id
int32
3
229k
label
stringclasses
3 values
claim
stringlengths
10
614
evidence_annotation_id
int32
11.1k
345k
evidence_id
int32
-1
328k
evidence_wiki_url
stringlengths
0
98
evidence_sentence_id
int32
-1
74
75,397
SUPPORTS
Nikolaj Coster-Waldau worked with the Fox Broadcasting Company.
92,206
104,971
Nikolaj_Coster-Waldau
7
75,397
SUPPORTS
Nikolaj Coster-Waldau worked with the Fox Broadcasting Company.
92,206
104,971
Fox_Broadcasting_Company
-1
150,448
SUPPORTS
Roman Atwood is a content creator.
174,271
187,498
Roman_Atwood
1
150,448
SUPPORTS
Roman Atwood is a content creator.
174,271
187,499
Roman_Atwood
3
214,861
SUPPORTS
History of art includes architecture, dance, sculpture, music, painting, poetry literature, theatre, narrative, film, photography and graphic arts.
255,136
254,645
History_of_art
2
156,709
REFUTES
Adrienne Bailon is an accountant.
180,804
193,183
Adrienne_Bailon
-1
83,235
NOT ENOUGH INFO
System of a Down briefly disbanded in limbo.
100,277
-1
-1
129,629
SUPPORTS
Homeland is an American television spy thriller based on the Israeli television series Prisoners of War.
151,831
166,598
Homeland_-LRB-TV_series-RRB-
-1
129,629
SUPPORTS
Homeland is an American television spy thriller based on the Israeli television series Prisoners of War.
151,831
166,598
Prisoners_of_War_-LRB-TV_series-RRB-
-1
149,579
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Beautiful reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2003.
173,384
-1
-1
229,289
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Neal Schon was named in 1954.
273,626
-1
-1
33,078
SUPPORTS
The Boston Celtics play their home games at TD Garden.
49,158
58,489
Boston_Celtics
3
33,078
SUPPORTS
The Boston Celtics play their home games at TD Garden.
49,159
58,490
Boston_Celtics
3
6,744
SUPPORTS
The Ten Commandments is an epic film.
23,513
28,977
The_Ten_Commandments_-LRB-1956_film-RRB-
-1
6,744
SUPPORTS
The Ten Commandments is an epic film.
23,513
28,978
The_Ten_Commandments_-LRB-1956_film-RRB-
20
226,034
SUPPORTS
Tetris has sold millions of physical copies.
269,479
265,800
Tetris
18
40,190
SUPPORTS
Cyndi Lauper won the Best New Artist award at the 27th Grammy Awards in 1985.
56,492
66,697
Cyndi_Lauper
2
76,253
SUPPORTS
There is a movie called The Hunger Games.
93,100
106,004
The_Hunger_Games_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
76,253
SUPPORTS
There is a movie called The Hunger Games.
93,100
106,005
The_Hunger_Games_-LRB-film-RRB-
1
76,253
SUPPORTS
There is a movie called The Hunger Games.
93,100
106,006
The_Hunger_Games_-LRB-film-RRB-
2
76,253
SUPPORTS
There is a movie called The Hunger Games.
93,100
106,007
The_Hunger_Games_-LRB-film-RRB-
16
188,923
SUPPORTS
Ryan Gosling has been to a country in Africa.
220,565
226,318
Ryan_Gosling
17
188,923
SUPPORTS
Ryan Gosling has been to a country in Africa.
220,565
226,318
Chad
-1
138,503
REFUTES
Stranger Things is set in Bloomington, Indiana.
161,295
175,782
Stranger_Things
5
129,983
SUPPORTS
Ryan Seacrest is a person.
152,194
166,969
Ryan_Seacrest
-1
129,983
SUPPORTS
Ryan Seacrest is a person.
152,194
166,970
Ryan_Seacrest
1
129,983
SUPPORTS
Ryan Seacrest is a person.
152,194
166,971
Ryan_Seacrest
2
129,983
SUPPORTS
Ryan Seacrest is a person.
152,194
166,972
Ryan_Seacrest
5
73,170
REFUTES
Puerto Rico is not an unincorporated territory of the United States.
89,957
102,650
Puerto_Rico
-1
179,616
SUPPORTS
Michael Giacchino composed the score for Doctor Strange.
