Datasets:
medal

Task Categories: other
Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10M<n<100M
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: original
Licenses: unknown
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abstract_id (int32)text (string)location (sequence)label (sequence)
14,145,090
"velvet antlers vas are commonly used in traditional chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many PET components for health promotion the velvet antler peptide svap is one of active components in vas based on structural study the svap interacts with tgfβ receptors and disrupts the tgfβ pathway we hypothesized that svap prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking tgfβ signaling SDRs underwent TAC tac or a sham operation T3 one month rats received either svap mgkgday or vehicle for an additional one month tac surgery induced significant cardiac dysfunction FB activation and fibrosis these effects were improved by treatment with svap in the heart tissue tac remarkably increased the expression of tgfβ and connective tissue growth factor ctgf ROS species C2 and the phosphorylation C2 of smad and ERK kinases erk svap inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species C2 ctgf expression and the phosphorylation of smad and erk but not tgfβ expression in cultured cardiac fibroblasts angiotensin ii ang ii had similar effects compared to tac surgery such as increases in αsmapositive CFs and collagen synthesis svap eliminated these effects by disrupting tgfβ IB to its receptors and blocking ang iitgfβ downstream signaling these results demonstrated that svap has antifibrotic effects by blocking the tgfβ pathway in CFs"
[ 63 ]
[ "transverse aortic constriction" ]
1,900,667
"the clinical features of our cases demonstrated some of the already known characteristics of the variable spectrum of hiv infection da are the most important risk category in italy of the arc cases evolved into aids during a month followup on average the most frequent oi in our aids cases were pcp c albicans esophagitis and chronic mucocutaneous ulcers an high percentage of neurologic involvement from hiv was observed and HM were encountered in aids ks and undifferentiated b lymphoma as well as in arc HD statistically significant worsening of the immunologic situation is evident as the disease progresses from las to aids G1 b lymphocytes represent most of the cells of the germinal center during the hyperplastic stage of lymphadenopathy reversal of the tt ratio appears early during the initial stage of lymphadenopathy and is due to a decrease of cd and a relative increase of cd also destruction of the follicular dendritic cells is an early feature which becomes more evident as the disease advances and the lymph node evolves toward progressive involution activated blymphocyte augmentation with polyclonal ig secretion appears to be related to TI b stimulation by coinfection such as cmv ebv and hbv the increase of CD8 lymphocytes seems to be partly related to the excessive activation of b lymphocytes and partially directed to the cells INF by hiv or coated with its proteins the destruction of follicular dendritic cells has been interpreted not only as a killer effect of the virus but also as a result of the intervention of ctl sensitized to the cells containing the virus their destruction may contribute to the impaired recognition of soluble antigen which is one of the main features of the immune deficiency of hiv infection"
[ 85 ]
[ "hodgkins lymphoma" ]
8,625,554
"ceftobiprole bpr is an investigational cephalosporin with activity against staphylococcus aureus including methicillinresistant s aureus mrsa strains the pharmacodynamic pd profile of bpr against s aureus strains with a variety of susceptibility phenotypes in an immunocompromised murine pneumonia model was characterized the bpr mics of the test isolates ranged from to mugml pharmacokinetic pk studies were conducted with infected neutropenic balbc mice and the bpr concentrations were measured in plasma epithelial lining fluid elf and lung tissue pd studies with these mice were undertaken with eight s aureus isolates two MSSA strains three hospitalacquired mrsa strains and three CA mrsa strains subcutaneous bpr doses of to mgkg of body weightday were administered and the NC in the number of log cfuml in lungs was evaluated after h of therapy the pd profile was characterized by using the free drug exposures f determined from the following parameters the percentage of time that the concentration was greater than the mic t mic the Cmax in serummic and the area under the concentrationtime curvemic the bpr pk parameters were linear over the dose range studied in plasma and the elf concentrations ranged from to of the free plasma concentration ft mic was the parameter that best correlated with tau against a diverse array of s aureus isolates in this mu pneumonia model the effective dose ed ed and stasis exposures appeared to be similar among the isolates studied bpr exerted maximal antibacterial effects when ft mic ranged from to regardless of the phenotypic profile of resistance to betalactam fluoroquinolone erythromycin clindamycin or TCs"
[ 90 ]
[ "methicillinsusceptible s aureus" ]
8,157,202
"we have taken a basic biologic RPA to elucidate the pathophysiology of BPD bpd the CLD based on cellmolecular mechanisms of physiologic lung OD stretch coordinates PTHrP pthrp signaling between the ATII cell and the mesoderm to coordinately upregulate key genes for the homeostatic FB phenotype including peroxisome proliferator G1 TRG ppargamma adipocyte differentiation related protein adrp and OB and the retrograde stimulation of type ii cell surfactant synthesis by leptin each of these paracrine interactions requires cellspecific receptors on adjacent cells derived from the mesoderm or endoderm respectively to serially upregulate the signaling pathways between and within each celltype it is this PET compartmentation that is key to understanding how specific agonists and antagonists can predictably affect this mechanism of AM homeostasis using a wide variety of pathophysiologic insults associated with bpd barotrauma oxotrauma and infection we have found that there are type ii cell andor FB cellmolecular effects generated by these insults which can lead to the bpd phenotype we have exploited these cellspecific mechanisms to effectively prevent and treat lung injuries using ppargamma agonists to sustain this signaling pathway it is critically important to judiciously select physiologically and developmentally relevant interventions when treating the preterm neonate"
[ 26 ]
[ "parathyroid hormonerelated protein" ]
6,784,974
"lipoperoxidationderived aldehydes for example MDA mda can damage proteins by generating covalent adducts whose accumulation probably participates in tissue damage during aging however the mechanisms of adduct formation and their stability are scarcely known this article investigates whether oxidative steps are involved in the process as a MM of the process the interaction between mda and bovine SS Al bsa was analyzed incubation of bsa with mda resulted in rapid quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and appearance of mda protein adduct fluorescence transition metal ion traces interfered with the latter process mda induced generation of peroxides in bsa which was preventable with the antioxidant BHT bht mdaexposed bsa underwent aggregation degradation and bhtsensitive gel retardation effects phycoerythrin fluorescence disappearance a marker of damage mediated by ROS species indicated synergism between mda and metal ions the interaction between reactive aldehydes and proteins is likely to occur in several steps some of them oxidative in nature giving rise to T3 LPO endproducts which could participate with AGEs in the generation of tissue damage during aging"
[ 157 ]
[ "lipoperoxidation" ]
4,846,741
"gb virus c gbvc or HGV hgv is transmitted by the parenteral route but the importance of sexual transmission needs to be ascertained gbvchgv infections were investigated using rna and eantibody PCD methods in subjects INF by the HIV-1 hiv divided into groups of individuals each according to their main risk factor for hiv infection blood product recipients group intravenous drug users group homosexuals group or heterosexual SE group the overall prevalence of gbvchgv infection was no significant difference was observed in gbvc hgv prevalence among the four CG and in CG and respectively hepatitis c virus hcv antibodies used as a control for parenteral exposure were found in and of the subjects in groups and versus only and of the subjects in groups and respectively p similarly coinfections with gbvchgv and hcv were significantly associated with the parenteral route p these data emphasized the usefulness of combining the detection of rna and the e antibody to determine the actual prevalence of gbvchgv infection the high prevalence of the gbvchgv markers among the HIV+ subjects especially those with sexual exposure provides additional evidence that this route of transmission plays a key role in the epidemiology of gbvchgv the potential influence of gbvchgv infection on the course of hiv disease needs further DUE"
[ 5 ]
[ "hepatitis g virus" ]
14,445,409
"to quantify the amount of CL NO harvested in modified RND"
[ 10 ]
[ "radical neck dissection" ]
9,441,271
"backward SBS was used to control the growth of ASE ase reducing the unwanted emission in a pulseamplified cw tisapphire laser system from to less than x in the final output suppression of ase substantially improved the spectral SQ of the laser and broadened the range over which the laser is useful the SO duration was compressed but the pulse remained nearly transform limited"
[ 9 ]
[ "amplified spontaneous emission" ]
3,689,975
"in order to study the rate of intestinal absorption and hepatic uptake of mediumchain fatty acids mcfa six growing pigs mean body weight kg were fitted with a permanent fistula in the duodenum and with three catheters in the portal vein i.c. and HV respectively two electromagnetic flow probes were also set up one around the portal vein and one around the hepatic artery a mixture of octanoic and decanoic acids esterified as mediumchain triacylglycerols together with maltose dextrine and a nitrogenous fraction was continuously infused for h into the duodenum samples of blood were withdrawn from the three vessels at regular intervals for h and further analysed for their nonesterified octanoic and decanoic acid contents the concentration of nonesterified octanoic and decanoic acids in the portal blood rose sharply after the beginning of each infusion and showed a biphasic timecourse with two maximum values one T3 min and a later one between and min only of octanoic acid infused into the duodenum and of C10 were recovered in the portal flow throughout each experiment the amounts of nonesterified mcfa taken up per h by the liver were close to those absorbed from the gut via the portal vein within the same periods of time showing that the liver is the main site of utilization of mcfa in pigs these results have been discussed with a special emphasis laid on the possible mechanisms of the biphasic timecourse of mcfa absorption and the incomplete REC in the HPB of the infused fatty acids"
[ 246 ]
[ "portal blood" ]
8,996,817
"based on traditional chinese medicine theory and clinical experience traditional chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation from the perspective of history and logic the different comprehension of toxicity between western medicine and traditional chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of drug toxicity in traditional chinese medicine the authors suggest that its not feasible to T0 the chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of drug toxicity between traditional chinese medicine and WM many control elements are involved in the use of traditional chinese herbal drugs and chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with western drugs more and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity currently the study of chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and chinese drug nature compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome DP T3 making definition of chinese drug toxicity and its connotation"
[ 91 ]
[ "western medicine" ]
10,390,052
"in this paper a new MM of SOC is introduced this model called the mRNA paradigm is motivated by the problem of gene expression initiation in the newlyborn daughter cells T3 mitosis the MM is fundamentally different in dynamics and properties from the well known sandpile paradigm simulation experiments demonstrate that a critical total number of proteins exists below which transcription is impossible above this critical threshold the system enters the regime of selfsustained oscillations with standard deviations and periods proportional to the genes complexities with probability one the BL between these two regimes is very sharp importantly such a selforganization emerges without any deterministic feedback loops or external supervision and is a result of CR random redistribution of proteins between inactive genes given the size of the genome the domain of selforganized oscillatory motion is also limited by the genes maximal complexities below the critical complexity all the regimes of selforganized oscillations are selfsimilar and largely independent of the genes complexities above the level of critical complexity the wholegenome transcription is impossible again the BL between the domains of oscillations and G0 is very sharp the gene expression paradigm is an example of CA with the domain of application potentially far beyond its biological context the MM seems to be simple enough for staging an experiment for verification of its remarkable properties"
[ 194 ]
[ "cellular automata" ]
5,143,869
"the authors investigated the relationship between the activity of the RAA system and serum lipid levels in HT eh they examined patients with eh stage i and ii who classification group a n age bracket years they investigated the plasma renin activity pra plasma aldosterone pa and total cholesterol tch hdl ldl cholesterol and triglycerides tg they divided the group into three subgroups according to the pra into low l normal n and high renin CG h in the whole group they did not find significant differences in the lipid C2 in relation to pra they selected from the group patients older than years group b and in those they recorded significantly higher tch levels in group h as compared with normal n p and l p and significantly higher ldl levels in group h as compared with l p they found a significant direct relationship between pra and tch p and between pra and ldl p a liminal relationship between pa and tch p they did not find a significant relationship between the raas activity and hdl or tg the authors conclude that patients with eh above years and high pra a markedly greater HLP as compared with the low or normalrenin group this may partly explain the higher incidence of cardiovascular complications in highrenin eh reported by some authors"
[ 195 ]
[ "hyperlipoproteinaemia" ]
4,015,815
"the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of a highly TPS beta AR agonist cl cl beta beta beta were investigated in otsuka longevans tokushima fatty fatty and LETO control rats daily injection of cl mgkg sc to these rats weeks old for weeks caused a significant reduction in body weight fatty control associated with a marked decrease in fat pad weight inguinal fatty control retroperitoneal fatty control without affecting food NI the C2 of uncoupling protein mrna and protein C2 of uncoupling protein ucp as well as guanosine diphosphatebinding a reliable index of thermogenesis in brown AT were lower in the fatty than in the control rats however after cl treatment these parameters in brown AT increased significantly to fold in both CG furthermore uncoupling protein was induced in white AT as well as in brown AT the fatty rats showed hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia during the glucose ATT but cl ameliorated these parameters these findings suggest that decreased thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue may be one of the causes of obesity in the fatty rats and that administration of cl prevents obesity by decreasing white fat mass by activating brown AT thermogenesis and by inducing uncoupling protein in white AT furthermore cl treatment may inhibit diabetes mellitus by ameliorating obesity and by activating glucose transporter in WG AT and brown adipose tissue"
