may be used for helping develop models.

Dataset Examples
SQuAD 10,507
NewsQA 4,212
TriviaQA 7,785
SearchQA 16,980
HotpotQA 5,904
NaturalQuestions 12,836

Test data

The final testing data only contain out-of-domain data.

Dataset Examples
BioASQ 1,504
DROP 1,503
DuoRC 1,501
RACE 674
RelationExtraction 2,948
TextbookQA 1,503

From the official repository:

Note: As previously mentioned, the out-of-domain dataset have been modified from their original settings to fit the unified MRQA Shared Task paradigm. At a high level, the following two major modifications have been made:

1. All QA-context pairs are extractive. That is, the answer is selected from the context and not via, e.g., multiple-choice. 2. All contexts are capped at a maximum of 800 tokens. As a result, for longer contexts like Wikipedia articles, we only consider examples where the answer appears in the first 800 tokens.

As a result, some splits are harder than the original datasets (e.g., removal of multiple-choice in RACE), while some are easier (e.g., restricted context length in NaturalQuestions --- we use the short answer selection). Thus one should expect different performance ranges if comparing to previous work on these datasets.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

From the official repository:

Both train and test datasets have the same format described above, but may differ in some of the following ways:

  • Passage distribution: Test examples may involve passages from different sources (e.g., science, news, novels, medical abstracts, etc) with pronounced syntactic and lexical differences.
  • Question distribution: Test examples may emphasize different styles of questions (e.g., entity-centric, relational, other tasks reformulated as QA, etc) which may come from different sources (e.g., crowdworkers, domain experts, exam writers, etc.)
  • Joint distribution: Test examples may vary according to the relationship of the question to the passage (e.g., collected independent vs. dependent of evidence, multi-hop, etc)

Source Data

[More Information Needed]

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

[More Information Needed]

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

Unknown

Citation Information

@inproceedings{fisch2019mrqa,
    title={{MRQA} 2019 Shared Task: Evaluating Generalization in Reading Comprehension},
    author={Adam Fisch and Alon Talmor and Robin Jia and Minjoon Seo and Eunsol Choi and Danqi Chen},
    booktitle={Proceedings of 2nd Machine Reading for Reading Comprehension (MRQA) Workshop at EMNLP},
    year={2019},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @jimmycode, @VictorSanh for adding this dataset.