# Datasets: gsarti /magpie

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10K<n<100K
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: original
Dataset Preview
sentence (string)annotation (sequence)idiom (string)usage (string)variant (string)pos_tags (sequence)
"The boy pulled himself together so hastily that his limbs got in the way, and his wood violin was within a hair's breadth of falling into the fire."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Martin Rosenbaum, the family adviser, added : ‘ This very narrow decision by the court shows that the Government can hang on to its defence of corporal punishment only by a hair's breadth.’"
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"figurative"
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"The cutting edge of his sword was a hair's - breadth from Barakai's forehead."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"To pipe stars, hold the bag at right angles to the surface to be iced, with the nozzle just a hair's breadth away."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Gallup for The Daily Telegraph gave the Conservatives a hair's breadth half - point lead over Labour, with the Liberal Democrats in danger of being squeezed as the two main parties battle to emerge as the largest party in a possible hung parliament."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Anglesey for example are within a hair's breadth of attaining theirs."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Anglesey for example are within a hair's breadth of attaining theirs."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Usually they 're silly things were you haven't quite clipped in correctly to the rope and suddenly, zap, you realise you 've missed death by only a hair's breadth."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"It is only necessary to behold thus the least phenomenon, however familiar, from a point a hair's breadth aside from our habitual path a routine, to be overcome, enchanted by its beauty and significance."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"Burun guessed that Kiku had been no more than a hair's - breadth away from being impaled on the st'lyan's gilden horn."
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"His more startling assertion in a long television interview last week that some members of the banned P2 masonic lodge were also ‘ patriots’ brought Mr Cossiga within a hair's breadth of provoking a constitutional crisis."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"' The men are not deviating by one hair's breadth from the ordinary system of training, ' he told the Daily News."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"You escaped death by a hair's breadth.’"
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"figurative"
"misc"
[ "PRON", "VERB", "NOUN", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "NOUN" ]
"Their stories appear to rupture time, bringing them within a hair's breadth of one another."
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"figurative"
"misc"
[ "ADJ", "NOUN", "VERB", "PART", "VERB", "NOUN", "VERB", "PRON", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "NOUN", "ADP", "NUM", "DET" ]
"Yet, unlike the middle class, the worker was rarely more than a hair's breadth removed from the pauper, and insecurity was therefore constant and real."
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"As Lisa pulled the door open Josey stepped out into the night … and literally came within a hair's breadth of walking straight into the tall dark figure who was striding up the path."
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"figurative"
"misc"
"At 5′ 6″ and 9 ¼ stone, Hanif was the slightest of all postwar Test leaders, beating Hassett by a hair's breadth."
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"Muriel, probably because of her years and the fact they were looking for a more mature person, was by a hair's breadth the front - runner, ahead of two younger girls both with experience of the insurance business."
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"figurative"
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"The classic case is that of the American bison, reduced from millions to a handful of individuals, and saved from extinction by a hair's breadth."
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"figurative"
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"‘ Of course I do,’ he replied, relaxing and stretching his long legs out in front of him, so that they were within a hair's breadth of brushing against hers."
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"‘ I say Charlie, a little bird told me that Joe there's been a bit crafty."
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"a little bird told me"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"' A little bird tells me — oh, St - Jean is full of them — you are dining every night at that great barrack of a house. '"
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"a little bird told me"
"figurative"
"combined-inflection"
"A little bird tells me that Scottish & Newcastle's private jet has been spotted in the neighbourhood of Pilsen."
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"a little bird told me"
"figurative"
"combined-inflection"
"' A little bird told me it was your birthday, ' he said."
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"a little bird told me"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
[ "PUNCT", "DET", "ADJ", "NOUN", "VERB", "PRON", "PRON", "VERB", "ADJ", "NOUN", "PUNCT", "PRON", "VERB" ]
"' A penny for your thoughts, ' she said brusquely, and he glanced up."
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"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"' A penny for your thoughts."
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"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"' Penny for your thoughts, Piper, ' the Trog said."
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"figurative"
"combined-other"
[ "PUNCT", "NOUN", "ADP", "ADJ", "NOUN", "PROPN", "PUNCT", "DET", "PROPN", "VERB" ]
"' Penny for your thoughts, ' teased Stephen, coming to put his arms round her waist."
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"figurative"
"combined-other"
"Oh er he, he's worth a pretty penny is Sounness."
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"a pretty penny"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
[ "INTJ", "INTJ", "PRON", "PRON", "ADJ", "DET", "ADJ", "NOUN", "VERB", "PROPN" ]
"I mean, she's an attractive girl, so she is, despite her ideas, and she could make a pretty penny out of her looks."
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"a pretty penny"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"Chris Howes spends a pretty penny, with no regrets."
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"a pretty penny"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"Since they are hard to find, except in odd little shops that specialise in big underpants and sheepskin slippers for old people, they cost a pretty penny."
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"a pretty penny"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"And as she stared, there was interposed on the fair skin face of a man, a thin man, and he was leering at her as if in triumph, as he would do if he were to get hold of this unusual - looking child, for he 'd make a pretty penny out of her, no matter what channel he sent her along, his nursery, the street, or the boat."
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"a pretty penny"
"figurative"
"deletion-determiner"
"Stencil a border round the ceiling, around the door and windows, and above the skirting boards."
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"above board"
"literal"
"combined-inflection"
[ "NOUN", "DET", "NOUN", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "CCONJ", "NOUN", "CCONJ", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "NOUN" ]
"As I see it, it's up to Peggy, and knowing her I can't see that she 'd let anything happen that wasn't above board.’"
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"above board"
"figurative"
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"Mr Delors insists that it is up to the pontifical authorities to check that everything is above board."
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"above board"
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"And it's imperative that you play it all above board."
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"above board"
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"There would be no reason for Mohammed's existence if every minister and ministry were above board : arms dealers are used either because deals are shady — circumventing arms embargoes for example— or to allow government officials a healthy ( illegal ) cut."