[ 146 ]
[ "tolerance test" ]
7,599,020
"this study was performed to assess the mrna C2 in skeletal muscle of MHD mhd patients fiftyone sedentary mhd patients and sedentary normal adults of similar age gender CSD and racialethnic mix as the patients were examined the subjects had needle muscle biopsy to measure mrna C2 they were assessed in right VL for insulinlike growth factor i igfiea and igfiec igfii the igfi receptor the igfii receptor and myostatin mrna was measured by RT PCR of RT cdna the results showed that in the mhd patients as compared with the normal CP skeletal muscle mrna C2 for igfiea igfii and the igfi receptor were significantly reduced whereas mrna for igfiec igfii receptor and myostatin were not different than normal we conclude that sedentary mhd patients show reductions in mrna levels in the right VL for certain growth factor proteins notably igfiea igfii and the igfi receptor these abnormalities may contribute to the sarcopenia and impaired endurance capacity strength and PCS performance that occur in mhd patients"
[ 77 ]
[ "reverse transcribed" ]
4,461,951
"recent data have demonstrated that the antioestrogen tamoxifen tam is able to facilitate apoptosis in cancer cells not expressing or er in an attempt to identify the PSA pathway for this phenomenon we investigated the role of tam as an oxidative stress agent in two ernegative human cancer cell lines namely tleukaemic jurkat and ovarian a cancer cells we have demonstrated that tam is able to generate oxidative AS thereby causing thiol SD and activation of the transcriptional factor nfkappab as described for other oxidative agents tam was able to induce either cell proliferation or apoptosis depending on the dose when used at the lowest dose tested microm a slight proliferative effect of tam was noticed in terms of cell counts and dna synthesis rate whereas at higher doses microm a consistent occurrence of apoptosis was detected importantly the induction of apoptosis by tam is not linked to downregulation or anergy by phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 Bcl-2"
[ 150 ]
[ "functional inactivation" ]
7,463,634
"it has recently been proposed that alzheimer disease ad might be initiated by a molecular hit into a regulatory protein eg a cell surface receptor schmitt hp neuromodulation aminergic neurodisinhibition and neurodegeneration draft of a comprehensive theory for alzheimer disease med hypoth however other substrates in particular intracellular protein complexes such as the ubiquitinproteasome system ups could as well serve as a targets for such a hit which might insert a mutation or induce conformational changes resulting in PET failure of protein Kd along the ubiquitinproteasome proteolytic pathway it has been claimed that impairment of the C1 MCP complex the ss proteasome might represent a key factor in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the formation of abnormal protein aggregates such as neuronal cytoplasmic or nuclear inclusion bodies and fibrillary deposits this article aims to review critically whether current information really supports the idea that impairment of the ups might play a significant role in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders with special emphasis on ad the data provided in favour of proteasome impairment were as a rule revealed in in vitro experiments which cannot be unequivocally transferred to the in vivo conditions in neurodegeneration the author concludes that there is yet no clear evidence of a pivotal role of proteasome failure in the early pathogenesis of ad"
[ 97 ]
[ "multicatalytic protease" ]
207,998
"the profile of hydroxymethoxy MA vma excretion was studied in relation to reported acute infectious disease episodes daily vma excretion levels and symptom reports were analyzed for a group of volunteers over a fourweek period results showed a tendency for elevated vma C2 to occur with greater frequency within three days prior to the ON of symptoms these findings are interpreted as suggesting that elevated levels of catecholamine activity may increase susceptibility to disease by interfering with the immune response and in the presence of an agent lead to an infectious disease episode"
[ 4 ]
[ "mandelic acid" ]
373,515
"RCs were found to bind two ubiquinones both of which could be removed by OP and the detergent lauryldimethylamine oxide one ubiquinone was more easily removed than the other the lowtemperature lightinduced optical and electron paramagnetic resonance epr changes were eliminated and restored upon removal and readdition of ubiquinone and were quantitatively correlated with the amount of tightly bound ubiquinone we therefore conclude that this ubiquinone plays an obligatory role in the primary photochemistry the easily removed ubiquinone is thought to be the SE acceptor the lowtemperature CR kinetics as well as the optical and epr spectra were the same for untreated RCs and for those reconstituted with ubiquinone this indicates that SE and reconstitution were accomplished without altering the conformation of the active site RCs reconstituted with other quinones also showed restored photochemical activity although they exhibited changes in their lowtemperature recombination kinetics and lightinduced g epr signal is interpreted in terms of a magnetically coupled ubiquinonefe acceptor complex a possible role of iron is to facilitate electron transfer between the primary and secondary ubiquinones"
[ 87 ]
[ "charge recombination" ]
4,578,351
"public attitudes toward smoking are complex but the facts for businesses are clear SHS is a major health hazard and the most unhealthy places for SHS are bars and restaurants while there is little support for a total smoking ban selected bans are more popular even if new federal rules dont force restaurants to ban smoking businesses can gain a competitive edge by going smokefree"
[ 25 ]
[ "secondhand smoke" ]
3,054,217
"ually potent anaesthetic techniques patients in GI n received thiopentone induction isoflurane and nitrous oxide patients in group ii n received TIVA with propofol and patients in group iii n received intravenous propofol supplemented with nitrous oxide fentanyl and VEC were used in all three CG the depth of anaesthesia was judged on clinical signs of adequate anaesthesia episodes of bradycardia HR rate beats min tachycardia HR rate beats min SH mean arterial pressure or below preoperative blood pressure or hypertension mean arterial pressure or systolic blood pressure mmhg above preoperative value were recorded when lasting min any use of ephedrine or glycopyrrolate given to correct hypotension or bradycardia was documented in group ii significantly more patients were given ephedrine p to treat SH the drug was administered T3 intubation but before skin incision in the majority of cases glycopyrrolate was given to significantly more patients in group iii p to treat bradycardia and in of a total of patients given glycopyrrolate it was po before surgery with the use of these additional drugs there were no differences in the number of patients with min episodes of SH hypertension tachycardia or bradycardiaabstract truncated at words"
[ 21 ]
[ "total intravenous anaesthesia" ]
9,588,029
"as a substantial part of our concept of a minimally invasive cochlear implant ci surgery we developed an automated IS tool studies on an artificial ST model were performed in order to evaluate force application when using the insertion tool"
[ 25 ]
[ "scala tympani" ]
5,432,442
"NH abundantly present in CS and cooked foods is not mutagenic to salmonella typhimurium strains however NH shows mutagenicity to s typhimurium ta and yg in the presence of s mix when coexisting with aromatic amines including AN o and mtoluidines we previously reported that the mutagenicity from NH and AN in the presence of s mix was due to the formation of a mutagenic compound aminophenylhpyridobindole aminophenylnorharman in the present study we analyzed the mutagens produced by NH with o or mtoluidine in the presence of s mix when norharman and otoluidine were reacted at degrees c for min two mutagenic compounds which were mutagenic with and without s mix respectively were produced and these were isolated by hplc the former mutagen was deduced to be aminomethylphenylhpyridobindole aminomethylphenylnorharman on the basis of various spectral data and this new heterocyclic amine was confirmed by its chemical synthesis the latter mutagen was identified to be the hydroxyamino derivative aminomethylphenylnorharman induced revertants of ta and revertants of yg per microg with s mix formation of the same dna adducts was observed in yg when aminomethylphenylnorharman or a mixture of NH plus otoluidine was incubated with s mix these observations suggest that NH reacts with otoluidine in the presence of s mix to produce aminomethylphenylnorharman and this compound is metabolically activated to yield its hydroxyamino derivative after activation by OAT it might bind to dna and exert mutagenicity in s typhimurium ta and yg when NH and mtoluidine were reacted in the presence of s mix aminomethylphenylhpyridobindole aminomethylphenylnorharman was identified as a mutagen thus the mutagenicity of norharman with mtoluidine may follow a mechanism similar to that with otoluidine"
[ 187 ]
[ "norharman" ]
15,822,259
"to modify the performanceoriented mobility assessmentgait pomag subtest and validate this modified pomag mpomag in children with HOPS hpp a rare metabolic disorder that can manifest with musculoskeletal symptoms that impair mobility and ambulation"
[ 17 ]
[ "hypophosphatasia" ]
9,457,299
"one of the limitations of nonselective MA oxidase mao inhibitors as antidepressant or antiparkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine resulting from inhibition of SVR maoa and PR of noradrenaline we have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional BB selective maoab inhibitor m nmethylnpropargylaminomethylhydroxyquinoline and compared it to the classical nonselective TCP tcp in rats we also measured maoa and b in the striatum hippocampus liver and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine noradrenaline and serotonin at the doses employed intraperitoneal ip m and mgkg selectively inhibited BB maoa and b by more than with little inhibition of CL and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine noradrenaline and serotonin in contrast to tcp mgkg ip which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect m had a limited pressor effect as compared to it and controls the limited potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by m its ability to raise BB C2 of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an antidepressant and antiparkinsonian agent for which it is being developed"
[ 64 ]
[ "inhibitor tranylcypromine" ]
15,478,814
"to determine whether late gadolinium mri enhancement of colorectal LM crclm postchemotherapy is associated with tumour fibrosis and survival posthepatectomy"
[ 9 ]
[ "liver metastases" ]
3,937,052
"determination of the optimal braking force fopt in the wingate anaerobic test want among healthy people has been determined based on TBM the abnormal MM to TBM ratio in individuals with NM disabilities invalidates this RPA this T0 was intended to validate the optimal force obtained from the force velocity test fvt and from an estimate of lean arm volume as two alternative predictors for the fopt twentyeight to yrold girls and boys with neuromuscular diseases performed the arm want six times three trials in each of two visits against various braking forces to directly determine fopt they also performed the arm force velocity test to assess optimal force foptfvt lean arm volume was determined by anthropometry alv and water MSD wlv correlations between fopt on the one hand and foptfvt wlv and alv on the other were r and respectively total body mass was the worst predictor r thus fopt obtained from either fvt or lean arm volume estimate is a useful predictor of the fopt for mean SP of the want in children and adolescents with a neuromuscular disability"
[ 21 ]
[ "total body mass" ]
2,981,431
"cytokines are critical to several fundamental homeostatic mechanisms such as fever acute phase reactions wound healing hematopoiesis inflammation cellular and humoral immune responses and tumor regression as a result of advances in recombinant dna technology recombinant cytokines are available as therapeutic agents they have been used for M1 cancers and immunodeficiencies as a therapy for naturally occurring or druginduced anemias or leukopenias and they have also been applied to some cutaneous disorders cytokine therapy can result in toxic reactions that affect many organ systems especially the skin these reactions are common and diverse ranging from minor ISRs pruritus and flushing to lifethreatening autoimmune disorders severe erythroderma or bullous skin reactions this review focuses on the major cytokines that are in current clinical use or under investigation and describes the cutaneous complications of these agents"
[ 96 ]
[ "injection site reactions" ]
2,272,969
"to determine whether propressophysin vasopressinneurophysin F0 is present in HP the nature of the immunoreactive neurophysin was characterized by GF when plasma samples obtained from six patients with the SIADH due to central nervous system disease were fractionated on a column of sephadex g in n acetic acid virtually all of the NSN nsn immunoreactivity coeluted with ilabeled nsn in contrast gel filtration of plasma from six patients with oat cell carcinoma of the lung with ectopic vasopressin production consistently demonstrated in addition a peak of a higher molecular weight hmw form of NP this hmw NP represented of the total nsn immunoreactivity in plasma and its elution profile was not changed when chromatographed after incubation in m urea on sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel PACE the hmw NP ran in the dalton area of the gel a substantial portion of the hmw neurophysin appeared to be a glycoprotein judging from its IB to concanavalin a when the hmw neurophysin was incubated with TR most of the immunoreactivity was converted into a smaller neurophysin which bound to a vasopressinagarose column in a phdependent manner moreover a definite peak of immunoreactive vasopressin appeared after the trypsin treatment this peak coeluted with synthetic Arg vasopressin on gel filtration and had the characteristic affinity of vasopressin for neurophysinagarose these results indicate that propressophysin circulates in patients with oat cell carcinoma of the lung with ectopic vasopressin production and suggest that plasma propressophysin may be a marker for ectopic vasopressin production"
[ 93 ]
[ "neurophysin" ]
11,546,217
