# Datasets:jfleg

Languages: en
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Language Creators: found
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Dataset Preview
sentence (string)corrections (json)
So I think we can not live if old people could not find siences and tecnologies and they did not developped .
[ "So I think we would not be alive if our ancestors did not develop sciences and technologies . ", "So I think we could not live if older people did not develop science and technologies . ", "So I think we can not live if old people could not find science and technologies and they did not develop . ", "So I think we can not live if old people can not find the science and technology that has not been developed . " ]
For not use car .
[ "Not for use with a car . ", "Do not use in the car . ", "Car not for use . ", "Can not use the car . " ]
Here was no promise of morning except that we looked up through the trees we saw how low the forest had swung .
[ "Here was no promise of morning , except that we looked up through the trees , and we saw how low the forest had swung . ", "Here , there was no promise of morning , except that we looked up through the trees and saw how low the forest had swung . ", "Here was no promise of morning except that we looked up through the trees and we saw how low the forest had swung . ", "There was no promise of morning except when we looked up through the trees and saw how low the forest had swung . " ]
Thus even today sex is considered as the least important topic in many parts of India .
[ "Thus , even today , sex is considered as the least important topic in may parts of India . ", "Thus , even today , sex is considered the least important topic in many parts of India . ", "Thus , even today , sex is considered the least important topic in many parts of India . ", "Thus , even today sex is considered as the least important topic in many parts of India . " ]
image you salf you are wark in factory just to do one thing like pot taire on car if they fire you you will destroy , becouse u dont know more than pot taire in car .
[ "Imagine yourself you are working in factory just to do one thing like put air a on car if they fire you you will be destroyed , because you do n't know more than to put air a in car . ", "Imagine that you work in a factory and do just one thing , like put tires on cars ; if they fire you , they will destroy you because you do n't know how to do anything but put tires on cars . ", "image you salf you are wark in factory just to do one thing like pot taire on car if they fire you you will destroy , becouse u dont know more than pot taire in car . ", "Imagine yourself working in a factory. You are to do just one thing , such as put a tire on a car. If you are fired , it will destroy you because you do not know how to do more than put tires on cars . " ]
They draw the consumers , like me , to purchase this great product with all these amazing ingredients and all that but actually they just sometimes make something up just to increase their sales .
[ "They draw in the consumers , like me , to purchase a great product with amazing ingredients , but actually , they just make up these words to increase their sales . ", "They draw in consumers like me , who purchase this great product with all these amazing ingredients , but sometimes they just make things up to increase their sales . ", "They draw the consumers , like me , to purchase this great product with all these amazing features , but actually sometimes they just make something up just to increase their sales . ", "They draw the consumers , like me , to purchase this great product with all these amazing ingredients and all that , but actually they just sometimes make something up just to increase their sales . " ]
I want to talk about nocive or bad products like alcohol , hair spray and cigarrets .
[ "I want to talk about nocive or bad products like alcohol , hair spray and cigarettes . ", "I want to talk about harmful or bad products like alcohol , hair spray and cigarettes . ", "I want to talk about harmful or bad products like alcohol , hair spray and cigarettes . ", "I want to talk about harmful or bad products like alcohol , hair spray and cigarettes . " ]
For example they can play football whenever they want but the olders can not .
[ "For example , they can play football whenever they want , but the elders cannot . ", "For example , they can play football whenever they want but the others can not . ", "For example , they can play football whenever they want but the seniors ca n't . ", "For example they can play football whenever they want but the older ones cannot . " ]
It figures Diana Krall wearing a Rolex watch and has a text that suggests that if the reader wants to belong to the restricted club , not necessarily of Rolex watch wearers , but of highly talented , sophisticated and competent artists , he or she should also have a Rolex .
[ "It features Diana Krall wearing a Rolex watch and the text suggests that if the reader wants to belong to a restricted club -- not necessarily of Rolex watch-wearers -- but of highly talented , sophisticated , competent artists , then he or she should also have a Rolex . ", "Diana Krall is wearing a Rolex watch and has a text that suggests that if the reader wants to belong to a restricted club , comprised not just of Rolex watch wearers but highly talented , sophisticated and competent artists , he or she should also have a Rolex . ", "It figures Diana Krall is wearing a Rolex watch and has a text that suggests that if the reader wants to belong to the restricted club , not necessarily of Rolex watch wearers , but of highly talented , sophisticated and competent artists , he or she should also have a Rolex . ", "It figures Diana Krall wearing a Rolex watch and has a text that suggests that if the reader wants to belong to the restricted club , not necessarily of Rolex watch wearers , but of highly talented , sophisticated and competent artists , he or she should also have a Rolex . " ]
There are several reason .
[ "There are several reasons . ", "There are several reasons . ", "There are several reasons . ", "There are several reasons . " ]
Also the work of the media , television , magazines , and every stuff made for publicity affects the emotions of many people around the world , encouraging them to buy and buy anything they can .
[ "Also , the work of the media , television , magazines and other things made for publicity impacts the emotions of many people around the world , encouraging them to buy everything they can . ", "Also , the work of the media , television , magazines , and everything involved in publicity affects the emotions of people around the world , encouraging them to buy anything they can . ", "Also , the work of media , television , magazines , and other stuff made for publicity , affects the emotions of many people around the world , encouraging them to buy and buy anything they can . ", "Also , the work of the media , television , magazines , and everything made for publicity affects the emotions of many people around the world , encouraging them to buy and buy anything they can . " ]