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"above board"
"figurative"
"identical"
"It's all above board.’"
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"above board"
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[ "PRON", "DET", "ADP", "NOUN" ]
"It's all above board, Rosie."
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"above board"
"figurative"
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[ "PRON", "DET", "ADP", "NOUN", "PROPN" ]
"Everything is above board except the strategy."
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"above board"
"figurative"
"identical"
"Everything was very legitimate and above board, but we had very specific requirements of what we wanted this representation to be, because it is life size."
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"above board"
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"Having said that, everything was done above board."
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"above board"
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"I know he has a reputation for toughness that could match Martin's any day, but the difference is that everything he does is legal and above board."
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"above board"
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"When mounting the mercury switch S1, position the switch body about 10 mm above the board to allow it to be angled to adjust its sensitivity."
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"above board"
"literal"
"insertion-determiner"
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"As regards Editing for Industry, I am satisfied the management structure and the people involved ensure that it is far and above board — I would not wish to be associated with anything that damaged my reputation or that of the Association."
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"above board"
"figurative"
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"It means that when you go along to the social services, register and it's above board children's work that you are doing."
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"above board"
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"A lover is illicit — the whole point of being married, it seems to me, is that everything is above board and clean.’"
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"above board"
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"All this was above board and the developers reached an agreement to pay a per acre developed contribution to the district council towards development costs, as did the county council."
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"above board"
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"There is no question here that PW acted completely above board, but it strikes me that the time has come to consider whether the profession's rules and regulations on reporting to external authorities are not too restrictive."
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"above board"
"figurative"
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"Rest assured that whatever happens the proceedings will be above board."
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"above board"
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"He is an extremely nice man and was seen to be a successful and popular president, although his name was linked to allegations that certain transactions were not totally above board."
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"above board"
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"Yeah but if you do it above board I can't see"
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"above board"
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[ "INTJ", "CCONJ", "ADP", "PRON", "VERB", "PRON", "ADP", "NOUN", "PRON", "VERB", "VERB" ]
"The use of sleeving on the l.e.d. wires ensures that they are all at the same height above the board : Also make sure that they are in line when viewed along the length of the sequence."
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"above board"
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"insertion-determiner"
"So long as you keep things above board your schemes will be tolerated, perhaps even appreciated, but don't over - stretch your imagination as the results could border on the bizarre."
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"above board"
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"‘ But if your private affairs were open and above board you wouldn't be worrying about having to conceal a phone caller's identity — which is what you are doing.’"
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"above board"
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"No, whole thing's perfectly above board.’"
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"above board"
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"‘ Well, if you do, do you think any of them would have signed this form if it had not been all in order and above board?’"
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"I would think it would be above board"
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"above board"
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[ "PRON", "VERB", "VERB", "PRON", "VERB", "VERB", "ADP", "NOUN" ]
"Two huge screens above the chess boards carried illuminated chess graphics to display the games."
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"above board"
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"You give it your name, and it's all above - board, or something."
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"above board"
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[ "PRON", "VERB", "PRON", "ADJ", "NOUN", "CCONJ", "PRON", "DET", "ADJ", "PUNCT", "NOUN", "CCONJ", "NOUN" ]
"‘ A lover is illicit — the whole point of being married, it seems to me, is that everything is above board and clean’"
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"above board"
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"And meanwhile, above - board …"
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"above board"
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"He had come from out of town with a fortune, was known to have been a vociferous Bund supporter before the war and had set up a chain of more or less above - board casinos in the districts where gambling was more or less legal."
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"above board"
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"All above - board."
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"above board"
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[ "DET", "ADP", "PUNCT", "NOUN" ]
"She's open and above - board."
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"above board"
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"Oh, no oh no it's not like that, it's a proper model agency in er, in Nottingham, it, it sounds above board, well I 've heard of the, the lass that's running it actually, she's an ex page three girl, she's er very good, you know, from what I 've heard it's erm, it's a reputable agency and er, yeah the ones of the sharks doing that, but er, she ain't one of them thing is she doe she"
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"above board"
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"‘ We can be perfectly respectable and above board.’"
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"above board"
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"Possibly because some of them might 've been councillors and knew the ways that sort of er things went on and how to get things done officially and above board."
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"above board"
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"They all know they were all told that it's it's all a bit above board."
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"above board"
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"he's been able to get round it really, it might well be above board, but the police have been looking into it"
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"above board"
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"If you have a moisture meter, test the corners and centre of each wall just above the skirting board ; otherwise tap the plaster, feel with a dry hand for damp and coldness, and look out for loose wallpaper or flaking emulsion paint."
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"above board"
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"But concern about the operation has been so great that police on the Isle of Man have been flooded with more than 50 calls asking if the operation is above board."