"hand osteoarthritis hoa is a prevalent condition for which treatments are based on analgesia and physical therapies our primary objective was to evaluate pain perception in participants with hoa by assessing the characteristics of nodal involvement pain threshold in each hand joint and radiological severity we hypothesised that inflammation in hand osteoarthritis joints enhances sensitivity and firing of IP nociceptors thereby causing chronic pain participants with proximal and DIP pip and dip joint hoa and nonoa controls were recruited clinical parameters of joint involvement were measured including clinical nodes vas visual analogue score for pain mm scale haq health assessment questionnaire and kellgrenlawrence scores for radiological severity and pain threshold measurement were performed the mean vas in hoa participants was mm ± compared with mm ± in the control group p quantitative sensory testing qst demonstrated lower pain thresholds in dippip joints and other subgroups in the oa group including the thumb metacarpophalangeal mcps joints and wrists p but not in controls p our data demonstrate that hoa subjects are sensitised to pain due to increased firing of IP nociceptors future work to evaluate mechanisms of peripheral sensitisation warrants further investigation"
[ 68 ]
[ "distal interphalangeal" ]
1,319,031
"metabolic alkalosis was induced in clinically normal horses by administration of furosemide mgkg of body weight im followed hours later by sodium bicarbonate nahco g in l water via NG tube furosemide diuresis resulted in a mean weight loss of kg which was associated with small but significant increases in A-V blood ph bicarbonate and plasma protein concentrations p less than while plasma potassium chloride and calcium concentrations declined significantly p less than oral administration of the hypertonic nahco solution resulted in clinical evidence of hypovolemia which was accompanied by a marked increase p less than in plasma protein concentration seven of the horses developed signs of NM excitability as evidenced by muscle fasciculations and of the horses developed diaphragmatic flutter hypernatremia was transiently induced but it resolved as the horses were allowed access to water the alkalosis induced by furosemide and nahco was profound and persisted for a hour period and was associated with marked hypochloremia and hypokalemia partial replacement of the electrolyte deficits and correction of the metabolic alkalosis was attempted using meq of nacl or kcl given as an isotonic solution via NG tube in the kcltreated group there was a prompt and significant decline in A-V blood ph and bicarbonate concentration p less than accompanied by a significant increase in PK p less than abstract truncated at words"
[ 214 ]
[ "plasma potassium concentration" ]
7,648,981
"a method was developed for the determination of the biocide OPP biphenylol opp in beer using deuterated opp as an internal standard a new LLE procedure employing acetonitrile diethyl ether and npentane afforded rapid phase separation the evaporated extract was derivatized with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in a wateracetonitrile mixture that was buffered with potassium carbonate followed by SE of the derivative into cyclohexane and analysis by gas chromatographymass spectrometry in electron ionization mode the method enables the PCD of opp in ml of beer at concentrations as low as microgl and provides a linear range of quantification of microgl samples from beers canned over the past years and sold in countries were analyzed for opp in of them the target compound was present at concentrations of microgl our investigations indicate that the ends of the cans which contain sealing material presumably treated with opp are responsible for this contamination"
[ 10 ]
[ "orthophenylphenol" ]
2,656,632
"thirtytwo female mice infected with Sm and noninfected control mice were studied they were killed by C2 dislocation dissected and their ovaries examined histopathologically and histochemically ovaries of INF mice showed definite structural damage no ova worms or specific granulomata were detected the T0 points to a possible immunological mechanism producing such changes simulating those occurring in schistosomal nephropathy PCD of immune complexes in such organs is recommended"
[ 5 ]
[ "schistosoma mansoni" ]
11,651,087
"this paper was aimed to study the minimum dose of human chorionic gonadotropin hcg to effectively trigger maturation of oocytes and prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome ohss in a series of hyperresponders treated with a long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist gnrha protocol six women at high risk of developing severe ohss in a long gnrha protocol were enrolled into this T0 serum hormone C2 on the day of and after hcg administration AFC oocyte retrieval number and quality were determined in total women aged between and years and at risk of developing severe ohss received u hcg five of them were treated with coasting for day and the rest one for days the mean number of oocytes collected was range and the FR per collected oocyte was of the women in the T0 only one cancelled embryos transfer and all embryos were frozen and then she delivered two health boys on term in the subsequent FT embryo transfer fet cycle pregnancies and births were achieved in patients out of in vitro fertilizationembryo transfer ivfet cycles no woman developed moderate or severe ohss triggering with u hcg is feasible to prevent ohss in unpredicted hyperresponders undergoing ivf in a long gnrha protocol"
[ 71 ]
[ "antral follicle count" ]
175,338
"a recent study olive and spickenagel j acoust soc am has shown that area parameters derived from LP analysis can be linearly interpolated between dyad boundaries with very little distortion in the resultant synthesized speech the success of area parameter interpolation raises a question can other acoustic parameters such as the PS of the speech waveform be similarly interpolated the spectrum is of special interest because speech can be synthesized in real time from spectral parameters on a programmable digital filter to study this question a speech analysissynthesis system using spectral parameters samples of power spectra at different frequencies was simulated these parameters were determined from the speech signal at every dyad boundary and interpolated for intermediate values dyad boundaries representing the limits of transition regions between phonemes were determined manually informal listening tests comparing synthetic speech with and without linear interpolation showed slight degradation in the interpolated speech this Kd is significantly reduced by using an additional point within the dyad boundaries for interpolation"
[ 17 ]
[ "linear prediction" ]
640,198
"synthesis in escherichia coli of correctly folded Fab that bind antigen with the same affinity as the whole antibody is now possible here i review the techniques for achieving this and the physical properties of the various fragments produced this technology not only facilitates antibody engineering but is also the basis of screening libraries for CBA although the immunization of animals has not been made unnecessary in the production of monoclonal antibodies steps toward this goal are now feasible"
[ 7 ]
[ "antibody fragments" ]
5,191,527
"because previous investigations suggested involvement of the gld fasl in the selection process in the follicular dendritic cell fdcassociated cell cluster of the germinal center we investigated the expression of fasl in hodgkin lymphoma hl on protein and rna level while considering the epsteinbarr virus status of the hodgkin and RS hrs cells tumor tissue from patients with classic hl NS ns mixed cellularity mc and lymphocyterich lr was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for fasl fas cd and cd and by WB for fasl fasl mrna was detected by an exon TPS oligonucleotide and epsteinbarr virus infection by in situ hybridization for epsteinbarr virus early rnas eber WB showed soluble and membranebound forms of fasl immunohistochemistry showed fasl expression in virtually all hrs of of ns cases and of mc cases fasl expression did not correlate with the epsteinbarr virus status of the hrs low fasl protein expression was found in some hrs of lr cases fasl mrna was detected in of ns of mc and of lr cases seventy percent to of the hrs cells expressed fas cd immunohistochemistry showed disrupted fdc networks in the tumor tissue with reduced and virtually absent expression of cd and fasl these observations suggest that fasl expression in hrs cells and the absence of fasl in the fdc cluster represent a disturbed microenvironment that may be involved in the pathogenesis of hl"
[ 60 ]
[ "nodular sclerosis" ]
5,518,762
"the wirelocalized extirpation is the gold standard for the examination of nonpalpable lesions suspicious of malignancy less invasive techniques were introduced in the last years offering also a high diagnostic reliability e g stereotactic core needle biopsy the T3 breast biopsy and the vacuum core biopsy based on an analysis of vacuum core breast biopsies and the following interventions in the case of carcinoma recommendations for the management of the nonpalpable breast carcinoma diagnosed by vacuum core biopsy should be developed in patients carcinomas were found necessitating further operations these were ptis or ptpnmcarcinomas and only in one case an occult ptpnmcarcinoma we recommend a short interval between CB and operation a preoperative localization of the clips e g the residual microcalcification and the controlled placement of the hooked wire that should also be performed at the mammotomer using the same way to the tumor furthermore it is necessary to excise the core biopsy localization channel en bloc together with a wide tumour excision an intraoperative histological examination of the specimen should be performed to confirm tumourfree excision borders for this the position of specimen should be marked by a thread and a specimen radiography should be made for the orientation of the pathologist and for documentation a LT followup of these patients under T0 conditions should be considered patients with benign diagnosis not undergoing GA and operation with the consequences for later radiological evaluation mostly profit from vacuum core breast biopsy for patients with carcinoma the costs of the perioperative management increase this should have consequences for the quality assurance of this method"
[ 108 ]
[ "core biopsy" ]
8,478,948
"lectin histochemistry was performed on mouse uteri to determine what effects leukemia GABA factor lif has on carbohydrate epitope expressions at the time of implantation twentytwo biotinylated lectins were used in this study following i.t. of lif SB to the apical surface of the uterine glandular epithelium ge was recognized by six lectins particularly IB of the lectin from griffonia bandeiraea simplicifolia was specific to the GE close to the luminal epithelium succinylated wheat germ agglutinin wga which has specificity for oligosaccharides recognized by wga without sialic acid residues showed weaker binding to the uterine luminal epithelium le and the stroma than wga suggesting that terminal residues of glycoconjugates on these tissues may be modified by sialic acids lectin IB to the glandular and luminal epithelium was not influenced by lif however three lectins including a lectin from DBA showed specificity for stromal vessels h T3 lif injection since the lectin from d biflorus binds to neovascular vessels lif may play a role in regulating maternal angiogenesis directly andor indirectly during implantation"
[ 138 ]
[ "dolichos biflorus" ]
2,930,040
"the clinical course of patients was determined during an average of years following the angiographic demonstration of coronary artery spasm cas seventeen patients received medical treatment after the demonstration of coronary spasm and six patients had cardiac surgery twentythree patients were living and two patients had died at the time of followup twentyone of the surviving patients has either no chest pain or markedly reduced symptoms however the demonstration of cas by angiography was associated with a high incidence of subsequent cardiac complications which included MI four patients cardiac arrest four patients and death two patients we concluded from this study that after the demonstration of cas by angiography the clinical course was VL with most patients of patients having improvement of symptoms at the time of followup major cardiac complications were frequent out of patients and although clinical and coronary angiographic features were of limited use in predicting major cardiac complications most of the patients who had an uncomplicated course of patients had either less than fixed coronary i.a. luminal diameter narrowing can or coronary i.a. bypass graft operations the majority of patients with less than can of patients had no L1 cardiac complications and myocardial infarction or death usually occurred during periods of increased angina pectoris"
[ 192 ]
[ "major" ]
5,818,273
"in NHS a small proportion of peripheral blood tcells simultaneously express both cd and cd differentiation antigens in this study we characterized a subset of cd clones from a healthy donor that is TPS for the thyrotropin receptor tshr and that showed cells coexpressing the CR2 to address whether the expression of the cd receptor on the cell membrane was associated to differences in the physiology of the tcells we isolated from the same clone cd SP sp cells from those coexpressing cdcd receptors dp cells and stimulated them in vitro with antigen presenting cells apc carrying tshr the results demonstrated that cd coexpression has a profound effect on the physiology of t helper th cells in comparison to cells expressing the cd receptor alone dp tcells showed increased proliferation higher and more sustained release of free ca in the cytosol under CS- lower C2 of il and il released in the S9 increased amounts of Th1 released"
[ 76 ]
[ "single positive" ]
3,230,028
"morphine is the preferred opioid analgesic in pediatric cancer pain due to extensive clinical experience with it significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data following oral and parenteral administration global availability and the OD of controlledrelease formulations RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the pharmacokinetics dose equivalence clinical efficacy and safety of other opioid analgesics in CA pain PCTs are also needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant analgesics in children including TCAs anticonvulsants and antiarrhythmics for NP and corticosteroids and diphosphonates for bone pain unfortunately the number of children with CA pain and SD analgesic requirements is usually not C1 enough to support wellcontrolled PCTs at a single institution consequently multicentre and perhaps multinational efforts are necessary to fully evaluate opioid pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics and dosage guidelines in children with CA"
[ 77 ]
[ "neuropathic pain" ]
5,231,275
"a T0 was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin po intramuscularly at a dose rate of microgkg to sheep harbouring naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematodes and oestrus ovis in the southwestern region of france on day sheep were selected on the basis of positive faecal egg counts epg and positive assessment of o ovis infection including positive o ovis antibody level and positive CS the sheep were randomly allocated to a nonmedicated control group t or a doramectintreated group t of animals each on day sheep in group t received a single IM injection of doramectin microgkg whereas those in group t received an intramuscular injection of saline solution sodium chloride mlkg individual faecal epg were performed on days and between days and all sheep were slaughtered and worm and o ovis burdens were determined in doramectintreated sheep faecal egg counts had decreased to zero by day for all recovered types of nematode eggs strongyles nematodirus sp trichuris sp and rhabditidae sp for strongyles nematodirus sp and rhabditidae the percentage reductions in faecal epg GMs of doramectintreated sheep compared to the nonmedicated control sheep were from days for trichuris sp they were and on days and respectively on day percentage reductions were for nematodirus sp and rhabditidae and and for strongyles and trichuris sp respectively at necropsy only adult nematodes and mainly firststage o ovis larvae were recovered doramectin was highly efficacious against the AD stages of teladorsagia circumcincta nematodirus battus nematodirus filicollis oesophagostomum venulosum and trichuris sp it was also efficacious against L1 of o ovis no abnormal clinical signs or adverse reactions in any of the sheep treated with doramectin were observed"