208,457
216,486
Michael_Giacchino
1
207,456
SUPPORTS
Stranger than Fiction is a film.
245,342
246,172
Stranger_than_Fiction_-LRB-2006_film-RRB-
-1
3
SUPPORTS
Chris Hemsworth appeared in A Perfect Getaway.
15,732
19,585
Chris_Hemsworth
2
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
275,618
270,725
Selena
8
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
275,618
270,726
Selena
-1
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
275,618
270,727
Selena
2
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
275,618
270,728
Selena
4
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,400
272,314
Selena
8
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,400
272,315
Selena
21
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,835
Selena
-1
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,836
Selena
9
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,837
Selena
10
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,838
Selena
11
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,839
Selena
14
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,840
Selena
16
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,841
Selena
18
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,842
Selena
19
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,843
Selena
21
93,956
SUPPORTS
Selena recorded music.
277,903
272,844
Selena
32
138,117
NOT ENOUGH INFO
John Wick: Chapter 2 was theatrically released in the Oregon.
160,895
-1
-1
53,133
SUPPORTS
Robert J. O'Neill was born April 10, 1976.
69,411
80,212
Robert_J._O'Neill_-LRB-U.S._Navy_SEAL-RRB-
-1
210,010
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Afghanistan is the source of the Kushan dynasty.
248,748
-1
-1
134,381
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Marilyn Monroe worked with Warner Brothers.
156,940
-1
-1
228,271
SUPPORTS
The Silence of the Lambs was a film starring Scott Glenn.
272,337
268,022
The_Silence_of_the_Lambs_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
228,271
SUPPORTS
The Silence of the Lambs was a film starring Scott Glenn.
272,346
268,030
The_Silence_of_the_Lambs_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
15,812
REFUTES
Peggy Sue Got Married is a Egyptian film released in 1986.
31,205
37,902
Peggy_Sue_Got_Married
-1
15,812
REFUTES
Peggy Sue Got Married is a Egyptian film released in 1986.
31,205
37,902
Francis_Ford_Coppola
-1
15,812
REFUTES
Peggy Sue Got Married is a Egyptian film released in 1986.
31,211
37,908
Peggy_Sue_Got_Married
-1
57,330
REFUTES
Andy Roddick lost 5 Master Series between 2002 and 2010.
73,660
84,912
Andy_Roddick
7
52,432
REFUTES
As the Vietnam War raged in 1969, Yoko Ono and her husband John Lennon did not have two week-long Bed-Ins for Peace.
68,739
79,581
Bed-In
-1
214,706
SUPPORTS
Tupac Shakur was born Lesane Parish Crooks.
254,927
254,471
Tupac_Shakur
-1
214,706
SUPPORTS
Tupac Shakur was born Lesane Parish Crooks.
254,931
254,481
Tupac_Shakur
-1
228,761
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Harold Ramis was a veteran.
272,943
-1
-1
172,270
SUPPORTS
The Jim Henson Company produced The Muppet Movie, The Dark Crystal, and Labyrinth.
198,826
208,539
The_Jim_Henson_Company
5
85,441
NOT ENOUGH INFO
United Nations was relocated to the United States in 1945.
102,619
-1
-1
65,960
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Whoopi Goldberg co-produced an American dance tournament.