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"above board"
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"Don't look like that — I know it's horrid, having to take people's money, but we 've got to live, and what we 're going to do is absolutely honest and above - board.’"
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"On occasion one hears of unusual circumstances surrounding tenders, where neither the vendor nor tenderers are present to affirm that everything was above - board."
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"Yet, as it happened, he was registering well above par that evening, for three of the four ideas he had formulated were finally to prove wholly correct."
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"If the current price is above par, the operative life of the bond will depend on the date on which the call price falls below the current price."
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"This, following the House of Lords decision in Scottish Insurance v. Wilson & Clyde Coal Co was, in effect, done by capital reductions even though the shares were irredeemable and quoted at above par, for the Lords decided in that case and in Prudential Assurance v. Chatterley - Whitfield Collieries in the same year, that the courts had to confirm the reductions since the preference shareholders were being treated in strict accordance with their class rights."
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"In the penalty box he is above par."
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"above par"
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"For bonds trading at or above par ( so that ), duration increases with maturity and approaches this limit from below."
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"Table 3.4 gives details of government bond issues during the last three months of 1991 and shows that, of the five issues, three were made at prices below par and two at prices above par."
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"Quality in business in the nineties means getting things right first time, every time, right across the board."
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"across the board"
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"This does not mean, however, that young children are realists ‘ across the board’."
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"across the board"
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"Fiat has improved equipment levels across the board and a 1.1 Uno now casts what the 1-litre used to cost."
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[ "PROPN", "VERB", "VERB", "NOUN", "NOUN", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "CCONJ", "DET", "NUM", "PROPN", "ADV", "VERB", "NOUN", "DET", "NOUN", "VERB", "PART", "VERB" ]
"However, GKR began to flourish in the early 1980s, not so much in financial services as across the board in industry."
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"These include a capital gains tax cut, a 15 % investment tax allowance and across - the - board tax rate cuts."
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"across the board"
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"Whatever the cultural background one characteristic went right across the board : the desire to evangelise."
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"across the board"
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"Things might have been different if there had been more consultation with industry people across the board."
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"Yes, because actually thinking about it across the board, those energetic women in soaps have been married off or calmed down."
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"across the board"
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"Singapore : Shares closed firmer across the board in active trade, with the Straits Times index 8.17 points higher at 1,413.15."
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"across the board"
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"Similarly, the explosion in the population of sentenced prisoners, which was an ongoing phenomenon for most of the 1990s, appears to be largely attributable to the persistent practice of ‘ over - sentencing’— both in the sense of using custody unnecessarily for minor property offenders and others, and of imposing longer sentences across the board than is required for strictly reductivist purposes — for which responsibility rests mainly, but not exclusively, with the Crown Court."
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"across the board"
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"Steve Cardownie, Labour recreation convener of the council, said officials had recommended a 2 per cent across - the - board cut for all the cultural grants."
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"It is also hoped to produce estimates across the board up to 1962 as a contribution to the complete picture up to the present."
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"He only has specific proposals for 10 % of the total entitlement spending cap, yet the across the board tax rate cuts would lose \$ 25bn a year in revenue for each percentage point reduced, and conservatives are calling for a three point cut."
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"On Wall Street, across - the - board buying in the oil sector sparked a rally."
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[ "ADP", "PROPN", "PROPN", "ADP", "PUNCT", "DET", "PUNCT", "NOUN", "NOUN", "ADP", "DET", "NOUN", "NOUN", "VERB", "DET", "NOUN" ]
"It is the evaluators ' belief that the impressive rhetoric contained in this part of the proposal describes an ideal which the school could not realistically be expected to achieve, without an across - the - board change amounting to a curriculum revolution."
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"This is something I think there will be agreement with across the board."
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"Nao Naomi realizes there's no point talking about it now, the dye has been cast the decision has been made, the commitment has been entered into, whatever the cost she was going gods way, there was nothing more to be said about it we find that a de a decision made before god and we all make those decisions, means nothing at all unless were determined to carry it through, whatever the cost may be, three women here make their decisions before god, they make their choices, Naomi she chooses to return to Judah once again and enjoy the inheritance god has given her, Auper she chooses to return to her own country and her own god, as far as were concerned that's the end of the story, but Ruth she chooses, she expresses her faith in the one true god, she turns her back on the old ways and decides to follow gods way, no matter what the cost, she would of said with Joshua, but as for me and my husband were gon na serve god, whatever the cost, I dunno what 'll be and she didn't know what she was letting herself in for, and the, I counted it, although I don't know what it is, I counted that cost, I 'm willing to pay it and Jesus said that that is the acid test of disciples, said to count the cost and weigh it up and Ruth had done that, then to make their decision and because if we make a decision without counting the cost, without weighing it all up, like Auper you 'll go back, it won't last, there is that choice for every one of us day by day, who will we serve, not to be like Joshua, its for us, never for any body else, I will serve the lord because and this is the reason for it, not because you 've done nice things for me, I will be your saviour because he is god, that's the reason for our serving god, not because he blesses us because he blesses people who don't serve him, blessing is not exclusive to gods people, blessing, god blesses across the board, god is generous he's gracious, he causes the rain and the sun to shine on the just and on the unjust, blessing is not the ground for serving god, but because he is god that's sufficient reason for our committing ourselves to him."
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"It has to be done evenly across the board, in the rural and urban areas, or else we will fight every tooth and nail to make sure that we, our schools that we represent do not suffer."
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"Bombay : An official denial of moves to end price controls on steel triggered nervous long liquidation across the board."
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End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for MAGPIE