[ 66 ]
[ "clinical score" ]
8,728,654
"although most cellular iron is firmly bound eg in haemoglobin some the LIP lip is bound to lowaffinity ligands the lip is regarded as the crossroads of cellular iron traffic using multiparameter flowcytometry of cells treated with the metalsensitive sensor calcein and the cellpermeable chelator deferiprone we studied lip in various human erythroid cell populations in peripheral blood bone marrow and culture erythroid maturation was found to be associated with a decrease in the lip in the peripheral blood NRBCs normoblasts had fold and fold greater lip than reticulocytes and erythrocytes respectively early reticulocytes had fold more lip than late reticulocytes in the bonemarrow and in culture lip decreased by c fold as early BFU-E matured to late precursors adding holotransferrin to irondepleted cultures elevated lip by fold we also show that in betathalassaemia a disease associated with ironoverload erythrocytes and reticulocytes in the blood and BFU-E in culture have a significantly greater lip than their normal counterparts in conclusion the lip in erythroid cells is altered under physiological maturation and pathological thalassaemia conditions the methodology presented might be useful for evaluating the lip in various diseases and for studying the efficacy of ironchelators"
[ 79 ]
[ "nucleated erythrocytes" ]
7,260,858
"the xlnd gene from pseudomonas alcaligenes ncimb CS px was shown to encode hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase i the enzyme that catalyzes the nadhdependent conversion of hydroxybenzoate to gentisate active recombinant xlnd was purified as a hexahistidine FP from escherichia coli had an estimated molecular mass of kda and is probably a trimeric protein with a subunit mass of kda this is in contrast to the monomeric nature of the few hydroxybenzoate hydroxylases that have been characterized thus far like other 4-HBA hydroxylases xlnd could utilize either nadh or nadph as the electron donor px harbors a second 4-HBA hydroxylase ii that was strictly inducible by specific aromatic substrates however the Kd of xylenol and xylenol in CS px was found to be dependent on the xlndencoded hydroxylase i and not the second strictly inducible hydroxylase ii"
[ 79 ]
[ "hydroxybenzoate" ]
15,941,530
"the present study aimed to investigate whether the response R2 of infants to modified CIMT and bimanual therapy are associated with different types of brain lesions"
[ 14 ]
[ "constraintinduced movement therapy" ]
8,748,142
"a biological process for removal of mercury from coal is under investigation iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria have previously been used for desulfurization of coal and for mineral mining we have shown that removal of mercury from coal is also possible via the same principles two pure cultures leptospirillum ferrooxidans and acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and four environmental consortium samples obtained from an AMD site were studied for mercury removal from coal four different coal samples were included in the study and the preliminary results have shown that up to of the mercury can be removed in batch cultures compared to control additional parameters such as media composition and inoculum size were also studied this is the first report demonstrating successful leaching of mercury from coal using biological treatment"
[ 61 ]
[ "acid mine drainage" ]
3,024,786
"apoptosis has been investigated in nb a t HL-60 leukemia cell line susceptible to maturation by alltrans or cis retinoic acid and in nbr a subclone resistant to differentiation maturation resistant nbr cells exhibited an ON of cell death after ratreatment h whereas maturation responsive nb cells showed no such apoptosis cell death being considerably delayed T3 cell maturation only a few nbr cells underwent apoptosis in response to low doses of ra below microm the surviving cells became refractory to higher doses of ra while these cells became resistant to apoptosis they became competent for maturation typically these raprimed cells responded to camp by maturation then apoptosis followed rapidly this MM furnishes situations where cells are either resistant or susceptible to apoptosis depending on whether they can or cannot undergo maturation the potential role of the bcl protein in the regulation of apoptosis was analyzed in nb and nbr cell lines a high expression of the bcl protein was detected by immunocytology and WB nb cells treated with either alltrans or cis retinoic acid microm were induced to differentiate and the level of Bcl-2 decreased to undetectable C2 during terminal maturation when only a few AI cells were detected in nbr cells while treatment with retinoids does not induce maturation as much as of cells became apoptotic and immunocytological labelling of nbr showed a strong cytoplasmic labelling of bcl although the expression of bcl remained high cells were not protected from apoptosis to assess whether bcl expression could be modulated as a consequence of differentiation nbr cells previously primed for maturation were triggered with camp downregulation of bcl protein occurred concomitant with maturation followed by apoptosis clearly nb and nbr cells show reciprocal SMB with regards to proliferation maturation bcl regulation and apoptosis in response to ra our results suggest first that the bcl downregulation in nb cells belongs to the maturation program rather than to apoptosis and second that neither a high bcl expression in nb cells is sufficient to protect cells from cis ra induced apoptosis nor is its full downregulation sufficient to produce apoptosis finally this work suggests that apoptosis and maturation programs include events which cannot occur simultaneously"
[ 8 ]
[ "human promyelocytic" ]
2,378,041
"ruminally cannulated steers were in a x latin square to determine the effect of amount of feed ingested on fiber digestion and other digestion events alfalfa haylage corn silage and a cornsoybean meal mix were incorporated in a ratio DM and fed at either or of AL intake acidinsoluble ash lanthanum and chromiumethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were digestion particulate and liquid markers apparent digestibility of dry matter NDF and cell solubles decreased linearly as feed NI increased the fiber fraction digested was a larger percentage of the DM digested at low than at high intakes of feed a more rapid rate of cellulose disappearance and a slow rate of passage of particulate matter through the rumen and total digestive tract with decreasing feed intake were key factors responsible for bringing about changes of digestion coefficients a consistently lower rumen ph of steers at high intakes of feed was thought to account for the slower rate of ruminal fiber disappearance the lower tract accounted for to of DM disappearance and tended to play a greater role during periods of high FI rumen and fecal sampling techniques provided similar ruminal rates of solids passage"
[ 65 ]
[ "neutral detergent fiber" ]
4,063,720
"immunocytochemistry was used to investigate the neuroanatomical CSD of the chickeni form of gonadotropinreleasing hormone cgnrhi in reproductively AS male redsided garter snakes thamnophis sirtalis parietalis cell bodies with cgnrhi immunoreactivity ir were found in the terminal nerve ganglion nucleus of the diagonal band of broca MPO area and the hypothalamus SF containing cgnrhiir were distributed in the following BB areas within the olfactory bulb fibers were found in the internal plexiform mitral and glomerular cell layers as well as in the TN within the forebrain fibers were observed in the diagonal band of broca rostral and LS lateral pallium retrobulbar region pars dorsomedialis nucleus accumbens MPO area HC amygdala posterior DVR hypothalamus median eminence and the TH within the midbrain fibers were found in the interpeduncular nucleus and the stratum album PV of the optic tectum this T0 shows that the CSD of cell bodies for cgnrhiir in this reptile is consistent with the CSD of immunoreactivity for cgnrhi in birds and rat gnrh in amphibians and mammals using AS specific to cgnrhi the endogenous form of gnrh this is the first study to show that the TN in a reptile contains gnrh immunoreactivity"
[ 111 ]
[ "dorsal ventricular ridge" ]
2,618,666
"disulfiram is used commonly as reinforcement in the treatment of chronic alcoholism although the drug is generally considered safe there are reports of SE including psychosis and SH we report a case of fatal FH caused by the use of disulfiram in a man with previously normal HCC CF"
[ 34 ]
[ "fulminant hepatitis" ]
6,544,331
"an extremely rapid progress in innovative communication systems has led to essential changes in conditions of acquiring knowledge and professional skills this resulted in the OD of different educational forms focusing especially on distance learning where trainers and trainees placed in different locations use different means of communication and information exchange including most uptodate IT it in the first distance learning specialization course for physicians was launched by the school of public health at the nofer institute of OM in łódź the ebased introductory course in occupational medicine was recognized as an equivalent to the traditional oncampus training the training process is mainly based on cdrom containing lectures and necessary links to external sources of the internet information email is used as the major communication mean to facilitate the exchange between trainers and trainees the SQ control of the training involved two streams of effectiveness and utility measurement systems the SQ of distance learning evaluated one year after its commence is comparable with that of the oncampus training"
[ 78 ]
[ "occupational medicine" ]
13,631,112
"HS is the leading cause of preventable deaths in civilian and military trauma use of fresh frozen plasma ffp in patients requiring massive transfusion is associated with improved outcomes ffp contains significant amounts of adiponectin which is known to have vascular protective CF we hypothesize that ffp improves vascular barrier CF largely via adiponectin plasma adiponectin levels were measured in severely injured patients in HS HS compared with normal individuals plasma adiponectin C2 decreased to in HS patients before resuscitation p and increased to postresuscitation but not significant in a HS mouse model we demonstrated a similar decrease in plasma adiponectin to but a significant increase to by ffp resuscitation compared with baseline p HS disrupted lung V1 barrier CF leading to an increase in permeability ffp resuscitation reversed these hsinduced effects immunodepletion of adiponectin from ffp abolished ffps effects on blocking endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and on improving lung vascular barrier function in HS mice replenishment with adiponectin rescued ffps effects these findings suggest that adiponectin is an important component in ffp resuscitation contributing to the beneficial effects on vascular barrier function T3 hs"
[ 0 ]
[ "hemorrhagic shock" ]
3,954,314
"we describe a unique sixgeneration highly consanguineous family originating from an isolated mountainous village in the russian province of daghestan three separate clinical phenotypes of PMD were identified in this C1 family seven patients developed a CP limbgirdle variant of muscular dystrophy lgmd with disease ON at years and loss of ambulation within a year course the second group included three patients with a slowly progressive distal myopathy first manifested in the late teens and confined to the tibial and calf muscles each of these two phenotypes segregated independently as an autosomal recessive trait and muscle biopsies showed nonspecific myopathic changes lastly two male siblings exhibited an atypical variant of DMD muscular dystrophy confirmed by detection of a deletion in the dystrophin gene to clarify the molecular basis of the polymorphic AR form of muscular dystrophy in this kindred we performed molecular genetic studies on family members and obtained significant evidence for linkage to chromosome p a maximum pairwise lod LOD score of was achieved at the zero recombination fraction ie at theta for locus ds multipoint NPL confirmed the most likely location of a mutant gene near ds the patients with lgmd and those with the distal muscular dystrophy phenotype share a common affected homozygous haplotype associated with the same founder chromosome key recombinants defined ds and ds to be the closest loci flanking the mutant gene remarkably two clinically distinct forms of AR muscular dystrophy lgmd type b lgmdb and miyoshi myopathy were recently mapped to the same locus we suggest that all three chromosome plinked conditions may represent allelic disorders ie different phenotypic expressions of a single gene"
[ 160 ]
[ "logarithm of odds" ]
2,658,506
"the enzyme responsible for all of the isomaltase activity and much of the maltase activity in the small intestine of the californian sea lion zalophus californianus was isolated by detergent solubilization of the brushborder membrane followed by immunoadsorption chromatography using antibodies directed against rb sucraseisomaltase in triton x sea lion isomaltase occurs as a monomer of mr and is composed of a single polypeptide chain as judged from the stoichiometry of the covalent IB of the affinity label conduritolbepoxide this polypeptide chain carries two enzymatically AS sites they are apparently identical and do not show either positive or negative cooperativity in addition to crossreacting immunologically with rb SI sea lion isomaltase has similar overall enzymatic properties with the exception of not hydrolyzing SU the alaskan fur seal collarhinus ursinus has a twoactive site isomaltase however in contrast to the sea lion this animal is endowed with a small but significant sucrase activity along with fully active prosucraseisomaltase sea lion isomaltase is one of the very few examples of enzymes with more than one AS site on a single polypeptide chain acting in parallel rather than in series furthermore this enzyme triggers some interesting questions on the phylogenetical pedigree of small intestinal sucraseisomaltase"
[ 107 ]
[ "sucraseisomaltase" ]
6,740,969
"helicobacter pylori infection is seen in more than of AD population in turkey the aims of this study were to evaluate the importance of the diagnostic tests to investigate the relationship between hp infection and FD"
[ 35 ]
[ "functional dyspepsia" ]
7,197,848
"aldosterone is known to play a role in the pathophysiology of some cardiovascular diseases however previous studies on aldosterone infusion have been mostly performed in animals receiving sodium loading and uninephrectomy and thus the cardiac action of aldosterone alone remains to be fully clarified the present study was undertaken to investigate the direct cardiac action of aldosterone infusion CT in rats not subjected to salt loading and uninephrectomy aldosterone microgh was subcutaneously infused into rats via an osmotic minipump for days aldosterone infusion under a normal salt diet induced only a slight increase in the blood pressure of normal rats throughout the infusion however aldosterone significantly induced cardiac hypertrophy as shown by echocardiography and measurement of cardiomyocyte crosssectional area furthermore aldosterone caused not only cardiac interstitial macrophage infiltration but also cardiac focal inflammatory lesions which were associated with an increase in cardiac mo chemoattractant protein mcp and osteopontin mrna the slight elevation of blood pressure by aldosterone infusion was completely prevented by tempol the superoxide dismutase mimetic however tempol failed to suppress CH the formation of inflammatory lesions and upregulation of cardiac mcp and osteopontin by aldosterone while NAC could inhibit all of them our data provide evidence that aldosterone alone can induce cardiac hypertrophy and severe inflammatory response in the HR independently of blood pressure even in the absence of salt loading or nephrectomy aldosterone seems to induce cardiac inflammation and mRNA via oxidative AS that is inhibited by nacetylcysteine but not by tempol"
