question_id
stringlengths
16
16
question
stringlengths
5
403
table_id
stringlengths
4
137
answer_text
stringlengths
1
118
question_postag
stringlengths
4
235
table
dict
00009b9649d0dd0a
Who were the builders of the mosque in Herat with fire temples ?
List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan_0
Ghurids
WP VBD DT NNS IN DT NN IN NNP IN NN NNS .
{ "url": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan", "title": "List of mosques in Afghanistan", "header": [ "Name", "Province", "City", "Year", "Remarks" ], "data": [ { "value": "Abdul Rahman Mosque", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Abdul_Rahman_Mosque", "summary": "The Abdul Rahman Mosque ( Dari : مسجد عبدالرحمان ; Pashto : د عبدالرحمان جومات ) , also known as the Grand Mosque of Kabul , is one of the largest mosques in Afghanistan . It is located in one of Kabul 's central commercial areas called Deh Afghanan , near the Pashtunistan Square , Zarnegar Park , and across the once popular Plaza Hotel . The building is three stories high , built on 3.5 acres of land . One floor of the building is dedicated to women only . The mosque is named after an influential Afghan businessman named Hajji Abdul Rahman who has died but his sons continued the project . Construction of the mosque began in 2001 by Hajji Abdur Rahman but was delayed for several years due to red tape . The mosque has the capacity to serve 10,000 people at a time . There is also a madrasa inside the mosque and a library containing 150,000 books . The major work on the mosque was completed in late 2009 but the official inauguration took place in July 2012 which was attended by the former Afghan President Hamid Karzai and many other high-ranking officials . The building of the mosque is said to have been initially designed by Afghan architect Mir Hafizullah Hashimi . [ citation needed ]" } ] }, { "value": "Kabul Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kabul_Province", "summary": "Kābul ( Pashto : کابل , romanized : Kābəl , Persian : کابل , romanized : Kābul ) , situated in the east of the country , is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan . The capital of the province is Kabul city , which is also Afghanistan 's capital . The population of the Kabul Province is nearly 4 million people as of 2012 , of which almost 80 percent live in the urban areas . The current governor of the province is Muhammad Yaqub Haidari ." } ] }, { "value": "Kabul", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kabul", "summary": "Kabul ( Persian : کابل , romanized : Kābol , Pashto : کابل , romanized : Kābəl ) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan , located in the eastern section of the country . It is also a municipality , forming part of the greater Kabul Province , and divided into 22 districts . According to estimates in 2019 , the population of Kabul is 4.114 million , which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan . Afghanistan 's only city with a population of over 1 million , Kabul serves as its political , cultural and economical center . Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world 's 75th largest city . Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains , with an elevation of 1,790 metres ( 5,873 ft ) making it one of the highest capitals in the world . The city is said to be over 3,500 years old , mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire . Located at crossroads in Asia - roughly halfway between Istanbul in the west and Hanoi in the east - it is in a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia , and a key location of the ancient Silk Road . It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids , Mauryans , Kushans , Kabul Shahis , Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Khwarazmians , Qarlughids , Khaljis , Timurids , Mughals , and Hotaks , until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire ( also known as the Afghan Empire ) in 1747 . Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan in 1776 , during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani , the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani . In the early 19th century , the British occupied the city , but after establishing foreign relations , they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan . The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed ." } ] }, { "value": "2009", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Largest mosque in Afghanistan", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Friday Mosque of Kandahar", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Shrine_of_the_Cloak", "summary": "The Shrine of the Cloak ( Pashto : خرقه شريفه Kherqa Sharīfa ) is located adjacent to the main mosque in Kandahar , Afghanistan . It contains the Kherqa , a cloak believed to have been worn by the Islamic prophet Muhammad during the famous Night Journey in 621 CE . It is said to be one of the holiest sites in Islam , and even considered by some as the heart of Afghanistan . The building 's exteriors are of green marble from Lashkargah , with tiled surfaces and gilded archways . The cloak itself is locked away inside the mosque and is rarely seen . It has been guarded by the same family for over 250 years . Its guardians have traditionally only shown the cloak to recognized leaders of Afghanistan , although in times of great crisis such as natural disasters , it has been publicly displayed as a means of reassurance . The cloak was given to Amir Ahmad Shah Durrani ( regarded as the founder of modern Afghanistan ) by Amir Murad Beg of Bukhara ( in modern Uzbekistan ) in 1768 in order to solidify a treaty between the two leaders . An alternate account states that when Ahmad Shah had traveled to Bukhara , he saw the cloak of Muhammad . He then decided to take the artifact with him to Kandahar , and asked whether he could borrow the cloak from its keepers . They , worrying that he might try to remove it from Bukhara , told him it could not be taken from the city . Ahmad Shah then is said to have pointed to a heavy stela of stone firmly planted in the ground , saying that he would never take the cloak far from the stone ." } ] }, { "value": "Kandahar Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kandahar_Province", "summary": "Kandahār ( Pashto : کندھار ; Persian : قندهار , Qandahār ) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan , located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan . It is surrounded by Helmand in the west , Uruzgan in the north and Zabul Province in the east . Its capital is the city of Kandahar , which is located on the Arghandab River . The greater region surrounding the province is called Loy Kandahar . The province contains about 18 districts , over 1,000 villages , and approximately 1,368,100 people , which is mostly tribal and a rural society . The main inhabitants of Kandahar province are the native ethnic Pashtuns , although smaller communities of Tajiks , Hazaras , Uzbeks and Baloch are also found in parts of the city of Kandahar . The current governor of the province is Humayoon Azizi ." } ] }, { "value": "Kandahar", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kandahar", "summary": "Kandahar ( /ˈkɑːnðəˌhɑːr/ ) or Qandahar ( Pashto : کندهار ; Dari : قندهار ; known in older literature as Candahar ) is a city located in Afghanistan , with a population of about 614,118 . Kandahar is located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River , at an elevation of 1,010 m ( 3,310 ft ) . It is the capital of Kandahar Province , and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar . In 1709 , Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty . In 1747 , Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the Durrani dynasty , made Kandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire . Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 300 years . It is a major trading center for sheep , wool , cotton , silk , felt , food grains , fresh and dried fruit , and tobacco . The region produces fine fruits , especially pomegranates and grapes , and the city has plants for canning , drying , and packing fruit , and is a major source of marijuana and hashish en route to Tajikistan . The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements . A major fortified city existed at the site of Kandahar , probably as early as c. 1000-750 BCE , and it became an important outpost of the Achaemenid ( Persian ) Empire in the 6th century BCE . Alexander the Great had laid-out the foundation of what is now Old Kandahar in the 4th century BC and gave it the Ancient Greek name Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας ( Alexandria of Arachosia ) . Many empires have long fought over the city due to its strategic location along the trade routes of southern , central and western Asia ." } ] }, { "value": "1750", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Houses the cloak of the Islamic prophet Muhammad", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Muhammad", "summary": "Muhammad [ n 1 ] ( Arabic : مُحَمَّد , pronounced [ muħammad ] ; [ n 2 ] c. 570 CE - 8 June 632 CE ) was an Arab religious , social , and political leader and the founder of Islam . According to Islamic doctrine , he was a prophet , sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam , Abraham , Moses , Jesus , and other prophets . He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam , though some modern denominations diverge from this belief . [ n 3 ] Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity , with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief . He is referred to by many appellations , including Messenger of Allah , The Prophet Muhammad , Allah 's Apostle , Last Prophet of Islam , and others ; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad , such as Mohamet , Mahamad , Muhamad , and many others . Born approximately 570 CE ( Year of the Elephant ) in the Arabian city of Mecca , Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six . He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib , and upon his death , by his uncle Abu Talib . In later years , he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer . When he was 40 , Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave , and receiving his first revelation from God . Three years later , in 610 , Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly , proclaiming that God is One , that complete submission ( islām ) to God is the right way of life ( dīn ) , and that he was a prophet and messenger of God , similar to the other prophets in Islam . The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number , and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists . He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution , before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina ( then known as Yathrib ) in 622 ." } ] }, { "value": "Omar Al-Farooq Mosque", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kandahar Province", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kandahar", "urls": [] }, { "value": "2014", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Built on the site that was a popular cinema of Kandahar . [ 1 ]", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Great Mosque of Herat", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Great_Mosque_of_Herat", "summary": "The Great Mosque of Herat ( Persian : مسجد جامع هرات , Masjid-i Jāmi-i Herāt ) or Jami Masjid of Herat , is a mosque in the city of Herat , in the Herat Province of north-western Afghanistan . It was built by the Ghurids , under the rule of the Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Ghori , who laid its foundation in 1200 CE , and later extended by several rulers as Herat changed rulers down the centuries from the Timurids to the Safavids , Mughals and then the Uzbeks , all of whom supported the mosque . Though many of the glazed tiles have been replaced during subsequent periods , the Friday Mosque in Herat was given its present form during the closing years of the fifteenth century . Apart from numerous small neighborhood mosques for daily prayer , most communities in the Islamic world have a larger mosque , a congregational mosque for Friday services with a sermon . The Jama Masjid was not always the largest mosque in Herat ; a much larger complex the Mosque and Madressa of Gawhar Shad , also built by the Timurids , was located in the northern part of the city . However , those architectural monuments were dynamited by officers of the British Indian Army in 1885 , to prevent its use as a fortress if a Russian army tried to invade India ." } ] }, { "value": "Herat Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Herat_Province", "summary": "Herat ( Pashto/Dari : هرات ) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan , located in the western part of the country . Together with Badghis , Farah , and Ghor provinces , it makes up the north-western region of Afghanistan . Its primary city and administrative capital is Herat City . The province of Herat is divided into about 17 districts and contains over 1,000 villages . It has a population of about 1,780,000 , making it the second most populated province in Afghanistan behind Kabul Province . The population is multi-ethnic but largely Persian-speaking . The province of Herat shares a border with Iran in the west and Turkmenistan in the north , making it an important trading region . The Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline ( TAPI ) is expected to pass through Herat from Turkmenistan to Pakistan and India in the south . The province has two airports , one is the Herat International Airport in the capital of Herat and the other is at the Shindand Air Base , which is one of the largest military bases in Afghanistan . The Salma Dam which is fed by the Hari River is also located in this province ." } ] }, { "value": "Herat", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Herat", "summary": "Herāt ( /hɛˈrɑːt/ ; Persian/Pashto : هرات ) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan . It has a population of about 436,300 , and serves as the capital of Herat Province , situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country . It is linked with Kandahar , Kabul , and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road . It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala , and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi . Herat dates back to Avestan times and was traditionally known for its wine . The city has a number of historic sites , including the Herat Citadel and the Musalla Complex . During the Middle Ages Herat became one of the important cities of Khorasan , as it was known as the Pearl of Khorasan . It has been governed by various Afghan rulers since the early 18th century . In 1717 , the city was invaded by the Hotaki forces until they were expelled by the Afsharids in 1729 . After Nader Shah 's death and Ahmad Shah Durrani 's rise to power in 1747 , Herat became part of Afghanistan . It witnessed some political disturbances and military invasions during the early half of the 19th century but the 1857 Treaty of Paris ended hostilities of the Anglo-Persian War . Herat lies on the ancient trade routes of the Middle East , Central and South Asia , and today is a regional hub in western Afghanistan ." } ] }, { "value": "1446", "urls": [] }, { "value": "The mosque was the city 's first congregational mosque , built on the former site of two smaller Zoroastrian Fire temples destroyed by earthquake and fire", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Fire_temple", "summary": "A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians , often called dar-e mehr ( Persian ) or agiyari ( Gujarati ) . In the Zoroastrian religion , fire ( see atar ) , together with clean water ( see aban ) , are agents of ritual purity . Clean , white ash for the purification ceremonies [ is ] regarded as the basis of ritual life , which are essentially the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire , for the temple [ fire ] is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity . For , one who sacrifices unto fire with fuel in his hand . , is given happiness . As of 2019 [ update ] , there were 167 fire temples in the world , of which 45 were in Mumbai , 105 in the rest of India , and 17 in other countries . There is a religious custom in India of not allowing Zoroastrian women to enter the Fire Temple and the Tower of Silence if they marry a non-Zoroastrian person . This custom has been challenged before the Supreme Court of India after a Zoroastrian woman was denied entry into Zoroastrian institutions ." } ] }, { "value": "Shrine of Ali", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Shrine_of_Ali", "summary": "The Blue Mosque is a mosque located in the center of Mazar-i-Sharif , Afghanistan . The Seljuq dynasty sultan Ahmed Sanjar built the first known shrine at this location . It was destroyed or hidden under earthen embankment during the invasion of Genghis Khan in around 1220 . In the 15th century , Sultan Husayn Bayqarah Mirza built the current Blue Mosque here . It is by far the most important landmark in Mazar-i-Sharif and it is believed that the name of city ( Noble Shrine , Grave of Hazrat-i-Ali { Sharif } originates from this shrine . A site plan of the location made in the 1910s shows that there had earlier been a smaller walled precinct in the mosque , which was razed to create parklands later , although the portals to this precinct still remain as gateways for the shrine . Tombs of varying dimensions were added for a number of Afghan political and religious leaders over the years , which has led to the development of its current irregular dimensions . These include the square domed tomb of Amir Dost Muhammad , Wazir Akbar Khan and a similar structure for Amir Sher Ali and his family . According to a local legend here has been buried Ali who reportedly was brought here by a white camel in order to save his remains from the desecration by his enemies . Most Muslims though consider that Ali is buried in Imam Ali Mosque , Najaf in Iraq . Alternatively , the personage buried in the shrine may have predated Islam . Identifying the shrine with Ali could likely be a myth to ensure the tomb would be protected and honored by the Islamic establishment ." } ] }, { "value": "Balkh Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Balkh_Province", "summary": "Balkh ( Pashto and Persian : بلخ , Balx ) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan , located in the north of the country . It is divided into 15 districts and has a population of about 1,245,100 , which is multi-ethnic and mostly a Persian-speaking society . The city of Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the capital of the province . The Mazar-e Sharif International Airport and Camp Marmal sit on the eastern edge of Mazar-i-Sharif . The name of the province is derived from the ancient city of Balkh , near the modern town . The city of Mazar-e-Sharif has been an important stop on the trade routes from the Far East to the Middle East , the Mediterranean and Europe . Home to the famous blue mosque , it was once destroyed by Genghis Khan but later rebuilt by Timur . The city of Balkh and the area of Balkh Province was considered a part of various historical regions in history including Ariana and Greater Khorasan . It serves today as Afghanistan 's second but main gateway to Central Asia , the other being Sherkhan Bandar in the Kunduz Province ." } ] }, { "value": "Mazar-i-Sharif", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Mazar-i-Sharif", "summary": "Mazār-i-Sharīf ( Dari and Pashto : مزار شریف ; [ mæˈzɒːre ʃæˈriːf ] ) , also called Mazār-e Sharīf , or just Mazar , is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan , with a 2015 UN-Habitat population estimate 427,600 . It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east , Kabul in the southeast , Herat in the west and Termez in Uzbekistan in the north . It is about 55 km ( 34 mi ) from the Uzbek border . The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites . The ancient city of Balkh is also nearby . The name Mazar-i-Sharif means Tomb of the Prince , a reference to the large , blue-tiled sanctuary and mosque in the center of the city known as the Shrine of Ali or the Blue Mosque . Some people believe that the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib , the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad , is at this mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif , after Ali 's remains were transferred to Mazar-i-Sharif as per request of Ja'far as-Sadiq . [ citation needed ] This is however rejected by other Muslims , as the majority believe he is buried in Najaf , Iraq . The region around Mazar-i-Sharif has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Ilkhanates , Timurids , and Khanate of Bukhara until the mid-18th century when it became part of the Durrani Empire after a friendship treaty was signed between emirs Murad Beg and Ahmad Shah Durrani . Mazar-i-Sharif is also known for the famous Afghan song Bia ke berem ba Mazar ( Come let 's go to Mazar ) by Sarban . Mazar-i-Sharif is the regional hub of northern Afghanistan , located in close proximity to both Uzbekistan and Tajikistan . It is also home to an international airport ." } ] }, { "value": "?", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Also known as the Blue Mosque of Mazar-i-Sharif", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Sakhi Shrine ( Ziarat-e Sakhi )", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Sakhi_Shrine", "summary": "Sakhi Shah-e Mardan Shrine or Ziyarat-e Sakhi ( Dari : زیارت سخی ) , is a shrine and mosque located in the Karte Sakhi area of Kabul , Afghanistan . It is associated with the place to which the cloak of the Prophet Muhammad was brought and with a visit from Ali , the son-in-law and cousin of Prophet Muhammad , who would become the fourth Caliph and first of the Twelve Imams . The shrine is located at the foot of the Asmayi Hill , now better known as Television Hill . To its north and west is the Sakhi Cemetery . It is believed that the shrine marks the spot where the cloak of Prophet Muhammad was kept on its way to its present location in the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar . The cloak is said to have been woven by Muhammad himself with the help of his daughter Fatima , her husband , and Muhammad 's cousin , Ali , and their sons , Hasan and Husayn . Before Muhammad died , he bequeathed his cloak to Uwais al-Qarani , telling Ali and Umar that Uwais should be given the cloak on his death . After the Prophet 's death , Uwais took the cloak to the Cave of Hira on Jabal al-Nour , where Muhammad received his first revelation . It is believed to have remained in the cave until it was taken to Baghdad by Shaykh al-Uliya Qutba al-Atqiya . Timur would later seize it and take to his capital of Samarqand , where is would stay until 1076/1665-66 . The cloak was then taken to India , from where it was taken to Balkh , in the west of today 's Afghanistan , by the then governor of the city , Mir Yar Beg . He built a fort in Juzgun , Badakhshan , to house the garment securely ." } ] }, { "value": "Kabul Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kabul_Province", "summary": "Kābul ( Pashto : کابل , romanized : Kābəl , Persian : کابل , romanized : Kābul ) , situated in the east of the country , is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan . The capital of the province is Kabul city , which is also Afghanistan 's capital . The population of the Kabul Province is nearly 4 million people as of 2012 , of which almost 80 percent live in the urban areas . The current governor of the province is Muhammad Yaqub Haidari ." } ] }, { "value": "Kabul", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kabul", "summary": "Kabul ( Persian : کابل , romanized : Kābol , Pashto : کابل , romanized : Kābəl ) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan , located in the eastern section of the country . It is also a municipality , forming part of the greater Kabul Province , and divided into 22 districts . According to estimates in 2019 , the population of Kabul is 4.114 million , which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan . Afghanistan 's only city with a population of over 1 million , Kabul serves as its political , cultural and economical center . Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world 's 75th largest city . Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains , with an elevation of 1,790 metres ( 5,873 ft ) making it one of the highest capitals in the world . The city is said to be over 3,500 years old , mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire . Located at crossroads in Asia - roughly halfway between Istanbul in the west and Hanoi in the east - it is in a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia , and a key location of the ancient Silk Road . It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids , Mauryans , Kushans , Kabul Shahis , Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Khwarazmians , Qarlughids , Khaljis , Timurids , Mughals , and Hotaks , until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire ( also known as the Afghan Empire ) in 1747 . Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan in 1776 , during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani , the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani . In the early 19th century , the British occupied the city , but after establishing foreign relations , they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan . The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed ." } ] }, { "value": "?", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Also known as Karte Sakhi Shrine", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Mosque of Jalalabad", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Nangarhar Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Nangarhar_Province", "summary": "Nangarhār ( Pashto : ننګر هار , Dari : ننگرهار , Urdu : ننگرهار ) also called Nangrahar or Ningrahar , is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan , located in the eastern part of the country . It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,436,000 . The city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province ." } ] }, { "value": "Jalalabad", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Jalalabad", "summary": "Jalālābād /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/ , or Dzalalabad , ( Urdu : جلال آباد ) is a city in eastern Afghanistan . It is the capital of Nangarhar Province . Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kabul River and the Kunar River . It is linked by an approximately 150-kilometre ( 95 mi ) highway with Kabul to the west , and a 130-kilometre ( 80 mi ) highway with the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east . Jalalabad has a population of 356,274 ( 2015 estimate ) , making it one of the five largest cities of Afghanistan . Jalalabad is a leading center of social and trade activity because of its proximity with the Torkham border crossing , 65 km ( 40 mi ) away . Major industries include papermaking , as well as agricultural products including oranges , lemon , rice , and sugarcane due to its warm climate . It has six districts and a total land area of 12,796 hectares ( 31,620 acres ) . The total number of dwellings in this city is 39,586 ." } ] }, { "value": "?", "urls": [] }, { "value": "", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Lashkargah Mosque", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Lashkargah_Mosque", "summary": "Lashkargah Mosque ( Pashto : د لښکرګاه جومات ) is a mosque in the city of Lashkargah , in Helmand province of south-western Afghanistan ." } ] }, { "value": "Helmand Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Helmand_Province", "summary": "Helmand ( /ˈhɛlmənd/ HEL-mənd ; Pashto/Dari : اهلاً ايها القارئ ) , also known as Hillmand or Helman and , in ancient times , as Hermand and Hethumand , is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan , in the south of the country . It is the largest province by area , covering 58,584 square kilometres ( 20,000 sq mi ) area . The province contains 13 districts , encompassing over 1,000 villages , and roughly 1,442,500 settled people . Lashkar Gah serves as the provincial capital . Helmand was part of the Greater Kandahar region until made into a separate province by the Afghan government in the 20th century . The province has a domestic airport ( Bost Airport ) , in the city of Lashkar Gah and heavily used by NATO-led forces . The British Camp Bastion and U.S. Camp Leatherneck is a short distance southwest of Lashkar Gah . The Helmand River flows through the mainly desert region of the province , providing water used for irrigation . The Kajaki Dam , which is one of Afghanistan 's major reservoirs , is located in the Kajaki district . Helmand is believed to be one of the world 's largest opium-producing regions , responsible for around 42% of the world 's total production . This is believed to be more than the whole of Burma , which is the second largest producing nation after Afghanistan . The region also produces tobacco , sugar beets , cotton , sesame , wheat , mung beans , maize , nuts , sunflowers , onions , potato , tomato , cauliflower , peanut , apricot , grape , and melon ." } ] }, { "value": "Lashkar Gah", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Lashkar_Gah", "summary": "Lashkargāh ( Pashto : لښکرګاه ; Persian : لشکرگاه ) , historically called Bost or Boost ( بست، بوست ) , is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province . It is located in Lashkargah District , where the Arghandab River merges into the Helmand River . The city has a population of 201,546 as of 2006 . Lashkargah is linked by major roads with Kandahar to the east , Zaranj on the border with Iran to the west , and Farah and Herat to the north-west . It is mostly very arid and desolate . However , farming does exist around the Helmand and Arghandab rivers . Bost Airport is located on the east bank of the Helmand River , five miles north of the junction of the Helmand and Argahandab rivers ." } ] }, { "value": "?", "urls": [] }, { "value": "", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Khost Mosque", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Khost_Mosque", "summary": "The Great Mosque of Khost or simply the Khost Mosque is the largest mosque in the city of Khost , in eastern Afghanistan . It can hold up to 2,000 worshipers during any prayer . It is important to note that the city of Khost has a number of other smaller mosques , which are also reported in the news as Khost mosques ." } ] }, { "value": "Khost Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Khost_Province", "summary": "Khost ( Pashto : خوست , Persian : خوست ) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan , located in the eastern part of the country . To the east , Khost Province is bordered by Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan . Khost Province used to be part of Paktia Province in the past , and the larger region surrounding Khost is still called Loya Paktia ( Greater Paktia ) . The city of Khost serves as the capital of Khost province . The population of the province is around 546,800 , which is mostly a tribal society . Khost Airport serves the province for domestic flights to Afghanistan 's capital , Kabul ." } ] }, { "value": "Khost", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Khost", "summary": "Khōst ( Pashto : خوست , or Khēst خېست ) is the capital city of Khost Province , Afghanistan . It is the largest city in the southeastern part of the country , and also the largest in the region of Loya Paktia . To the south and east of Khost lie Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan . Khost is the home of Shaikh Zayed University . Khost Airport serves the city as well as the larger region surrounding the city ." } ] }, { "value": "2000", "urls": [] }, { "value": "", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Amir Ali Shernway Mosque", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Jowzjan Province", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Jowzjan_Province", "summary": "Jowzjan , sometimes spelled as Jawzjan or Jozjan ( Persian : ولایت جوزجان , Pashto : جوزجان ولايت ) , is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan , located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan . The province is divided into 11 districts and contains hundreds of villages . It has a population of about 512,100 , which is multi-ethnic and mostly agriculturalists . Sheberghan is the capital of Jozjan province ." } ] }, { "value": "Sheberghan", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Sheberghan", "summary": "Sheberghān or Shaburghān ( Uzbek , Pashto , Persian : شبرغان ) , also spelled Shebirghan and Shibarghan , is the capital city of the Jowzjan Province in northern Afghanistan . The city of Sheberghan has a population of 175,599 . It has four districts and a total land area of 7,335 hectares . The total number of dwellings in Sheberghān is 19,511 ." } ] }, { "value": "2017", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Built by Turkey [ 2 ]", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Turkey", "summary": "Turkey ( Turkish : Türkiye [ ˈtyɾcije ] ) , officially the Republic of Turkey ( Turkish : Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti ] ( listen ) ) , is a transcontinental country located mostly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia , with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeastern Europe . East Thrace , the part of Turkey in Europe , is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara , the Bosporus and the Dardanelles ( collectively called the Turkish Straits ) . Istanbul , mostly located on the European side , is the largest city in the country while Ankara is the capital . Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest , the Black Sea to its north , Georgia to its northeast , Armenia , the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to its east , Iraq and Syria to its southeast , the Mediterranean Sea to its south , and the Aegean Sea to its west . Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country 's citizens identify as Turkish , while Kurds are the largest minority at anywhere from 15 to 20 percent of the population . At various points in its history , the region has been inhabited by diverse civilisations including the Assyrians , Greeks , Thracians , Phrygians , Urartians , and Armenians . Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era . The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century , and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolises the start and foundation of Turkey . The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243 , when it disintegrated into small principalities called beyliks . Beginning in the late 13th century , the Ottomans started uniting beyliks and conquering the Balkans . After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 , Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I . During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe , West Asia and North Africa and became a world power ." } ] } ], "section_title": "", "section_text": "", "uid": "List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan_0", "intro": "The following is an incomplete list of large mosques in Afghanistan:" }
00013190d4370f73
After what season did the number 7 competitor retire ?
1999_Kyalami_Superbike_World_Championship_round_0
2006
IN WP NN VBD DT NN CD NN NN .
{ "url": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999_Kyalami_Superbike_World_Championship_round", "title": "1999 Kyalami Superbike World Championship round", "header": [ "No", "Rider", "Team", "Motorcycle" ], "data": [ { "value": "1", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Carl Fogarty", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Carl_Fogarty", "summary": "Carl George Fogarty , MBE ( born 1 July 1965 ) , often known as Foggy , is one of the most successful World Superbike racers of all time . He also holds the second highest number of race wins at 59 . He is the son of former motorcycle racer George Fogarty . Retired from racing since 2000 , Fogarty is renowned for his high corner speed riding style , combined with an aggressive competitiveness , which brought him 59 victories and four World Superbike Championships ( 1994 , 1995 , 1998 and 1999 ) . His greatest success came with the factory Ducati team . He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire ( MBE ) in the 1998 New Year Honours , and helped to develop the Petronas FP1 racing motorcycle campaigned in the early 2000s . He won the 14th series of I 'm a Celebrity.Get Me Out of Here ! in 2014 and was crowned 'King of the Jungle ' ." } ] }, { "value": "Ducati Performance", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 996", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_996", "summary": "The Ducati 996 is a Ducati sport bike motorcycle made from 1999 to 2002 , based upon the earlier 916 ." } ] }, { "value": "4", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Akira Yanagawa", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Akira_Yanagawa", "summary": "Akira Yanagawa ( 柳川 明 , Yanagawa Akira , born 15 July 1971 ) is a motorcycle road racer from Japan . He won three World Superbike Championship races and finished on the podium on 20 further occasions ." } ] }, { "value": "Kawasaki Racing Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki ZX-7RR", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kawasaki_ZX-7R_and_7RR", "summary": "The Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R was a motorcycle in the Ninja sport bike series from the Japanese manufacturer Kawasaki produced from 1989 until 2003 . It remained largely unchanged through its production . Kawasaki used inverted forks starting in 1991 , added ram air using a single tube , and in 1996 , twin tube ram air and Tokico six piston brakes and fully adjustable suspension . From 1989 through 1995 in the US market , Kawasaki called the ZXR-750 and ZXR-750R the ZX-7 and ZX-7R respectively . Starting from 1996 Kawasaki dropped the ZXR name worldwide and the former ZXR-750 was now ZX-7R and the limited edition homologation special ZXR-750R/ZX-7R started in 1991 was now ZX-7RR ." } ] }, { "value": "5", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Colin Edwards", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Colin_Edwards", "summary": "Colin Edwards II ( born February 27 , 1974 ) nicknamed the Texas Tornado , is an American former professional motorcycle racer who retired half-way through the 2014 season , but continues in the sport as a factory test rider . He is a two-time World Superbike champion and competed in the MotoGP class from 2003 to 2014 ." } ] }, { "value": "Castrol Honda", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Honda RC45", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Honda_RC45", "summary": "The Honda RVF750R RC45 was a fully faired racing motorcycle created for homologation purposes for the Superbike World Championship by Honda Racing Corporation . The RVF750R was the successor to the VFR750R RC30 ( not to be confused with the sport touring VFR750F ) . Like its predecessor , the RVF750R featured a DOHC liquid-cooled V4 4-stroke engine and a single-sided swingarm with gear driven cams , but unlike the RC30 it utilized electronic fuel injection , in a setup very similar to the production 1992 NR750 . The US spec engine had a 749.2cc capacity and was rated at 101 horsepower ; the European version was rated at 118 horsepower . A simple rewire modification to the PGM-FI box increased power in the US engine up to the 118 hp . It was manufactured from 1994 until 1995 and sold in limited numbers ( the United States receiving the model for its first year only ) , followed by the VTR1000R SP-1 RC51 in 2000 . Unlike the VFR750R RC30 and VFR750F from which the engine was originally derived the gear drive for the cams was moved from the centre of the engine in between the cylinders to the one side allowing a slightly narrower engine ." } ] }, { "value": "6", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Gregorio Lavilla", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Gregorio_Lavilla", "summary": "Gregorio Lavilla ( born 29 September 1974 ) is a Spanish former professional motorcycle road racer . He has raced in MotoGP ( full-time in 250s , and part-time in 500s and MotoGP itself ) , the Superbike World Championship , and the British Superbike Championship , taking the British crown in 2005 . For 2008 he raced in WSB for the Ventaxia Honda team , finishing the championship in 12th place . He raced in four rounds of the 2009 WSB series with the Guandalini Racing Ducati team ." } ] }, { "value": "Kawasaki Racing Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki ZX-7RR", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kawasaki_ZX-7R_and_7RR", "summary": "The Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R was a motorcycle in the Ninja sport bike series from the Japanese manufacturer Kawasaki produced from 1989 until 2003 . It remained largely unchanged through its production . Kawasaki used inverted forks starting in 1991 , added ram air using a single tube , and in 1996 , twin tube ram air and Tokico six piston brakes and fully adjustable suspension . From 1989 through 1995 in the US market , Kawasaki called the ZXR-750 and ZXR-750R the ZX-7 and ZX-7R respectively . Starting from 1996 Kawasaki dropped the ZXR name worldwide and the former ZXR-750 was now ZX-7R and the limited edition homologation special ZXR-750R/ZX-7R started in 1991 was now ZX-7RR ." } ] }, { "value": "7", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Pierfrancesco Chili", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Pierfrancesco_Chili", "summary": "Pierfrancesco 'Frankie ' Chili , ( born 20 June 1964 in Bologna , Italy ) is a motorcycle racer who has raced in the Superbike World Championship and the 250cc and 500cc classes in Grand Prix . In World Superbike he had a record number of starts , as well as 10 poles and 17 wins . He retired at the end of the 2006 season . Chili also won the 125cc European Championship in 1985" } ] }, { "value": "Suzuki Alstare F.S", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Suzuki