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text (string)label (class label)
"these tiktoks radiate gay chaotic energy and i love it"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Champions Again He got killed for using false money"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"It's not that all lives don't matter"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Is it really that difficult to understand? Black lives matter and all lives matter are not mutually exclusive. They are both true as general statements. So are white lives matter and asian lives matter. Black lives matter in this context is simply the name of a movement against the strangely high rate of police violence on black people and the statement is referring to those who behave like and treat black people as if they dont matter. For example"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Whenever we say black isn't that racists? Why don't just say Americans."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Ros The Boss u don’t know that she’s actually lgbtq tho so...."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"That was funny at the end when Larry said 'What are we arguing about then'. haha but that said"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"She saves lives with her music."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"There were a lot of Samoans in my Army unit"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Network Engineer here- 23 and currently working as an instructor teaching men and women looking to be in IT =] Next I want to teach at a University!"
0 (Hope_speech)
"There is justice for the natives the government literally pays us"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"she’s in the closet."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Injustice is the way the world works. A millionaire paying someone a few dollars to wash his car is injustice"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Trey Gray The Prime Minister of Holland"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Madonna wouldn't be here if her mother had her attitude ."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Tea Just Tea all lives are equal is the same thing as all lives matter"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"the tech industry is tough for everyone. Most people are pushed hard and treated like garbage"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Why does BLM only come around every 4 years"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Funny thing is"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I'm still hiding my gender to my parents and they don't know I'm dating someone. My friends knows already about my gender and they are very supportive of it. And I'm very thankful to find true friends like them"
0 (Hope_speech)
"all lives matter .without that we never have peace so to me forever all lives matter."
0 (Hope_speech)
"Clark thank you. I salute you."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@J Brown It makes it seem like my opinion doesn't matter when someone gets attacked for holding a All Lives Matter sign."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Yall talking lesbian but I think it more likely that's she'll come out as trans"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"France France I think you’re the one being dumb. It’s actually very simple. Did you not know all lives include black lives? If you have a basic understanding of the English language you should understand that."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Fa1con i love how people like you read a comment that goes against your agenda and spat instantly zero evidence when all you need to do is type we are trained marxists blm and boom there you go"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Randomgirlwhosings0804 Why does she feel the need to have to agree or not agree with someone’s sexuality? Why does any Christian? it’s really weird. there is nothing for you to “agree” with"
0 (Hope_speech)
"the people who would normally be saying whu are all the disney princesses setting unrealistic standards for young girls are now saying that having a fat guy who happens to have darkish skin is racest... the rock is the voice actor for the character and he seems to be fine with it. Next lets say big hero six is racest because it is slightly japanese and hero is fat sometimes. its not like mr incredible who is white and sorta chubby got this kinda shit."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Excatly!!! Do you know that in South Korea in almost every school there they teach Americans as racist"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The big ones stop ruling when the small ones stop crawling.nn2020 The year of the modern revolution"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"i think at that time"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"About performing at Eurovision in Tel Aviv"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Is it wrong I laughed when he said beaten with the Bible"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"All I’m gunna say is I was Presbyterian and “didn’t agree with homosexuality” before I came out ‍"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Thank you Madonna for EVERYTHING! You’ve helped me grow up as a kid in West Philadelphia! You inspired me greatly! Much respect and love Queen of Pop! #MadameX"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"When you've turn-off the reasonable people"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Right...that's what he said. You have it all right"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"she is not 60. He is 60"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@That’s the Tea sis and thats the tea"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"White lives matter is considered racist as hell so why isn't Black Lives matter racist also."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The whole thing is a joke...lol all black lives matter..and the democrats are laughing at the suckers following them down the path to socialism!....crush black lives matter ALL LIVES MATTER!!!! Its a political move by the democratic socialist party...MAGA!!!! The media is telling and showing you what the dems want them to...except Fox News...good job!!!"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Sunshine littlephilly I can’t even imagine how your thought process works... Do you not have the capability to shape your own opinion. Especially on a topic that DOES in fact hurt homosexual people. Whether you believe they should be harmed or not has nothing to do with it. When you publicly state a person is wrong for just living their life"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"But Sadism isnt evil is it? Unless you're sadistic to unwilling participants. Alot whats considered evil now a days depends actually more or less on your perspectiv of what happens. If i were to hit a dog"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"And short short hair—"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"No. i`m black and I`m upset by what I`ve seen. It does nobody any good."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"it doesn't matter what your family does when you want to make a career for yourself. what matters is what you can or will do. you're in no better position then the one who comes from a poor family and also wanting to be a video game developer."