[ 142 ]
[ "monocyte" ]
5,476,895
"propafenone ppf is an antiarrhythmic class ic agent its metabolism is genetically controlled by a cytochrome p isoenzyme named cypd which shows polymorphism in human population the aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between the antiarrhythmic tau of ppf and the oxidation phenotype subjects and material the study group consisted of patients aged to years suffering from PAF af the oxidation phenotype was described by the metabolic ratio mr of sparteine the mr value separated the group of PMs mr from the group of extensive metabolizers mr with the subgroup of very extensive metabolizers mr"
[ 81 ]
[ "poor metabolizers" ]
10,784,618
"polyprolines offer many opportunities to T0 AF influencing peptide and protein folding and structure longer chains can adopt two welldefined forms ppi and ppii but shorter MMP are quite flexible to understand in detail the dependence of the secondary structure on the length and the interplay between the side chain and main chain conformation zwitterionic pron models with n and longer inhomogeneous chains were studied by a combination of the raman and ROA roa spectroscopy with the density PET theory dft potential surfaces were systematically explored for the shorter oligoprolines and boltzmann conformational ratios were obtained both for the main chain and the proline ring puckering the predictions were verified by comparison of the experimental and simulated roa spectra the conformer ratios extracted from a decomposition of the exp roa into scaled computed spectra well reproduced boltzmann populations calculated from relative energies for example an a puckering of the proline ring was found prevalent relatively independent of the length whereas the cisamide backbone form adopted by shorter MMP rapidly disappeared for n the results are consistent with previous nmr and vibrational circular dichroism vcd data delocalized exciton vibrations along the peptide chain often enhance the roa signal and can thus be used to indicate a longer regular peptide structure the roa technique appeared to be very CS to the ring puckering less distinct spectral features were produced by changes in the main chain geometry"
[ 72 ]
[ "raman optical activity" ]
13,954,148
"it has long been known that the vast majority of all information en route to the CBF SC must first pass through the thalamus the long held view that the thalamus serves as a simple hi fidelity relay station for sensory information to the cortex however has over recent years been dispelled indeed multiple projections from the VN to thalamic nuclei including the VB nuclei and the geniculate HB regions typically associated with other modalities have been described further some thalamic SN have been shown to respond to stimuli presented from acro lbe is a collection of methods that directly exfoliates bulk layered materials into thin flakes of d nanomaterials in liquid media without any or with a minimum degree of chemical reactions so as to maintain the high crystallinity of d nanomaterials different synthetic methods are categorized in the following in which material characteristics including dispersion concentration flake thickness flake size and some applications are discussed in detail at the end we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of such synthetic methods of lbe and propose future perspectives"
[ 63 ]
[ "ventrobasal" ]
507,988
"prolactin immunoreactivity has been detected in human tears and in lacrimal PG and it has been suggested that this hormone might be a modulator of lacrimal secretion as well as a component of LG fluid the present T0 was designed to confirm the immunocytochemical localization of prolactin in the rat LG to determine the source of the prolactin and to evaluate the acute effects of prolactin on lacrimal sec CF we have confirmed that prolactinlike immunoreactivity is present in sec LDV of acinar cells of male and female SDRs prolactin message was present at detectable C2 in rna extracts of lacrimal glands from males indicating that at least a component of the prolactinlike immunoreactivity was the product of synthesis within the lacrimal glands crude MF from acini isolated from males bound femtomoles prolactinmg protein mean standard error of the mean n which was significantly p less than more than comparable fractions from females fmolesmg protein n preincubating membranes at degrees for min to release endogenous ligands increased prolactin binding to fmolesmg protein for males and fmolesmg protein for females p greater than suggesting that on average similar numbers of receptors are expressed in acinar cells of male and female rats but a larger fraction of the receptors is occupied by endogenous prolactinlike peptides in females because prolactin IB triggers prolactin receptor internalization in various cell types we propose that the prolactinlike immunoreactivity in lacrimal acinar cells of females has been accumulated from the circulation while the immunoreactivity seen in males results at least in part from de novo synthesis ovine prolactin at concentrations of ngml inhibited carbacholinduced peroxidase release by n p less than but failed to alter peroxidase release in the absence of carbachol these observations suggest that prolactin might function as an endocrine paracrine or autocrine modulator in the LG"
[ 301 ]
[ "lacrimal gland" ]
6,275,832
"hexamethonium is a potent antihypertensive agent its use is associated with prominent and unpleasant SE and sometimes with circulatory complications from excessive depressor action it is suitable for relatively few HT and often fails when RI is present the degree of care required to obtain satisfactory effectiveness is such that the program of treatment becomes too unwieldy for general use"
[ 35 ]
[ "renal insufficiency" ]
14,433,877
"dilatation of the ascending aorta tends to develop in individuals with AVD reduction ascending aortoplasty raa is an alternative procedure to ascending aortic replacement this study was designed to identify the early prognosis of raa for patients with AVD and dilatation of the ascending aorta"
[ 11 ]
[ "aortic valve disease" ]
13,342,308
"the number of patients requiring dialysis continues to increase worldwide imposing a substantial social and economic burden on patients their families and healthcare systems compared with facilitybased dialysis dialysis performed by the patient at home is associated with higher SQ of life freedom survival and reduced healthcare costs international guidelines recommend suitable patients are offered a choice of dialysis modality including homebased dialysis predialysis education and offering patients choice increase home dialysis uptake yet the AF that patients and families are willing to trade off in making decisions about dialysis location are not well understood the home first T0 will explore patients and CGs beliefs attitudes and preferences regarding dialysis education and decisionmaking with regards to dialysis options to identify key attributes which influence their decisionmaking and to quantify the relative value of these attributes"
[ 103 ]
[ "caregivers" ]
12,447,045
"the tricos™mbcp® and Fn sealant composite was a convenient effective and welltolerated material for mastoid cavity filling and immediate reconstruction of the external auditory meatus T3 cholesteatoma surgery with CWD cwd"
[ 29 ]
[ "canal wall down" ]
7,392,719
"at the kilimanjaro christian AMC a tertiary referral hospital in northern tanzania both the number of paediatric cases of lower respiratorytract infection lrti and the associated mortality increased between and molecular diagnostic tools were used to enhance the ID of the pathogens responsible for this perceived increase all children aged between and months who were admitted with lrti over a month period were enrolled in the study induced sputum was collected from each child and if the parents consented the subjects were also tested for hiv the sputum samples were each checked for bacteria by SC and in amplification assays for the dna of pneumocystis jiroveci mycobacterium tuberculosis and streptococcus pneumoniae twentytwo of the children tested for hiv had hiv antibodies although only two children both aged months were found pcrpositive for p jiroveci and only one was found positive for m tuberculosis including one of those found positive for p jiroveci and the child found positive for m tuberculosis were found pcrpositive for s pneumoniae it therefore appears that most paediatric cases of lrti who present at the hospital are attributable to s pneumoniae and that infections with this pathogen are entirely responsible for the observed increase in the incidence of ltri in the local children the increase seen in lrtiassociated mortality among the children may be the result of pneumococcal antibiotic resistance"
[ 4 ]
[ "medical centre" ]
2,037,260
"this T0 was undertaken to define the renal hemodynamic changes that mediate the acute response to an oral protein load three groups of subjects were studied diseasefree subjects patients with chronic renal disease of various causes except for diabetes mellitus documented by PH andor renal biopsy and DM that is a history of HG requiring antihyperglycemic therapy all subjects were studied before baseline and after test ingestion of a protein load glomerular filtration rate and ERP renal plasma flow were evaluated by inulin and PAH respectively in the diseasefree subjects the mean baseline glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were mlminute m and mlminute m whereas test glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were mlminute m and mlminute m respectively in patients with chronic renal disease the test glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were related to the severity of the disease the more severe the disease the lower the absolute test values and the smaller the increment from baseline to test values DM had a paradoxic response to ingestion of a protein load glomerular filtration rate fell while renal plasma flow remained unchanged this response was observed in all diabetic patients regardless of the type of diabetes or whether clinical evidence of diabetic nephropathy was absent minimal or severe"
[ 166 ]
[ "patients with diabetes mellitus" ]
13,243,755
"the reliability of radiographic measurements has been studied in pediatric hips but less has been published on the adult hip and none have examined the reliability of measurements for the location of the COR cor of the hip joint we have investigated the reliability of various radiographic variables with a focus on the cor"
[ 33 ]
[ "center of rotation" ]
10,037,007
"trilostane is a competitive inhibitor of βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase βhsd which notably converts pregnenolone into progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone into androstenedione trilostane shows antidepressantlike properties in the SW test fst the compound however induced only moderate effects on neuroactive steroid C2 that could be related to its behavioral efficacy"
[ 25 ]
[ "forced swimming" ]
4,705,612
"several species have been and continue to be used as subjects in studies of electrical stimulation of the cochlea few attempts however have been made to determine if data obtained from different species are quantitatively or qualitatively similar the present work compares psychophysical absolute PCD threshold vs frequency functions for sinusoidal stimuli obtained from humans nonhuman primates cats and guinea pigs threshold data for monopolar and BP electrode configurations from both previously published and unpublished studies are compared in GA within all four species significant intersubject R2 in detection threshold level was found but slopes of threshold vs frequency functions were relatively well conserved within a species under the conditions studied with one exception cat bipolar stimulation threshold functions reached a minimum at or near hz across species and electrode configurations in all cases thresholds were significantly lower for monopolar as compared with bipolar configurations statistically there were no significant differences in absolute threshold level across species threshold levels increased with frequency above hz at a rate of dboctave depending on both electrode configuration and species slopes were steeper for MP than for BP configurations when slopes were averaged between and hz no statistically significant differences in overall slopes were found nor was there a significant interaction between electrode configuration and species there were however consistent species differences within more restricted regions of the function human functions for both MP and BP stimulation were steeper than all animal functions in the range of hz within this range the differences between slopes for human and nonhuman subjects were statistically significant in addition differences were noted in the frequency at which slope decreased with slopes for nonhuman subjects showing the decrease at higher frequencies than did those for human subjects these differences may be true species differences or may reflect the influence of confounding variables associated with each experimentalsubject model"
[ 180 ]
[ "monopolar" ]
4,768,959
"young adult subjects attended selectively to brief noise bursts delivered in freefield via CE and IP arrays of four loudspeakers each that were arranged along a semicircle extending from the midline to degrees right of center frequent standard stimuli and infrequent targetdeviant with anterograde transport of dextran and terminated in the CE nucleus of the IC in a laminar pattern most labeled axons were thin and simply branched other axons were thicker gnarly less frequently observed and probably originated from the VCN none had concentrated endbulbs or a nest of endings both types of axons terminated primarily in the central nucleus and layer of the external SC this DP suggests that the combination of these subdivisions in the rat are equivalent to the central nucleus as defined in other species tectothalamic SN in the inferior colliculus in the same animals were identified by VA transport from the medial geniculate body and intracellular i.t. of lucifer yellow a number of different cell types act as tectothalamic SN and receive contacts from CN axons these include flat cells discshaped lessflat cells and stellate cells two innervation patterns were seen a combination of axosomatic and axodendritic contacts and predominantly axodendritic contacts both patterns were seen in the central nucleus but axosomatic contacts were seen less often in the other subdivisions this is the first T0 to show direct connections between cochlear nuclear axons and identified tectothalamic neurons the layers of axons from cochlear nuclei may provide convergent inputs to SN in the VPI colliculus rather than the heavy inputs from single axons typical of lower AEP nuclei excitatory synapses made by axons from the CN on tectothalamic SN may provide a substrate for rapid transmission of monaural information to the medial geniculate body"
[ 271 ]
[ "cochlear nuclei" ]
15,348,780
