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https://www.wikihow.com/Avoid-Drinking-and-Driving
https://www.wikihow.com/Recover-from-a-Disaster
https://www.wikihow.com/Calculate-Annualized-Portfolio-Return
{ "section_name": [ "Calculating Your Annualized Return", "Laying the Groundwork" ], "document": [ "Once you've calculated the total return (as above), plug the result into this equation: Annualized Return=(1+ Return)1/N-1 The outcome of this equation will be a number that corresponds to your return each year over the full span of time. In the exponent (the little number outside the parentheses), the “1” represents the unit we are measuring, which is 1 year. If you wish to be more specific, you could use “365” to capture a daily return. The “N” represents the number of periods that we are measuring. So, if you are measuring your return over 7 years, you would use the number 7 in the place of \"N.\" For example, suppose that over a seven-year period, your portfolio grew in value from $1,000 to$2,500. First, calculate your overall return: (2,500-1,000)/1000 = 1.50 (a return of 150%). Next, calculate your annualized return: (1 + 1.50)1/7-1 = 0.1399=13.99% annual return. That's all there is to it! Use the ordinary mathematical order of operations: do the operations inside the parentheses first, then apply the exponent, then do the subtraction. Now, let's say that you want to find semiannual returns (returns occurring twice a year, every six months) over the course of this seven-year period. The formula stays the same; you only need to adjust the number of periods that you are measuring. Your final result will be a semiannual return. In this case, you will have 14 semiannual periods, two per year over the course of seven years. First, calculate your overall return: (2,500-1,000)/1000 = 1.50 (a return of 150%). Next, calculate your annualized return: (1 + 1.50)1/14-1 = 6.76%. You can convert this into an annual return by simply multiplying by 2: 6.76% x 2 = 13.52%. You can also calculate the annualized equivalent of shorter returns. For example, imagine you only had a six-month return and wanted to know its annualized equivalent. Once again, the formula stays the same. Suppose over a six-month period, your portfolio increases in value from $1,000 to$1,050. Start by calculating your overall return: (1,050-1,000)/1,000=.05 (a 5% return over six months). Now if you wanted to know what the annualized equivalent would be (assuming a continuation of this rate of return and compounding returns), you would calculate the following: (1+.05)1/.50-1=10.25% annual return. No matter how long or short the period of time, if you follow the formula above, you will always be able to convert your performance into an annualized return.", "In discussing annualized portfolio returns, there are several key terms that will come up repeatedly and are important for you to understand. These are as follows: Annual Return: Total return earned on an investment over a period of one calendar year, including dividends, interest, and capital gains. Annualized Return: Yearly rate of return which is inferred by extrapolating returns measured over periods either shorter or longer than one calendar year. Average Return: Typical return earned per time period calculated by taking the total return realized over a longer period and spreading it evenly over the (shorter) periods. Compounding Return: A return that includes the results of re-investing interest, dividends, and capital gains. Period: A specific length of time chosen to measure and calculate return, such as daily, monthly, quarterly, or annually. Periodic Return: The total return of an investment measured over a specific length of time. Compounding returns are growth on the gains that you have already earned. The longer your money compounds, the faster it will grow, and the greater your annualized returns will be. (Think of a snowball rolling downhill, getting bigger faster as it rolls.) Let’s say you invest $100 and earn 100% on it your first year, leaving you with$200 at the end of year one. If you gain just 10% in the second year, you will have earned $20 on your$200 by the end of year two. However, if we say you earned just 50% during the first year, you would have $150 at the beginning of the second year. That same 10% gain in year two would earn 15 dollars rather than 20. This is a full 33% less than the 20 dollars you would have made in our first example. To further illustrate, let’s say you lost 50% in year one, leaving you with just 50 dollars. You would then need to earn 100% just to get back to even (100% of$50 = $50, and$50 + $50 =$100). The size and timing of gains play a huge role when accounting for compound returns and their effect on annualized returns. In other words, annualized returns are not a reliable measure of actual gains or losses. Annualized returns are, however, a good tool to use when comparing various investments against each other. To find the average of many things, such as daily rainfall or weight loss over several months, you can often use a simple average, or arithmetic mean. This is a technique you probably learned in school. However, the simple average does not account for the effect that each periodic return has on the others, or the timing of each return. To accomplish this, we can use a time-weighted geometric return. (Don’t worry, we’ll walk you through this formula!) Using a simple average doesn’t work because all periodic returns are dependent on each other. For example, imagine that you want to tabulate your average return on $100 over the course of two years. You earned 100% in the first year, meaning you had$200 at the end of year one (100% of 100 = 100). You lost 50% during the second, meaning you had $100 at the end of the second year (50% of 200 = 100). This is the same figure you started with at the beginning of year one. A simple average (arithmetic mean) would add the two returns together and divide by the number of periods, which in this example is two years. The result would suggest that you earned an average return of 25% per year. However, when you link the two returns, you can see that you actually earned nothing. The years cancel each other out. To start, you must calculate your total return over the full span of time you are assessing. For the purpose of clarity, we’ll use an example where no deposits or withdrawals were made. To calculate your total return, all you need is two numbers: the beginning portfolio value and ending value. Subtract your Beginning Value from your Ending Value. Divide this number by your Beginning Value. The resulting number is your Return. In the case of a loss in the period under scrutiny, subtract the ending balance from the beginning balance. Then, divide by the beginning balance and consider the result a negative value. (This latter operation is a substitute for needing to add algebraically a negative number.) Do the subtraction first, then the division. This will give you your overall percent of return. The formula for Total Return Rate = (Ending portfolio value- beginning portfolio value)/beginning portfolio value. The formula for Compound Rate of Return = POWER((1 + Total Return Rate),(1/years)) - 1. For example, if the beginning value of the portfolio was$1000 and its ending value was $2500 seven years later, the calculations would be: Total Return Rate = (2500-1000)/1000 = 1.5. Compound Rate of Return= POWER ((1 + 1.5),(1/7))-1 = .1398 = 13.98%." ], "summary": [ "Calculate your annualized return. Calculate semi-annual returns. Calculate an annualized equivalent.", "Know the key terms. Learn how compounding returns work. Use a time-weighted return to calculate your compound rate of return. Calculate your overall return. Know the Excel formulas for these calculations." