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SQuAD
Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.
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38cc2597b6624bd8af1e8ba7f693096f
To whom did the Virgin Mary allegedly appear in 1858 in Lourdes France?
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{ "text": [ "Saint Bernadette Soubirous" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 515 ], "end": [ 540 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 102 ], "end": [ 104 ] } ] }
[ "Saint Bernadette Soubirous" ]
SQuAD
Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.
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b17a05e67fd14669860a380d66aed5fb
What is in front of the Notre Dame Main Building?
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{ "text": [ "a copper statue of Christ" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 188 ], "end": [ 212 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 37 ], "end": [ 41 ] } ] }
[ "a copper statue of Christ" ]
SQuAD
Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.
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80a511ed750842d08ecdfaaaa257d95f
The Basilica of the Sacred heart at Notre Dame is beside to which structure?
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{ "text": [ "the Main Building" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 279 ], "end": [ 295 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 57 ], "end": [ 59 ] } ] }
[ "the Main Building" ]
SQuAD
Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.
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913477b8e7f84432a16e1594219815e5
What is the Grotto at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "a Marian place of prayer and reflection" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 381 ], "end": [ 419 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 76 ], "end": [ 82 ] } ] }
[ "a Marian place of prayer and reflection" ]
SQuAD
Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend "Venite Ad Me Omnes". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.
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1c969af40a3248eb87a6d8c9c7c8d4ad
What sits on top of the Main Building at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "a golden statue of the Virgin Mary" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 92 ], "end": [ 125 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 17 ], "end": [ 23 ] } ] }
[ "a golden statue of the Virgin Mary" ]
SQuAD
The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching.
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cdef8f34d6eb46c5b591aa47697f9583
Where is the headquarters of the Congregation of the Holy Cross?
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{ "text": [ "Rome" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 119 ], "end": [ 122 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 22 ], "end": [ 22 ] } ] }
[ "Rome" ]
SQuAD
The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching.
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bb50fb1bf7e14a2b9450298c2fd7dd02
What is the primary seminary of the Congregation of the Holy Cross?
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{ "text": [ "Moreau Seminary" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 145 ], "end": [ 159 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 29 ], "end": [ 30 ] } ] }
[ "Moreau Seminary" ]
SQuAD
The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching.
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What is the oldest structure at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "Old College" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 234 ], "end": [ 244 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 46 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "Old College" ]
SQuAD
The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching.
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What individuals live at Fatima House at Notre Dame?
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[ "Retired priests and brothers" ]
SQuAD
The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome). Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building. Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto. The university through the Moreau Seminary has ties to theologian Frederick Buechner. While not Catholic, Buechner has praised writers from Notre Dame and Moreau Seminary created a Buechner Prize for Preaching.
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Which prize did Frederick Buechner create?
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{ "text": [ "Buechner Prize for Preaching" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 675 ], "end": [ 702 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 125 ], "end": [ 128 ] } ] }
[ "Buechner Prize for Preaching" ]
SQuAD
The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.
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How many BS level degrees are offered in the College of Engineering at Notre Dame?
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[ "eight" ]
SQuAD
The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.
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In what year was the College of Engineering at Notre Dame formed?
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{ "text": [ "1920" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 46 ], "end": [ 49 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 7 ], "end": [ 7 ] } ] }
[ "1920" ]
SQuAD
The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.
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Before the creation of the College of Engineering similar studies were carried out at which Notre Dame college?
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[ "the College of Science" ]
SQuAD