Since most urban areas are occupied with cars , they are all facing up with an irresistible problem of air and noise pollution .
[ "Since most urban areas are occupied with cars , they are facing a problem of air and noise pollution . ", "Since most urban areas are congested with cars , they all face the terrible problem of air and noise pollution . ", "Since most urban areas are occupied with cars , they are all face upped with an irresistible problem of air and noise pollution . ", "Since most urban areas are teeming with cars , they are all facing the unavoidable problem of air and noise pollution . " ]
It is true that consumers preffer to buy a product that has a lower price , but when international companies that has already the certification begins to send its market , people will preffer to consume theirs because the difference between prices is probbably not going to affect them to much .
[ "While it is true that consumers prefer to buy products with lower prices , when international companies that are already certified begin to send their products to market , people will prefer to consume those goods because the difference in price will probably not affect them too much . ", "It is true that consumers prefer to buy a product that has a lower price , but when international companies that already have the certification begin to send it to market , people will prefer to buy theirs because the difference between prices is probably not going to affect them too much . ", "It is true that consumers prefer to buy a product that has a lower price , but when international companies that already have the certification begin to send it to market , people will prefer to consume theirs because the difference between prices is probably not going to affect them too much . ", "It is true that consumers prefer to buy a product that has a lower price , but when international companies that already have the certification begin to enter the market , people will prefer to consume theirs because the difference between prices is probably not going to affect them too much . " ]
4:they have a big chance to prepare for their future life
[ "Fourth , they have a great chance to prepare for their future life . ", "Point four is that they have a big chance to prepare for their future life . ", "They have a great chance to prepare for their future life . ", "They have a good chance to prepare for their future life . " ]
One person if do n't have good health that means so many things they could lost .
[ "If a person does n't have good health , so many things could be lost . ", "If one person does not have good health , that means they could lose so many things . ", "If one person does n't have good health , that means they could lose so many things . ", "If one person does n't have good health , that means so many things they could lose . " ]
Many studies over the last 5 0 years have shown that people who have fluoride in their drinking water are considerably have less cavities than people who have not drinking nonfluoridated water .
[ "Many studies over the last 5 0 years have shown that people who have fluoride in their drinking water have considerably fewer cavities than people who are not drinking water with fluoride . ", "Many studies over the last 5 0 years have shown that people who have fluoride in their drinking water are considerably have less cavities than people who have not drinking nonfluoridated water . ", "Many studies over the last 5 0 years have shown that people who have fluoride in their drinking water are considerably less likely to have cavities than people who have non-fluoridated water . ", "Many studies over the last 5 0 years have shown that people who have fluoride in their drinking water have considerably less cavities than people who have been drinking non-fluoridated water . " ]
Likewise , The theory generating from the concept of memory is also not the appropriate way due to limited memory .
[ "Likewise , the theory coming from the concept of memory is also not the appropriate way due to limited memory . ", "Likewise , the theory generated from the concept of memory is also not appropriate due to limited memory . ", "Likewise , the theory generating from the concept of memory is also not the appropriate way due to limited memory . ", "Likewise , the theory generating from the concept of memory is also not the appropriate way due to limited memory . " ]
because they spent time unmeaningful subjects .
[ "They spent time in subjects that were not meaningful . ", "They spent time on unmeaningful subjects . ", "Because they spent time on unmeaningful subjects . ", "Because they spent time on unmeaningful subjects . " ]
I was very fast , my best time was 5 5 seconds in 4 0 0 hundred meters is a good time in or country .
[ "I was very fast : my best time was 5 5 seconds in 4 0 0 hundred meters , and this is a good time in my country . ", "I was very fast ; my best time was 5 5 seconds for 4 0 0 hundred meters , and that is a good time in or out of this country . ", "I was very fast and my best time was 5 5 seconds in 4 0 0 hundred meters is a good time in or country . ", "I was very fast ; my best time was 5 5 seconds in 4 0 0 hundred meters. That is a good time in or country . " ]
And young people spend time more ther lifestile .
[ "And young people spend more time on their lifestyles . ", "And young people spend more time on their lifestyle . ", "And young people spend more time on their lifestyle . ", "And young people spend more time pursuing this lifestyle . " ]
If in this society who will not to do study they never concept there opportunity or ca n't understand any ideas so most of the important that in this situation and I also very interestion and also prefer that for the study material .
[ "In this society , those who will not study will never grasp the concepts or understand any ideas , which is the most important point ; thus I am also very interested and prefer to have the study materials . ", "In this society , those who do not study will never have opportunities or understand ideas that are important in these situations ; I am very interested and prefer study materials . ", "If , in this society , there are those who will not study , then they neither comprehend their opportunity nor understand any ideas most important in this situation , which I find very interesting and prefer for study material . ", "In this society those who will not study never understand the concept nor opportunity or ca n't understand any ideas so most of the importance in that situation is lost and I am also very interesting and also prefer that for the study material . " ]
We have to know this problem it 's serious but almost people doens't know about this .