### Dataset Summary

The MAGPIE corpus (Haagsma et al. 2020) is a large sense-annotated corpus of potentially idiomatic expressions (PIEs), based on the British National Corpus (BNC). Potentially idiomatic expressions are like idiomatic expressions, but the term also covers literal uses of idiomatic expressions, such as 'I leave work at the end of the day.' for the idiom 'at the end of the day'. This version of the dataset reflects the filtered subset used by Dankers et al. (2022) in their investigation on how PIEs are represented by NMT models. Authors use 37k samples annotated as fully figurative or literal, for 1482 idioms that contain nouns, numerals or adjectives that are colors (which they refer to as keywords). Because idioms show syntactic and morphological variability, the focus is mostly put on nouns. PIEs and their context are separated using the original corpus’s word-level annotations.

### Languages

The language data in MAGPIE is in English (BCP-47 en)

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

The magpie configuration contains sentences with annotations for the presence, usage an type of potentially idiomatic expressions. An example from the train split of the magpie config (default) is provided below.

{
'sentence': 'There seems to be a dearth of good small tools across the board.',
'annotation': [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1],
'idiom': 'across the board',
'usage': 'figurative',
'variant': 'identical',
}


The text is provided as-is, without further preprocessing or tokenization.

The fields are the following:

• sentence: The sentence containing a PIE.
• annotation: List of 0s and 1s of the same length of the whitespace-tokenized sentence, with 1s corresponding to the position of the idiomatic expression.
• idiom: The idiom contained in the sentence in its base form.
• usage: Either figurative or literal, depending on the usage of the PIE.
• variant: identical if the PIE matches the base form of the idiom, otherwise specifies the variation.
• pos_tags: List of POS tags associated with words in the sentence.

### Data Splits

config train
magpie 44451

### Dataset Creation

Please refer to the original article MAGPIE: A Large Corpus of Potentially Idiomatic Expressions for additional information on dataset creation, and to the article Can Transformer be Too Compositional? Analysing Idiom Processing in Neural Machine Translation for further information on the filtering of selected idioms.

### Citation Information

Please cite the authors if you use this corpus in your work:

@inproceedings{haagsma-etal-2020-magpie,
title = "{MAGPIE}: A Large Corpus of Potentially Idiomatic Expressions",
author = "Haagsma, Hessel  and
Bos, Johan  and
Nissim, Malvina",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference",
month = may,
year = "2020",
publisher = "European Language Resources Association",
url = "https://aclanthology.org/2020.lrec-1.35",
pages = "279--287",
language = "English",
ISBN = "979-10-95546-34-4",
}
@inproceedings{dankers-etal-2022-transformer,
title = "Can Transformer be Too Compositional? Analysing Idiom Processing in Neural Machine Translation",
author = "Dankers, Verna  and
Lucas, Christopher  and
Titov, Ivan",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)",
month = may,
year = "2022",