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Tie-a-Ribbon-Around-a-Box { "section_name": [ "Creating a Woven Look", "Doing a Basic Wrap", "Tying Ribbon Diagonally" ], "document": [ "You will need four pieces of ribbon that are long enough to wrap around the box lengthwise, plus an additional 2 inches (5.08 centimeters). For a unique look, consider using two pieces of thin ribbon, and two pieces of slightly wider ribbon. You can also use two contrasting colors instead. Thick and/or wired ribbon is not a good choice. Use thin satin or balloon ribbon for best results. Use the same ribbon as in the previous step. This time, cut the ribbon long enough so that it can wrap around the box widthwise, plus 2 inches (5.08 centimeters). Take the four long ribbons, and set them down on the table. Make sure that they are parallel to each other and spaced no more than ¼ inch (0.64 centimeters) apart. If you used different widths and/or colors, be sure to alternate them. Place your gift face-down on the ribbons. The box can be centered or off-center, depending on where you want the ribbons to be. Wrap and tape each of the ribbons one at a time; do not tape all of them at once. Pull the ribbons firmly around the box so that they are nice and snug. The ribbon ends will overlap each other by about 1 inch (2.54 centimeters). Make sure that you are only taping the top ribbon to the bottom ribbon; don't tape the ribbons to the box itself. You can also use glue dots (found in the scrapbooking aisle of an arts and crafts store) instead of double-sided tape. Place a strip of double-sided tape onto the end of each of your short ribbon. Arrange the ribbons right above the first, long ribbon, making sure that the ends are perpendicular to it. Once again, keep the ribbons spaced no more than ¼ inch (0.64 centimeters) apart. Pull your short ribbons around to the front of the box. Weave the first one over and under across the first set of ribbons. Weave the next ribbon under and over, and so on. Continue weaving until you have woven all four ribbons. Flip the box over again. Secure a strip of double-sided tape to the end of each ribbon, then press the ribbons down one by one to the back of the box. Make sure that the ends of the ribbons match up. For a nicer touch, weave the short ribbons through the long ribbons on the back, just like you did for the front. The woven ribbons are part of the design. If you feel that your gift is lacking something, you can buy or make a matching bow, then secure it to the box. Instead of covering up all your hard work, set the bow off to the side so that the weaving is still visible.", "Leave about 4 to 8 inches (10.16 to 20.32 centimeters) hanging off the side for the tail of the bow. Do not cut the ribbon yet. It is better to leave more ribbon hanging off the side than too little. You can always cut it shorter later. Do not flip the box over, or you may lose your place. Instead, lift the box up and bring the rest of the ribbon behind it. Set the box back down once the ribbon comes out the other side. Bring the ribbon towards the middle of the box, then bring the shorter end to meet it. Twist the ribbons around each other so that they are oriented vertically. If your ribbon has a right and wrong side, you may have to twist it twice so that you don't see the wrong side of the ribbon. Lift the box up again. Pull the longer part of the ribbon behind the box and out the other side. Set the box down again. Place your thumb against the twisted part to keep it secure as you wrap the ribbon around the back. Bring your ribbon back towards the middle of the box. Measure it against the end of the ribbon from the beginning and cut it. Pull the ribbon across the front of the twisted part at an angle. Bring it under the twisted part, and back out the way you started. Pull on both ends of the ribbon to tighten the knot. Fold both end of the ribbon into loops. Cross the left loop over the right one to make a smaller loop in the middle. Pull the left loop through that smaller loop, then pull to tighten. Take a moment to adjust the loops and the tails. If you used a wired ribbon, you can fluff the loops up as well. For a fancier touch, cut the ends of the tails into angles or Vs.", "Leave about 4 to 8 inches (10.16 to 20.32 centimeters) hanging off of the left side of the corner. Keep the rest of the ribbon on the spool on the top edge. Take the spool-side of the ribbon and pull it behind the top right corner, down towards the bottom right corner. Keep your thumb over the ribbon on the top left corner so that it doesn't fall off. Keep the wraps nice and snug so that they don't slide off of the corners. At this point, it would be a good idea to take a moment to adjust the positions of the wrapped ribbons on each of the corners. If they look like they are slipping off, pull them further from the corners. Bring both ribbons towards the center of the top left corner. Measure the spool ribbon against the other ribbon, and cut it down to match. Cross the left ribbon over and under the right, then tug on both ends to tighten them. Fold both ribbons into loops, then cross the right one over the left—just like tying a shoe! Once the bow is tight and secure, snip off the excess ribbon at the tails. For a fancier touch, cut them at angles or into notches." ], "summary": [ "Cut four pieces of ribbon for the length of the box. Cut four pieces of ribbon for the width of the box. Set the first set of ribbons side-by-side down on the table. Set the box on of the ribbons around. Wrap the ribbons around the box and secure them with double-sided tape. Secure the next set of ribbons right above the first set. Flip the box over and weave the short ribbons through the first set of ribbons. Secure the ribbons to the back of the box. Add a decoration to the front, if desired.", "Drape the ribbon horizontally across the top of the box. Pull the rest of the ribbon under the box and back to the front. Cross the ribbons across the front of the box. Wrap the ribbon around the back of the box and back to the front. Measure the ribbon against the first piece and cut it. Wrap the ribbon under the twisted part. Tie the ribbon into a bow. Adjust the bow, then trim off the excess ribbon.", "Drape your ribbon across the top left corner of the box. Wrap the ribbon behind the top right corner. Wrap the ribbon across the bottom right corner and under the bottom left corner. Bring the ribbon back towards the top left corner. Cut off the excess ribbon. Cross and tie the ribbons. Cut off the excess ribbon." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Delete-a-Table-in-Google-Docs { "section_name": [ "Using Android", "Using a PC", "Using iOS", "Using a Mac" ], "document": [ " This option should have a horizontal ⋮ next to it. Doing so will remove your table immediately!", "If you aren't already signed in, enter your email address and password here. Your table should now be gone! Depending on the style of table, you may have to hover over \"Delete\" in order to view the \"Delete table\" option.", " Doing so should bring up the option to edit your document. This resembles a white pen in a blue circle in the bottom right corner of your screen. Your table should disappear immediately!", "If you aren't already signed in, you'll need to enter your email address and password to continue. You can also hold Ctrl while clicking the table. Your table should now be gone! Depending on the style of table, you may have to hover over \"Delete\" in order to view the \"Delete table\" option." ], "summary": [ "Open the \"Google Docs\" app. Tap the document you wish to edit. Tap anywhere on your table. Tap More. Tap Delete table.", "Navigate to Google Docs. Click the document you wish to edit. Right-click your document's table. Click Delete table.", "Open the \"Docs\" app. Tap the document you wish to edit. Tap your screen. Tap the edit icon. Tap your table. Tap Delete table.", "Navigate to Google Docs. Click the document you wish to edit. Use two fingers to click on your document's table. Click Delete table." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Afford-Healthy-Food { "section_name": [ "Focusing on Cheaper Healthy Ingredients", "Finding Deals on Healthy Groceries", "Making Food at Home", "Making Meal Plans" ], "document": [ "Not all healthy ingredients are expensive. In fact, many healthy ingredients are cheap. Take each category of food you need to buy, and figure out options in each one. For instance, in whole grains, you can try oatmeal, brown rice, bulgur, popcorn, and whole-wheat bread and pasta. For vegetables, pick ones like cabbage, leafy greens (like mustard greens, kale, or even broccoli), squash, carrots, and celery. In fruit, go for cheaper options, such as oranges, apples, and bananas. In the dairy section, reach for milk and plain yogurt in large containers. Milk and yogurt can be flavored at home at minimal cost. Keep in mind that you probably need less protein than you think in your diet. Making your proteins last across several meals will help both your budget and your diet. For instance, if you make a chicken dish one night, use the leftovers the next night to make a chicken soup. The night after that, use some of the chicken in tacos. Adult women under 30 only need 5 1/2 ounce-equivalents each day, while women over 30 only need 5 ounce-equivalents. Adult men under 30 need 6 1/2, while if you're 30 to 50, you need 6 ounce-equivalents and 5 1/2 if you're over 50. An \"ounce-equivalent\" is one ounce (28 grams) of meat (3 ounces of meat is about the size of a deck of cards). While you don't need to completely cut animal protein out of your diet, opting for plant-based protein sometimes can help cut costs. Try focusing meals around these vegetarian options, such as having beans and rice one night instead of chili. Some vegetarian equivalents to an ounce of meat include an egg, 1/4 cup (60 milliliters) of beans, peas, or lentils, 1/2 an ounce (14 grams) of nuts or seeds, a tablespoon (15 milliliters) of peanut butter, or 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) of hummus. Extend your proteins with vegetables