[ "This is a serious problem , but most people are unaware of it . ", "We have to know this problem is serious but most people do n't know about this . ", "We have to know about this problem because it 's serious but most people do n't know about this . ", "We have to know if this problem is serious but most people do n't know about it . " ]
Students can focus on only a few subjects they are intwerested in and they will become an experts in those areas .
[ "Students can focus on only a few subjects they are interested in and they will become experts in those areas . ", "Students can focus on only a few subjects they are interested in and they will become experts in those areas . ", "Students can focus on only a few subjects they are interested in and they will become an expert in those areas . ", "Students can focus on only a few subjects they are interested in and they will become an expert in those areas . " ]
But in other waythismakes other way country need to pay extra money to make , repair the roads What they did is reduce the amount of gas consumers , high the gas tax , and low the income tax because they thought , only rise the gas tax is unfair .
[ "But in another way , this means the country needs to pay extra money to build and repair the roads ; what they did is reduce the amount of gas consumed , raise the gas tax , and lower the income tax because they thought only raising the gas tax is unfair . ", "But in other ways this makes the other country need to pay extra money to make , repair the roads What they did is reduce the amount of gas consumers , raise the gas tax , and low the income tax because they thought , only raising the gas tax is unfair . ", "But in other ways , this creates another way for the country to make extra money to repair the roads ; they did this by reducing the amount of gas consumed by raising the gas tax , and they lowered the income tax because they thought that only raising the gas tax was unfair . ", "But in other ways , this caused the country to need to pay extra money to make and repair the roads. What they did was reduce the amount of gas consumers , increase the gas tax , and lower the income tax because they thought that only increasing the gas tax would have been unfair . " ]
Today , MBA students with a background in engineering are in high demand .
[ "Today , MBA students with a background in engineering are in high demand . ", "Today , MBA students with a background in engineering are in high demand . ", "Today , MBA students with a background in engineering are in high demand . ", "Today , MBA students with a background in engineering are in high demand . " ]
In the case of young people the best way is studying as hard as possible to get better grades so in the future they will have better chance to find better jobs .
[ "In the case of young people , the best way is to study as hard as possible to get better grades so in the future they will have a better chance to find a good job . ", "In the case of young people , the best way to get better grades and thus have a chance to find better jobs in the future is to study as hard as possible . ", "In the case of young people , the best way is to study as hard as possible and get better grades so that in the future they will have a better chance of finding good jobs . ", "In the case of young people , the best way is studying as hard as possible to get better grades so in the future they will have better chances to find better jobs . " ]
So the school try learning the students a bit in every science exist .
[ "So the school tries teaching the students a bit of every science which exists . ", "So the school tried teaching the students a bit about every science that exists . ", "The school tries to teach the students a bit of every type of science . ", "So the school tries teaching the students a bit of every science . " ]
I think they have to get skill on it .
[ "I think they have to get skilled in it . ", "I think they have to put skill into it . ", "I think they have to get skill on it . ", "I think they have to get skilled at it . " ]
Specializing in one particular subject does not suit our life in this era which is characterized by diversity and innovation
[ "Specializing in one particular subject does not suit our lives in this era which is characterized by diversity and innovation . ", "Specializing in one particular subject does not suit life in this era -- which is characterized by diversity and innovation . ", "Specializing in one particular subject does not suit our life in this era , which is characterized by diversity and innovation . ", "Specializing in one particular subject does not suit our lives in this era characterized by diversity and innovation " ]
I will explain my points of views in the following paragraphs .
[ "I will explain my point of view in the following paragraphs . ", "I will explain my points of view in the following paragraphs . ", "I will explain my point of views in the following paragraphs . ", "I will explain my point of view in the following paragraphs . " ]
He thinks differently from other people and he succeded .
[ "He thinks differently than others and he has succeeded . ", "He thinks differently than other people and he succeeded . ", "He thinks differently from other people and he has succeeded . ", "He thinks differently from other people and he succeeded . " ]
These activities make the community a better place to live in and inculcate these values in all the members .
[ "These activities make the community a better place to live and include those values in all the members . ", "These activities make the community a better place to live in and inculcate these values in all the members . ", "These activities make the community a better place to live in and inculcate these values in all its members . ", "These activities make the community a better place to live in and will teach these values to all the members . " ]
Beacuse all those broad knowledge help they to understand their major in university as well as help they to make a correct choice in specializing study .
[ "All the broad knowledge helps them to understand their major in University classes , as well as help them to make a correct choice in a specialized area . ", "Because all that broad knowledge helps them to understand their majors in university and also helps them to make the correct choice in specialized study . ", "Because of all those broad knowledge help they to understand their major in university as well as help they to make a correct choice in specializing study . ", "All of that broad knowledge helps them understand their university major and make a correct choice of specialty . " ]
And it was very easy to me to understand why he always brang bad marks at home .
[ "I could very easily understand why he would always bring bad marks home . ", "And it was very easy for me to understand why he always brought bad marks home . ", "And it was very easy for me to understand why he always brings bad marks home . ", "And it was very easy for me to understand why he always bringing bad marks home . " ]