GSX-R750", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Suzuki_GSX-R750", "summary": "Suzuki GSX-R750 is a family of 750 cc sports motorcycles from Suzuki 's GSX-R series of motorcycles . Looking like a Suzuki Endurance racer , it can be considered to be the first affordable , modern racer-replica suitable for road use . It was introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1984 ." } ] }, { "value": "9", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Peter Goddard", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Peter_Goddard_(motorcycle_racer)", "summary": "Peter Goddard ( born 28 June 1964 ) was a Grand Prix motorcycle road racer . He resides in Wollongong , New South Wales , Australia . Riding motorcycles since the age of 5 , Goddard started his racing career on dirt tracks before making his debut on road circuits at Oran Park Raceway in 1984 . He has won many prestigious events and is an icon in today 's motorcycling world for what he has done ." } ] }, { "value": "Aprilia Rac.De Cecco", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Aprilia RSV1000", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Aprilia_RSV_Mille", "summary": "The Aprilia RSV Mille was a sport motorcycle manufactured by Aprilia from 1998 to 2003 . It was offered in three versions , RSV Mille , RSV Mille R , and RSV Mille SP . The first RSV Mille ( ME ) was made from 1998 to 2000 , the updated RSV Mille ( RP ) from 2001 to 2002 and the last update was made in 2003 . With a 998 cc 60-degree V-twin engine built by the Austrian company Rotax , the RSV Mille was the first large displacement motorcycle made by Aprilia that up to then had made up to 250cc engines . This same engine was used unmodified in the Tuono and in slightly modified form in the SL1000 Falco . The Mille featured a type of slipper clutch , which worked by using a vacuum on a closed throttle from the inlet manifold to give the effect of slipper clutch , but only on a closed throttle ." } ] }, { "value": "11", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Troy Corser", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Troy_Corser", "summary": "Troy Gordon Corser ( born 27 November 1971 ) is an Australian former professional motorcycle road racer . He competed in the Superbike World Championship from 1992 to 2011 except for the 1997 season when he competed in Grand Prix motorcycle racing . Corser won the Superbike World championship in 1996 and 2005 ." } ] }, { "value": "Ducati Performance", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 996", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_996", "summary": "The Ducati 996 is a Ducati sport bike motorcycle made from 1999 to 2002 , based upon the earlier 916 ." } ] }, { "value": "15", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Igor Jerman", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki Bertocchi", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki ZX-7RR", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kawasaki_ZX-7R_and_7RR", "summary": "The Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R was a motorcycle in the Ninja sport bike series from the Japanese manufacturer Kawasaki produced from 1989 until 2003 . It remained largely unchanged through its production . Kawasaki used inverted forks starting in 1991 , added ram air using a single tube , and in 1996 , twin tube ram air and Tokico six piston brakes and fully adjustable suspension . From 1989 through 1995 in the US market , Kawasaki called the ZXR-750 and ZXR-750R the ZX-7 and ZX-7R respectively . Starting from 1996 Kawasaki dropped the ZXR name worldwide and the former ZXR-750 was now ZX-7R and the limited edition homologation special ZXR-750R/ZX-7R started in 1991 was now ZX-7RR ." } ] }, { "value": "16", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Andreas Meklau", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Andreas_Meklau", "summary": "Andreas Meklau ( born 7 June 1967 in Bruck an der Mur ) is an Austrian motorcycle racer . He competed in the Superbike World Championship for over ten years . He won one race at the Österreichring in 1993 ." } ] }, { "value": "Remus Racing Austria", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 996", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_996", "summary": "The Ducati 996 is a Ducati sport bike motorcycle made from 1999 to 2002 , based upon the earlier 916 ." } ] }, { "value": "18", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Carlos Macias", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Capill France Racing", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 916", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_916", "summary": "The Ducati 916 is a fully faired sport bike made by Ducati from 1994 to 1998 . [ a ] Featuring a 916 cc ( 56 cu in ) fuel injected , 4-valve , desmo , liquid-cooled , 90° V-twin engine in atrellis frame with a single-sided swingarm and USD forks , the 916 is frequently cited as one of the most beautiful motorcycles ever ." } ] }, { "value": "19", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Lucio Pedercini", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Lucio_Pedercini", "summary": "Lucio Pedercini ( born September 22 , 1972 ) is an Italian former professional Grand Prix motorcycle racer and current motorcycle racing team owner ." } ] }, { "value": "Team Pedercini", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Team_Pedercini", "summary": "Team Pedercini is an Italian motorcycle racing team , currently competing in the Superbike World Championship and FIM Superstock 1000 Championship with Kawasaki ZX-10R motorcycles ." } ] }, { "value": "Ducati 916", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_916", "summary": "The Ducati 916 is a fully faired sport bike made by Ducati from 1994 to 1998 . [ a ] Featuring a 916 cc ( 56 cu in ) fuel injected , 4-valve , desmo , liquid-cooled , 90° V-twin engine in atrellis frame with a single-sided swingarm and USD forks , the 916 is frequently cited as one of the most beautiful motorcycles ever ." } ] }, { "value": "20", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Doriano Romboni", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Doriano_Romboni", "summary": "Doriano Romboni ( 8 December 1968 in Lerici , Italy - 30 November 2013 in Latina , Italy ) was an Italian Grand Prix motorcycle road racer ." } ] }, { "value": "R & D Racing Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 996", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_996", "summary": "The Ducati 996 is a Ducati sport bike motorcycle made from 1999 to 2002 , based upon the earlier 916 ." } ] }, { "value": "21", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Katsuaki Fujiwara", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Katsuaki_Fujiwara", "summary": "Katsuaki Fujiwara ( born 27 March 1975 in Shimonoseki , Yamaguchi Prefecture , Japan ) is a former professional motorcycle racer . He last competed in the Asia Road Race Championship in the SS600 class aboard a Kawasaki ZX-6R , where he was champion in 2011 and runner-up behind Ryuichi Kiyonari in 2012 and 2013 behind Azlan Shah Kamaruzaman . He is mostly known for his time spent in the Supersport World Championship , a championship he gained his best result of second overall in 2002 . He has also raced in the Superbike World Championship , and in the All Japan Road Race Championship ." } ] }, { "value": "Suzuki Alstare F.S", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Suzuki GSX-R750", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Suzuki_GSX-R750", "summary": "Suzuki GSX-R750 is a family of 750 cc sports motorcycles from Suzuki 's GSX-R series of motorcycles . Looking like a Suzuki Endurance racer , it can be considered to be the first affordable , modern racer-replica suitable for road use . It was introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1984 ." } ] }, { "value": "22", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Vittoriano Guareschi", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Vittoriano_Guareschi", "summary": "Vittoriano Guareschi ( born 19 June 1971 in Parma , Italy ) is a former professional motorcycle road racer and team manager ." } ] }, { "value": "Yamaha WSBK Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Yamaha R7", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Yamaha_YZF-R7", "summary": "The Yamaha YZF-R7 or OW-02 is a race homologation motorcycle made by Yamaha in limited production run of only 500 units . It was designed to compete in the Superbike World Championship and Suzuka 8 Hours endurance races . It has a 749 cc ( 45.7 cu in ) , DOHC 20-valve ( 5 valves per cylinder ) inline-four engine producing 106 hp ( 79.0 kW ) on the base model for 32k US Dollars . But Yamaha also produced two race kits for the R7 the first for 914.25 US Dollars made 135 hp ( 100.7 kW ) when the other , unused bank of fuel injectors is activated and a pipe and ECU update . The second race kit for 12,190.00 US Dollars unleashed 162 hp ( 120.8 kW ) . The R7 was built for racing 'out of the box ' , implied by the chassis , which was derived from information and geometry from the YZR500 machines of the period . The R7 was specified with Öhlins suspension components and with titanium valves , titanium conrods , a shortened Deltabox II frame and dry weight of just 189 kg ( 416 lb ) . The intentions of the R7 were further underlined , with its designation of OW-02 and the lack of any pillion/passenger provision . The ECU came pre-programmed with racing maps for fuel and ignition , which were unlocked when the ECU detected that the race kit 's wiring harness had been installed . Super Streetbikes magazine ranked the R7 eighth in its list , The 10 Most Exotic Bikes Ever , noting its extraordinary $ 32,000 price and top-spec Öhlins race suspension and running gear and that the bike , looked utterly amazing : genuine two-wheeled sex , but said it was ironic that in spite of being the most exotic R-series bike ever , it actually turned out to be a bit of a lemon . The problem was that the bike as sold was hobbled , at only 100 hp , and that small teams could not afford the thousands of dollars of racing upgrades necessary to make the R7 competitive , and when they did , the crankshafts failed . For the sake of simplicity and cost savings , Yamaha had chosen to detune the engines for bikes imported into all countries to meet the German market 's maximum horsepower regulation , partially because whatever level it was detuned to was irrelevant , given that virtually every buyer intended to modify the bike from street-legal form in order to race ." } ] }, { "value": "23", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Jiří Mrkývka", "urls": [] }, { "value": "JM SBK Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 916", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_916", "summary": "The Ducati 916 is a fully faired sport bike made by Ducati from 1994 to 1998 . [ a ] Featuring a 916 cc ( 56 cu in ) fuel injected , 4-valve , desmo , liquid-cooled , 90° V-twin engine in atrellis frame with a single-sided swingarm and USD forks , the 916 is frequently cited as one of the most beautiful motorcycles ever ." } ] }, { "value": "24", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Vladimír Karban", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Karban Racing Team", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Suzuki GSX-R750", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Suzuki_GSX-R750", "summary": "Suzuki GSX-R750 is a family of 750 cc sports motorcycles from Suzuki 's GSX-R series of motorcycles . Looking like a Suzuki Endurance racer , it can be considered to be the first affordable , modern racer-replica suitable for road use . It was introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1984 ." } ] }, { "value": "26", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Jean-Pierre Jeandat", "urls": [] }, { "value": "White Endurance", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Honda RC45", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Honda_RC45", "summary": "The Honda RVF750R RC45 was a fully faired racing motorcycle created for homologation purposes for the Superbike World Championship by Honda Racing Corporation . The RVF750R was the successor to the VFR750R RC30 ( not to be confused with the sport touring VFR750F ) . Like its predecessor , the RVF750R featured a DOHC liquid-cooled V4 4-stroke engine and a single-sided swingarm with gear driven cams , but unlike the RC30 it utilized electronic fuel injection , in a setup very similar to the production 1992 NR750 . The US spec engine had a 749.2cc capacity and was rated at 101 horsepower ; the European version was rated at 118 horsepower . A simple rewire modification to the PGM-FI box increased power in the US engine up to the 118 hp . It was manufactured from 1994 until 1995 and sold in limited numbers ( the United States receiving the model for its first year only ) , followed by the VTR1000R SP-1 RC51 in 2000 . Unlike the VFR750R RC30 and VFR750F from which the engine was originally derived the gear drive for the cams was moved from the centre of the engine in between the cylinders to the one side allowing a slightly narrower engine ." } ] }, { "value": "33", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Robert Ulm", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki Bertocchi", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Kawasaki ZX-7RR", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Kawasaki_ZX-7R_and_7RR", "summary": "The Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R was a motorcycle in the Ninja sport bike series from the Japanese manufacturer Kawasaki produced from 1989 until 2003 . It remained largely unchanged through its production . Kawasaki used inverted forks starting in 1991 , added ram air using a single tube , and in 1996 , twin tube ram air and Tokico six piston brakes and fully adjustable suspension . From 1989 through 1995 in the US market , Kawasaki called the ZXR-750 and ZXR-750R the ZX-7 and ZX-7R respectively . Starting from 1996 Kawasaki dropped the ZXR name worldwide and the former ZXR-750 was now ZX-7R and the limited edition homologation special ZXR-750R/ZX-7R started in 1991 was now ZX-7RR ." } ] }, { "value": "38", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Lance Isaacs", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Team Ducati NCR", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Ducati 996", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ducati_996", "summary": "The Ducati 996 is a Ducati sport bike motorcycle made from 1999 to 2002 , based upon the earlier 916 ." } ] }, { "value": "39", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Alessandro Gramigni", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Alessandro_Gramigni", "summary": "Alessandro Gramigni ( born 29 December 1968 in Florence , Italy ) is a former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer . He was the 1992 F.I.M . 125cc world champion . After a succession of good results as an amateur , Gramigni made his Grand Prix debut in 1990 riding an Aprilia in the 125cc Class , ending the season in ninth position . He won his first race at the 1991 Czechoslovakian Grand Prix and finished the season ranked seventh in the championship with 90 points . In 1992 , he edged out Italian Fausto Gresini to win the 125cc world championship , with wins in Malaysia and Hungary . Gramigni moved up to the 250cc class in next season , first with the Gilera team before switching back to Aprilia . It was a disappointing season , as he scored only 2 points . He competed two more seasons in the 250 class , 1994 with the Aprilia , and in 1995 with Honda . After a two-year sabbatical , he entered one race in the 500cc class at the 1997 Malaysian Grand Prix before ending his Grand Prix career . He turned his attention to the Superbike World Championship from 1998 to 2001 and then in 2003 and 2005 . In 2004 he won the Italian Superbike Championship with the Yamaha Team 391 Racing team ." } ] }, { "value": "Team Valli Moto", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Yamaha R7", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Yamaha_YZF-R7", "summary": "The Yamaha YZF-R7 or OW-02 is a race homologation motorcycle made by Yamaha in limited production run of only 500 units . It was designed to compete in the Superbike World Championship and Suzuka 8 Hours endurance races . It has a 749 cc ( 45.7 cu in ) , DOHC 20-valve ( 5 valves per cylinder ) inline-four engine producing 106 hp ( 79.0 kW ) on the base model for 32k US Dollars . But Yamaha also produced two race kits for the R7 the first for 914.25 US Dollars made 135 hp ( 100.7 kW ) when the other , unused bank of fuel injectors is activated and a pipe and ECU update . The second race kit for 12,190.00 US Dollars unleashed 162 hp ( 120.8 kW ) . The R7 was built for racing 'out of the box ' , implied by the chassis , which was derived from information and geometry from the YZR500 machines of the period . The R7 was specified with Öhlins suspension components and with titanium valves , titanium conrods , a shortened Deltabox II frame and dry weight of just 189 kg ( 416 lb ) . The intentions of the R7 were further underlined , with its designation of OW-02 and the lack of any pillion/passenger provision . The ECU came pre-programmed with racing maps for fuel and ignition , which were unlocked when the ECU detected that the race kit 's wiring harness had been installed . Super Streetbikes magazine ranked the R7 eighth in its list , The 10 Most Exotic Bikes Ever , noting its extraordinary $ 32,000 price and top-spec Öhlins race suspension and running gear and that the bike , looked utterly amazing : genuine two-wheeled sex , but said it was ironic that in spite of being the most exotic R-series bike ever , it actually turned out to be a bit of a lemon . The problem was that the bike as sold was hobbled , at only 100 hp , and that small teams could not afford the thousands of dollars of racing upgrades necessary to make the R7 competitive , and when they did , the crankshafts failed . For the sake of simplicity and cost savings , Yamaha had chosen to detune the engines for bikes imported into all countries to meet the German market 's maximum horsepower regulation , partially because whatever level it was detuned to was irrelevant , given that virtually every buyer intended to modify the bike from street-legal form in order to race ." } ] } ], "section_title": "Superbike -- Entry list", "section_text": "", "uid": "1999_Kyalami_Superbike_World_Championship_round_0", "intro": "The 1999 Kyalami Superbike World Championship round was the opening round of the 1999 Superbike World Championship season and the 1999 Supersport World Championship season. It took place on the weekend of 26-28 March 1999 at the 4.26km Kyalami Circuit in South Africa. The round was marred by the death of Brett MacLeod after a crash in the Supersport race." }
00023988273478d0
What year was the 1971-72 ECAC Hockey Player of the Year born ?
List_of_ECAC_Hockey_Player_of_the_Year_0
1950
WP NN VBD DT JJ NNP NNP NNP IN DT NNP VBN .