0 (Hope_speech)
"All lives matter.... every life fucking matters..."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I thought I was watching a recent video but this is 4 years ago but here we are again and the same thing is going to happen"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Where has this Sheriff been?"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The media and crooked politicians whipped this up. We have to get rid of the lot of them with the ballot."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"he was doing just fine before the police officer kept his knee on his neck for 8 minutes and 46 seconds"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Bernie never lived in the hood I'd like to see him walk the streets"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Black lives matter and not all lives?nWhat hypocrats..."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"the lesbian disagreeing with homosexuality tho. poor thing is prolly insecure abt it."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Police are already killing people"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"No liberals think that lmao"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Grasielle Alison ha another mom joke"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Can you guys stop harassing that girl for her haircut? Seriously. She doesn’t agree with homosexuality but she respects it. The least you could do is respect her back"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"jazzfan1 When I read your comment it sounds kind of dumb and racist. You act like only white people are slaying only black people daily."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I beg they just put it straight back up"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Agreed! It is straight up abuse in all three formats"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"So did I. She’s clearly grooming herself and behaving in a more masculine manner. Lol when she said she didn’t agree I was like “...you don’t?”"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Molly Rebekah well its a hompohobic comment therefore it sucks"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Chloe Faye I mean they are there to hear his story"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Certainly herd mentality"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Sasha Dumse God accepts everyone."
0 (Hope_speech)
"I would have asked him if he’s watched “but I’m a cheerleader”"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I feel so base for that guy! They treated him as if he wasn’t a human just because of who he loved! 🥺"
0 (Hope_speech)
"American Lives Matter"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"....🤔........staged set up for the coming race war... still hilarious though 🤣"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The interviewer is HOT!!!"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I am so glad that you made your toy!!! I wouldn't have extended my love for science!!! I feel like I don't fit in at school sometimes"
0 (Hope_speech)
"How can all lives matter if black lives aren’t?"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"You are so right and white is a color"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I'm so proud for her"
0 (Hope_speech)
"We are ready meanings black people are ready for anything"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"What exactly do you want"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"She saves lives with her music."
0 (Hope_speech)
"that would be uhhh pure mean yes"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@AtlantisMystic Walker #12894 rly sorry for being so mean......"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Santiago Cr but she can move her mouth"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Evil? I don’t think so. What a crazy statement to say about her."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"All lives should matter.nBut Black Lives Don't seem to Matter.nThat's why there's a Black Lives Matter Movement. nUnderstanding?"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Alex because that's therapy u must know the truth u had"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"A A house n"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I'm glad Madonna knows there is a market for ORIGINALITY & BRILLIANCE beyond American borders! Globally. They consider her a legend who once again shakes it up and reinvents herself. Beautiful girl"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"These kids are amazing"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I couldn’t tell if it was a boy or girl"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"All Humans matter. Whats with labeling color!!! Dogs matter. Cats matter. Bees matter. Trees matter. Americans matter."
0 (Hope_speech)
"@fivedrock clearly you have no idea who is on the side of status quo."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The return of the Zulus."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Now let's mention the Black names that fell Victims in the hands of protesters. The Black Owners protecting their businesses. Who's gonna protest for them? BLM only care when a white cop is involved but turn the blind eye when they are the ones responsible. FACTS!"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Yes all lives matter. Its simple to understand. its not only that if the political parties have a common interest in their own country"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"@Generic Human shut eup"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"BTS KIM NAMJOON China is trying to pass a national anthem bill which criminalises people who makes fun of it. It also mandates that the Chinese anthem is taught in school. This stifles their freedoms."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"Talk about white privillege while black people get love from everybody while white people get booed"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"I don’t even get why whites even support BLM they ain’t even black"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"The things that she has done are magnificent.She has personally flewn to Mexico to buy her friend some medicine for AIDS.This is not your everyday type of woman.Shes so intelligent too.I don’t think she’s appreciated enough."
0 (Hope_speech)
"That one little girl is woke!"
1 (Non_hope_speech)
"THE MAJORITY OF RACISTS IN THIS COUNTRY ARE BLACK! EMPOWER BY RACIAL LEFT DEMOCRATS."
1 (Non_hope_speech)
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for [Dataset Name]