Then when we went to the Science Olympiad , she could have diverse knowledges about the subects and it was not new for her to think about new things .
If every people thinks to learn and understand lots of scientifc subjects , any person will do not do it and as a result of this any science is n't imporeved .
[ "If every person tries to learn and understand lots of scientific subjects , no person will do it and , as a result of this , no science will be improved . ", "If every person seeks to learn and understand many scientific subjects , and anyone can or ca n't do it , then the result will be that science wo n't improve . ", "If every person tries to learn and understand lots of scientific subjects , the result will be improvements in every science . ", "If every person wants to learn and understand lots of scientific subjects , not every person will be able to do it and as a result of this science is n't improved . " ]
Thus in concordance with the above I agree whole heartedly that in twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today .
[ "Thus I agree wholeheartedly with the above : in twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today . ", "Thus , in concordance with the above , I agree wholeheartedly that in twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today . ", "Thus in concordance with the above , I agree wholeheartedly that in twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today . ", "Thus in accordance with the above I agree wholeheartedly that in twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today . " ]
Third the butt it in hte front of the door of store to make the poeple see it even if it is not good
[ "Third , put it in the front of the door of the store so people see it , even if it is not good . ", "Third , they put it in front of the door of the store so that people will see it even if it is no good . ", "Third , they put it in front of the door of the store to make the people see it , even if it is not good . ", "Third , the butt in the front of the door of the store to make the people see it even if it is not good . " ]
However , are these things all good to people ?
[ "However , are these things good to all people ? ", "However , are all these things good for people ? ", "However , are these things all good for people ? ", "However , are these things all good to people ? " ]
Very soon they will run out at the current rate of utilisation .
[ "They will run out very soon at the current rate of utilization . ", "Soon they will run out , based on the current rate of utilization . ", "Very soon they will run out at the current rate of utilization . ", "Very soon they will run out at the current rate of utilization . " ]
In the lecture , however , professor oppose the reading statement .
[ "In the lecture , however , the professor opposed reading the statement . ", "In the lecture , however , the professor opposed the statement in the reading . ", "In the lecture , however , the professor opposed the reading statement . ", "In the lecture , however , the professor opposed the reading statement . " ]
But YOU have to create these opportunities .
[ "You have to create these opportunities . ", "But YOU have to create these opportunities . ", "But YOU have to create these opportunities . ", "But YOU have to create these opportunities . " ]
Throughts our lives needs talk about our familys .
[ "Throughout our lives , we need to talk about our families . ", "Throughout our lives , we need to talk about our families . ", "Throughout our lives we needs talk about our families . ", "Throughout our lives we need to talk about our families . " ]
They try new things .
[ "They try new things . ", "They try new things . ", "They try new things . ", "They try new things . " ]
Inorder to do this , they would need to learn additionally skills , either theoretical or practical , that would increase their understanding and future application of their chosen subject .
[ "In order to do this , they would need to learn additional skills , either theoretical or practical , that would increase their understanding and application of their chosen subject . ", "In order to do this , they would need to learn additional skills , either theoretical or practical , that would increase their understanding and future application of their chosen subject . ", "In order to do this , they need to learn additional skills , either theoretical or practical , that will increase their understanding and the future application of their chosen subjects . ", "In order to do this , they would need to learn additionally skills , either theoretical or practical , that would increase their understanding and future application of their chosen subject . " ]
if you want a product you give create a beautiful image around it if you want sell it .
[ "if you want to develop a product you create a beautiful image around it if you want sell it . ", "If you want to sell a product , you must create a beautiful image around it . ", "If you want to sell a product , you create a beautiful image around it . ", "If you want a product , you give a create a beautiful image around it if you want sell it . " ]
Secondly the place of the film must must be very clear and chir must be relax etc .
[ "Secondly , the location of the film must must be very clear and the director must be relaxed , etc . ", "Second , the place that is being filmed must be very clear and the chin must be relaxed , etc . ", "Secondly , the place of the film must be very clear and chaimust be relax etc . ", "Secondly , the place of the film must must be very clear and have chairs to relax , etc . " ]
and will put you maind on a non-stop learning ...
[ "And it will put your mind into non-stop learning . ", "And will put your mind on a non-stop learning ... ", "This will help you put your mind on non-stop learning . ", "And will put your mind on a non-stop learning ... " ]
this will the proof of speeding offense so that polices can easily catch them. .
[ "This will prove the speeding offense so that the police can easily catch them . ", "This will be the proof of speeding offense so that the police can easily catch them . ", "This will be the proof of the speeding offense so that the police can easily catch them . ", "This will be the proof of the speeding offense so that the police can easily catch them . " ]
In today 's Compuer skill is first important life skill .
[ "In today 's world Computer skills are the first important life skill . ", "Today , computer skills are the most important life skill . ", "In today 's world , computer skills is the most important life skill . ", "Today , computer skills are the most important life skill . " ]
He last choosed to learn truth .