The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.
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How many departments are within the Stinson-Remick Hall of Engineering?
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[ "five" ]
SQuAD
The College of Engineering was established in 1920, however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s. Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering, includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.
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The College of Science began to offer civil engineering courses beginning at what time at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "the 1870s" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 163 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 27 ], "end": [ 28 ] } ] }
[ "the 1870s" ]
SQuAD
All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.
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ce2e16533d0c433e98323f77e50b7bee
What entity provides help with the management of time for new students at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "Learning Resource Center" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 496 ], "end": [ 519 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 92 ], "end": [ 94 ] } ] }
[ "Learning Resource Center" ]
SQuAD
All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.
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How many colleges for undergraduates are at Notre Dame?
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[ "five" ]
SQuAD
All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.
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bf2e0f1a70fd46d683a8dc9d5d457f11
What was created at Notre Dame in 1962 to assist first year students?
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{ "text": [ "The First Year of Studies program" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 187 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 30 ], "end": [ 35 ] } ] }
[ "The First Year of Studies program" ]
SQuAD
All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program. The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.
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b34ccda5a5614344b620767a6f910ac6
Which organization declared the First Year of Studies program at Notre Dame "outstanding?"
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[ "U.S. News & World Report" ]
SQuAD
The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.
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What institute at Notre Dame studies the reasons for violent conflict?
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{ "text": [ "Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 57 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 8 ] } ] }
[ "Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies" ]
SQuAD
The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.
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What is the title of Notre Dame's Theodore Hesburgh?
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{ "text": [ "President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 466 ], "end": [ 515 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 87 ], "end": [ 94 ] } ] }
[ "President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame" ]
SQuAD
The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.
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bce1db938bca4589a6e39de55cc6709f
In what year was the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies founded?
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{ "text": [ "1986" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 303 ], "end": [ 306 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 54 ], "end": [ 54 ] } ] }
[ "1986" ]
SQuAD
The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.
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To whom was John B. Kroc married?
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{ "text": [ "Ray Kroc" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 377 ], "end": [ 384 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 70 ] } ] }
[ "Ray Kroc" ]
SQuAD
The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master's, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.
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ee16bb8a915544c29c41399f07ad628a
What company did Ray Kroc own?
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{ "text": [ "McDonald's" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 360 ], "end": [ 369 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 66 ], "end": [ 67 ] } ] }
[ "McDonald's" ]
SQuAD
As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.
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8eb43a5278db484c9fa30cfa18650002
When did the Scholastic Magazine of Notre dame begin publishing?
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{ "text": [ "September 1876" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 248 ], "end": [ 261 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 49 ], "end": [ 50 ] } ] }
[ "September 1876" ]
SQuAD
As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.
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76ba802f720e4410b40a709ea50fb2b0
How often is Notre Dame's the Juggler published?
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{ "text": [ "twice" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 441 ], "end": [ 445 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 82 ], "end": [ 82 ] } ] }
[ "twice" ]
SQuAD
As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.
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4376ab9a6e10470c9b76aaa9af6acfd3
What is the daily student paper at Notre Dame called?