and complex carbohydrates. Combining a modest amount of meat with healthy extenders can make not only a healthier but also more filling meal. Consider: Stir fry Tacos Pasta dishes While you need to compare prices on foods, you should also compare labels for items you're buying, particularly if you're buying prepacked food of any kind. For instance, if you must have a box of macaroni and cheese, it's best to pick the healthiest one you can find. Look for foods low in sugar and sodium. You should be eating about 2,300 milligrams (1 teaspoon) of salt per day. Also, check for lower trans and saturated fat. Even the healthier fats should only be 20 to 30 percent of what you eat. Keep serving sizes to 400 calories or less. Also, check to see how many vitamins and minerals foods you purchase have.", "When fruits and vegetables are in season, they tend to cost less. Often, grocery stores will run sales on what's in season because they know customers expect certain fruits and veggies at certain times of the year. As an added bonus, when things are in season, they taste better. In fall, look for produce like pumpkins, winter squash, cabbage, and apples. In the winter, opt for winter squash, cabbage, and other root vegetables. Springtime is great for produce like beets, leafy greens, spring onions, and asparagus. Summer is a good time for watermelon, corn, and berries, just to name a few. You'll likely notice the cheapest produce prices in summer. Also, because produce is cheaper this time of year, you can buy extra and freeze it or can it yourself. While you may prefer fresh fruits and vegetables, you can often save money by opting for frozen or canned instead. These options have the same health benefits, though be sure to pick ones that don't have added sugar or salt. Check your proteins, too. Frozen chicken may be cheaper than fresh, and canned salmon and tuna is likely cheaper than fresh fish. Most grocery stores run weekly specials, which you can learn about through their weekly ads. When something is on sale, that's the time to stock up on it. Most protein can be frozen and saved for later, for instance, so if your store is running a sale on boneless, skinless chicken breasts, buy some to use and save for later. You probably already know to check for the lowest prices on the items you're buying. However, you may get stuck in a rut buying a certain brand and assuming it's the cheapest because it always has been. However, be vigilant, as prices change all the time. Occasionally there is a sale on a certain package size, or a discount on a run of product that changes what is the most affordable option. Look up and down, as grocery stores tend to put the most expensive items at eye level. Keep an eye on store brands-- they tend to be cheaper. While buying in bulk can come with a higher price upfront, it'll be cheaper overall. For instance, buying a large can of quick oatmeal is much cheaper than buying a box of the instant packets. Add some fresh fruit to create your own flavors. You can also buy some items in bulk bins at health food stores. Often these stores will have items like grains, beans, pastas, nuts, granolas, flours, and sugars. You can get just what you need, taking advantage of the cheaper prices without having to buy more than you need. Bulk items require timely use. Do not fall into the trap of buying an entire gallon of mayonnaise that you will never use up before it expires, or that bargain box of cereal that no one in the family will eat. Take advantage of coupons when you come across them. However, only use them for the foods you would buy anyway. If you're buying something you don't normally buy--even if it is inexpensive--you may be spending extra money for a product you do not want. You can find coupons online, as well as in the newspaper. You can also use a variety of coupon apps to save money. If you are low-income, you might qualify for SNAP or WIC. SNAP is the contemporary version of food stamps, and you get your assistance on a debit-type card. WIC is only for women with low income who have young children. Pregnant women also qualify. It's also more restrictive about what you can buy, but it can still help you afford healthy food. Visit your local SNAP office to apply in person, or you can apply online in many states. Check if you can apply online in your state at https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/apply. To apply for WIC, contact your local WIC office. Sometimes, you can find cheaper produce at the farmer's market, though you must hunt for deals. Also, driving out to local farms to pick your own produce can make it cheaper, as well. Be ready to use what you buy, though, as farm-fresh produce doesn't tend to last as long as grocery market produce, which is bred and treated to last longer. However, you'll make up for it in flavor. Some farmer's markets even accept SNAP.", "Often, having a small garden or even a few potted plants can be a cheap way to get in the veggies you need. Try growing a tomato plant, for instance, or even just a few herbs on your window sill. You can buy pre-made snacks at the store that are a bit healthier than your average chips, such as veggie chips or fruit cups. However, they tend to be expensive, so making your own at home is a more affordable alternative. For example, try making kale chips. Wash and dry kale thoroughly. Chop or tear the leaves into large pieces. Toss them in olive oil, or spray them with cooking spray, and then spread them out on a large baking sheet in a single layer. Sprinkle salt and pepper on top and any other seasoning you want. Bake them at 350 degrees Fahrenheit (177 Celsius) until crispy (about 15 minutes). You can also make yourself individual cups of fruits and veggies. For instance, cut up oranges, apples, and grapefruit, and toss them with a tiny bit of honey. Spoon them into small reusable containers so you can grab them any time. You can do the same with veggies. Cut them into bite-sized pieces, and put them in reusable bags. Spoon out (homemade) hummus into individual containers to go with them. Stocks and broths are a great way to start out soups, but buying them in cans or cartons can get expensive. Plus, they're often loaded with extra sodium. Making your own at home results in better quality, and it's cheaper, too. You can even make a stock with your scraps. Save the bits of vegetables you have leftover, such as onion skins, the ends of carrots, and the tops of celery. When you eat a chicken, save the bones and the bits of meat. Freeze them in a bag until you have enough. When you do, throw them in a pot and cover them with water. Boil them (covered on low heat) for six to eight hours or until you have a stock with a flavor you like. Strain it, and your stock is ready. Once you have your stock, you can portion it out in small containers and freeze it. Lots of foods besides snacks and broths can be made cheaper at home. For instance, if you eat yogurt often, making your own yogurt might be a good option. For bread, consider investing in a bread making machine, so you can make your own bread at the push of a button.", "Making a meal plan will help you to only buy what you need and therefore stay under budget. If you don't already have healthy recipes you love, find some you like online, do some research with recipes books, or ask your friends for recommendations. One site you can try is the USDA's What's Cooking website (https://whatscooking.fns.usda.gov/). It has healthy recipes that you can use to plan meals. Don't forget to plan around your schedule. Opt for leftovers or quick meals on nights you're going to be busy. You may think that eating healthy means you need to try out a bunch of new trendy health foods. While these trendy foods may be healthy, that doesn't mean they're the only healthy foods. Stick to simpler ingredients that you know, even something as simple as a roasted chicken with vegetables and brown rice. You'll be more likely to keep eating healthy, and you'll save money at the same time. Once you've planned out your meals, create a list of the items you'll need. Sticking to a list (and not buying extras) can help you stay on budget, so you can afford healthier food. Meal planning isn't just for eating at home. It can help to make a plan before you go to a restaurant. Look over the menu if it's available online, and compare calorie counts. Many restaurants have the calorie counts available, but you can also use online calorie counters or websites. Consider choosing a healthy appetizer to save money. It will also keep the portion small. Opt for dishes with lean proteins paired with whole grains and lots of veggies. Choose veggies or fruit over fries, onion rings, or mashed potatoes. Ask for a take-out box when you get your food. Split it in half before you start eating, and put half in the box to take home. Splitting it up helps you control your portion and stretch your money." ], "summary": [ "Choose cheaper ingredients. Make your proteins last longer. Go vegetarian. Read labels.", "Pick what's in season. Check the prices on frozen and canned. Check out the weekly deals. Compare prices every time. Buy in bulk. Use coupons. Apply for SNAP or WIC. Find a farmer's market or local farms.", "Grow what you can. Create your own snacks. Boil up your own stocks and broths. Branch out into making other foods.", "Decide on your main meals for the week. Stick with what you know. Create your shopping list. Plan ahead when you eat out." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Relax-Your-Eyes { "section_name": [ "Trying Work and Lifestyle Modifications", "Trying Eye Exercises" ], "document": [ "Since the main culprit for eye strain is today's culture is time spent in front of a computer, a TV, a cell phone, or another device with a screen, finding alternatives such as reading a paper book rather than reading on your iPad can be a huge help. Also, to reduce the harmful effects of screen time that cannot be avoided (such as on your computer at work), try positioning the screen lower and using an anti-glare screen to diminish the strain on your eyes. If you are having continued eye strain that is bothering you in your day-to-day life, consult your physician. It is possible that you have a vision problem, or another eye condition, that may be contributing to the discomfort and/or tension you feel. It is always better to be safe rather than sorry, and to see a doctor to ensure that nothing more serious is going on (as well as to obtain appropriate medical treatment if needed).", "Do this sitting up to prevent yourself from falling asleep. Close them as tightly as you can to help your eyes relax. Hold this position for a few seconds, and then quickly open your eyes. Repeat it three to five times to help your eyes relax. After doing it quickly a few times, close your eyes very tightly and hold the pose for about a minute. Focus on your breathing to help you relax even further." ], "summary": [ "Limit screen time. See a doctor.", "Close your eyes." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Treat-a-New-Dog { "section_name": [ "Setting Up for a New Dog", "Tending to Your New Dog's Basic Needs", "Introducing Your New Dog to its New Home" ], "document": [ "Since you don’t know exactly how your new dog will act when you get it home, it’s best to remove all items that might be enticing for a dog to eat or destroy. For example, put all food and chemicals out of reach of a dog so that it doesn’t eat them and get sick. Also put fragile items away until you know how your new dog will act. Set up a space that has a bed and food and water dishes. This space will be for the dog as it gets used to its new home, so it should be an area that can be blocked off so the dog is kept there. Keeping the dog in this small space will help you keep and eye on it and will reduce how overwhelmed the dog may get from getting to know a large new home immediately on arrival. It’s a good idea for this area to have a hard, stain-resistant flooring, in case your new dog has an accident. Depending on your home, this could be a bathroom, a kitchen, or an extra room that doesn’t have a lot of fragile or precious items in it. When you bring a new dog home, bring along something that has its smell on it, such as a blanket, toy, or other item it has used. This smell will help the dog feel comfortable and calm as it adjusts to its new life. That way, even after you give the dog a bath, it will still have something that smells familiar. Ask the person you are dealing with during your dog adoption for an item that you can take with you, even if it's just a small toy. If your dog doesn't have an item like this, that is fine. However, it's a nice thing if it does. When you bring a new dog home it’s important to get its health assessed right away. Have a check up done within a week of having a new dog so that you can get any health conditions treated right away. If you don’t know what veterinarian to go to, ask friends, family, and the people who you adopted the dog from for suggestions in your area. During your first veterinary visit you should set up a vaccination schedule for the future.", "A new dog will feel most secure in its new home if it can depend on the same things happening every day. Walking it, feeding it, and putting it to bed at the same time will go a long way towards it feeling at home. A consistent schedule will also help it avoid having accidents in the house. Being fed at the same time and going out at the same time every day will allow its system to adjust quickly to its new life. When your dog gets home you can start training it after it has acclimated for a day or 2, even if it's a puppy as young as 8 weeks old. Begin with simple commands, such as \"sit.\" Say the word \"sit\" every time the dog does that action naturally and give it a treat. As the dog figures out that the action it is doing is connected to the treats and the verbal cue, it will begin doing it on command. As you dog learns add more commands, such as \"lie down,\" \"stay,\" and \"fetch.\"", "It can be overwhelming for a dog to meet a large number of people while it is adjusting to a whole new life. Instead, only have direct family members at home when the dog arrives and make sure that they give the dog some physical space while it adjusts. Tell potential visitors that they will need to wait at least a few days before meeting your new dog. Give it physical space and don’t get it excited by being loud or active. It’s best just to promote calmness and make activities as routine as possible. Don’t take the dog to a dog park or crowded street for a few weeks after getting it. You need to know how the dog is likely to react to these kind of environments before taking it to them. Don't overdo it with physical affection or playing right off the bat. If you tackle your dog in a way that it sees as beyond just playful rough housing, it might get defensive or aggressive." ], "summary": [ "Make your home safe for a dog. Create a small temporary space that the dog can be kept in. Provide items with familiar smells. Set up a preliminary veterinary appointment.", "Set a consistent daily routine. Start training your dog.", "Minimize the number of people your dog meets. Remain quiet and calm with the new dog." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Survive-a-Divorce { "section_name": [ "Taking Care of Yourself", "Raising Children of Divorce", "Planning for the Future" ], "document": [ "Even if the process of your marriage coming to an end took several years, you still may experience a new, raw pain when the curtain finally closes. Know that it’s perfectly acceptable to grieve the end of your marriage—it was a very important relationship in your life. Just like any other type of grief, everyone grieves differently after divorce. You are the only one who gets to decide what that looks like or how long it takes. Grieving can take on many forms. You may cry, withdraw from friends or family, or find it difficult to get excited about interesting things happening in your life. All of this is normal. Supportive people may look different on any given day; you may find yourself looking to friends for a distraction while a support group may be best for relating to others who have been there too. There may be times where the best form of support is a distraction, that’s where a good group of friends comes in handy because they will probably be more than happy to find something fun to do if all you need to do is anything besides divorce “stuff”. Support groups can be a great place to really explore the feelings tied to the divorce since they usually have a set start and end time, allow that small block of time each week to dive into things and deal with the feelings. It is also a good way to form boundaries with others if you do not want to talk about it with them since you can nicely let them know you are attending a group to talk about things. You may find yourself feeling a variety of emotions, but going without eating or not keeping up with normal gym times will only make those feelings worse. The divorce process also often takes a lot of formal paperwork so being at your mental best is important. Many people simply forget to eat when under stress or the opposite they overeat to mask feelings. Try to remind yourself to eat a healthy diet to stay focused on what needs to be done and to stay healthy. Eating right also includes not falling into the trap of drinking more alcohol or depending on extra coffee to mask emotions or not sleeping. It is better to address the underlying issue instead of using some sort of substance to hide the cause. . Make sure you have outlets to relieve the stress that comes with getting a divorce. Stress management can cover a range of options, including meditation, listening to music, getting a massage at the spa, or playing with a pet. Make time daily, if possible, to do something that