82,524
-1
-1
64,557
SUPPORTS
Slovenia uses the euro.
80,998
92,847
Slovenia
29
64,557
SUPPORTS
Slovenia uses the euro.
80,998
92,847
Eurozone
-1
200,996
SUPPORTS
Iowa is a part of the Midwestern United States.
236,500
238,958
Midwestern_United_States
4
56,204
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Keith Urban is a person who sings.
176,603
-1
-1
56,204
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Keith Urban is a person who sings.
178,904
-1
-1
56,204
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Keith Urban is a person who sings.
313,935
-1
-1
190,922
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Hotell is owned by Lisa Langseth.
223,143
-1
-1
206,132
SUPPORTS
Saratoga is an American film from 1937.
243,729
244,902
Saratoga_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
215,831
SUPPORTS
J. Howard Marshall was a baby.
256,426
255,641
J._Howard_Marshall
-1
215,831
SUPPORTS
J. Howard Marshall was a baby.
256,426
255,641
Infant
-1
180,769
REFUTES
Grace Jones is a dancer.
209,812
217,612
Grace_Jones
-1
170,685
SUPPORTS
Lisbon has a population larger than 1.
196,930
206,999
Lisbon
-1
170,685
SUPPORTS
Lisbon has a population larger than 1.
196,930
207,000
Lisbon
2
111,602
REFUTES
Willie Nelson dropped out of college after three years.
131,008
145,780
Willie_Nelson
9
119,264
SUPPORTS
Malcolm Young was the co-founder of Australian hard rock band AC/DC.
140,181
155,183
Malcolm_Young
-1
106,718
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Nice & Slow is a jazz single.
279,608
-1
-1
106,718
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Nice & Slow is a jazz single.
281,329
-1
-1
106,718
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Nice & Slow is a jazz single.
283,497
-1
-1
106,718
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Nice & Slow is a jazz single.
327,984
-1
-1
106,718
NOT ENOUGH INFO
Nice & Slow is a jazz single.
327,990
-1
-1
77,712
SUPPORTS
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most linguistically homogeneous of Canada.
94,661
107,645
Newfoundland_and_Labrador
4
184,132
REFUTES
Furia is adapted from a short story by Anna Politkovskaya.
214,362
221,432
Furia_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
74,400
SUPPORTS
One state of the United States has Russia to its west.
91,175
103,890
United_States
3
91,253
SUPPORTS
Sophie Turner was born in the 1990s.
108,589
122,194
Sophie_Turner
-1
53,316
SUPPORTS
Mother Teresa was made a saint by the church.
69,596
80,416
Mother_Teresa
11
189,815
SUPPORTS
The Smurfs (film) was released.
221,732
227,296
The_Smurfs_-LRB-film-RRB-
10
189,815
SUPPORTS
The Smurfs (film) was released.
221,747
227,307
The_Smurfs_-LRB-film-RRB-
-1
189,815
SUPPORTS
The Smurfs (film) was released.
221,747
227,308
The_Smurfs_-LRB-film-RRB-
10
189,815
SUPPORTS
The Smurfs (film) was released.
221,747
227,309
The_Smurfs_-LRB-film-RRB-
15
189,815
SUPPORTS
The Smurfs (film) was released.
221,747
227,310
The_Smurfs_-LRB-film-RRB-
12
110,847
REFUTES
C. S. Forester's first name was Carl.
130,043
144,760
C._S._Forester
-1
36,776
REFUTES
Kong: Skull Island is a book.
52,964
62,891
Kong-COLON-_Skull_Island
-1
137,323
REFUTES
The Challenge was a scripted show.
160,064
174,586
The_Challenge_-LRB-TV_series-RRB-
-1
113,118
SUPPORTS
Berlin is the capital of Germany.
132,683
147,607
Berlin
-1
225,701
SUPPORTS
South Korea has a highly educated workforce.
269,028
265,440
South_Korea
27