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{ "text": [ "The Observer" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 598 ], "end": [ 609 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 108 ], "end": [ 109 ] } ] }
[ "The Observer" ]
SQuAD
As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.
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cb7a57d6053648cbafeca09e2725bc30
How many student news papers are found at Notre Dame?
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[ "three" ]
SQuAD
As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.
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9e1012514eca49b1aa051db78deee2bf
In what year did the student paper Common Sense begin publication at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "1987" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 908 ], "end": [ 911 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 162 ], "end": [ 162 ] } ] }
[ "1987" ]
SQuAD
The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.
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20bfe496576d47c8954ec3d3b3fe256d
What is the name of the main library at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "Theodore M. Hesburgh Library" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 145 ], "end": [ 172 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 26 ], "end": [ 29 ] } ] }
[ "Theodore M. Hesburgh Library" ]
SQuAD
The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.
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ee61155b4eab4e9786df691deed038d2
In what year was the Theodore M. Hesburgh Library at Notre Dame finished?
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{ "text": [ "1963" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 188 ], "end": [ 191 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 33 ], "end": [ 33 ] } ] }
[ "1963" ]
SQuAD
The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.
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cdc431f163354b5f87dc85f852f1712e
Which artist created the mural on the Theodore M. Hesburgh Library?
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{ "text": [ "Millard Sheets" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 344 ], "end": [ 357 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 64 ], "end": [ 65 ] } ] }
[ "Millard Sheets" ]
SQuAD
The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books. The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as "Touchdown Jesus" because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus' arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.
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24b7fce8889b4d9bb724f77334035a00
What is a common name to reference the mural created by Millard Sheets at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "Touchdown Jesus" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 394 ], "end": [ 408 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 74 ], "end": [ 75 ] } ] }
[ "Touchdown Jesus" ]
SQuAD
The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.
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1519eadb737944148bff177c2bd88572
The granting of Doctorate degrees first occurred in what year at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "1924" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 358 ], "end": [ 361 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 69 ] } ] }
[ "1924" ]
SQuAD
The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.
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0423a09f2f5345cb899f757ea628ef65
What type of degree is an M.Div.?
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{ "text": [ "Master of Divinity" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 624 ], "end": [ 641 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 114 ], "end": [ 116 ] } ] }
[ "Master of Divinity" ]
SQuAD
The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.
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19a36094b49e4a79a08b89068496643c
Which program at Notre Dame offers a Master of Education degree?
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{ "text": [ "Alliance for Catholic Education" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 1163 ], "end": [ 1193 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 207 ], "end": [ 210 ] } ] }
[ "Alliance for Catholic Education" ]
SQuAD
The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees. Today each of the five colleges offer graduate education. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.
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e651e1f1ff424432a7734a6b55609ff8
Which department at Notre Dame is the only one to not offer a PhD program?
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{ "text": [ "Department of Pre-Professional Studies" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 757 ], "end": [ 794 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 141 ], "end": [ 146 ] } ] }
[ "Department of Pre-Professional Studies" ]
SQuAD
In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.
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3f35e1b728d94ed7bf6af2c67c8d1454
In what year did Albert Zahm begin comparing aeronatical models at Notre Dame?
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[ "1882" ]
SQuAD
In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.
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5a29b142c6f343ab80cd72ab82d80f3e
Which professor sent the first wireless message in the USA?
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[ "Professor Jerome Green" ]
SQuAD
In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.
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c5ba35720fdf4b58ae8afa123daf69fb
In what year did Jerome Green send his first wireless message?
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[ "Around 1899" ]
SQuAD
In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.