relaxes you and eases your stress. Self-medicating with alcohol, drugs or even too much caffeine is not managing your stress, it is just numbing it. Some people going through a divorce may stop eating, stop performing at work, and feel hopeless about the future. Depression is common during such an ordeal. A marriage and family therapist counselor can help you work through your emotions and venting by offering you personalized support without judgment, and they can help you sort out your life. Such a therapist can also help you sort through logistical details like talking about the divorce with your children or how to know when you're ready to start dating again. Your divorce lawyer may be able to refer you to a quality therapist who is experienced in working with people going through divorce.", "The children will handle the news better if they see that both of you are involved in the choice,even if that isn’t fully the case, and you will remain their parents regardless of the divorce. Before you have the talk with the children, take a bit of time together to decide how you will answer the questions about why you are divorcing. Both of you need to be on the same page about the “why” and not placing blame on one party or the other. They may often be fearful of what life is going to look like from now on, so be ready for a lot of logistical questions. Allow the children to ask you both anything, but also understand you may not have all the answers and that’s OK. They may want to know about where they will live in the future or if you will remarry. Those issues are not easily answered and you can always tell them you do not know yet. If they ask questions about why the two of you are divorcing, this is not the time to pour your heart out to them. They are not your support system, and they do not need to know details about what has happened. Even if you are not sure where everyone will end up living, reassure the children that they will be safe and have access to both parents. Security is a big part of their fear at this point, seeing that both parents are on the same page even if one moves physically out will help. Part of supporting the children through this process is also giving them the freedom to talk about it with you and with others if they need to. Feeling like they need to keep this “secret” can be very stressful for children, tell them who else you are telling so they know other adults they can talk to if they need to. Set clear boundaries as far as which parent is staying in the home and what time with either one of you will look like. As the children process this news, they need to know what to expect. This means being clear about what happens after one of you moves out and how your family will look going forward. The parent who moves out should not be staying over, for example, since this sends a mixed message. Of course, some married couples are able to eventually work things out, but this is not always the case. If you are trying to work things out, this should not be done in front of the children, in case it does not work. Your marriage is ending but you are both still adults, staying civil with the soon to be ex-spouse will make co-parenting easier. Your children may feel like they are stuck in the middle if they see one or both of you angry at the other. They need to know they do not need to make a choice as far as only “loving” one of you. In addition, it is not fair to them to say negative things about your spouse to them. During the transition, there may be times where things feel awkward, but they should never get to the point where either of you react out of anger or violence. Your spouse is no longer a love interest, but he or she will always be a parent. Focus on that. Neither parent should ask the children to supply details about the other parent like if he or she is dating anyone new or other non-essential details. That’s not related to the children and it’s not any of your business. The fact is, even after a divorce, you are still family because you share a child or children. Addressing the adjustment for the new dynamics or giving each member of the family time to openly talk about their feelings is a good use of family therapy. Children do need to understand this is not a time to force their parents back together, it is about moving forward with the new separation. The therapist may see the family all together or different variations of the group depending on what needs to be discussed.", "If you are a stay-at-home parent, explore what type of arrangement will support the household going forward. Depending on the divorce agreement, moving may or may not be an option. That is important to keep in mind if you are looking for a new job since you may need to stay in the local area. Even if you end up getting spousal support, you still need to learn how to manage household expenses on your own. Tracking how you spend your money will give you a better idea about areas that may need to change or be cut all together. Suddenly going from two incomes to one will change the disposable income. Mistakes in the settlement process can impact you far beyond the immediate future. That's why it's very important to thoroughly understand the process and your rights. . The divorce requires that you rethink the trajectory of your life completely. Choose a few goals to move towards over the next months and years, such as buying a home or going back to school. SMART goals are those that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely Get a sheet of paper and write out goals that meet these criteria. Then, come up with actionable steps you can take to reach them. Return to your goals on a regular basis to track your progress. After being a part of a couple for any length of time, you may find yourself a bit lost if you suddenly have free time. Trying a new hobby is a way to explore something new, and to meet new people without the pressure of dating too soon. A hobby is also a good distraction if you go from a full time parent to the children being gone part of the time; it gives you something to do as you get used to the free time. Even before you are ready to date again, you need to take time for yourself. With the responsibilities of marriage you may have sacrificed some of your previous passions. Perhaps you always wanted to go back to school. Or, you once enjoyed baking, but soon lost the energy to create complex recipes. Maybe you simple enjoyed reading yourself to sleep or practicing a certain religion. Consider a passion or pastime that you once enjoyed and consider trying it out again. Your divorce could represent a door opening for you to rediscover a long lost love. You may hear all sorts of advice about when you should date or “get back on the horse” so to speak, but your own personal feelings on the subject matter the most. Only get back out there when you have dealt with your divorce emotionally and mentally and feel capable of being a true partner in a new relationship. Here are some tips for getting back out there. Don't divulge too much information about yourself too soon. Spoon-feed on the details until you feel comfortable that the connection is going somewhere. Relax your expectations and decrease the pressure. Instead of dating to look for a long-term partner, just start off having a good time. Try creating an online profile. Casually messaging someone online might reduce some of your newly dating nerves. However, be sure to practice safe dating methods and protect yourself, if you decide to meet in-person." ], "summary": [ "Give yourself a span of time to mourn. Surround yourself with supportive people. Exercise and eat right. Manage your stress See a therapist, if needed.", "Break the news together. Encourage your child(ren) to ask questions. Don’t offer false hope. Be amicable with your spouse. Attend family therapy.", "Decide if you need to change jobs or get a job to increase income. Develop a personal budget to track your expenses. Set SMART goals Get a hobby. Revisit old passions. Take as much time as you need before dating again." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Care-for-a-Donkey { "section_name": [ "Providing Food and Shelter", "Choosing and Handling a Donkey", "Keeping Your Donkey Healthy" ], "document": [ "Barley straw (the stalk of the plant after the grain has been harvested) is a great option for this and means they can happily munch for hours on end without gaining weight. a morning and evening 'bucket feed'. You should avoid feeding your donkey any cereals or grains such as oats, barley, wheat and corn (maize). These products are too high in starch and sugar and have been implicated in the development of diseases such as laminitis in donkeys, as well as a leading cause of obesity. Its hard to say specifically how much grass a pair of donkeys needs as grazing can vary so much. Grass should be considered an additional to straw, rather than making up the majority of their diets. Donkeys always need to have something to nibble on so make sure you keep an adequate supply of straw available at all times. During the winter, when the grass is dead, or at other times of year when there's not enough grass, you can supplement your donkey's diet with meadow hay. This needs to be good quality in terms of being clean, well produced and mould-free, late-cut hay may be better as it is higher in fibre and lower in sugar. Avoid alfalfa unless you have a pregnant or nursing mare, or other special need animals. Make sure it's not old or spoiled, or your donkey could become sick. If you can afford chaff with additives that target hooves, coats, and so on, you may want to investigate the options available. Chaff tends to be suitable for older donkeys with teeth troubles, convalescing donkeys and nursing donkeys. Be careful not to overfeed your donkey. Donkeys become ill with life-threatening diseases when they eat too much protein and other nutrient-rich food. Donkeys evolved in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Middle East and North Africa, and as a result can get all the nutrients they need from high fibre, scrubby pasture. When grass is too rich or abundant (think dairy or horse pasture), you might have to limit the area available to them to prevent them from eating too much and gaining too much weight. Rigging up a safe, movable electric fence will allow you to portion off the field and restrict the amount they can eat. Move the fence regularly to give them a little bit of fresh grazing. As stated above, donkeys put on weight easily, so be careful with the treats. Give no more than a handful of any treat at a time. Apples, carrots and bananas (skins on) are ideal. Scraps from your kitchen are not a good idea as donkeys will have trouble digesting anything from the brassica family (broccoli, cauliflower etc.), potatoes, onions and many more. Fresh or dried mint leaves make a great treat. Donkeys need a simple, healthy diet and this doesn't include things like toast, biscuits or cakes. Steer clear of highly processed, sugary human and equine snacks for donkeys. Here are a few supplements your vet may recommend: An equine specific salt/mineral licking-block may be helpful, but check with your vet first. Chose one that doesn't contain molasses, otherwise they will just be licking the block for the sweet sugar taste. High fibre cubes—may be fed to donkeys needing to gain a little weight, try to find one targeted specifically for donkeys (you may be out of luck here depending where you live), or a second best would be one for good-doers and ponies. {\"smallUrl\":\"https:\\/\\/www.wikihow.com\\/images\\/thumb\\/9\\/98\\/65774-13.jpg\\/v4-460px-65774-13.jpg\",\"bigUrl\":\"\\/images\\/thumb\\/9\\/98\\/65774-13.jpg\\/aid65774-v4-728px-65774-13.jpg\",\"smallWidth\":460,\"smallHeight\":345,\"bigWidth\":\"728\",\"bigHeight\":\"546\",\"licensing\":\"<div class=\\\"mw-parser-output\\\"><p>License: <a rel=\\\"nofollow\\\" class=\\\"external text\\\" href=\\\"https:\\/\\/creativecommons.org\\/licenses\\/by-nc-sa\\/3.0\\/\\\">Creative Commons<\\/a><br>\\n<\\/p><p><br \\/>\\n<\\/p><\\/div>\"} Freeze-dried grass—may be a useful supplement for some ill, underweight donkeys to get them back on form, make sure it is pesticide-free, and never feed a donkey grass clippings as the type of grass may be harmful to the donkey. Be cautious feeding freeze dried grass in any quantity as the high sugar levels could be dangerous to a healthy animal and trigger the painful hoof disease called laminitis. Protein pellets/cubes—these pre-made pellets contain essential nutrients; they're useful for nursing mothers with foals or for donkeys living through very cold winters that might need a boost. Otherwise, this feed is too rich for everyday purposes. Never substitute with pellets meant for a different animal (e.g. poultry pellets); some pellets contain meat and this is poisonous to donkeys. Carrots—what ungulate (hoofed animal) doesn’t love a carrot? Set up a water trough or bucket and keep it full of fresh, unfrozen water at all times. Make sure it doesn't leak onto the floor of the donkey's shelter, since they need a completely dry floor for their hooves. Don’t forget to check in winter to see whether it has frozen over; if it has, you’ll need to clear the ice away, or equip the tank with a heater. Older donkeys will really appreciate a drink of warm water in the winter. Donkeys originated in a desert climate. They prefer warmer weather but are very hardy, provided they are given adequate accommodation. Donkeys do not like wind or rain and will seek shelter from both. Unlike horses, rain seeps into a donkey’s coat and makes life unbearable. The shelter doesn’t need to be elaborate, as long as it is adequate and provides the protection a donkey seeks. A shed, lean-to or barn with hard wooden floors is ideal. Make sure the floors are hard and dry. Donkeys have porous hooves that can become diseased when they stand in wet areas for too long. In a temperate climate, provide a shelter which consists of a minimum of three walls, with adequate backspace to get out of the rain and wind. This might be a shed, a stable or even a small barn. Put straw on the ground for comfort and warmth, especially in the cooler months of the year. In a climate with severe winter (temperatures below freezing and featuring ice, snow and freezing gales), you must provide a donkey with barn accommodation. The barn should be snug; plug up any gaps that let draughts through to prevent the donkey from catching chills. A winter barn should also have adequate space for exercise, in case the donkey does not like being taken outside at all while snow rests on the ground. To avoid possible contamination or worm problems, always keep a donkey’s feed area clean. Remove mud, wash food buckets daily and keep hay in a string basket attached to a wall (a hay-net), off the floor. Keep the shelter clean by mucking it out at least every other day to remove the donkey's waste and hay. Spray down the floor and walls and allow them to completely dry out before the donkey uses the shelter again.", "When you're picking out a donkey, it's important to take these factors into consideration. Male and female donkeys have different temperaments, and there are miniature, standard and giant-sized donkeys which are as big as standard horses. Figure out which type is the right fit for your needs before you decide which one to bring home. If you plan to keep your donkey as a pet, choose a gelding (a castrated male) or a jenny (a female). If you plan to breed your donkey, you'll need a jack (an intact male) and one or more jennies. Don't get a jack if you just want a pet and don't keep a jack with other male donkeys, since they'll fight. If you plan to ride your donkey, make sure it's big enough to handle your weight. A donkey can safely carry 20% of its body weight. Also, just like mule, horse or camel, make sure they are not sick or injured, because this could make it worse If you plan to use your donkey as a guard animal against predators, such as wolves or dogs, choose a standard or giant donkey, not a miniature. It's important that the donkey be larger than the predator. If this is your first time handling a donkey, you'll want to choose one who already knows how to stand and walk on a lead without bolting. You may also want to make sure the donkey can handle being petted all over its body and will allow you to lift its feet without trouble. Donkeys can be a little tricky to train, so unless you're experienced with them, it's a good idea to choose one that is fairly well behaved or find a friend to help you. Donkeys are extremely social creatures and they get sad when they're left all alone in the pasture. Your donkey will be a lot happier with a companion. Two jennies, two geldings or a jenny and a gelding make good companions for each other. Donkeys will bond deeply with their companions for life, and they won't want to go anywhere without each other. Donkeys can bond with horses but if you ever plan to take the horse somewhere without the donkey, it's not advisable to allow them to create a deep bond. The donkey will become upset when you remove the horse from the pasture. It's better to keep them in separate enclosures. Donkey have very specific dietary needs, and if kept with other species are likely to become overweight and unwell. Donkeys and dogs don't make good companion animals unless they're raised together from the time they are babies. If using the donkey as a herd guardian, get only one so that it bonds to the herd rather than the other donkey. Donkeys should not be harshly punished. Practice gentleness and patience when you're trying to lead them or teach them something new. They aren't stubborn, but they need time to process situations before deciding what to do, and they dislike being hurried or forced to act. Pet your donkey, speak in soothing tones, and don't raise your voice