{ "url": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ECAC_Hockey_Player_of_the_Year", "title": "List of ECAC Hockey Player of the Year", "header": [ "Year", "Winner", "Position", "School" ], "data": [ { "value": "1961-62", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1961–62_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1961-62 NCAA men 's ice hockey season began in November 1961 and concluded with the 1962 NCAA Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 17 , 1962 at the Utica Memorial Auditorium in Utica , New York . This was the 15th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 67th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . This was the premier season for ECAC Hockey which began as a conglomerate of 28 eastern schools among which 8 teams were selected by a committee to participate in a postseason tournament that would determine which university ( s ) would receive bids to the NCAA tournament . Due to the sheer number of schools and the lack of any scheduling criteria the teams played a vastly unbalanced schedule . As a result , the regular season standings were effectively immaterial in determining the conference tournament participants and the committee based their selections on which teams they felt were the best representatives . Despite already being in the Tri-State League Clarkson , Rensselaer and St. Lawrence were also founding members of ECAC Hockey and played concurrently in both conferences until the Tri-State League folded in 1972 . This was the first season for Minnesota-Duluth as a university sponsored program ." } ] }, { "value": "Ron Ryan", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ron_Ryan", "summary": "Ronald Ryan ( born July 11 , 1938 ) is a Canadian former professional ice hockey coach and executive ." } ] }, { "value": "Right wing", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Winger_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Winger , in the game of ice hockey , is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area . They typically work by flanking the centre forward . Originally the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink . Nowadays , there are different types of wingers in the game - out-and-out goal scorers , checkers who disrupt the opponents , and forwards who work along the boards and in the corners . They tend to be bigger than centreman and smaller than defenseman . This position is commonly referred to by the side of the rink that the winger normally takes , i.e . left wing or right wing ." } ] }, { "value": "Colby", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Colby_Mules", "summary": "The Colby Mules ( formerly known as the White Mules ) are the varsity and club athletic teams of Colby College , a liberal arts college located in Waterville , Maine . Colby 's varsity teams compete in the New England Small College Athletic Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division III . The College offers 32 varsity teams , plus club sports , intramural sports called I-play ." } ] }, { "value": "1962-63", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1962–63_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1962-63 NCAA men 's ice hockey season began in November 1962 and concluded with the 1963 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 16 , 1963 at the McHugh Forum in Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts . This was the 16th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 68th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Bob Brinkworth", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Rensselaer", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/RPI_Engineers_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The RPI Engineers men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ( RPI ) . The Engineers are a member of ECAC Hockey ( ECACH ) . They play at the Houston Field House in Troy , New York ." } ] }, { "value": "1963-64", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1963–64_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1963-64 NCAA men 's ice hockey season began in November 1963 and concluded with the 1964 NCAA Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 21 , 1964 at the University of Denver Arena in Denver , Colorado . This was the 17th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 69th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . This was the final year where no distinction in classification was made for NCAA ice hockey . The following year saw 14 members of the ECAC drop down to a new College Division to separate teams on a more equal financial footing . While some would resurface at the D-I level in later years most would remain in the lower-tier leagues . This was the first season of play for both Wisconsin and Ohio State as university sponsored clubs . While both were members of the Big Ten Conference they did not play the other three member schools and thus did not qualify for the informal ice hockey conference ." } ] }, { "value": "Bob Brinkworth", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Rensselaer", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/RPI_Engineers_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The RPI Engineers men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ( RPI ) . The Engineers are a member of ECAC Hockey ( ECACH ) . They play at the Houston Field House in Troy , New York ." } ] }, { "value": "1964-65", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1964–65_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1964-65 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1964 and concluded with the 1965 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 20 , 1965 at the Meehan Auditorium in Providence , Rhode Island . This was the 18th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 70th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . The ECAC conference was nearly halved before the season , going from 29 teams the previous year down to 15 . This happened due to the creation of a lower-tier division for the schools that could n't afford or were n't willing to compete with the wealthier universities . The lower tier would go through several changes over the years but continues to operate as the Division III level as well as the lone remaining Division II conference , Northeast-10 . ( as of 2016 )" } ] }, { "value": "John Cunniff", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/John_Cunniff", "summary": "John Paul Cunniff ( July 9 , 1944 - May 10 , 2002 ) was an American NHL hockey coach and former professional player who appeared in 65 World Hockey Association regular season games between 1972 and 1976 . Cunniff was inducted into the United States Hockey Hall of Fame in 2003 ." } ] }, { "value": "Left wing", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Winger_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Winger , in the game of ice hockey , is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area . They typically work by flanking the centre forward . Originally the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink . Nowadays , there are different types of wingers in the game - out-and-out goal scorers , checkers who disrupt the opponents , and forwards who work along the boards and in the corners . They tend to be bigger than centreman and smaller than defenseman . This position is commonly referred to by the side of the rink that the winger normally takes , i.e . left wing or right wing ." } ] }, { "value": "Boston College", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Boston_College_Eagles_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Boston College Eagles are a Division I college hockey program that represent Boston College in Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts . The team has competed in Hockey East since 1984 , having previously played in the ECAC . The Eagles have won five national championships , the most recent coming in 2012 . Home games have been played at Kelley Rink at Conte Forum , named after coach John Snooks Kelley , since 1988 , having previously played at McHugh Forum . The Eagles are coached by former Eagles forward Jerry York , who has won the most games of any head coach in NCAA hockey history , having surpassed Ron Mason 's 924th win on December 29 , 2012 . York is an alumnus of Boston College , a member of the class of 1967 ." } ] }, { "value": "1965-66", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1965–66_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1965-66 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1965 and concluded with the 1966 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 19 , 1966 , at the Williams Arena in Minneapolis , Minnesota . This was the 19th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 71st year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . Minnesota-Duluth joined the WCHA beginning with this season . Pennsylvania promoted their club program to varsity status and began playing as an independent ." } ] }, { "value": "Terry Yurkiewicz", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Goaltender", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Goaltender", "summary": "In ice hockey , the goaltender or goalie is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team 's net , thus preventing the opposing team from scoring . The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease ( often referred to simply as the crease or the net ) . Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots . In today 's age of goaltending there are two common styles , butterfly and hybrid ( hybrid is a mix of the traditional stand-up style and butterfly technique ) . Because of the power of shots , the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact . The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice , as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game . One-on-one situations , such as breakaways and shootouts , have the tendency to highlight a goaltender 's pure skill , or lack thereof . No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time . Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater , but the defensive disadvantage this poses generally means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty ( if the team receiving the penalty touches the puck the play will stop ) . The goaltender is also known as the goalie , goaler , goalkeeper , net minder , and tender by those involved in the hockey community . In the early days of the sport , the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender . The art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches , usually called the goalie coach who specialize exclusively in working with goaltenders ." } ] }, { "value": "Clarkson", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Clarkson_Golden_Knights_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Clarkson Golden Knights men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Clarkson University . The Golden Knights have been a member of ECAC Hockey since 1962 , and play their home games at Cheel Arena in Potsdam , New York . Although it is said [ by whom ? ] that the first Clarkson hockey game was played in 1916 against the Hogansburg Indians , they were established as a hockey club in 1921 , under the tutelage of head coach Gordon Croskery , and led by captain Bill Johnson . The Knights won their opening encounter against Alexandria Bay , 6-4 , and finished the year with a 2-1 record , their first of 72 winning seasons ." } ] }, { "value": "1966-67", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1966–67_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1966-67 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1966 and concluded with the 1967 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 18 , 1967 at the Onondaga County War Memorial in Syracuse , New York . This was the 20th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 72nd year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . New Hampshire returned to a partial University Division schedule but still qualified for the lower-tier ECAC playoffs for this and the following season . They would become a full-time top division program for the 1968-69 season . Cornell 's win was the first by an eastern team since 1954 ending the 12-year dominance of the WCHA . On June 7 1967 , Al Karlander became the first NCAA player to be selected in an NHL Draft ." } ] }, { "value": "Doug Ferguson", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Cornell", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Cornell_Big_Red_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Cornell Big Red men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Cornell University . Cornell competes in the ECAC Hockey conference and plays its home games at Lynah Rink in Ithaca , New York . Six of the eight Ivy League schools sponsor men 's hockey and all six teams play in the twelve-team ECAC . The Ivy League crowns a champion based on the results of the games played between its members during the ECAC season . Cornell has won the ECAC Championship a record 12 times and has won the Ivy League Title 23 times , second to Harvard 's 25 . The 1970 Cornell Hockey team , coached by Ned Harkness was the first ( and currently only team ) in NCAA hockey history to win a national title while being undefeated and untied with a perfect 29-0-0 record . The Big Red 's archrival is the Harvard Crimson . The teams meet at least twice each season for installments of the historic Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry ." } ] }, { "value": "1967-68", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1967–68_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1967-68 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1967 and concluded with the 1968 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 16 , 1968 , at the Duluth Arena Auditorium in Duluth , Minnesota . This was the 21st season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 73rd year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . Pennsylvania joined ECAC Hockey beginning with this season ." } ] }, { "value": "Wayne Small", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Forward", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Forward_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "In ice hockey , a forward is a player position on the ice whose primary responsibility is to score and assist goals . Generally , the forwards try to stay in three different lanes , also known as thirds , of the ice going from goal to goal . It is not mandatory , however , to stay in a lane . Staying in a lane aids in forming the common offensive strategy known as a triangle . One forward obtains the puck and then the forwards pass it between themselves making the goalie move side to side . This strategy opens up the net for scoring opportunities . This strategy allows for a constant flow of the play , attempting to maintain the control of play by one team in the offensive zone . The forwards can pass to the defence players playing at the blue line , thus freeing up the play and allowing either a shot from the point ( blue line position where the defence stands ) or a pass back to the offence . This then begins the triangle again . Each team has three forwards in each line :" } ] }, { "value": "Brown", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Brown_Bears_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Brown Bears men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Brown University . The Bears are a member of ECAC Hockey . They play at the Meehan Auditorium in Providence , Rhode Island ." } ] }, { "value": "1968-69", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1968–69_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1968-69 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1968 and concluded with the 1969 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 15 , 1969 at the Broadmoor World Arena in Colorado Springs , Colorado . This was the 22nd season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 74th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . Wisconsin was admitted into the WCHA beginning with this season . Because they now played each of the other three Big Ten teams they were included into the informal conference standings . Air Force and Notre Dame both begin to sponsor their ice hockey programs . Both teams start as independents ." } ] }, { "value": "Ken Dryden", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ken_Dryden", "summary": "Kenneth Wayne Dryden , PC OC , ( born August 8 , 1947 ) is a Canadian politician , lawyer , businessman , author , and former National Hockey League ( NHL ) goaltender . He is an officer of the Order of Canada and a member of the Hockey Hall of Fame . Dryden was a Liberal Member of Parliament from 2004 to 2011 , and served as a cabinet minister from 2004 to 2006 . In 2017 , Dryden was named one of the '100 Greatest NHL Players ' in history . He received the Order of Hockey in Canada in 2020 ." } ] }, { "value": "Goaltender", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Goaltender", "summary": "In ice hockey , the goaltender or goalie is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team 's net , thus preventing the opposing team from scoring . The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease ( often referred to simply as the crease or the net ) . Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots . In today 's age of goaltending there are two common styles , butterfly and hybrid ( hybrid is a mix of the traditional stand-up style and butterfly technique ) . Because of the power of shots , the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact . The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice , as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game . One-on-one situations , such as breakaways and shootouts , have the tendency to highlight a goaltender 's pure skill , or lack thereof . No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time . Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater , but the defensive disadvantage this poses generally means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty ( if the team receiving the penalty touches the puck the play will stop ) . The goaltender is also known as the goalie , goaler , goalkeeper , net minder , and tender by those involved in the hockey community . In the early days of the sport , the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender . The art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches , usually called the goalie coach who specialize exclusively in working with goaltenders ." } ] }, { "value": "Cornell", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Cornell_Big_Red_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Cornell Big Red men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Cornell University . Cornell competes in the ECAC Hockey conference and plays its home games at Lynah Rink in Ithaca , New York . Six of the eight Ivy League schools sponsor men 's hockey and all six teams play in the twelve-team ECAC . The Ivy League crowns a champion based on the results of the games played between its members during the ECAC season . Cornell has won the ECAC Championship a record 12 times and has won the Ivy League Title 23 times , second to Harvard 's 25 . The 1970 Cornell Hockey team , coached by Ned Harkness was the first ( and currently only team ) in NCAA hockey history to win a national title while being undefeated and untied with a perfect 29-0-0 record . The Big Red 's archrival is the Harvard Crimson . The teams meet at least twice each season for installments of the historic Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry ." } ] }, { "value": "1969-70", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1969–70_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1969-70 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1969 and concluded with the 1970 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 21 , 1970 , at the Olympic Arena in Lake Placid , New York . This was the 23rd season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 75th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . In 1969 the NCAA changed their bylaws to permit freshman to play on the Varsity team . Beginning with this season universities were permitted to not only have first-year students play for their teams but to also have said players earn letters for four seasons rather than the previous limit of three . As a consequence the WCHA offered both a Sophomore-of-the-Year and Freshman-of-the-Year awards with the previous being formally retired following the campaign . Cornell finished the 1969-70 season with an undefeated record of 24-0 , only the second flawless campaign in the modern history of Division I ice hockey . The previous unblemished season ( Clarkson in 1955-56 ) , however , came with a caveat as 8 Golden Knight players were 4-year seniors ( a violation of NCAA regulations at the time ) . As a result , the Clarkson team declined to play in the NCAA tournament . Cornell 's undefeated team had no such issues and was able to compete in , and win , both their conference tournament and the NCAA tournament to become the first and thus far only undefeated NCAA champion ( as of 2016 ) ." } ] }, { "value": "Tim Sheehy", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Timothy_Sheehy_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Timothy Kane Tim Sheehy ( born September 3 , 1948 in Fort Frances , Ontario and raised in nearby International Falls , Minnesota ) is a retired ice hockey player . Sheehy played Minnesota high school hockey for International Falls before joining the Boston College men 's ice hockey team . Sheehy , who has dual citizenship , also played for Team USA at the 1969 and 1971 Ice Hockey World Championship as well as the 1972 US Olympic hockey team that won the Silver Medal at the 1972 Winter Olympic Games ." } ] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Boston College", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Boston_College_Eagles_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Boston College Eagles are a Division I college hockey program that represent Boston College in Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts . The team has competed in Hockey East since 1984 , having previously played in the ECAC . The Eagles have won five national championships , the most recent coming in 2012 . Home games have been played at Kelley Rink at Conte Forum , named after coach John Snooks Kelley , since 1988 , having previously played at McHugh Forum . The Eagles are coached by former Eagles forward Jerry York , who has won the most games of any head coach in NCAA hockey history , having surpassed Ron Mason 's 924th win on December 29 , 2012 . York is an alumnus of Boston College , a member of the class of 1967 ." } ] }, { "value": "1970-71", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1970–71_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1970-71 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1970 and concluded with the 1971 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 20 , 1971 at the Onondaga War Memorial in Syracuse , New York . This was the 24th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 76th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . Saint Louis begins to sponsor their ice hockey program as an independent ." } ] }, { "value": "Bruce Bullock", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Bruce_Bullock", "summary": "Bruce John Bullock ( born May 9 , 1949 in Toronto , Ontario ) is a Canadian former professional ice hockey goaltender who spent parts of three seasons in the National Hockey League in the 1970s with the Vancouver Canucks . Playing for Clarkson University , Bullock was one of the most decorated college goaltenders of his era . He was named to the NCAA First Team All-American in goal in both 1970 and 1971 ( succeeding Hall of Famer Ken Dryden , who took the honor from 1967-69 ) , and was named ECAC Player of the Year in 1971 . He also led Clarkson to the 1970 NCAA title game , where they lost to Cornell . Following his college career , Bullock was signed by the Vancouver Canucks during training camp , and assigned to their farm team , the Rochester Americans . He was then loaned to the Chicago Black Hawks ' farm team in Dallas . When a position became available at the Canucks ' other farm team , the Seattle Totems , he was assigned there where he completed his rookie pro season . He caught a break in 1972-73 , when an injury to Canuck starter Dunc Wilson forced his recall from the minors . He appeared in 13 games for Vancouver , posting a 3-8-3 record with a 4.79 GAA , until his season ended due to a broken finger , requiring surgery . Bullock spent another four seasons in Vancouver 's organization , but never saw substantial NHL action , partially due to hand injuries . He made one start for the club in the 1974-75 campaign , and another appearance in 1976-77 . During his minor league career he helped the Seattle Totems upset the USSR national team in an exhibition game , and was instrumental in helping the Tulsa Oilers win the Adams Cup in 1975-76 ." } ] }, { "value": "Goaltender", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Goaltender", "summary": "In ice hockey , the goaltender or goalie is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team 's net , thus preventing the opposing team from scoring . The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease ( often referred to simply as the crease or the net ) . Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots . In today 's age of goaltending there are two common styles , butterfly and hybrid ( hybrid is a mix of the traditional stand-up style and butterfly technique ) . Because of the power of shots , the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact . The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice , as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game . One-on-one situations , such as breakaways and shootouts , have the tendency to highlight a goaltender 's pure skill , or lack thereof . No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time . Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater , but the defensive disadvantage this poses generally means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty ( if the team receiving the penalty touches the puck the play will stop ) . The goaltender is also known as the goalie , goaler , goalkeeper , net minder , and tender by those involved in the hockey community . In the early days of the sport , the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender . The art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches , usually called the goalie coach who specialize exclusively in working with goaltenders ." } ] }, { "value": "Clarkson", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Clarkson_Golden_Knights_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Clarkson Golden Knights men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Clarkson University . The Golden Knights have been a member of ECAC Hockey since 1962 , and play their home games at Cheel Arena in Potsdam , New York . Although it is said [ by whom ? ] that the first Clarkson hockey game was played in 1916 against the Hogansburg Indians , they were established as a hockey club in 1921 , under the tutelage of head coach Gordon Croskery , and led by captain Bill Johnson . The Knights won their opening encounter against Alexandria Bay , 6-4 , and finished the year with a 2-1 record , their first of 72 winning seasons ." } ] }, { "value": "1971-72", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1971–72_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1971-72 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1971 and concluded with the 1972 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 18 , 1972 at the Boston Garden in Boston , Massachusetts . This was the 25th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 77th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . This was the first year of play for the CCHA with former independents Ohio State and Saint Louis being joined by new programs from Bowling Green and Ohio . Notre Dame joined the WCHA . For the final time the ICAC awarded a trophy to the league champion ." } ] }, { "value": "Bob Brown", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Bob_Brown_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Robert Bob Brown ( born December 18 , 1950 ) is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player who played in the World Hockey Association ( WHA ) . He played parts of two WHA seasons for the Philadelphia Blazers , New York Raiders , New York Golden Blades and Jersey Knights . Brown was drafted in the sixth round of the 1970 NHL Amateur Draft by the Montreal Canadiens . As a youth , Brown played in the 1963 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with the Scarboro Lions minor ice hockey team ." } ] }, { "value": "Defenceman", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Defenceman", "summary": "Defence ( defense in the United States ) in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring . They are often referred to as defencemen , D , D-men or blueliners ( the latter a reference to the blue line in ice hockey which represents the boundary of the offensive zone ; defencemen generally position themselves along the line to keep the puck in the zone ) . They were once called cover-point . A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing also need to be good at defending and attacking . In regular play , two defencemen complement three forwards and a goaltender on the ice . Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded ( i.e . has been assessed a penalty ) , in which two defencemen are typically joined by only two forwards and a goaltender ; in National Hockey League play in overtime effective with the 2015-16 season the teams have only three position players and a goaltender on the ice and may use either two forwards and one defenceman ( typically ) , or conversely , two defencemen and one forward ." } ] }, { "value": "Boston University", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Boston_University_Terriers_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Boston University Terriers mens ice hockey program is one of the most storied teams in NCAA Division I hockey , playing its first ever game in 1918 and winning five national championships , while making twenty-two appearances in the Frozen Four . BU has won twelve major conference tournament championships as well as 30 titles in the historic Beanpot tournament featuring the four major Boston collegiate hockey teams . BU played in the Eastern College Athletic Conference ( ECAC ) from 1961 to 1984 , winning five tournament championships ; and has since competed in the Hockey East Association , winning seven tournament titles . Mens ice hockey is the most popular sport at Boston University and has a large fan base on campus and among BU alumni nationwide ." } ] }, { "value": "1972-73", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1972–73_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1972-73 NCAA University Division men 's ice hockey season began in November 1972 and concluded with the 1973 NCAA University Division Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 17 , 1973 at the Boston Garden in Boston , Massachusetts . This was the 26th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 78th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . After the season Denver 's participation in the NCAA tournament was vacated due to violations of NCAA regulations . After the season Army was classified as a Division II squad as part of the NCAA 's numerical classification system . Lake Superior State began to sponsor their ice hockey program and the team was promptly admitted into the CCHA ." } ] }, { "value": "Tom Mellor", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Tom_Mellor", "summary": "Thomas Robert Mellor ( born January 27 , 1950 ) is a retired American professional ice hockey defenseman ." } ] }, { "value": "Defenceman", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Defenceman", "summary": "Defence ( defense in the United States ) in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring . They are often referred to as defencemen , D , D-men or blueliners ( the latter a reference to the blue line in ice hockey which represents the boundary of the offensive zone ; defencemen generally position themselves along the line to keep the puck in the zone ) . They were once called cover-point . A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing also need to be good at defending and attacking . In regular play , two defencemen complement three forwards and a goaltender on the ice . Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded ( i.e . has been assessed a penalty ) , in which two defencemen are typically joined by only two forwards and a goaltender ; in National Hockey League play in overtime effective with the 2015-16 season the teams have only three position players and a goaltender on the ice and may use either two forwards and one defenceman ( typically ) , or conversely , two defencemen and one forward ." } ] }, { "value": "Boston College", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Boston_College_Eagles_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Boston College Eagles are a Division I college hockey program that represent Boston College in Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts . The team has competed in Hockey East since 1984 , having previously played in the ECAC . The Eagles have won five national championships , the most recent coming in 2012 . Home games have been played at Kelley Rink at Conte Forum , named after coach John Snooks Kelley , since 1988 , having previously played at McHugh Forum . The Eagles are coached by former Eagles forward Jerry York , who has won the most games of any head coach in NCAA hockey history , having surpassed Ron Mason 's 924th win on December 29 , 2012 . York is an alumnus of Boston College , a member of the class of 1967 ." } ] }, { "value": "1973-74", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1973–74_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1973-74 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1973 and concluded with the 1974 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 16 , 1974 at the Boston Garden in Boston , Massachusetts . This was the 27th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 79th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . In the summer of 1973 the NCAA changed the classifications of the tiers in each of their sponsored sports . The University- and College-divisions were done away with and replaced by numerical designations making this the first official Division I season . The NIT held a competing ice hockey tournament for the first time . The tournament included NAIA champion Lake Superior State , ECAC 2 champion Vermont and two NCAA Division I schools ( Minnesota-Duluth and Saint Louis ) . Minnesota-Duluth won the championship but the tournament was not renewed for a second season ." } ] }, { "value": "Randy Roth", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Forward", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Forward_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "In ice hockey , a forward is a player position on the ice whose primary responsibility is to score and assist goals . Generally , the forwards try to stay in three different lanes , also known as thirds , of the ice going from goal to goal . It is not mandatory , however , to stay in a lane . Staying in a lane aids in forming the common offensive strategy known as a triangle . One forward obtains the puck and then the forwards pass it between themselves making the goalie move side to side . This strategy opens up the net for scoring opportunities . This strategy allows for a constant flow of the play , attempting to maintain the control of play by one team in the offensive zone . The forwards can pass to the defence players playing at the blue line , thus freeing up the play and allowing either a shot from the point ( blue line position where the defence stands ) or a pass back to the offence . This then begins the triangle again . Each team has three forwards in each line :" } ] }, { "value": "Harvard", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Harvard_Crimson_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Harvard Crimson men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Harvard University . The Crimson are a member of ECAC Hockey . They play at the Bright Hockey Center in Boston , Massachusetts . The Crimson hockey team is one of the oldest college ice hockey teams in the United States , having played their first game on January 19 , 1898 , in a 0-6 loss to Brown . The Crimson 's archrival is the Cornell Big Red . The teams meet at least twice each season for installments of the historic Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry ." } ] }, { "value": "1974-75", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1974–75_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1974-75 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1974 and concluded with the 1975 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 15 , 1975 at the St. Louis Arena in St. Louis , Missouri . This was the 28th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 80th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Ron Wilson", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ron_Wilson_(ice_hockey,_born_1955)", "summary": "Ronald Lawrence Wilson ( born May 28 , 1955 ) is a Canadian-born American former professional ice hockey player and head coach . In his coaching career in the National Hockey League ( NHL ) , he has coached the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim , Washington Capitals , San Jose Sharks and Toronto Maple Leafs . He also was head coach of the United States men 's national ice hockey team at the 1998 and 2010 Winter Olympics . Wilson holds dual citizenship of the United States and Canada ." } ] }, { "value": "Defenceman", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Defenceman", "summary": "Defence ( defense in the United States ) in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring . They are often referred to as defencemen , D , D-men or blueliners ( the latter a reference to the blue line in ice hockey which represents the boundary of the offensive zone ; defencemen generally position themselves along the line to keep the puck in the zone ) . They were once called cover-point . A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing also need to be good at defending and attacking . In regular play , two defencemen complement three forwards and a goaltender on the ice . Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded ( i.e . has been assessed a penalty ) , in which two defencemen are typically joined by only two forwards and a goaltender ; in National Hockey League play in overtime effective with the 2015-16 season the teams have only three position players and a goaltender on the ice and may use either two forwards and one defenceman ( typically ) , or conversely , two defencemen and one forward ." } ] }, { "value": "Providence", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Providence_Friars_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Providence Friars men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Providence College . The Friars are a member of Hockey East . The skating Friars are currently coached by Nate Leaman has been the head coach of the skating Friars since 2011 , leading them to a national championship in 2015 . They play at the 3,030-seat Schneider Arena in Providence , Rhode Island ." } ] }, { "value": "1975-76", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1975–76_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1975-76 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1975 and concluded with the 1976 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 27 , 1976 at the University of Denver Arena in Denver , Colorado . This was the 29th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 81st year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Peter Brown", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Peter_Brown_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Peter Brown ( born May 21 , 1954 ) is a retired American professional ice hockey defenseman . He was selected by the Atlanta Flames in the 7th round ( 118th overall ) of the 1974 NHL Entry Draft , and was also selected by the New England Whalers in the 3rd round ( 43rd overall ) of the 1974 WHA Amateur Draft . In January 1979 , the Toledo Goaldiggers traded Brown to the Fort Wayne Komets in exchange for goaltender Norm LaPointe ." } ] }, { "value": "Defenceman", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Defenceman", "summary": "Defence ( defense in the United States ) in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring . They are often referred to as defencemen , D , D-men or blueliners ( the latter a reference to the blue line in ice hockey which represents the boundary of the offensive zone ; defencemen generally position themselves along the line to keep the puck in the zone ) . They were once called cover-point . A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing also need to be good at defending and attacking . In regular play , two defencemen complement three forwards and a goaltender on the ice . Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded ( i.e . has been assessed a penalty ) , in which two defencemen are typically joined by only two forwards and a goaltender ; in National Hockey League play in overtime effective with the 2015-16 season the teams have only three position players and a goaltender on the ice and may use either two forwards and one defenceman ( typically ) , or conversely , two defencemen and one forward ." } ] }, { "value": "Boston University", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Boston_University_Terriers_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Boston University Terriers mens ice hockey program is one of the most storied teams in NCAA Division I hockey , playing its first ever game in 1918 and winning five national championships , while making twenty-two appearances in the Frozen Four . BU has won twelve major conference tournament championships as well as 30 titles in the historic Beanpot tournament featuring the four major Boston collegiate hockey teams . BU played in the Eastern College Athletic Conference ( ECAC ) from 1961 to 1984 , winning five tournament championships ; and has since competed in the Hockey East Association , winning seven tournament titles . Mens ice hockey is the most popular sport at Boston University and has a large fan base on campus and among BU alumni nationwide ." } ] }, { "value": "1976-77", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1976–77_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1976-77 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1976 and concluded with the 1977 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 26 , 1977 at the Olympia Stadium in Detroit , Michigan . This was the 30th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 82nd year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Dave Taylor", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Dave_Taylor_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "David Andrew Taylor ( born December 4 , 1955 ) is a Canadian retired professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League ( NHL ) with the Los Angeles Kings from 1977 to 1994 . Following his playing career , he served as the Kings ' general manager from 1997 to 2006 , and currently serves as Vice President of Hockey Operations with the NHL 's St. Louis Blues ." } ] }, { "value": "Right wing", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Winger_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "Winger , in the game of ice hockey , is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area . They typically work by flanking the centre forward . Originally the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink . Nowadays , there are different types of wingers in the game - out-and-out goal scorers , checkers who disrupt the opponents , and forwards who work along the boards and in the corners . They tend to be bigger than centreman and smaller than defenseman . This position is commonly referred to by the side of the rink that the winger normally takes , i.e . left wing or right wing ." } ] }, { "value": "Clarkson", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Clarkson_Golden_Knights_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Clarkson Golden Knights men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Clarkson University . The Golden Knights have been a member of ECAC Hockey since 1962 , and play their home games at Cheel Arena in Potsdam , New York . Although it is said [ by whom ? ] that the first Clarkson hockey game was played in 1916 against the Hogansburg Indians , they were established as a hockey club in 1921 , under the tutelage of head coach Gordon Croskery , and led by captain Bill Johnson . The Knights won their opening encounter against Alexandria Bay , 6-4 , and finished the year with a 2-1 record , their first of 72 winning seasons ." } ] }, { "value": "1977-78", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1977–78_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1977-78 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1977 and concluded with the 1978 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 25 , 1978 at the Providence Civic Center in Providence , Rhode Island . This was the 31st season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 83rd year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Lance Nethery", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Lance_Nethery", "summary": "Lance Nethery ( born June 28 , 1957 ) is a former professional ice hockey centre and coach , and current executive ." } ] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Cornell", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Cornell_Big_Red_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Cornell Big Red men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Cornell University . Cornell competes in the ECAC Hockey conference and plays its home games at Lynah Rink in Ithaca , New York . Six of the eight Ivy League schools sponsor men 's hockey and all six teams play in the twelve-team ECAC . The Ivy League crowns a champion based on the results of the games played between its members during the ECAC season . Cornell has won the ECAC Championship a record 12 times and has won the Ivy League Title 23 times , second to Harvard 's 25 . The 1970 Cornell Hockey team , coached by Ned Harkness was the first ( and currently only team ) in NCAA hockey history to win a national title while being undefeated and untied with a perfect 29-0-0 record . The Big Red 's archrival is the Harvard Crimson . The teams meet at least twice each season for installments of the historic Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry ." } ] }, { "value": "1978-79", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1978–79_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1978-79 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1978 and concluded with the 1979 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 24 , 1979 at the Olympia Stadium in Detroit , Michigan . This was the 32nd season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 84th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Ralph Cox", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Ralph_Cox", "summary": "Ralph Cox ( born February 27 , 1957 ) is a retired American professional ice hockey player . He was selected by the Boston Bruins in the 7th round ( 122nd overall ) of the 1977 NHL Entry Draft . Cox played his high school hockey at Archbishop Williams High School in Braintree , Massachusetts , USA and is one of the best players in program history . Cox then played NCAA hockey with the New Hampshire Wildcats men 's ice hockey team . He was NCAA First-Team All-Conference in 1978-79 and ECAC Hockey Player of the Year in 1979 . Cox was the team 's leading goal-scorer for three consecutive years and is the only University of New Hampshire player to ever score 40 goals in two different seasons . He was the last player cut from the famed 1980 Mens Olympic Hockey Team that won the gold medal at Lake Placid . Cox was inducted into the New Hampshire Athletics Hall of Fame in 1986 . He then joined the Pittsburgh Penguins as a scout . He won two Stanley Cup rings ( in 1991 and 1992 ) . His name was engraved on the Stanley Cup in 1992 , something reserved usually for players ." } ] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "New Hampshire", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/New_Hampshire_Wildcats_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The New Hampshire Wildcats men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents the University of New Hampshire . The Wildcats are a member of Hockey East . They play at the Whittemore Center Arena in Durham , New Hampshire ." } ] }, { "value": "1979-80", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1979–80_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1979-80 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1979 and concluded with the 1980 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 29 , 1980 at the Providence Civic Center in Providence , Rhode Island . This was the 33rd season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 85th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team ." } ] }, { "value": "Craig Homola", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Center", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Centre_(ice_hockey)", "summary": "The centre ( or center in the United States ) in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice , away from the sideboards . Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player . Centres are ideally stronger , faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone . Generally , centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers , although there are exceptions . They are also expected to have exceptional ice vision , intelligence , and creativity . They also generally are the most defensively oriented forwards on the ice . Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving ." } ] }, { "value": "Vermont", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Vermont_Catamounts_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Vermont Catamounts men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents the University of Vermont . The Catamounts are a member of Hockey East , joining in 2005 after competing in ECAC Hockey from 1974-2005 . They play home games at Gutterson Fieldhouse in Burlington , Vermont . Vermont has appeared in the NCAA Men 's Hockey Championship five times since making the move to Division I in 1974-75 including trips to the Frozen Four in 1996 and 2009 . Prior to moving to Division I , UVM competed in ECAC Division II , where it won back-to-back ECAC Division II titles in 1972-73 and 1973-74 . Since 1990 , the Catamounts have hosted what is now known as the Catamount Cup tournament , winning the title five times ." } ] }, { "value": "1980-81", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/1980–81_NCAA_Division_I_men's_ice_hockey_season", "summary": "The 1980-81 NCAA Division I men 's ice hockey season began in October 1980 and concluded with the 1981 NCAA Division I Men 's Ice Hockey Tournament 's championship game on March 28 , 1981 at the Duluth Arena in Duluth , Minnesota . This was the 34th season in which an NCAA ice hockey championship was held and is the 86th year overall where an NCAA school fielded a team . For the first time the Hobey Baker Award was conferred after the conclusion of the regular season . After the season four teams from the WCHA left to join the CCHA . As a result of dividing the four Big Ten schools that had previously been in the WCHA the Big Ten stopped declaring a conference ice hockey champion until the formation of a separate conference in 2013-14 ." } ] }, { "value": "Ed Small", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Defenceman", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Defenceman", "summary": "Defence ( defense in the United States ) in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring . They are often referred to as defencemen , D , D-men or blueliners ( the latter a reference to the blue line in ice hockey which represents the boundary of the offensive zone ; defencemen generally position themselves along the line to keep the puck in the zone ) . They were once called cover-point . A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing also need to be good at defending and attacking . In regular play , two defencemen complement three forwards and a goaltender on the ice . Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded ( i.e . has been assessed a penalty ) , in which two defencemen are typically joined by only two forwards and a goaltender ; in National Hockey League play in overtime effective with the 2015-16 season the teams have only three position players and a goaltender on the ice and may use either two forwards and one defenceman ( typically ) , or conversely , two defencemen and one forward ." } ] }, { "value": "Clarkson", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Clarkson_Golden_Knights_men's_ice_hockey", "summary": "The Clarkson Golden Knights men 's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I college ice hockey program that represents Clarkson University . The Golden Knights have been a member of ECAC Hockey since 1962 , and play their home games at Cheel Arena in Potsdam , New York . Although it is said [ by whom ? ] that the first Clarkson hockey game was played in 1916 against the Hogansburg Indians , they were established as a hockey club in 1921 , under the tutelage of head coach Gordon Croskery , and led by captain Bill Johnson . The Knights won their opening encounter against Alexandria Bay , 6-4 , and finished the year with a 2-1 record , their first of 72 winning seasons ." } ] } ], "section_title": "", "section_text": "", "uid": "List_of_ECAC_Hockey_Player_of_the_Year_0", "intro": "The ECAC Hockey Player of the Year is an annual award given out at the conclusion of the ECAC Hockey regular season to the best player in the conference as voted by the coaches of each ECAC team. The Player of the Year was first awarded in 1962 and every year thereafter. Four players (Bob Brinkworth, Scott Fusco, Chase Polacek and Jimmy Vesey) have received the award two separate times, each doing so in consecutive years. The award has been split twice in its history, 2002-03 and 2013-14." }
000356071ebf888a
What battle did the man born on 7 December 1839 fight in ?
List_of_Zulu_War_Victoria_Cross_recipients_0
Battle of Hlobane
WP NN VBD DT NN VBN IN CD NNP CD NN IN .
{ "url": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Zulu_War_Victoria_Cross_recipients", "title": "List of Zulu War Victoria Cross recipients", "header": [ "Name", "Unit", "Date of action", "Place of action" ], "data": [ { "value": "William Allan", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/William_Wilson_Allen", "summary": "William Wilson Allen , VC ( circa 1843 - 12 March 1890 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross ( VC ) for his actions at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift in January 1879 , the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "William Beresford", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Lord_William_Beresford", "summary": "Lieutenant-Colonel Lord William Leslie de la Poer Beresford VC KCIE ( 20 July 1847 - 30 December 1900 ) was an Irish soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "009 9th Lancers", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/9th_Lancers", "summary": "The 9th Queen 's Royal Lancers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army , first raised in 1715 . It saw service for three centuries , including the First and Second World Wars . The regiment survived the immediate post-war reduction in forces , but was amalgamated with the 12th Royal Lancers to form the 9th/12th Royal Lancers in 1960 ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-07-03 3 July 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "White Umfolozi River ( near Ulundi ) , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/White_Umfolozi_River", "summary": "The White Umfolozi River originates just west of Vryheid , KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa and has a confluence with the Black Umfolozi River at 28°20′58″S 31°58′46″E / 28.34944°S 31.97944°E / -28.34944 ; 31.97944 to form the Umfolozi River , which flows eastward towards the Indian Ocean ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Ulundi", "summary": "Ulundi , also known as Mahlabathini is a town in the Zululand District Municipality . At one time the capital of Zulu Kingdom in South Africa and later the capital of the Bantustan of KwaZulu , Ulundi now lies in KwaZulu-Natal Province ( of which , from 1994 to 2004 , it alternated with Pietermaritzburg as the provincial capital ) . The town now includes Ulundi Airport , a three-star hotel , and some museums amongst its sights . In the 2001 Census , the population of the town was recorded as 18,420 ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Anthony Booth", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Anthony_Clarke_Booth", "summary": "Anthony Clarke Booth VC ( 21 April 1846 - 8 December 1899 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . Born in Carrington , Nottingham , he was 32 years old , and a sergeant in the 80th Regiment of Foot ( Staffordshire Volunteers ) ( later The South Staffordshire Regiment ) , British Army in the Battle of Intombe during the Zulu War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC ." } ] }, { "value": "080 80th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/80th_Regiment_of_Foot_(Staffordshire_Volunteers)", "summary": "The 80th Regiment of Foot ( Staffordshire Volunteers ) was an infantry regiment of the British Army , raised in 1793 . Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 38th ( 1st Staffordshire ) Regiment of Foot to form the South Staffordshire Regiment in 1881 . Its lineage is continued today by the 3rd Battalion , Mercian Regiment ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-12 12 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Intombe , Transvaal", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Intombe", "summary": "The Battle of Intombe ( also Intombi or Intombi River Drift ) was a small action fought on 12 March 1879 , between Zulu forces and British soldiers defending a supply convoy ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Transvaal_Colony", "summary": "The Transvaal Colony ( Afrikaans pronunciation : [ ˈtransfɑːl ] ) was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved , and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 . The physical borders of the Transvaal Colony were not identical to the defeated South African Republic ( which had existed from 1856 to 1902 ) , but was larger . In 1910 the entire territory became the Transvaal Province of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Gonville Bromhead", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Gonville_Bromhead", "summary": "Major Gonville Bromhead [ note 1 ] VC ( 29 August 1845 - 9 February 1891 ) was a British Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to members of the British armed forces . He received the medal for his part in the defence of Rorke 's Drift in January 1879 , in which a small British garrison of 139 soldiers successfully repulsed an assault by some 4,000 Zulu warriors . Bromhead was portrayed by Michael Caine in the film Zulu , which depicted the battle . Born into a notable military family , Bromhead was brought up in Thurlby , Lincolnshire . He entered the 24th Regiment of Foot as an ensign in 1867 and was promoted to lieutenant in 1871 . Bromhead 's battalion was deployed to southern Africa in 1878 and subsequently served in the Ninth Cape Frontier War and the Anglo-Zulu War . He spent most of the remainder of his career in south Asia , where he was promoted to major in 1883 and saw service in the Third Anglo-Burmese War . He died in 1891 in Allahabad , India , at the age of 45 ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "Edward Browne", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Edward_Stevenson_Browne", "summary": "Brigadier General Edward Stevenson Browne , VC , CB ( 23 December 1852 - 16 July 1907 ) was a British Army officer , and an English recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-28 28 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Kambula , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Kambula", "summary": "The Battle of Kambula took place on 29 March 1879 , during the Anglo-Zulu War , when a Zulu Army attacked the British camp at Kambula , having routed the mounted element of the British force at the Battle of Hlobane the day before . The battle was a decisive defeat and the Zulu lost their belief in victory . The war ended after the Battle of Ulundi on 4 July 1879 ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Redvers Buller", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Redvers_Buller", "summary": "General Sir Redvers Henry Buller , VC , GCB , GCMG ( 7 December 1839 - 2 June 1908 ) was a British Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . He served as Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in South Africa during the early months of the Second Boer War and subsequently commanded the army in Natal until his return to England in November 1900 ." } ] }, { "value": "060 60th Rifles", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/King's_Royal_Rifle_Corps", "summary": "The King 's Royal Rifle Corps was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army that was originally raised in British North America as the Royal American Regiment during the phase of the Seven Years ' War in North America known as 'The French and Indian War . ' Subsequently numbered the 60th Regiment of Foot , the regiment served for more than 200 years throughout the British Empire . In 1958 , the regiment joined the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and the Rifle Brigade in the Green Jackets Brigade and in 1966 the three regiments were formally amalgamated to become the Royal Green Jackets . The KRRC became the 2nd Battalion , Royal Green Jackets . On the disbandment of the 1st Battalion , Royal Green Jackets in 1992 , the RGJ 's KRRC battalion was redesignated as the 1st Battalion , Royal Green Jackets , eventually becoming 2nd Battalion , The Rifles in 2007 ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-28 28 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Hlobane , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Hlobane", "summary": "The Battle of Hlobane ( 28 March 1879 ) took place at Hlobane , near the modern town of Vryheid in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa during the Anglo-Zulu War ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "John Chard", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/John_Rouse_Merriott_Chard", "summary": "Colonel John Rouse Merriott Chard VC ( 21 December 1847 - 1 November 1897 ) was a British Army officer who received the Victoria Cross , the highest military decoration for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to members of the British armed forces . He earned the decoration for his role in the defence of Rorke 's Drift in January 1879 where he commanded a small British garrison of 139 soldiers that successfully repulsed an assault by some 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The battle was recreated in the film Zulu in which Chard was portrayed by Stanley Baker . Born near Plymouth , Chard attended the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich and was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in July 1868 . He was involved with the construction of fortifications in the Bermuda Garrison ( three years ) and at Malta ( two years ) before he was deployed to southern Africa at the start of the Anglo-Zulu War . At the end of the war he returned to a hero 's welcome in England and was invited to an audience with Queen Victoria . After a series of overseas postings he took up his final position in Perth , Scotland . He retired from the army as a colonel in 1897 after he was diagnosed with terminal cancer and died at his brother 's home in Somerset later that year ." } ] }, { "value": "Royal Engineers", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Royal_Engineers", "summary": "The Corps of Royal Engineers , usually just called the Royal Engineers ( RE ) , and commonly known as the Sappers , is a corps of the British Army . It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer . The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent , England . The corps is divided into several regiments , barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "Nevill Coghill", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Nevill_Josiah_Aylmer_Coghill", "summary": "Nevill Josiah Aylmer Coghill VC ( 25 January 1852 - 22 January 1879 ) was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-01-22 22 January 1879*", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Isandlwana , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Isandlwana", "summary": "The Battle of Isandlwana ( alternative spelling : Isandhlwana ) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom . Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa , a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British , colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians . The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields , but also had a number of muskets and old rifles . The British and colonial troops were armed with the modern Martini-Henry breechloading rifle and two 7-pounder ( 3-inch , 76 mm ) mountain guns deployed as field guns , as well as a Hale rocket battery . Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology , the Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the British , killing over 1,300 troops , including all those out on the forward firing line . The Zulu army suffered anywhere from 1,000 to 2,500 killed . The battle was a decisive victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand . The British Army had suffered its worst defeat against an indigenous foe with vastly inferior military technology . Isandlwana resulted in the British taking a much more aggressive approach in the Anglo-Zulu War , leading to a heavily reinforced second invasion and the destruction of King Cetshwayo 's hopes of a negotiated peace ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "James Dalton", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/James_Langley_Dalton", "summary": "James Langley Dalton VC ( 1833 - 7 January 1887 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces for service at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift during the Anglo-Zulu War ." } ] }, { "value": "Commissariat Department Commissariat and Transport Department", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Royal_Army_Service_Corps", "summary": "The Royal Army Service Corps ( RASC ) was a corps of the British Army responsible for land , coastal and lake transport , air despatch , barracks administration , the Army Fire Service , staffing headquarters ' units , supply of food , water , fuel and domestic materials such as clothing , furniture and stationery and the supply of technical and military equipment . In 1965 its functions were divided between other Corps ( RCT and RAOC ) and the RASC ceased to exist ; subsequently , in 1993 , they in their turn ( with some functions of the Royal Engineers ) became the Forming Corps of the Royal Logistic Corps ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "Henry D'Arcy", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Henry_Cecil_Dudgeon_D'arcy", "summary": "Henry Cecil Dudgeon D'Arcy VC ( 11 August 1850 - 1881 ) was a New Zealand-born recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . He won the VC on 3 July 1879 at Ulundi in South Africa during the Anglo-Zulu War when he was 28 years old , and a captain in the Frontier Light Horse ." } ] }, { "value": "Frontier Light Horse", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Frontier_Light_Horse", "summary": "The Frontier Light Horse , a mounted unit of 200 volunteers , was raised at King William 's Town , Eastern Cape Colony in 1877 by Lieutenant Frederick Carrington . It is often referred to as the Cape Frontier Light Horse and served under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Burmester Pulleine ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-07-03 3 July 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "White Umfolozi River ( near Ulundi ) , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/White_Umfolozi_River", "summary": "The White Umfolozi River originates just west of Vryheid , KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa and has a confluence with the Black Umfolozi River at 28°20′58″S 31°58′46″E / 28.34944°S 31.97944°E / -28.34944 ; 31.97944 to form the Umfolozi River , which flows eastward towards the Indian Ocean ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Ulundi", "summary": "Ulundi , also known as Mahlabathini is a town in the Zululand District Municipality . At one time the capital of Zulu Kingdom in South Africa and later the capital of the Bantustan of KwaZulu , Ulundi now lies in KwaZulu-Natal Province ( of which , from 1994 to 2004 , it alternated with Pietermaritzburg as the provincial capital ) . The town now includes Ulundi Airport , a three-star hotel , and some museums amongst its sights . In the 2001 Census , the population of the town was recorded as 18,420 ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Edmund Fowler", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Edmund_John_Fowler", "summary": "Edmund John Fowler VC ( 1861 - 26 March 1926 ) was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . Born in County Waterford , he later achieved the rank of Colour-Sergeant . He died in Colchester , Essex , on 26 March 1926 ." } ] }, { "value": "026 90th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/90th_Regiment_of_Foot", "summary": "The 90th Perthshire Light Infantry was a Scottish light infantry regiment of the British Army , raised in 1794 . Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 26th ( Cameronian ) Regiment of Foot to form the Cameronians ( Scottish Rifles ) in 1881 ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-28 28 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Hlobane , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Hlobane", "summary": "The Battle of Hlobane ( 28 March 1879 ) took place at Hlobane , near the modern town of Vryheid in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa during the Anglo-Zulu War ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Frederick Hitch", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Frederick_Hitch", "summary": "Frederick Hitch , VC ( 29 November 1856 - 6 January 1913 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift , the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "Alfred Hook", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Alfred_Henry_Hook", "summary": "Alfred Henry Harry Hook VC ( 6 August 1850 - 12 March 1905 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces , for his actions at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "Robert Jones", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Robert_Jones_(VC)", "summary": "Robert Jones VC ( 19 August 1857 - 6 September 1898 ) was a Welsh recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift in January 1879 , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . Jones was born at Penrhos , near Clytha , between Raglan and Abergavenny in Monmouthshire , Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "William Jones", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/William_Jones_(VC)", "summary": "William Jones VC ( 1839 - 15 April 1913 ) was a British recipient of the Victoria Cross for his action at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift in January 1879 , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] }, { "value": "William Leet", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/William_Knox_Leet", "summary": "William Knox-Leet VC CB ( 3 November 1833 in Dalkey , County Dublin - 29 June 1898 ) , was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . Leet was 45 years old , and a Major in the 1st Bn. , 13th Regiment of Foot ( later The Somerset Light Infantry ( Prince Albert 's ) ) , British Army during the Anglo-Zulu War when the following deed took place on 28 March 1879 at Battle of Hlobane , Zululand , South Africa for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross :" } ] }, { "value": "013 13th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Somerset_Light_Infantry", "summary": "The Somerset Light Infantry ( Prince Albert 's ) was a light infantry infantry regiment of the British Army , which served under various titles from 1685 to 1959 . In 1959 , the regiment was amalgamated with the Duke of Cornwall 's Light Infantry to form the Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry which was again amalgamated , in 1968 , with the King 's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry , the King 's Shropshire Light Infantry and the Durham Light Infantry to form The Light Infantry . In 2007 , however , The Light Infantry was amalgamated further with the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment , the Royal Gloucestershire , Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment and the Royal Green Jackets to form The Rifles ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-28 28 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Hlobane , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Hlobane", "summary": "The Battle of Hlobane ( 28 March 1879 ) took place at Hlobane , near the modern town of Vryheid in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa during the Anglo-Zulu War ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Henry Lysons", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Henry_Lysons", "summary": "Colonel Henry Lysons VC CB ( 30 July 1858 - 24 July 1907 ) was a British recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "026 90th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/90th_Regiment_of_Foot", "summary": "The 90th Perthshire Light Infantry was a Scottish light infantry regiment of the British Army , raised in 1794 . Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 26th ( Cameronian ) Regiment of Foot to form the Cameronians ( Scottish Rifles ) in 1881 ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-03-28 28 March 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Hlobane , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Hlobane", "summary": "The Battle of Hlobane ( 28 March 1879 ) took place at Hlobane , near the modern town of Vryheid in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa during the Anglo-Zulu War ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Teignmouth Melvill", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Teignmouth_Melvill", "summary": "Teignmouth Melvill VC ( 8 September 1842 - 22 January 1879 ) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "024 24th Regiment of Foot", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/South_Wales_Borderers", "summary": "The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years . It first came into existence , as the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1689 . Based at Brecon , the regiment recruited from the border counties of Monmouthshire , Herefordshire and Brecknockshire , but was not called the South Wales Borderers until the Childers Reforms of 1881 . The regiment served in a great many conflicts , including the American Revolutionary War , various conflicts in India , the Zulu War , Second Boer War , and World War I and World War II . In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-01-22 22 January 1879*", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Isandlwana , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Isandlwana", "summary": "The Battle of Isandlwana ( alternative spelling : Isandhlwana ) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom . Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa , a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British , colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians . The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields , but also had a number of muskets and old rifles . The British and colonial troops were armed with the modern Martini-Henry breechloading rifle and two 7-pounder ( 3-inch , 76 mm ) mountain guns deployed as field guns , as well as a Hale rocket battery . Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology , the Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the British , killing over 1,300 troops , including all those out on the forward firing line . The Zulu army suffered anywhere from 1,000 to 2,500 killed . The battle was a decisive victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand . The British Army had suffered its worst defeat against an indigenous foe with vastly inferior military technology . Isandlwana resulted in the British taking a much more aggressive approach in the Anglo-Zulu War , leading to a heavily reinforced second invasion and the destruction of King Cetshwayo 's hopes of a negotiated peace ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "Edmund O'Toole", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Edmund_O'Toole", "summary": "Edmond Joseph O'Toole VC was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces ." } ] }, { "value": "Frontier Light Horse", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Frontier_Light_Horse", "summary": "The Frontier Light Horse , a mounted unit of 200 volunteers , was raised at King William 's Town , Eastern Cape Colony in 1877 by Lieutenant Frederick Carrington . It is often referred to as the Cape Frontier Light Horse and served under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Burmester Pulleine ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-07-03 3 July 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "White Umfolozi River ( near Ulundi ) , Zululand", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/White_Umfolozi_River", "summary": "The White Umfolozi River originates just west of Vryheid , KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa and has a confluence with the Black Umfolozi River at 28°20′58″S 31°58′46″E / 28.34944°S 31.97944°E / -28.34944 ; 31.97944 to form the Umfolozi River , which flows eastward towards the Indian Ocean ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Ulundi", "summary": "Ulundi , also known as Mahlabathini is a town in the Zululand District Municipality . At one time the capital of Zulu Kingdom in South Africa and later the capital of the Bantustan of KwaZulu , Ulundi now lies in KwaZulu-Natal Province ( of which , from 1994 to 2004 , it alternated with Pietermaritzburg as the provincial capital ) . The town now includes Ulundi Airport , a three-star hotel , and some museums amongst its sights . In the 2001 Census , the population of the town was recorded as 18,420 ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Zulu_Kingdom", "summary": "The Kingdom of Zulu ( /zuːluː/ , Zulu : WamaZulu ) , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand , was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north . The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa . In 1879 , the British Empire invaded , beginning the Anglo-Zulu War . After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January , the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi . The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa ." } ] }, { "value": "James Reynolds", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/James_Henry_Reynolds", "summary": "Lieutenant-Colonel James Henry Reynolds VC ( 3 February 1844 - 4 March 1932 ) , born Kingstown ( Dún Laoghaire ) , County Dublin , was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions at the Battle of Rorke 's Drift , the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces . He was educated at Castleknock College and Trinity College , Dublin ." } ] }, { "value": "Army Medical Department Army Medical Department", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Royal_Army_Medical_Corps", "summary": "The Royal Army Medical Corps ( RAMC ) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families , in war and in peace . The RAMC , the Royal Army Veterinary Corps , the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandra 's Royal Army Nursing Corps form the Army Medical Services ." } ] }, { "value": "1879-02-22 22-23 January 1879", "urls": [] }, { "value": "Battle of Rorke 's Drift , Natal Colony", "urls": [ { "url": "/wiki/Battle_of_Rorke's_Drift", "summary": "The Battle of Rorke 's Drift , also known as the Defence of Rorke 's Drift , was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War . The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke 's Drift , under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead , followed Britain 's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 and continued into the following day . Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors . The massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke 's Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison , but were repelled . Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders , along with a number of other decorations and honours ." }, { "url": "/wiki/Natal_Colony", "summary": "The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa . It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia , and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa , as one of its provinces . It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa . It was originally only about half the size of the present province , with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand ( kwaZulu in the Zulu language ) . Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban , and eventually , the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure . A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony . The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s . Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations , so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India . As a result of the importation of Indian labourers , Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India ." } ] } ], "section_title": "Recipients", "section_text": "", "uid": "List_of_Zulu_War_Victoria_Cross_recipients_0", "intro": "The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 23 members of the British Armed Forces and colonial forces for actions performed during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. The Victoria Cross is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, when Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in Hyde Park. The Anglo-Zulu War (also known as the Zulu War) was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom (Zululand; part of modern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa). Although British and colonial forces under General Lord Chelmsford entered Zululand unopposed, on 11 January 1879, the Zulu army soon inflicted a heavy defeat on them at the Battle of Isandlwana, in which more than 1,300 British and colonial forces were killed. Immediately after the battle, Zulu troops moved onto the small garrison at Rorke's Drift. Here, just over 150 British and colonial soldiers defended the outpost against 4,000 Zulu warriors. The action was later made famous by the film Zulu. The defence of Rorke's Drift is considered by historians as a masterly defensive action and an example of heroism against overwhelming numbers. Eleven VC recipients received their awards for deeds performed during the defence of the small garrison - one of the largest number awarded for a single action, and the largest number (7) awarded to a single unit (the 2nd/24th Foot) for a single action." }
0003d159df86ed53
What is the borough in which Kia Oval is located ?
List_of_sports_venues_with_sole_naming_rights_36
Lambeth
WP VBZ DT NN IN WDT NNP NNP VBZ VBN .
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sponsored_sports_venues","title":"List of sponsored sp(...TRUNCATED)
00046dbd53dd3200
"What is the capacity of the venue that was named in honor of Juan Antonio Samaranch in 2010 after h(...TRUNCATED)
Venues_of_the_1984_Winter_Olympics_0
15,000
WP VBZ DT NN IN DT NN WDT VBD VBN IN NN IN NNP NNP NNP IN CD IN PRP$ NN .
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venues_of_the_1984_Winter_Olympics","title":"Venues of the 198(...TRUNCATED)
0005a713626c28a0
"Which teams has the player drafted by the Seattle Mariners in 2008 out of University of Georgia pla(...TRUNCATED)
2008_Seattle_Mariners_season_3
Houston Astros and Los Angeles Dodgers
JJ NN VBZ DT NN VBN IN DT NNP NNPS IN CD IN IN NNP IN NNP VBD IN IN DT NNP .
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Seattle_Mariners_season","title":"2008 Seattle Mariners s(...TRUNCATED)
0009690679e19dd4
"The story of a cab driver witnessing a murder by a criminal kingpin leads to extensive loss in an I(...TRUNCATED)
List_of_highest-grossing_Indian_films_worldwide_1
has made 450+ ad films
"DT NN IN DT NN NN VBG DT NN IN DT JJ NN VBZ TO JJ NN IN DT JJ NN VBN IN CD IN DT VBG NN NN NNS IN N(...TRUNCATED)
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_Indian_films","title":"List of highes(...TRUNCATED)
000978f6ac4a6a39
What is the status of the camp in the town that split from Stonington in 1724 ?
Local_council_camps_of_the_Boy_Scouts_of_America_6
Closed
WP VBZ DT NN IN DT NN IN DT NN WDT NN IN NNP IN CD .
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_council_camps_(Boy_Scouts_of_America)","title":"List o(...TRUNCATED)
000b2e547fa81918
What year was the building built with date listed # 94000865 ?
National_Register_of_Historic_Places_listings_in_Montana_8
1939
WP NN VBD DT NN VBN IN NN VBN # CD .
{"url":"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Register_of_Historic_Places_listings_in_Montana","tit(...TRUNCATED)