[ "Lastly , he chose to learn the truth . ", "He at last chose to learn the truth . ", "He last chose to learn the truth . ", "He last chose to learn the truth . " ]
I never have stopped myself to think this , but this is a real possibility for the fucture .
[ "I have never stopped myself to think this , but this is a real possibility for the future . ", "I have never stopped to think about this , but this is a real possibility for the future . ", "I never have stopped myself to think this , but this is a real possibility for the future . ", "I never have stopped to think about this , but this is a real possibility for the future . " ]
Young has his own field and word on it hard , and do more benefits to the society .
[ "Young has his own field and works hard on it , and it provides more benefits to society . ", "Young has his own field and works hard to do more benefit to the society . ", "Young has his own field , has worked on it hard , and does more to benefit to the society . ", "Young has his own field and works hard on it and benefits society . " ]
and about the new information there is editors .
[ "There are editors to review the new information . ", "And about the new information there are editors . ", "And as for the new information , there are editors . ", "And about the new information , there are editors . " ]
If we conseder an idea as a totally autonomous concept within the individual process of defining reality , I will state that ideas are useless , not being based on experience .
[ "If we consider an idea as a totally autonomous concept within the individual process of defining reality , I think the ideas are useless , and not based on experience . ", "If we consider an idea as a totally autonomous concept within the individual process of defining reality , I believe that ideas are useless , because they are not based on experience . ", "If we think of an idea as a totally autonomous concept within the individual 's process of defining reality , I will state that ideas are useless , given that they are not based on experience . ", "If we consider an idea as a totally autonomous concept within the individual process of defining reality , I would state that ideas are useless , if not based on experience . " ]
He/she wants to know everything about the universe , wants to know everything about the God , the death etc. these some concepts that everyone can encourage a lot of ideas but the facts are not found yet .
[ "He or she wants to know everything about the universe , God , and death , these are some concepts that everyone can encourage ideas , but no facts have been found yet . ", "He/she wants to know everything about the universe , God , death , etc. ; these are concepts that encourage a lot of ideas , but the facts have not been found yet . ", "He/she wants to know everything about the universe , everything about God , death etc. ; these same concepts that encourage a lot of ideas but the facts are not found yet . ", "He/she wants to know everything about the universe , wants to know everything about God , death , etc. and some of these concepts that can encourage a lot of ideas , but the facts are not found yet . " ]
It so expensive that only those people can do this besides of their allday living .
[ "It so expensive that only those people can do this , factoring in their daily living expenses . ", "It is so expensive that it is the only thing those people can do besides their daily living . ", "It 's so expensive that only those people can do this besides their everyday living . ", "It is so expensive that only those people can do this outside of their normal lives . " ]
They make very high profits year after yaer and the numbers also increase year after year .
[ "They make very high profits year after year and the numbers also increase year after year . ", "They make very high profits year after year and their numbers also increase year after year . ", "They make very high profits year after year and the numbers also increase year after year . ", "They make very high profits year after year and the numbers also increase year after year . " ]
For this reason , the number of cars would be decrease in the future .
[ "For this reason , the number of cars would decrease in the future . ", "For this reason , the number of cars will decrease in the future . ", "For this reason , the number of cars would decrease in the future . ", "For this reason , the number of cars would be decreased in the future . " ]
So he took upon himself to narrow his research on this subject which was a mystery to the world .
[ "So he took it upon himself to narrow his research on this subject , which was a mystery to the world . ", "So he took it upon himself to narrow his research to a subject which was a mystery to the world . ", "So he took it upon himself to narrow his research on this subject , which was a mystery to the world . ", "So , he took it upon himself to narrow his research on the subject , which was a mystery to the world . " ]
Others who do n't have this concept they will sell uncerfied wood .
[ "Others who do n't understand this concept sell uncertified wood . ", "Others who do n't understand this concept will sell uncertified wood . ", "Others who do n't understand this concept will sell uncertified wood . ", "Others do n't have this concept and they will sell uncertified wood . " ]
I did n't have self-confidence .
[ "I did n't have self confidence . ", "I did n't have self-confidence . ", "I did n't have self-confidence . ", "I did n't have self-confidence . " ]
If there are specialized docters , the docter has done the operation very often before , so he is really talented in his job .
[ "If there are specialized doctors that have done the operation often , he becomes talented in his job . ", "If there are specialized doctors , it means that the doctor has done the operation many times before and is very talented at his job . ", "If they are specialized doctors , the doctor has done the operation very often before , so he is really talented in his job . ", "If there are specialized doctors that have done the operation many times before , they are really talented in their jobs . " ]
So It will be good situstion .
[ "It will be good situation . ", "So it will be a good situation . ", "So it will be a good situation . ", "So , it will be a good situation . " ]
Also , I have traveled in a group without tour guide .
[ "Also , I have traveled in a group without tour guide . ", "Also , I have traveled in a group without a tour guide . ", "Also , I have traveled in a group without a tour guide . ", "Also , I have traveled in a group without a tour guide . " ]
the school teachers there the one who take the future of youg genaration so we have to give them to get the better knowledge .