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8e45af64cc16424ab58edf466f155d8d
Which individual worked on projects at Notre Dame that eventually created neoprene?
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{ "text": [ "Father Julius Nieuwland" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 222 ], "end": [ 244 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 45 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "Father Julius Nieuwland" ]
SQuAD
In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm's brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message. In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene. Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.
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865060e58d004f8b8df7f42163c30f6b
What did the brother of John Zahm construct at Notre Dame?
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[ "an early wind tunnel" ]
SQuAD
The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.
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f05b2c535ded4f00b6603d88b7608729
Gurian created what in 1939 at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "The Review of Politics" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 4 ], "end": [ 21 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 1 ], "end": [ 3 ] } ] }
[ "The Review of Politics" ]
SQuAD
The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.
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e89e9ece175d4c42841ea692268066cb
What was the Review of Politics inspired by?
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[ "German Catholic journals" ]
SQuAD
The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.
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94fa3f74b90d481b9b73cea8861d4bd9
Over how many years did Gurian edit the Review of Politics at Notre Dame?
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[ "44" ]
SQuAD
The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O'Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.
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3d2e3d47f22b4e11bbc89480ca743922
Thomas Stritch was an editor of which publican from Notre Dame?
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[ "Review of Politics" ]
SQuAD
In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.
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d2d8d70442734955bc6eaea1d8f00646
Where did U.S. News & World Report rank Notre Dame in its 2015-2016 university rankings?
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[ "18th overall" ]
SQuAD
In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.
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d4aa61642ba04c3b895385496de86ebe
Forbes.com placed Notre Dame at what position compared to other US research universities?
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{ "text": [ "8th" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 362 ], "end": [ 364 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 69 ], "end": [ 69 ] } ] }
[ "8th" ]
SQuAD
In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.
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e2655e82c8494d22b717d1e71e1f28cb
The undergrad school at the Mendoza College of Business was ranked where according to BusinessWeek?
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[ "1st overall" ]
SQuAD
In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.
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2451f6954c6f4945b177610257b11478
In 2014 what entity named Notre Dame 10th best of all American universities?
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{ "text": [ "USA Today" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 155 ], "end": [ 163 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 33 ], "end": [ 34 ] } ] }
[ "USA Today" ]
SQuAD
In 2015-2016, Notre Dame ranked 18th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges 2016. In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities based on data from College Factual. Forbes.com's America's Best Colleges ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2015, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest. U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall. BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall. It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame's graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally, while ARCHITECT Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally. Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries. According to payscale.com, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.
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a243976dd0cb4531bdc1c3b5e0d72cc4
What percentage of Notre Dame students decide to study abroad?
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[ "57.6%" ]
SQuAD
Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.
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4e38d354d26e4707ad799e7c2a068723
What person was the Director of the Science Museum at Notre Dame in the late 19th century?
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[ "Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C." ]
SQuAD
Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.
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cd2d05a8332546a0809becdd0c488d27
What was the lifespan of John Augustine Zahm?
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[ "1851–1921" ]
SQuAD
Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.
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8912254fc0ae4bb7949c8f974d60d9c1
What program did John Augustine Zahm come to co-direct at Nore Dame?
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[ "the Science Department" ]
SQuAD
Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.
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499e37e286254fb592269c87af0b0595