Dataset Summary

A Hope Speech dataset for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (HopeEDI) containing user-generated comments from the social media platform YouTube with 28,451, 20,198 and 10,705 comments in English, Tamil and Malayalam, respectively, manually labelled as containing hope speech or not. To our knowledge, this is the first research of its kind to annotate hope speech for equality, diversity and inclusion in a multilingual setting.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

To identify hope speech in the comments/posts in social media.

Languages

English, Tamil and Malayalam

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

An example from the English dataset looks as follows:

text label
all lives matter .without that we never have peace so to me forever all lives matter. Hope_speech
I think it's cool that you give people a voice to speak out with here on this channel. Hope_speech

An example from the Tamil dataset looks as follows:

text label
Idha solla ivalo naala Non_hope_speech
இன்று தேசிய பெண் குழந்தைகள் தினம்.. பெண் குழந்தைகளை போற்றுவோம்..அவர்களை பாதுகாப்போம்... Hope_speech

An example from the Malayalam dataset looks as follows:

text label
ഇത്രെയും കഷ്ടപ്പെട്ട് വളർത്തിയ ആ അമ്മയുടെ മുഖം കണ്ടപ്പോൾ കണ്ണ് നിറഞ്ഞു പോയി Hope_speech
snehikunavar aanayalum pennayalum onnichu jeevikatte..aareyum compel cheythitallalooo..parasparamulla ishtathodeyalle...avarum jeevikatte..🥰🥰 Hope_speech

Data Fields

English

  • text: English comment.
  • label: list of the possible values: "Hope_speech", "Non_hope_speech", "not-English"

Tamil

  • text: Tamil-English code mixed comment.
  • label: list of the possible values: "Hope_speech", "Non_hope_speech", "not-Tamil"

Malayalam

  • text: Malayalam-English code mixed comment.
  • label: list of the possible values: "Hope_speech", "Non_hope_speech", "not-malayalam"

Data Splits

train validation
English 22762 2843
Tamil 16160 2018
Malayalam 8564 1070

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

Hope is considered significant for the well-being, recuperation and restoration of human life by health professionals. Hate speech or offensive language detection dataset is not available for code-mixed Tamil and code-mixed Malayalam, and it does not take into account LGBTIQ, women in STEM and other minorities. Thus, we cannot use existing hate speech or offensive language detection datasets to detect hope or non-hope for EDI of minorities.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

For English, we collected data on recent topics of EDI, including women in STEM, LGBTIQ issues, COVID-19, Black Lives Matters, United Kingdom (UK) versus China, United States of America (USA) versus China and Australia versus China from YouTube video comments. The data was collected from videos of people from English-speaking countries, such as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, the United States of America and New Zealand.

For Tamil and Malayalam, we collected data from India on the recent topics regarding LGBTIQ issues, COVID-19, women in STEM, the Indo-China war and Dravidian affairs.

Who are the source language producers?

Youtube users

Annotations

Annotation process

We created Google forms to collect annotations from annotators. Each form contained a maximum of 100 comments, and each page contained a maximum of 10 comments to maintain the quality of annotation. We collected information on the gender, educational background and the medium of schooling of the annotator to know the diversity of the annotator and avoid bias. We educated annotators by providing them with YouTube videos on EDI. A minimum of three annotators annotated each form.

Who are the annotators?

For English language comments, annotators were from Australia, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. For Tamil, we were able to get annotations from both people from the state of Tamil Nadu of India and from Sri Lanka. Most of the annotators were graduate or post-graduate students.

Personal and Sensitive Information

Social media data is highly sensitive, and even more so when it is related to the minority population, such as the LGBTIQ community or women. We have taken full consideration to minimise the risk associated with individual identity in the data by removing personal information from dataset, such as names but not celebrity names. However, to study EDI, we needed to keep information relating to the following characteristics; racial, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin and philosophical beliefs. Annotators were only shown anonymised posts and agreed to make no attempts to contact the comment creator. The dataset will only be made available for research purpose to the researcher who agree to follow ethical guidelines

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

Citation Information

@inproceedings{chakravarthi-2020-hopeedi,
title = "{H}ope{EDI}: A Multilingual Hope Speech Detection Dataset for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion",
author = "Chakravarthi, Bharathi Raja",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media",
month = dec,
year = "2020",
address = "Barcelona, Spain (Online)",
publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.peoples-1.5",
pages = "41--53",
abstract = "Over the past few years, systems have been developed to control online content and eliminate abusive, offensive or hate speech content. However, people in power sometimes misuse this form of censorship to obstruct the democratic right of freedom of speech. Therefore, it is imperative that research should take a positive reinforcement approach towards online content that is encouraging, positive and supportive contents. Until now, most studies have focused on solving this problem of negativity in the English language, though the problem is much more than just harmful content. Furthermore, it is multilingual as well. Thus, we have constructed a Hope Speech dataset for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (HopeEDI) containing user-generated comments from the social media platform YouTube with 28,451, 20,198 and 10,705 comments in English, Tamil and Malayalam, respectively, manually labelled as containing hope speech or not. To our knowledge, this is the first research of its kind to annotate hope speech for equality, diversity and inclusion in a multilingual setting. We determined that the inter-annotator agreement of our dataset using Krippendorff{'}s alpha. Further, we created several baselines to benchmark the resulting dataset and the results have been expressed using precision, recall and F1-score. The dataset is publicly available for the research community. We hope that this resource will spur further research on encouraging inclusive and responsive speech that reinforces positiveness.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @jamespaultg for adding this dataset.