[ "The school teachers there are the ones who create the future of the younger generation so we have to teach them better . ", "The school teachers they 're the ones who take the future young generations so we have to support them to make younger ones more knowledgeable . ", "the school teachers there the one who take the future of youg genaration so we have to give them to get the better knowledge . ", "The school teachers are the ones who take care of the future of the young generation so we have to let them gain better knowledge . " ]
so this test is very important with theirs .
[ "This test is very important to them . ", "So this test is very important to them . ", "So , this test is very important along with theirs . ", "So this test is very important among them . " ]
but most time it is important because most student is not baly and his think and ideas is very important .
[ "But most of the time it is important because most students are not heard and their thoughts and ideas are very important . ", "But most of the time it is important because most student do not do badly and their thoughts and ideas are very important . ", "Usually , it is important , because the student is not bad and his thinking and ideas are very important . ", "but most time it is important because most student is not baly and his think and ideas is very important . " ]
Otherwise , it will be a problem for us to understand certain thing in life .
[ "Otherwise , it will be a problem for us to understand certain things in life . ", "Otherwise , it will be a problem for us to understand certain things in life . ", "Otherwise , it will be hard for us to understand certain things in life . ", "Otherwise , it will be a problem for us to understand certain things in life . " ]
I myself like to participate in kind of activities and meet many people who would like to do .
[ "I myself like to participate in these kinds of activities and meet many people who like to do the same thing . ", "I personally like to participate in all kinds of activities and meet many people like to as well . ", "I myself like to participate in this kind of activities and meet many people who would like to do them . ", "I myself like to participate in these kinds of activities and meet many people who would also like to do this . " ]
Second the amount of treasure locations are implausibly large .
[ "Second , the amount of treasure locations is implausibly large . ", "Second , the number of treasure locations are implausibly large . ", "Second , the number of treasure locations is unbelievably large . ", "Second , the amount of treasure locations are implausibly large . " ]
He mainly concetrate on the questions asked him at the time of interview .
[ "He mainly concentrated on the questions that were asked of him at the time of the interview . ", "He mainly concentrated on the questions that he was asked at the time of the interview . ", "He mainly concentrates on the questions asked him at the time of the interview . ", "He mainly concentrated on the questions asked of him at the time of the interview . " ]
becaese when we learn about some subjects we should have more information about what we study so that the student will get the information more easier and more better and this is my first reason .
In a market economy the price must reflect costs of the product and consumer 's willingness to buy the product .
[ "In a market economy , the price must reflect the cost of the product and the consumer 's willingness to buy the product . ", "In a market economy the price must reflect the cost of the product and the consumer 's willingness to buy it . ", "In a market economy , the price must reflect costs of the product and consumer 's willingness to buy the product . ", "In a market economy , the price must reflect costs of the product and consumers ' willingness to buy the product . " ]
some tour guide who will want to set maximum security make tour difficult because you will only have a wonderful view throught the bus .
[ "Some tour guide will want to set maximum security to make the tour difficult because you will only have a wonderful view through the bus . ", "Some tour guides will want to ensure maximum security , which will make the tour difficult because you will only have a wonderful view through a bus window . ", "Some tour guides , who will want to set maximum security , make the tour difficult because you will only have a wonderful view of the bus . ", "some tour guide who will want to set maximum security make tour difficult because you will only have a wonderful view throught the bus . " ]
Because the fashional culture has been changed .
[ "Because the fashion culture has changed . ", "Because the fashion culture has changed . ", "Because the fashion culture has changed . ", "Because the fashion culture has been changed . " ]
actually that was so unstable trip .
[ "Actually , that was an unstable trip . ", "Actually , that was an unstable trip . ", "Actually , that was an unstable trip . ", "Actually that was an unstable trip . " ]
It is obvious that after returning i was tired and the night is meant to sleep ! .
[ "It was obvious after returning that I was tired , and the night is meant to sleep ! ", "It is obvious that after returning I was tired and the night is meant for sleeping ! . ", "It was obvious that I was tired after returning , and the night is meant for sleep ! ", "It is obvious that after returning , I was tired and the night is meant for sleep ! " ]
Nowadays , we need a person who are capable of all sorts of works .
[ "Nowadays , we need a person who is capable of all sorts of work . ", "Nowadays , we need a person who is capable of all sorts of works . ", "Nowadays , we need a person who is capable of all sorts of works . ", "Nowadays , we need a person who is capable of all sorts of works . " ]
Finally , fish farming relates to long term wastefulness whcih can pollute the sea .
[ "Finally , fish farming relates to long-term wastefulness , which can pollute the sea . ", "Finally , fish farming is related to long term wastefulness which can pollute the sea . ", "Finally , fish farming relates to long term wastefulness , which can pollute the sea . ", "Finally , fish farming relates to long-term wastefulness which can pollute the sea . " ]
Establishing connections with other researchers will open the door for new projects with other researchers .
[ "Establishing connections with other researchers will open the door for new projects . ", "Establishing connections with other researchers will open the door for new collaborative projects . ", "Establishing connections with other researchers will open the door to new projects with other researchers . ", "Establishing connections with other researchers will open the door for new projects with other researchers . " ]
Now I have outstanding scores .
[ "Now I have outstanding scores . ", "Now I have outstanding scores . ", "Now I have outstanding scores . ", "Now I have outstanding scores . " ]
He knows that there is no return in his help to others .
[ "He does not expect others to reciprocate his help . ", "He knows that his help to others will go unreturned . ", "He knows that his help of others will not be returned . ", "He knows that there is no return in his help to others . " ]