What book did John Zahm write in 1896?
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{ "text": [ "Evolution and Dogma" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 638 ], "end": [ 656 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 109 ], "end": [ 111 ] } ] }
[ "Evolution and Dogma" ]
SQuAD
Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier's students was Father John Augustine Zahm (1851–1921) who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm's censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.
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What professorship did Father Josh Carrier hold at Notre Dame?
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{ "text": [ "Professor of Chemistry and Physics" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 85 ], "end": [ 118 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 15 ], "end": [ 19 ] } ] }
[ "Professor of Chemistry and Physics" ]
SQuAD
Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.
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How many incoming students did Notre Dame admit in fall 2015?
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[ "3,577" ]
SQuAD
Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.
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8cbbbee3960d40cbac13fb29bebdfb15
What percentage of students were admitted to Notre Dame in fall 2015?
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{ "text": [ "19.7%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 138 ], "end": [ 142 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 25 ], "end": [ 26 ] } ] }
[ "19.7%" ]
SQuAD
Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.
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4bfa040fe0fa476db74bb959386d7416
Where does Notre Dame rank in terms of academic profile among research universities in the US?
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{ "text": [ "the top 10 to 15 in the nation" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 213 ], "end": [ 242 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 40 ], "end": [ 47 ] } ] }
[ "the top 10 to 15 in the nation" ]
SQuAD
Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.
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9ac77b45bf3648088f2d4208a8557c61
What percentage of students at Notre Dame participated in the Early Action program?
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{ "text": [ "39.1%" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 488 ], "end": [ 492 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 90 ], "end": [ 91 ] } ] }
[ "39.1%" ]
SQuAD
Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2015 admitting 3,577 from a pool of 18,156 (19.7%). The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted. 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan. Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.
{ "tokens": [ "Notre", "Dame", "is", "known", "for", "its", "competitive", "admissions", ",", "with", "the", "incoming", "class", "enrolling", "in", "fall", "2015", "admitting", "3,577", "from", "a", "pool", "of", "18,156", "(", "19.7", "%", ")", ".", "The", "academic", "profile", "of", "the", "enrolled", "class", "continues", "to", "rate", "among", "the", "top", "10", "to", "15", "in", "the", "nation", "for", "national", "research", "universities", ".", "The", "university", "practices", "a", "non", "-", "restrictive", "early", "action", "policy", "that", "allows", "admitted", "students", "to", "consider", "admission", "to", "Notre", "Dame", "as", "well", "as", "any", "other", "colleges", "to", "which", "they", "were", "accepted", ".", "1,400", "of", "the", "3,577", "(", "39.1", "%", ")", "were", "admitted", "under", "the", "early", "action", "plan", ".", "Admitted", "students", "came", "from", "1,311", "high", "schools", "and", "the", "average", "student", "traveled", "more", "than", "750", "miles", "to", "Notre", "Dame", ",", "making", "it", "arguably", "the", "most", "representative", "university", "in", "the", "United", "States", ".", "While", "all", "entering", "students", "begin", "in", "the", "College", "of", "the", "First", "Year", "of", "Studies", ",", "25", "%", "have", "indicated", "they", "plan", "to", "study", "in", "the", "liberal", "arts", "or", "social", "sciences", ",", "24", "%", "in", "engineering", ",", "24", "%", "in", "business", ",", "24", "%", "in", "science", ",", "and", "3", "%", "in", "architecture", "." ], "offsets": [ 0, 6, 11, 14, 20, 24, 28, 40, 50, 52, 57, 61, 70, 76, 86, 89, 94, 99, 109, 115, 120, 122, 127, 130, 137, 138, 142, 143, 144, 146, 150, 159, 167, 170, 174, 183, 189, 199, 202, 207, 213, 217, 221, 224, 227, 230, 233, 237, 244, 248, 257, 266, 278, 280, 284, 295, 305, 307, 310, 311, 323, 329, 336, 343, 348, 355, 364, 373, 376, 385, 395, 398, 404, 409, 412, 417, 420, 424, 430, 439, 442, 448, 453, 458, 466, 468, 474, 477, 481, 487, 488, 492, 493, 495, 500, 509, 515, 519, 525, 532, 536, 538, 547, 556, 561, 566, 572, 577, 585, 589, 593, 601, 609, 618, 623, 628, 632, 638, 641, 647, 651, 653, 660, 663, 672, 676, 681, 696, 707, 710, 714, 721, 727, 729, 735, 739, 748, 757, 763, 766, 770, 778, 781, 785, 791, 796, 799, 806, 808, 810, 812, 817, 827, 832, 837, 840, 846, 849, 853, 861, 866, 869, 876, 884, 886, 888, 890, 893, 904, 906, 908, 910, 913, 921, 923, 925, 927, 930, 937, 939, 943, 944, 946, 949, 961 ] }
0b1aca0b1bdd4f6e8e2d8f9c5e4ed5c4
How many miles does the average student at Notre Dame travel to study there?
{ "tokens": [ "How", "many", "miles", "does", "the", "average", "student", "at", "Notre", "Dame", "travel", "to", "study", "there", "?" ], "offsets": [ 0, 4, 9, 15, 20, 24, 32, 40, 43, 49, 54, 61, 64, 70, 75 ] }
{ "text": [ "more than 750 miles" ], "char_spans": [ { "start": [ 618 ], "end": [ 636 ] } ], "token_spans": [ { "start": [ 113 ], "end": [ 116 ] } ] }
[ "more than 750 miles" ]