Dataset Card for "fever"

Dataset Summary

With billions of individual pages on the web providing information on almost every conceivable topic, we should have the ability to collect facts that answer almost every conceivable question. However, only a small fraction of this information is contained in structured sources (Wikidata, Freebase, etc.) – we are therefore limited by our ability to transform free-form text to structured knowledge. There is, however, another problem that has become the focus of a lot of recent research and media coverage: false information coming from unreliable sources.

The FEVER workshops are a venue for work in verifiable knowledge extraction and to stimulate progress in this direction.

  • FEVER Dataset: FEVER (Fact Extraction and VERification) consists of 185,445 claims generated by altering sentences extracted from Wikipedia and subsequently verified without knowledge of the sentence they were derived from. The claims are classified as Supported, Refuted or NotEnoughInfo. For the first two classes, the annotators also recorded the sentence(s) forming the necessary evidence for their judgment.

  • FEVER 2.0 Adversarial Attacks Dataset: The FEVER 2.0 Dataset consists of 1174 claims created by the submissions of participants in the Breaker phase of the 2019 shared task. Participants (Breakers) were tasked with generating adversarial examples that induce classification errors for the existing systems. Breakers submitted a dataset of up to 1000 instances with equal number of instances for each of the three classes (Supported, Refuted NotEnoughInfo). Only novel claims (i.e. not contained in the original FEVER dataset) were considered as valid entries to the shared task. The submissions were then manually evaluated for Correctness (grammatical, appropriately labeled and meet the FEVER annotation guidelines requirements).

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

The task is verification of textual claims against textual sources.

When compared to textual entailment (TE)/natural language inference, the key difference is that in these tasks the passage to verify each claim is given, and in recent years it typically consists a single sentence, while in verification systems it is retrieved from a large set of documents in order to form the evidence.

Languages

The dataset is in English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

v1.0

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 44.86 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 40.05 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 84.89 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

'claim': 'Nikolaj Coster-Waldau worked with the Fox Broadcasting Company.',
 'evidence_wiki_url': 'Nikolaj_Coster-Waldau',
 'label': 'SUPPORTS',
 'id': 75397,
 'evidence_id': 104971,
 'evidence_sentence_id': 7,
 'evidence_annotation_id': 92206}

v2.0

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 0.39 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 0.30 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 0.70 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

{'claim': "There is a convicted statutory rapist called Chinatown's writer.",
  'evidence_wiki_url': '',
  'label': 'NOT ENOUGH INFO',
  'id': 500000,
  'evidence_id': -1,
  'evidence_sentence_id': -1,
  'evidence_annotation_id': 269158}

wiki_pages

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 1.71 GB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 7.25 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 8.97 GB

An example of 'wikipedia_pages' looks as follows.

{'text': 'The following are the football -LRB- soccer -RRB- events of the year 1928 throughout the world . ',
  'lines': '0\tThe following are the football -LRB- soccer -RRB- events of the year 1928 throughout the world .\n1\t',
  'id': '1928_in_association_football'}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

v1.0

  • id: a int32 feature.
  • label: a string feature.
  • claim: a string feature.
  • evidence_annotation_id: a int32 feature.
  • evidence_id: a int32 feature.
  • evidence_wiki_url: a string feature.
  • evidence_sentence_id: a int32 feature.

v2.0

  • id: a int32 feature.
  • label: a string feature.
  • claim: a string feature.
  • evidence_annotation_id: a int32 feature.
  • evidence_id: a int32 feature.
  • evidence_wiki_url: a string feature.
  • evidence_sentence_id: a int32 feature.

wiki_pages

  • id: a string feature.
  • text: a string feature.
  • lines: a string feature.

Data Splits

v1.0

train unlabelled_dev labelled_dev paper_dev unlabelled_test paper_test
v1.0 311431 19998 37566 18999 19998 18567

v2.0

validation
v2.0 2384

wiki_pages

wikipedia_pages
wiki_pages 5416537

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

FEVER license:

These data annotations incorporate material from Wikipedia, which is licensed pursuant to the Wikipedia Copyright Policy. These annotations are made available under the license terms described on the applicable Wikipedia article pages, or, where Wikipedia license terms are unavailable, under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License (version 3.0), available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ (collectively, the “License Terms”). You may not use these files except in compliance with the applicable License Terms.

Citation Information

If you use "FEVER Dataset", please cite:

@inproceedings{Thorne18Fever,
    author = {Thorne, James and Vlachos, Andreas and Christodoulopoulos, Christos and Mittal, Arpit},
    title = {{FEVER}: a Large-scale Dataset for Fact Extraction and {VERification}},
    booktitle = {NAACL-HLT},
    year = {2018}
}

If you use "FEVER 2.0 Adversarial Attacks Dataset", please cite:

@inproceedings{Thorne19FEVER2,
    author = {Thorne, James and Vlachos, Andreas and Cocarascu, Oana and Christodoulopoulos, Christos and Mittal, Arpit},
    title = {The {FEVER2.0} Shared Task},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Workshop on {Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)}},
    year = {2018}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @thomwolf, @lhoestq, @mariamabarham, @lewtun, @albertvillanova for adding this dataset.

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