"noncontrast mri of the IAC iac using highresolution twi t weighted image has been proposed as the primary screening study in patients with sudden or asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss asnhl however there are concerns that noncontrast mri may not detect labyrinthine pathology specifically intralabyrinthine schwannomas ilss the purpose of this study was to determine if noncontrast highresolution twi alone are adequate to exclude these uncommon intralabyrinthine tumors"
[ 4 ]
[ "internal auditory canal" ]
721,317
"the level of opioid MMP in several BB areas and in the pituitary was estimated in wagrij rats which are considered to be a genetic animal model for human AE in comparison with three CG of nonepileptic controls these epileptic rats had an elevated level of the proenkephalinderived peptide metenkephalinargglyleu in the MES and striatum while the level of the prodynorphinderived peptide alphaneoendorphin was increased in the striatum and hippocampus in addition various age andor strainrelated changes in these peptide levels were found in the hippocampus thalamus striatum FC cortex and NIL no difference in the Thy betaendorphin level were found between epileptic and nonepileptic rats though CS andor agerelated changes in the peptide content were detected in both lobes of the PIT the increased level of proenkephalin and prodynorphin opioid MMP in BB structures essential for the appearance of spikewave discharges suggests that these opioid systems but not proopiomelanocortin one may play a role in AE"
[ 91 ]
[ "neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary" ]
2,325,870
"the histamineh receptor blocking properties of a number of structurally different ADs have been evaluated using a hmepyramine IB assay and a guineapig ileum preparation the TCAs all inhibited the histamineh receptor some newer antidepressant drugs such as zimelidine and NOM were devoid of activity while others such as iprindole and mianserin were very potent it is concluded that antagonistic effects on the histamineh receptor is not associated with the therapeutic efficacy in depression but may contribute to the sedative effects of the antidepressant drugs"
[ 40 ]
[ "nomifensine" ]
7,916,944
"the dopamine receptor d drd gene has polymorphisms that have been linked to regulation of the dopamine system and to an increased prevalence of smoking the present study examined the relationship of the drd taqia and b polymorphisms with shortterm clinical outcome abstinence and withdrawal symptoms collected from daily prequit and postquit diary data among smokers n treated with the nicotine patch plus either venlafaxine or PL the results showed that bb or bb sm were slightly less likely to be abstinent on a given day than those homozygous for the taqib allele significant drd taqib x time interactions wtaining anticoagulants at clinically relevant concentrations were prepared ex vivo and analyzed using kaolin or tissue factor activation TEG parameters of clot initiation r clot propagation k and angle clot rigidity MA and clot elasticity g were compared between anticoagulants TEG was also performed on blood from eight patients receiving anticoagulants each AC exerted significant concentrationdependent effects on r k and angle only heparin enoxaparin and fondaparinux significantly affected MA and g significant differences existed for all parameters between heparin and each anticoagulant and between fondaparinux and each dti p and for angle maximum amplitude and g between enoxaparin and each dti p thromboelastography responses in exvivo samples and patient samples were comparable in conclusion whereas argatroban bivalirudin heparin enoxaparin and fondaparinux each delay clot formation the dtis do not alter clot rigidity or elasticity the reduced bleeding reported with dtis versus heparin may relate to the fact that clots form with normal rigidity and elasticity"
[ 168 ]
[ "maximum amplitude" ]
3,723,204
"hepatic levels of gsh and phase ii detoxication enzymes were compared to biochemical and histological indices of hepatic damage in to weekold nontransgenic mice and their transgenic littermates that overexpress the SH b virus large env protein the mice were fed a lowsucrose aina diet AL hepaticspecific MICs of quinone reductase qr and glutathione stransferase gst were increased to fold beginning at weeks of age in transgenic mice and correlated with increases in serum alanine aminotransferase alt r and respectively quantitative histological analysis demonstrated that apoptosis was the predominant feature in to weekold transgenic mice whereas CN and inflammation predominated at later time points surprisingly fold elevations in alt were observed beginning at weeks of age in nontransgenic mice and hepaticspecific MICs of qr and gst were also modestly increased in elderly nontransgenic animals in contrast to transgenic mice apoptosis was not a prominent feature the strongest histological correlates to alt in to weekold nontransgenic mice were CN and inflammation r which in turn may have been evoked by hepatic fat accumulation profiles of TPS gst isoforms were quantitated chromatographically and identified by sequencing tryptic digests the ya subunit of alphaclass gst was markedly increased from undetectable C2 in transgenic mice while more modest increases were observed in nontransgenic mice more than year old fivefold elevations of the yb subunit a constitutively expressed muclass gst were found in transgenic mice older than weeks of age while fold increases were observed in nontransgenic animals that were more than year old these studies demonstrate that selected increases in phase ii detoxication enzymes are a stereotyped response to CH that is strikingly reminiscent of the treatment of mice with anticarhyposerotoninemic influence depending on the initial lowered or increased serotonine content similarity of medichronal and unithiol effects was observed in the form of palyndromoinversion regulation of 5-HT activity in a portion of the patients the increased compared to healthy persons 5-HT concentration before and T3 the treatment does not differ from the average values in the whole group"
[ 265 ]
[ "chronic hepatitis" ]
603,623
"PMNs pmns seem to participate in the pathogenesis of renal ischemic RI the kidneys from male sprague dawley rats were immersionfixed T3 min of renal artery clamping followed by reperfusion for and min respectively the tissue CSD of pmns in the kidneys was studied histochemically using naphthol asd CAE as a specific marker for these cells PMNL counts per unit sectional area were obtained for renal cortex outer and IM in the cortex separate intraglomerular and peritubular counts and in the OM separate outer and inner stripe counts were made after IR the total renal pmn counts were n compared with n per cm in nonischemic controls within min of reperfusion pmn counts increased by a factor of in the SC of in the outer medulla and of in the inner medulla compared with controls the ratio of intraglomerular against peritubular pmn counts was approximately in controls but T3 a min reperfusion interval the outer stripe of the OM contained only a small number of pmns whereas pmn counts of n per cm were found in the inner stripe after min reperfusion interestingly there was a marked increase in pmns in the inner stripe during the first min of reperfusion but no extravasation of pmns was observedabstract truncated at words"
[ 48 ]
[ "chloroacetate esterase" ]
989,785
"the stabilizing influence of ca mg ba and na on the didecameric structure of the Hc of the bivalve yoldia limatula has been investigated by lightscattering molecular weight measurements and by analytical ultracentrifugation the molecular weight mw data examined as a function of decreasing divalent ion and sodium ion concentrations at ph and at a constant Hc concentration of gl show biphasic transition profiles with a sharp initial decline in mw as the concentration of the stabilizing cations is reduced the analysis of the molecular weight data is best described in terms of the fourspecies didecamerdecamerdimermonomer scheme of associationdissociation equilibria about to bound divalent ions and about bound na ions per halfmolecule or decamer are required in order to account for the initial step of the observed EMT the subsequent transitions representing the decamer to dimer and the dimer to monomer steps of the reaction account for the additional IB of three to four and two to four cations per dimer and per monomer respectively the relatively C1 number of divalent ions per decamer suggests strong ionic stabilization of the decamer to decamer contacts within the parent didecameric assembly of yoldia hemocyanin this is consistent with earlier observations showing relatively few hydrophobic CG at the decamer to decamer contact Az"
[ 15 ]
[ "hemocyanin" ]
15,260,161
"rnainduced silencing complex risc is a small RNP complex that mediates silencing of complementary target rnas biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of risc assembly and CF for nearly two decades however further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of rna silencing mechanisms singlemolecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence tirf microscopy is a powerful imagingbased RPA to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system open boundary conditions are investigated analytically the wentzelkramersbrillouin wkb method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases for comparison bessel functions and kummer functions are used for solving cutoff frequency problems in homogenous and ideal fgppm cylinder shells it is shown that the wkb solution for the cutoff frequencies has good precise the set of cutoff frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions for which the difference is a function of the density and the ERP elastic parameter the relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described these results provide theoretical guidance for the nondestructive DUE of curved shells based on the cutoff frequencies"
[ 7 ]
[ "rnaprotein" ]
6,900,926
"reelin is a huge secreted protein that controls proper laminar formation in the developing BB it is generally believed that IMT phosphorylation of disabled dab by src family IMT kinases is the most critical downstream event in reelin signaling the receptors for reelin belong to the low density lipoprotein receptor family most of whose members undergo regulated intracellular trafficking in this study we propose novel roles for dab in reelin signaling we first demonstrated that cell surface expression of reelin receptors was decreased in dabdeficient neurons in heterologous cells dab enhanced cell surface expression of reelin receptors and this effect was mediated by direct interaction with the receptors moreover dab did not stably associate with the receptors at the BPM in the resting state when reelin was added to primary cortical SN dab was recruited to the receptors and its tyrosine residues were phosphorylated although reelin and dab colocalized well shortly T3 the addition of reelin dab was no longer associated with internalized reelin when src family TKs were inhibited internalization of reelin was severely abrogated and reelin colocalized with dab near the BPM for a prolonged period taken together these results indicate that dab regulates both cell surface expression and internalization of reelin receptors and these regulations may play a role in correct laminar formation in the developing brain"
[ 167 ]
[ "tyrosine kinases" ]
3,233,534
"we investigated the reaction of the popliteal lymph NO pln to the i.t. of two antigens KLH klh and lipopolysaccharide lps into the footpads of rats as well as the changes occurring in the pln T3 allogeneic cell stimulation changes in alkaline phosphatase alp activity of the CL NO were examined enzyme histochemically paralleling with pln WG increased alp activity was observed in the medullary regions of the CL NO of stimulated rats alp CR in the stimulated CL nodes was observed to be weak in the GCs and strong in the medullary regions the spleens of rats subjected to systemic graftvshost gvh reaction were examined in a similar fashion the alppositive areas of the gvh spleens increased in size as compared with normal spleens these positive areas of CL node and spleen appear to correspond mainly to Az containing oxpositive cells these results suggest that enzymehistochemical analysis of alp activity together with IHC of lymphocyte phenotypes may be a useful method for examining lymph node and SP reactions to soluble and cellular antigens in rats"
[ 87 ]
[ "germinal centers" ]
4,728,117
"in the first half of this century cardiovascular diseases were more prevalent in individuals belonging to the richest social class later on their prevalence became higher in individuals belonging to the lowest SEL in developed countries this phenomenon is common and independent of traditional risk factors this paper reviews some AF claimed to explain the differences due to social class eating habits living condition at birth and during childhood the forsdahlbaker hypothesis the genetic susceptibility of the population selfperceived health as a consequence of the social hierarchy these factors beyond the traditional risk factors may explain the independent role of SES status on cardiovascular diseases development"
[ 32 ]
[ "socioeconomic level" ]
12,168,230
"because the best possible treatment for VMs is unclear this study systematically reviews the available literature regarding the effectiveness of different treatment options for the patient group A-V malformations result from incorrect development of the veins during embryogenesis and are present at birth venous malformations may exhibit symptoms such as pain swelling and inflammation of the vessel"
[ 6 ]
[ "venous malformations" ]
9,579,935
"the aim of this investigation was to compare the physiological responses of m rowing ergometer test with min bench pull and leg press tests we hypothesised that LP exercise contributes to m rowing ergometer test results rather than bench pull performed by arms college level rowers n performed m rowing test and after one day min bench pull and leg press from the rm stroke rate HR rate hr blood lactate la and ratings of RPE rpe were measured during all tests the number of repetitions was highest during m rowing test and lowest during bench pull during leg press differences between m rowing test LP and bench pull tests were significant in mean and maximal hr in la concentration the highest values were at rd min of recovery T3 rowing test mmol l between bench pull and mmol l and LP and mmol l tests the difference in la concentration was not significant p ratings of RPE were highest in m rowing test difference with LP and bench pull tests was not significant there were significant relationships in mean and maximal hr r and borg scale r during rowing test and leg press the number of repetitions during LP exercise correlated significantly with rowing test time r in conclusion this T0 suggests that in rowers there are major differences in the physiological adaptation to UB and leg exercise performed at similar intensities LP exercise could be used to measure sportspecific strength endurance in rowers"
[ 233 ]
[ "leg press" ]
12,692,105
"in this study hivpositive cases men women with skin findings were included the mean cd t RCC was cellsmm a total of dermatological manifestations were seen the common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis staphylococcal skin infections dermatophytoses and herpes zoster among the noninfectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions xerosisichthyosis and SD statistically significant association p with cd t RCC was seen in pyodermas dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions adverse drug reactions diffuse hair loss straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted although there was an absence of kaposis sarcoma in our T0 a case of VC of penis was noted"