or be forceful. In order to stay fit and healthy, they need daily exercise. They'll exercise themselves if they have a large enough pasture to roam around. You can also take your donkey for a walk using a long rope lead. Remember that it's not a good idea to ride your donkey unless it's large enough to support your weight. Let your donkey get extra exercise in winter. If you have to shut your donkey up during winter, you will need to let it out every few days for exercise. If you can allow the donkey to wander around the barn in between outdoor outings, this would be ideal. Don’t force a donkey that hates snow to go out into the elements; provide this animal with an alternative indoor exercise area. Keep a coat on the donkey if you’d like during winter outings to prevent chills; donkeys can get pneumonia or bronchitis if subjected to rain or very cold weather.", "The best way to clean donkeys is to brush them every day. They don't like to get wet, so it's not necessary to spray them down or give them baths. A daily brushing, as well as cleaning the muck from their hooves, will suffice. Donkeys' hooves grow, just like people's nails, and they need to be trimmed from time to time so they don't get too long and crack. Have a professional farrier trim the donkey's hooves to the appropriate angle, which is 60 to 65 degrees. The donkey's hooves should be trimmed every 8 weeks or so. Donkeys' teeth also grow continuously, and they get worn down when the donkey chews food. Your donkey should be seen by an equine dentist every year regardless of how the teeth appear to you. Your donkeys teeth go back as far as the length of your forearm, so there is no way to know what is going on at the back of the mouth without specialist tools. The dentist will need to check right to the back of the mouth to make sure your donkey has functioning teeth that aren't causing difficulty eating and constant pain. A donkey with poor teeth may be happier on a diet of chaff or mash/wet feed – this will obviate the need for the donkey to chew too much on grass or hay. Consult with your vet as to the best options. Donkeys are hardy and almost disease-free. They do need to be vaccinated yearly against tetanus, flu and distemper. Other vaccinations to consider, depending on where you reside, include rabies, encephalitis, and West Nile Virus. Both horses and donkeys are beginning to suffer due to overzealous use of wormers in the past, as now the worms aren't responding as they used to and the drugs are becoming more and more inefficient. There is no easy answer to this, but the way forward is definitely not continuing on with the same pattern of untargeted worming that has caused the situation to arise. Donkeys and horses should be have their feces tested four times a year to see what (if any) worms they have and then appropriate treatment can be given. Ask your vet to give you guidance on this, and also ask for a follow up check to make sure the treatment worked. Minimizing the number of larva that are eaten is a practical way to help combat the number of intestinal worms in your donkey. 'Poo picking' the grazing at least 3 times a week has been found to significantly reduce the number of worms on the pasture." ], "summary": [ "Donkeys' main food sources should be low sugar and high fibre. Donkeys need to eat little and often (like other equines) and don't do well if fed large amounts of food in one go i.e. Donkeys are happier with plenty of space to roam around and graze, which they do for the majority of the day. A great alternative to lush pasture is having a dirt paddock, or a non-grazing area, such as a concrete yard, or a sand school. Give appropriate treats. Donkeys are vegetarian and should never be fed anything derived from meat or fish. Check with your vet about dietary supplements; these may be recommended depending on the soil type of your particular region. Provide clean, fresh water. Set up a dry shelter with hard floors. If you chose to put a rug on your donkey for the winter (seriously cold weather, or an elderly/thin donkey) then make sure you take the rug off, check for rubs and replace every day. Keep the feeding area clean.", "Pick a donkey of the right size, sex and temperament. Make sure the donkey has basic training. Keep more than one donkey if you can. Be gentle with your donkey. Let your donkey exercise every day.", "Brush the donkey regularly. Keep the hooves dry and trimmed. Check the teeth for sharp edges. Keep vaccinations up–to-date. Donkeys, like horses can get intestinal worms. Keeping the pasture and barn as free from waste as possible will help to break the life cycle of the worm as they need to live for a certain amount of time outside the donkey before being ingested." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Induce-Nightmares { "section_name": [ "Controlling Your Dreams", "Inducing Nightmares" ], "document": [ "As you fall asleep, try to think of an image or concept that causes fear or anxiety. If you attempt this every night, you have a good chance of dreaming about the subject of your thoughts. You may be able to make your dreams or nightmares beneficial if you have a problem to solve that is causing you anxiety; your brain may continue to \"work on\" the problem while you sleep, possibly providing insight during a dream. While inducing a nightmare on a given night may be helped by moderate sleep disruption, repeating that day after day may greatly reduce the number of dreams you have. Stay well-rested, and you will spend more time in the deeper, restful REM period of sleep, in which most lengthy dreams occur. REM is short for Rapid Eye Movement, which describes the behavior of people sleeping during this period of sleep. Instead of getting up immediately, lie awake and try to remember or \"replay\" your dreams. If nothing comes to mind, try to examine your own emotions. If you wake up anxious or exhilarated, focusing on those feelings may help you remember a nightmare. Every human dreams each time they fall asleep for an extended period of time, but many of these dreams go unremembered. Try to write your dreams in a notebook by your bed as soon as you wake up, before you forget them, to help them stick in your memory. Write down any dreams you remember, not just your nightmares, as the habit may help you remember later dreams. . In a lucid dream, the dreamer is aware that she is dreaming. This often results in a more vivid or memorable dream, and sometimes, but not always, allows the dreamer to shape the course of events to some extent. While there are many ways to encourage lucid dreaming, you can start with two simple steps: Focus on the concept of dreaming as you fall asleep, or about a particular topic to dream about. Choose the same topic each night for at least two weeks. Look for \"reality checks\" during the dream and your waking hours. Many people find that clocks or text in dreams can't be read clearly, or will look different each time. Try checking the time or reading a sign throughout the day as a \"dream check,\" and you may notice yourself doing the same thing to identify that you are dreaming.", "A study from Hong Kong Shue Yan University shows that people who sleep face down are more likely to have dreams about being tied up, smothered, and other nightmarish themes. Note that this may also increase the likelihood of erotic or sexual dreams, so you may not receive the desired effect. If you cannot get to sleep on your stomach, the next most \"nightmarish\" sleeping position may be lying on your back, followed by lying on your left side. While eating spicy, salty, or fatty foods are commonly believed to cause nightmares, scientists are divided over the exact effect of these substances. Some argue that the disruption of your sleep cycle may even slow down the onset of dreaming, potentially resulting in fewer dreams or nightmares. Others think they may increase dream intensity, at least in some people, and suggest that each person pay attention to his own body's response. Try watching a horror movie, playing a scary video game, or reading ghost stories before bed. If you have a specific fear or anxiety, look at images of it or simply lie in bed imagining a \"nightmare scenario.