Dataset Card for HybridQA

Dataset Summary

Existing question answering datasets focus on dealing with homogeneous information, based either only on text or KB/Table information alone. However, as human knowledge is distributed over heterogeneous forms, using homogeneous information alone might lead to severe coverage problems. To fill in the gap, we present HybridQA, a new large-scale question-answering dataset that requires reasoning on heterogeneous information. Each question is aligned with a Wikipedia table and multiple free-form corpora linked with the entities in the table. The questions are designed to aggregate both tabular information and text information, i.e., lack of either form would render the question unanswerable.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]

Languages

The dataset is in English language.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

A typical example looks like this

{
    "question_id": "00009b9649d0dd0a",
    "question": "Who were the builders of the mosque in Herat with fire temples ?",
    "table_id": "List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan_0",
    "answer_text": "Ghurids",
    "question_postag": "WP VBD DT NNS IN DT NN IN NNP IN NN NNS .",
    "table": {
        "url": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan",
        "title": "List of mosques in Afghanistan",
        "header": [
            "Name",
            "Province",
            "City",
            "Year",
            "Remarks"
        ],
        "data": [
            {
                "value": "Kabul",
                "urls": [
                    {
                        "summary": "Kabul ( Persian : کابل , romanized : Kābol , Pashto : کابل , romanized : Kābəl ) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan...",
                        "url": "/wiki/Kabul"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    "section_title": "",
    "section_text": "",
    "uid": "List_of_mosques_in_Afghanistan_0",
    "intro": "The following is an incomplete list of large mosques in Afghanistan:"
}

Data Fields

  • question_id (str)
  • question (str)
  • table_id (str)
  • answer_text (str)
  • question_postag (str)
  • table (dict):
    • url (str)
    • title (str)
    • header (list of str)
    • data (list of dict):
      • value (str)
      • urls (list of dict):
        • url (str)
        • summary (str)
  • section_title (str)
  • section_text (str)
  • uid (str)
  • intro (str)

Data Splits

The dataset is split into train, dev and test splits.

train validation test
N. Instances 62682 3466 3463

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

[More Information Needed]

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

[More Information Needed]

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

The dataset is under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Citation Information

[More Information Needed]

@article{chen2020hybridqa,
  title={HybridQA: A Dataset of Multi-Hop Question Answering over Tabular and Textual Data},
  author={Chen, Wenhu and Zha, Hanwen and Chen, Zhiyu and Xiong, Wenhan and Wang, Hong and Wang, William},
  journal={Findings of EMNLP 2020},
  year={2020}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @patil-suraj for adding this dataset.

Downloads last month
309

Models trained or fine-tuned on hybrid_qa