Dataset Card for MRQA 2019

Dataset Summary

The MRQA 2019 Shared Task focuses on generalization in question answering. An effective question answering system should do more than merely interpolate from the training set to answer test examples drawn from the same distribution: it should also be able to extrapolate to out-of-distribution examples β€” a significantly harder challenge.

The dataset is a collection of 18 existing QA dataset (carefully selected subset of them) and converted to the same format (SQuAD format). Among these 18 datasets, six datasets were made available for training, six datasets were made available for development, and the final six for testing. The dataset is released as part of the MRQA 2019 Shared Task.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

From the official repository:

The format of the task is extractive question answering. Given a question and context passage, systems must find the word or phrase in the document that best answers the question. While this format is somewhat restrictive, it allows us to leverage many existing datasets, and its simplicity helps us focus on out-of-domain generalization, instead of other important but orthogonal challenges.

We have adapted several existing datasets from their original formats and settings to conform to our unified extractive setting. Most notably:

  • We provide only a single, length-limited context.
  • There are no unanswerable or non-span answer questions.
  • All questions have at least one accepted answer that is found exactly in the context.

A span is judged to be an exact match if it matches the answer string after performing normalization consistent with the SQuAD dataset. Specifically:

  • The text is uncased.
  • All punctuation is stripped.
  • All articles {a, an, the} are removed.
  • All consecutive whitespace markers are compressed to just a single normal space ' '.

Answers are evaluated using exact match and token-level F1 metrics. One can refer to the mrqa_official_eval.py for evaluation.

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

An examples looks like this:

{
  'qid': 'f43c83e38d1e424ea00f8ad3c77ec999',
  'subset': 'SQuAD'

  'context': 'CBS broadcast Super Bowl 50 in the U.S., and charged an average of $5 million for a 30-second commercial during the game. The Super Bowl 50 halftime show was headlined by the British rock group Coldplay with special guest performers BeyoncΓ© and Bruno Mars, who headlined the Super Bowl XLVII and Super Bowl XLVIII halftime shows, respectively. It was the third-most watched U.S. broadcast ever.',
  'context_tokens': {
    'offsets': [0, 4, 14, 20, 25, 28, 31, 35, 39, 41, 45, 53, 56, 64, 67, 68, 70, 78, 82, 84, 94, 105, 112, 116, 120, 122, 126, 132, 137, 140, 149, 154, 158, 168, 171, 175, 183, 188, 194, 203, 208, 216, 222, 233, 241, 245, 251, 255, 257, 261, 271, 275, 281, 286, 292, 296, 302, 307, 314, 323, 328, 330, 342, 344, 347, 351, 355, 360, 361, 366, 374, 379, 389, 393],
    'tokens': ['CBS', 'broadcast', 'Super', 'Bowl', '50', 'in', 'the', 'U.S.', ',', 'and', 'charged', 'an', 'average', 'of', '$', '5', 'million', 'for', 'a', '30-second', 'commercial', 'during', 'the', 'game', '.', 'The', 'Super', 'Bowl', '50', 'halftime', 'show', 'was', 'headlined', 'by', 'the', 'British', 'rock', 'group', 'Coldplay', 'with', 'special', 'guest', 'performers', 'BeyoncΓ©', 'and', 'Bruno', 'Mars', ',', 'who', 'headlined', 'the', 'Super', 'Bowl', 'XLVII', 'and', 'Super', 'Bowl', 'XLVIII', 'halftime', 'shows', ',', 'respectively', '.', 'It', 'was', 'the', 'third', '-', 'most', 'watched', 'U.S.', 'broadcast', 'ever', '.']
  },

  'question': "Who was the main performer at this year's halftime show?",
  'question_tokens': {
      'offsets': [0, 4, 8, 12, 17, 27, 30, 35, 39, 42, 51, 55],
      'tokens': ['Who', 'was', 'the', 'main', 'performer', 'at', 'this', 'year', "'s", 'halftime', 'show', '?']
  },

  'detected_answers': {
    'char_spans': [
      {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }, {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }, {
        'end': [201],
        'start': [194]
      }
    ],
    'text': ['Coldplay', 'Coldplay', 'Coldplay'],
    'token_spans': [
      {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
      }, {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
        }, {
        'end': [38],
        'start': [38]
      }
    ]
  },