[ 96 ]
[ "verrucous carcinoma" ]
2,729,923
"creactive protein and SAP component were isolated from SS of the plaice pleuronectes platessa l a murine teleost the isolation was based on their calciumdependent binding affinity for PnC and for agarose respectively these specificities are the same as those of human creactive protein and serum AP component respectively and we have previously reported that the plaice molecules resemble human creactive protein and SAP component in their electron microscopic appearance we describe here estimation of the molecular weights of plaice creactive protein and SAP component and their subunits and analysis of their amino acid composition glycosylation and partial aminoterminal amino acid sequences the results establish that plaice creactive protein and serum AP component are homologous with each other and with their human counterparts and indicate that there has been stable conservation of this protein family throughout vertebrate evolution"
[ 46 ]
[ "amyloid p" ]
11,946,674
"adaptor protein PI pleckstrin homology domain and leucine zipper containing appl is an adapter protein that positively mediates adiponectin signalling deficiency of appl in the target tissues of insulin induces insulin resistance we therefore aimed in the present study to determine its role in regulating pancreatic beta cell CF"
[ 2 ]
[ "phosphotyrosine interaction" ]
3,056,459
"we examined cutaneous manifestations of rheumatoid ICA ra of japanese patients who visited both the departments of dermatology and rheumatology of our hospital we classified cutaneous lesions into TPS andor characteristic or nonspecific ones nonspecific lesions predominated in our series among the TPS skin manifestations which comprised of the total RN rheumatoid papules rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis and severe vasculitic ulcers correlated with high titers of RFs and progression of ra while purpura and livedo did not nonspecific skin manifestations failed to correspond with the level of rheumatoid AF among the nonspecific lesions asteatotic eczema candida interdigitalis and tinea unguium were commonly detected"
[ 65 ]
[ "rheumatoid factors" ]
7,977,089
"coxsackievirus a variant is together with enterovirus and adenoviruses the L1 etiological agent involved in acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks worldwide however the standard virus isolation method followed by serotyping or vp region sequencing is timeconsuming a rapid method for the PCD of coxsackievirus a variant from conjunctival swab specimens would be useful in the context of explosive and extensive outbreaks a OS realtime rtpcr CA based on taqman technology was thus developed and assessed on conjunctival swabs from outbreaks of conjunctivitis in morocco in due to a coxsackievirus a variant and in corsica in due to adenovirus type and virus strains including coxsackievirus a variant collected in french guiana and guadeloupe in in the DRC in in morocco in and other virus species genetically close or know outcome modifying activity we conclude that apoe and pvrl have little or no effect on the clinical outcome of ms"
[ 114 ]
[ "democratic republic of the congo" ]
2,700,123
"intermediatedose methotrexate mtx mgm iv in a bolus dose followed by mgm iv infused over hours is being used as a component of therapy for children with ALL to define the extent of interpatient R2 in mtx disposition with this dosage and schedule the SVR clearance of mtx was measured in children total doses median doses per patient the mean sd SVR clearance was mlminm and ranged from mlminm renal clearance was measured in of these patients and averaged mlminm during the mtx infusion h at which time mean SVR clearance was and nonrenal clearance was mlminm measurement of hydroxymethotrexate in SS and urine was consistent with the substantial amount of nonrenal metabolic clearance observed in these patients CSF fluid mtx concentrations measured at hours were microm when only the intravenous mtx was given and microm when an intrathecal dose mgm was also given at the start of the hour infusion this study establishes that there is substantial interpatient variability in mtx disposition in children and suggests a possible cause of VL patient response to mtx"
[ 27 ]
[ "acute lymphocytic leukemia" ]
267,508
"fibroblasts from new zealand black mouse fetuses manifest increased frequency of chromosomal breaks and interchanges T3 SE to ultraviolet radiation when compared with cells from bablc fetuses this CIN is similar to what has been reported in cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and may be related to the chromosomally abnormal clones and malignancy previously reported in AD new zealand black mice"
[ 28 ]
[ "chromosomal instability" ]
355,882
"an inhibitor of antihaemophilic globulin has been found in association with penicillin allergy inhibitor activity was detected T3 a severe reaction of penicillin NT studies showed the activity resided in an igg AHG with kappa light chains experiments with insolubilized gammaglobulin demonstrated that the activity of the inhibitor was found in a specific penicillin antibody"
[ 23 ]
[ "neutralization" ]
3,563,232
"the effect of various surfactants the cationics cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide ctab and cetyl pyridinium chloride cpc the anionic SDS sds and the nonionic polysorbate tween on the solubility and ionization constant of some sparingly soluble weak acids of pharmaceutical interest was studied benzoic acid and its methyl nitro and tertbutylderivatives acetylsalicylic acid NAP and iopanoic acid were chosen as model examples precise and accurate acidbase titrations in micellar systems were made feasible using a microcomputercontrolled titrator the response curve response time and potential drift of the glass electrode in the micellar systems were examined the cationics ctab and cpc were found to increase considerably the ionization constant of the weak acids delta pka ranged from to while the anionic sds showed negligible effect and the nonionic tween generally decreased the ionization constants the solubility of the acids in aqueous micellar and acidified micellar solutions was studied spectrophotometrically and it was found increased in all cases acetylsalicylic acid NAP BA and iopanoic acid could be easily determined in raw material and some of them in pharmaceutical S9 by direct titration in ctabmicellar system instead of using the traditional nonaqueous or back titrimetry precisions of rsd and good correlation with the official tedious methods were obtained the interference study of some excipients showed that a preliminary test should be carried out before the CA of formulations"
[ 159 ]
[ "benzoic acid" ]
13,055,749
"immunobiologic therapy is indicated for severe forms of PS resistant to conventional therapy there is growing concern about their safety profile and possible association with CA development this article documents two cases of RCC during treatment with biologic therapy reviewing what is described in the literature the risk of solid PT as a complication of using tnfalpha inhibitors is controversial no conclusion can be drawn from the data in the literature however we believe that special attention should be given to those with known risk AF for a TPS neoplasm"
[ 33 ]
[ "renal cell cancer" ]
8,865,909
"we demonstrate near CS absorption and increased xray emission from dense plasmas created on solid surfaces with a periodic sublambda structure the tau of the structureinduced SPR responsible for enhanced absorption is directly tested at the highest intensities to date x w cm via systematic correlated measurements of absorption and PIXE an analytical grating model as well as d PIC simulations conclusively explain our observations our T0 offers a definite quantitative way forward for optimizing and understanding the absorption process"
[ 50 ]
[ "xray emission" ]
7,909,640
"insights into intracellular calcium regulation and contractile state can be accomplished by changing pacing rate steadystate increases in heart rate hr forcefrequency relationship ffr and introduction of extrasystoles es forceinterval relationship fir have been used to investigate this relationship this study focused on the RF rf and potentiation ratio pr obtained from the REC of the ffr and fir these parameters may provide insight on intracellular ca regulation left VVI lv pressures and hr were assessed in anesthetized canines n intrinsic data were collected prior to and following hr increases to and bpm as well as following delivery of an es at ms the rf was calculated as the Mw of dpdtmaxn vs dpdtmaxn where n beat number the pr was calculated by normalizing dpdtmax from the first beat following the es or the last paced beat to the steadystate dpdtmax the rf due to an es was not significantly different than that from a hr of bpm the pr from an es was not significantly different than from a hr of bpm the impact of an es delivered at an interval of ms produces a pr similar to that from a hr of bpm yet it recovers similarly to the termination of pacing at bpm eliciting a similar rf value the method of measuring rf by an es versus an increased hr may provide a safer and more feasible approach to collecting diagnostic information"
[ 44 ]
[ "recirculation fraction" ]
9,401,264
"the scientificcytometric PCD of plateletassociated immunoglobulin paig by a combination of platelet gating and cutoff for positivity determined by the use of receiver operating characteristic roc curve analysis and we evaluated the significance of elevated paig in nonimmune TP itp patients blood samples from patients with a platelet count x l were used in this T0 flow cytometric PCD of paig was performed to obtain the cutoff of the surfacebound immunoglobulin for the discrimination of itp and nonitp roc curve analysis was used the sensitivity of a positive paigg and paigm test for itp in thrombocytopenic patients was the specificity was the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value among patients with myelodysplastic syndrome showed increased paig six of patients with benign disease showed positivity for paig among these patients with elevated paig were diagnosed with MLD this study demonstrates that flow cytometric detection of paig combined with roc curve analysis is a convenient sensitive and specific test compared to previous methods and it is useful for the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenic patients"
[ 38 ]
[ "thrombocytopenic purpura" ]
3,880,121
"we present a year old woman with predominantly right sided PD of sudden onset but without tremor magnetic resonance imaging mri depicted lesions affecting the substantia nigra sn bilaterally but more pronounced on the left side there were no other discernible structural lesions using positron emission tomography pet we investigated regional CMRO2 of glucose rcmrg using the tracer ffluorodeoxyglucose fdg and striatal dopa decarboxylase capacity using the tracer flfluorodopa fdopa the degree and DP of distribution of fdopa uptake reductions putamen CN were similar to those in idiopathic FPD pd fdg uptake also revealed similar changes reductions in frontal SC and cerebellum but increases in TH except for putamen which showed reduced rcmrg in conclusion the absence of tremor at rest accords with exp sn lesions the pet findings in this atypical condition are explained in terms of deafferentation of various BB regions involved in motor control furthermore they illustrate the metabolic effects related to acute focal lesions of the sn as opposed to the progressive degeneration in IPD and may serve to help unravel the complicated pathophysiology underlying these conditions"
[ 81 ]
[ "caudate nuclei" ]
9,520,139
"concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites ddts HCHs hchs polychlorinated biphenyls pcbs PBDEs pbdes decabromodiphenylethane dbdpe and polybrominated biphenyl pbb were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds one species of wild terrestrial bird and two species of captive birds from north china among the contaminants measured ddts were the dominant EDC hchs and pcbs were in nearly the same concentration range and pbdes exhibited lower concentrations than other compound CG the median concentrations of ddts hchs pcbs and pbdes in all avian species ranged from to to to and to ngg lipid wt respectively median concentrations of dbdpe and pbb in all avian species were in the range of not detectable nd and nd ngg lipid wt respectively significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their FF habits habitat and migration the captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in pcbs and pbdes from those of wild birds which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates octa to decabdes contributed more to the total pbdes in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds except for one insectivorous species possibly due to greater SE to terrestrial food sources preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from north china due to organohalogen EDC except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene dde which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied"
[ 18 ]
[ "polybrominated diphenyl ethers" ]
8,279,204
"a method of treatment of middle laryngostenosis of paralytic etiology with laterofixation of the vocal fold is proposed the technique includes an extralaryngeal approach to the thyroid cartilage SP from the front subpericartilaginous resection of the vocal process of the arytenoids cartilage with dissection of the internal CT and most of the thyroarytenoid muscle placement of a part of the autocartilage under the anterior third of the vocal fold divertion of the elastic cone with the vocal fold by ligation and tightening ligatures on the autotransplant put on the plate of the thyroid cartilage laryngostereotopometry used by the authors allows threedimensional localization of the necessary point in the larynx and its topometric characteristics of its position in persons with different figure and form of the neck"
[ 47 ]
[ "cricothyroid muscle" ]
187,863
"serial sections of normal human embryos were studied and threedimensional images reconstructed to determine the early development of the interventricular SP the position of the interventricular SP is determined in stage of normal OD by the formation of the left interventricular sulcus as a result of unknown properties of the cells of the myocardial layer the left interventricular sulcus persists while the RA disappears producing the initial lateral asymmetry of the primary HR tube by stage the left interventricular sulcus forms a spiral which is continuous with the developing interventricular septum the dorsal limb of the spiral passes to the RA between the atrioventricular canal and the origin of the outflow tract and is lost in the wall of the trabeculated right IVT it appears that this dorsal limb of the spiral is the precursor of part of the cirsta supraventricularis the midportion of the sulcus the bulboventricular groove becomes the socalled fibrous continuity between the aortic and mitral valves the VP limb of the spiral passes caudally in the anterior interventricular groove and then dorsally and cranially toward the dorsal cushion of the atrioventricular canal the ventral limb of the spiral is continuous with the crest of the muscular interventricular SP which develops by apposition of tissue from the expanding right and LVs from stage to stage the muscular interventricular SP the atrioventricular Endo cushions and the ventricular end of the spiral ridges of the outflow tract appose and fuse subsequent formation of the membranous interventricular septum completes the physical separation of the RA and left ventricles"
[ 122 ]
[ "ventricle" ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for the MeDAL dataset