Furthermore , my friends who are nineteen years old , drive their own car , and they would like to buy always another one .
[ "Furthermore , my friends who are nineteen years old and drive their own car. they would still like to buy another one . ", "Furthermore , my nineteen-year-old friends drive their own cars , and they would always like to buy another one . ", "Furthermore , my friends who are nineteen years old drive their own cars , and they always want to buy another one . ", "Furthermore , my friends who are nineteen years old , drive their own car , but they always would like to buy another one . " ]
As the cities were smallers , it was less violence , noise , traffic ...
[ "As the cities were smaller , there was less violence , noise , traffic , etc . ", "As the cities were smaller , there was less violence , noise , traffic ... ", "As the cities were smaller , there was less violence , noise , traffic ... ", "As the cities were smaller , there was less violence , noise , traffic ... " ]
There can not be no bothering and no hazzle .
[ "There cannot be any bothering and hassle . ", "There can be no bothering and no hassle . ", "There can not be any bother or hassle . ", "There cannot be bothered or hassled . " ]
Even though he knows the advertisement is unreal or looks to pretty he is going to buy the product .
These are several opposing points I observed between lecture and passage .
[ "These are several opposing points I observed between the lecture and the passage . ", "These are several opposing viewpoints I observed between the lecture and the passage . ", "There are several opposing points I observed between the lecture and passage . ", "These are several opposing points that I observed between lecture and passage . " ]
Even though she does not have job , she also need car to use pick up her kids or go shopping .
[ "Even though she does not have a job , she also needs a car to pick up her kids or go shopping . ", "Even though she does not have job , she also needs a car to use to pick up her kids or go shopping . ", "Even though she does not have a job , she also needs a car to pick up her kids or go shopping . ", "Even though she does not have a job , she also needs a car to use to pick up her kids or go shopping . " ]
In early industry , a lot of warker worked together .
[ "In early industry , a lot of workers worked together . ", "Early in the industry , many of the workers worked together . ", "In early industry , a lot of workers worked together . ", "In early industry , a lot of workers worked together . " ]
It kept Anasazi from living in American Southwest by very high temparture ; it caused droughts .
[ "It kept Anasazi from living in the American southwest with very high temperatures and caused droughts . ", "Asasazi were kept from living in the American Southwest by very high temperatures , which often caused droughts . ", "High temperatures kept Anasazi from living in the American Southwest ; there were droughts . ", "It kept Anasazi from living in American Southwest because of very high temperatures which caused droughts . " ]
I have several reason to support my choice .
[ "I have several reasons that support my choice . ", "I have several reasons that support my choice . ", "I have several reasons that support my choice . ", "I have several reasons to support my choice . " ]
Because one time you get success and next time will why not ?
[ "Once you get success why would you not get it next time ? ", "Because if one time you are successful , then the next time -- well , why not ? ", "Because one time you get success and next time you wo n't . ", "Because one time you get success and the next time will why not ? " ]
While at university , he might specialize in a subject , while still taking a number of diverse other courses .
[ "While at university , he might specialize in one subject while still taking a number of other diverse courses . ", "While at University , he might specialize in a subject , while still taking a number of diverse other courses . ", "While at university , he might specialize in a subject , while still taking a number of diverse courses . ", "While at university , he might specialize in a subject while still taking a number of other courses . " ]
Now we have all information around us .
[ "Now we have all the information at our disposal . ", "Now we have information all around us . ", "Now we have all information around us . ", "Now we have information all around us . " ]
Both of these men have dealed with situations in an unconventional manner and the results are with everyone to see .
[ "Both of these men have dealt with situations in an unconventional manner and the results are plain to see . ", "Both of these men have dealt with situations in an unconventional manner and the results are for everyone to see . ", "Both of these men have dealt with situations in an unconventional manner , and the results are visible for everyone to see . ", "Both of these men have dealt with situations in an unconventional manner and the results are for everyone to see . " ]
this shall effect in exams .
[ "This will affect exams . ", "This shall affect the exams . ", "This shall affect exams . ", "This shall effect the exams . " ]
Moreover , take risks teaches you to accept both winning and losing , that is the most important lesson one should learn in order to achieve any kind of objective .
[ "Moreover , taking risks teaches you to accept both winning and losing , and that is the most important lesson one should learn in order to achieve any kind of objective . ", "Moreover , taking risks teaches you to accept both winning and losing , and that is the most important lesson one can learn to achieve any kind of objective . ", "Besides , taking risks teaches you to accept both winning and losing , which is the most important lesson one should learn in order to achieve any kind of objective . ", "Moreover , taking risks teaches you to accept both winning and losing , and that is the most important lesson one should learn in order to achieve any kind of objective . " ]
I would like to initiate , myself , whatever I do on my trip to get much out of my trip .
[ "I would like to initiate whatever I do in order to get more out of my trip . ", "I would like to be the one to initiate whatever I do on my trip to get the most out of my trip . ", "I would like to decide , myself , whatever I do on my trip to get the most out of it . ", "I would like to initiate myself and whatever I choose do on the trip to get the most out of it . " ]
However , one student pointed out my mistakes .
[ "However , one student pointed out my mistakes . ", "However , one student pointed out my mistakes . ", "However , one student pointed out my mistakes . ", "However , one student pointed out my mistakes . " ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for JFLEG