  'answers': ['Coldplay', 'Coldplay', 'Coldplay'],
}

Data Fields

  • subset: which of the dataset does this examples come from?
  • context: This is the raw text of the supporting passage. Three special token types have been inserted: [TLE] precedes document titles, [DOC] denotes document breaks, and [PAR] denotes paragraph breaks. The maximum length of the context is 800 tokens.
  • context_tokens: A tokenized version of the supporting passage, using spaCy. Each token is a tuple of the token string and token character offset. The maximum number of tokens is 800.
    • tokens: list of tokens.
    • offets: list of offsets.
  • qas: A list of questions for the given context.
  • qid: A unique identifier for the question. The qid is unique across all datasets.
  • question: The raw text of the question.
  • question_tokens: A tokenized version of the question. The tokenizer and token format is the same as for the context.
    • tokens: list of tokens.
    • offets: list of offsets.
  • detected_answers: A list of answer spans for the given question that index into the context. For some datasets these spans have been automatically detected using searching heuristics. The same answer may appear multiple times in the text --- each of these occurrences is recorded. For example, if 42 is the answer, the context "The answer is 42. 42 is the answer.", has two occurrences marked.
    • text: The raw text of the detected answer.
    • char_spans: Inclusive (start, end) character spans (indexing into the raw context).
      • start: start (single element)
      • end: end (single element)
    • token_spans: Inclusive (start, end) token spans (indexing into the tokenized context).
      • start: start (single element)
      • end: end (single element)

Data Splits

Training data

Dataset Number of Examples
SQuAD 86,588
NewsQA 74,160
TriviaQA 61,688
SearchQA 117,384
HotpotQA 72,928
NaturalQuestions 104,071

Development data

This in-domain data may be used for helping develop models.

Dataset Examples
SQuAD 10,507
NewsQA 4,212
TriviaQA 7,785
SearchQA 16,980
HotpotQA 5,904
NaturalQuestions 12,836

Test data

The final testing data only contain out-of-domain data.

Dataset Examples
BioASQ 1,504
DROP 1,503
DuoRC 1,501
RACE 674
RelationExtraction 2,948
TextbookQA 1,503

From the official repository:

Note: As previously mentioned, the out-of-domain dataset have been modified from their original settings to fit the unified MRQA Shared Task paradigm. At a high level, the following two major modifications have been made:

1. All QA-context pairs are extractive. That is, the answer is selected from the context and not via, e.g., multiple-choice. 2. All contexts are capped at a maximum of 800 tokens. As a result, for longer contexts like Wikipedia articles, we only consider examples where the answer appears in the first 800 tokens.

As a result, some splits are harder than the original datasets (e.g., removal of multiple-choice in RACE), while some are easier (e.g., restricted context length in NaturalQuestions --- we use the short answer selection). Thus one should expect different performance ranges if comparing to previous work on these datasets.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

From the official repository:

Both train and test datasets have the same format described above, but may differ in some of the following ways:

  • Passage distribution: Test examples may involve passages from different sources (e.g., science, news, novels, medical abstracts, etc) with pronounced syntactic and lexical differences.
  • Question distribution: Test examples may emphasize different styles of questions (e.g., entity-centric, relational, other tasks reformulated as QA, etc) which may come from different sources (e.g., crowdworkers, domain experts, exam writers, etc.)
  • Joint distribution: Test examples may vary according to the relationship of the question to the passage (e.g., collected independent vs. dependent of evidence, multi-hop, etc)

Source Data

[More Information Needed]

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

[More Information Needed]

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

Unknown

Citation Information

@inproceedings{fisch2019mrqa,
    title={{MRQA} 2019 Shared Task: Evaluating Generalization in Reading Comprehension},
    author={Adam Fisch and Alon Talmor and Robin Jia and Minjoon Seo and Eunsol Choi and Danqi Chen},
    booktitle={Proceedings of 2nd Machine Reading for Reading Comprehension (MRQA) Workshop at EMNLP},
    year={2019},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @jimmycode, @VictorSanh for adding this dataset.

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