Dataset Summary

A large medical text dataset (14Go) curated to 4Go for abbreviation disambiguation, designed for natural language understanding pre-training in the medical domain. For example, DHF can be disambiguated to dihydrofolate, diastolic heart failure, dengue hemorragic fever or dihydroxyfumarate

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

Medical abbreviation disambiguation

Languages

English (en)

Dataset Structure

Each file is a table consisting of three columns:

  • text: The normalized content of an abstract
  • location: The location (index) of each abbreviation that was substituted
  • label: The word at that was substituted at the given location

Data Instances

An example from the train split is:

{'abstract_id': 14145090,
 'text': 'velvet antlers vas are commonly used in traditional chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many PET components for health promotion the velvet antler peptide svap is one of active components in vas based on structural study the svap interacts with tgfβ receptors and disrupts the tgfβ pathway we hypothesized that svap prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking tgfβ signaling SDRs underwent TAC tac or a sham operation T3 one month rats received either svap mgkgday or vehicle for an additional one month tac surgery induced significant cardiac dysfunction FB activation and fibrosis these effects were improved by treatment with svap in the heart tissue tac remarkably increased the expression of tgfβ and connective tissue growth factor ctgf ROS species C2 and the phosphorylation C2 of smad and ERK kinases erk svap inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species C2 ctgf expression and the phosphorylation of smad and erk but not tgfβ expression in cultured cardiac fibroblasts angiotensin ii ang ii had similar effects compared to tac surgery such as increases in αsmapositive CFs and collagen synthesis svap eliminated these effects by disrupting tgfβ IB to its receptors and blocking ang iitgfβ downstream signaling these results demonstrated that svap has antifibrotic effects by blocking the tgfβ pathway in CFs',
 'location': [63],
 'label': ['transverse aortic constriction']}

Data Fields

The column types are:

  • text: content of the abstract as a string
  • location: index of the substitution as an integer
  • label: substitued word as a string

Data Splits

The following files are present:

  • full_data.csv: The full dataset with all 14M abstracts.
  • train.csv: The subset used to train the baseline and proposed models.
  • valid.csv: The subset used to validate the model during training for hyperparameter selection.
  • test.csv: The subset used to evaluate the model and report the results in the tables.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

The original dataset was retrieved and modified from the NLM website.

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

Details on how the abbreviations were created can be found in section 2.2 (Dataset Creation) of the ACL ClinicalNLP paper.

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

Since the abstracts are written in English, the data is biased towards anglo-centric medical research. If you plan to use a model pre-trained on this dataset for a predominantly non-English community, it is important to verify whether there are negative biases present in your model, and ensure that they are correctly mitigated. For instance, you could fine-tune your dataset on a multilingual medical disambiguation dataset, or collect a dataset specific to your use case.

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

The ELECTRA model is licensed under Apache 2.0. The license for the libraries used in this project (transformers, pytorch, etc.) can be found in their respective GitHub repository. Our model is released under a MIT license.

The original dataset was retrieved and modified from the NLM website. By using this dataset, you are bound by the terms and conditions specified by NLM:

INTRODUCTION

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Citation Information

@inproceedings{wen-etal-2020-medal,
    title = "{M}e{DAL}: Medical Abbreviation Disambiguation Dataset for Natural Language Understanding Pretraining",
    author = "Wen, Zhi  and
      Lu, Xing Han  and
      Reddy, Siva",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 3rd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop",
    month = nov,
    year = "2020",
    address = "Online",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.clinicalnlp-1.15",
    pages = "130--135",
    abstract = "One of the biggest challenges that prohibit the use of many current NLP methods in clinical settings is the availability of public datasets. In this work, we present MeDAL, a large medical text dataset curated for abbreviation disambiguation, designed for natural language understanding pre-training in the medical domain. We pre-trained several models of common architectures on this dataset and empirically showed that such pre-training leads to improved performance and convergence speed when fine-tuning on downstream medical tasks.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @Narsil and @xhlulu) for adding this dataset.