### Dataset Summary

JFLEG (JHU FLuency-Extended GUG) is an English grammatical error correction (GEC) corpus. It is a gold standard benchmark for developing and evaluating GEC systems with respect to fluency (extent to which a text is native-sounding) as well as grammaticality. For each source document, there are four human-written corrections.

Grammatical error correction.

### Languages

English (native as well as L2 writers)

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

Each instance contains a source sentence and four corrections. For example:

{
'sentence': "They are moved by solar energy ."
'corrections': [
"They are moving by solar energy .",
"They are moved by solar energy .",
"They are moved by solar energy .",
"They are propelled by solar energy ."
]
}


### Data Fields

• sentence: original sentence written by an English learner
• corrections: corrected versions by human annotators. The order of the annotations are consistent (eg first sentence will always be written by annotator "ref0").

### Data Splits

• This dataset contains 1511 examples in total and comprise a dev and test split.
• There are 754 and 747 source sentences for dev and test, respectively.
• Each sentence has 4 corresponding corrected versions.

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Citation Information

This benchmark was proposed by Napoles et al., 2020.

@InProceedings{napoles-sakaguchi-tetreault:2017:EACLshort,
author    = {Napoles, Courtney  and  Sakaguchi, Keisuke  and  Tetreault, Joel},
title     = {JFLEG: A Fluency Corpus and Benchmark for Grammatical Error Correction},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers},
month     = {April},
year      = {2017},
publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
pages     = {229--234},
url       = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/E17-2037}
}

@InProceedings{heilman-EtAl:2014:P14-2,
author    = {Heilman, Michael  and  Cahill, Aoife  and  Madnani, Nitin  and  Lopez, Melissa  and  Mulholland, Matthew  and  Tetreault, Joel},
title     = {Predicting Grammaticality on an Ordinal Scale},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)},
month     = {June},
year      = {2014},