\" Aim to make yourself only slightly scared or anxious. If you are terrified out of your wits, you are unlikely to fall asleep in the first place. While the effect of vitamin B6 on dreams is not thoroughly studied, many people swear by its ability to increase the vividness of dreams. One study suggests that it may be effective, either due to an effect on the dreaming process itself, or an enhancement of your ability to remember dreams. Including vitamin B6 from both food and supplements, daily intake should not exceed 60 mg for children 9–13 years old; 80 mg for teenagers 14–18 years old; or 100 mg for adults 19 years or older. Some people report having more vivid or bizarre dreams when taking melatonin, which may give you a new dream experience even if they are not outright nightmares. At least one study supports this idea, suggesting that dreams involving transformations are especially likely to occur under melatonin. Melatonin is typically taken in doses of 1–20mg, and rarely causes health problems. However, due to interactions with other medications, possible negative effects during pregnancy, and the chance of an allergic reaction, you may wish to consult a doctor before taking melatonin. Caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine can all disrupt your sleep cycle. This can potentially cause nightmares if taken in small quantities. However, ingesting any of these substances in too large a quantity can disrupt your sleep too much. Reduce your intake of these substances if you have difficulty falling asleep in the first place, if you wake up repeatedly in the night, or if you feel tired after waking up. These are all signs that you may be getting less restful sleep, which may reduce the amount you dream. If you rarely or never consume these substances, the effect is likely to be more potent than you expect. It is not recommended that you begin taking these drugs solely to induce nightmares." ], "summary": [ "Think of a topic to dream about. Sleep for eight hours or more each night. Lie in bed after waking up. Write down your dreams to increase the odds of remembering them. Try to cause lucid dreaming", "Sleep face down. Try eating certain foods before bed. Scare yourself slightly before going to bed. Consider taking vitamin B6. Try taking melatonin. Take certain substances in moderation." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Identify-Beetles { "section_name": [ "Identifying Large Beetles", "Checking for Basic Features of a Beetle", "Identifying Small Beetles" ], "document": [ "A click beetle, also known as Elateridae, can snap the front and back sections of its body together to make a clicking sound, and it can also use this motion to flip itself over if it gets stuck on its back. Click beetles are black or dark brown, and they have grooved sections running down their backs. An adult click beetle may be between 0.5 to 1.5 in (1.3 to 3.8 cm) long. This beetle is common all over the world and there are over 900 species of click beetles in North America alone. Ground beetles are black with grooves on their backs, and they produce a strong odor. They usually hang out under logs and leaves, but they may wander into your house through a crack or open window. These beetles move quickly, so it might be hard to get a close look. Keep in mind that these beetle are harmless. They eat other insects, but will not bite you or your pets. These are called longhorn beetles because their antennae are reminiscent of longhorn cattle. The antennae may be straight, curved, or half and half. Longhorn beetle coloring can range from black, brown, green, yellow, red, or a combination of these colors. There are 413 species of longhorn beetles in Texas alone, but they all share the distinguishing feature of long antennae. If the beetle has a rounded head with a scoop neck shape around the base of it, then it is most likely a mealworm. Despite the name, these are actually beetles. Mealworms usually live outdoors, but you may find them infesting containers of flour and other dried grains. Keep your grains in air-tight containers to prevent an infestation. If you look closely at an oldhouse borer, you may notice small gray hairs on its back. You may also be able to make out 3 dark eyes on each side of the beetle’s mouth. These beetles usually turn up in a house about 4 to 7 years after it has been built.", "Beetles have wings, but they are covered by 2 hard wing coverings. This is what gives a beetle its distinctive hard-shelled look. The hardened wing coverings on a beetle’s back are also the reason why a beetle will make a crunching sound if you accidentally step on one. If the insect is a beetle, its wings should not be visible unless the coverings are lifted up and the wings are extended. Beetles have sharp mandibles (chewing mouthparts) so they can consume other insects, plant matter, fungus, and decaying plants and animals. Look at the underside of the insect’s mouth to see if they have sharp-looking mouthparts. If the insect has a long, straw-like protrusion, then it is not a beetle. Beetles have 6 legs distributed between their front and back body segments. When they are in their larval stage, the legs are all on the front of a beetle’s body. Otherwise, the legs are spread between the front and back segments. Count the insect’s legs and check their location to determine if it is a beetle. If the insect has 4 legs, 8 legs, or more, then it is not a beetle.", "This is most likely a black carpet beetle. These beetles are usually black or very dark brown and their bodies are oval shaped. They range in size from 0.12 to 0.19 inches (0.30 to 0.48 cm). Varied color carpet beetles are similar to black carpet beetles. These are very small (0.12 in (0.30 cm)) beetles with bright yellow and green markings. These beetles are 0.25 in (0.64 cm) long. They feed on tree leaves, especially on elm tree leaves, and they lay their eggs on the undersides of leaves as well. Elm leaf beetles can damage trees if they get out of control, so you may need to manage them with pesticides. These are also known as lady beetles and in some countries, ladybirds. Their bodies may be yellow, orange, or red with black markings, but they can also be black with red, orange, or yellow markings. There are over 450 species of lady beetles in North America alone. Larder beetles are black beetles that are known to infest cured ham. They have a whitish, silver streak running across their back and they are oval-shaped. Be sure to keep ham covered when it is out, and put it in the refrigerator to store it. Bark beetles are only about 0.12 in (0.30 cm) and they are common around piles of firewood. Bark beetles may also infest live trees, which may die as a result of a bark beetle infestation. Bark beetle infestations create dry, dead wood, which intensifies forest fires. The coloring of these beetles may range from brown to reddish brown, and they are around 0.1 to 0.14 in (0.25 to 0.36 cm) long. These beetles infest packaged food. If the head is so far bent over that the beetle has a hump, then it is likely a cigarette beetle. These are almost identical to drugstore beetles but they appear to be hunchbacked. These are also known confused flour beetles. These beetles feed on corn flour and other packaged products. Make sure to keep your corn flour and other flours in air-tight containers to protect them from these pests. Weevils are only about 0.12 in (0.30 cm) and brown with a pointed head that resembles a beak. Their bodies are long and slender. Weevil infestations in rice and other grains are common. These pests can chew right through paper and plastic, so it is best to keep any loose grains and flour in air-tight glass, metal, or hard plastic containers. These beetles are only about 0.12 in (0.30 cm) long. Their favorite foods to infest and eat are sunflower seeds and nuts, but they can also infest large quantities of grains. Sawtoothed grain beetles are more likely to get into the food supply if the bins are not sanitized at least every 6 months." ], "summary": [ "Identify a click beetle by a narrow, long body and a clicking sound. Watch for a fast moving beetle with a strong smell to spot a ground beetle. Check for longhorn beetles with long-antennae hanging out around dead trees. Inspect the head of the beetle for a scoop shape to see if it’s a mealworm. Identify an oldhouse borer by white spots on its wings and enlarged leg segments.", "Look for 2 hard wing coverings on the insect’s back. Check for chewing mouth parts on the underside of its head. See if the insect has 6 legs.", "Check for a black body with an elongated abdomen to identify a carpet beetle. Look for green and black stripes on an elm beetle. Identify ladybugs by a brightly-colored, rounded body and black spots. Protect your ham from larger beetles. Watch for cylindrical-shaped bark beetles around firewood. Identify drug store beetles by lines on the wing covers and a slightly bent head. Check for rust beetles with a rust-colored, flattened body with clubbed antennae. Inspect your rice and grains for long-beaked beetles called weevils. Look for protrusions on the sides of a saw-toothed beetle’s thorax." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Buy-a-Car-Battery { "section_name": [ "Maintaining Battery Health", "Selecting a Battery", "Making a Purchase" ], "document": [ "Don’t wait until your car battery is dead and needs to be replaced to buy a new one. Consult your automobile’s maintenance guide or check online to find out how often you should replace your battery. Adhere to the maintenance guide’s recommendations and change your battery as needed. At least once each year, visit your local mechanic. Have them check the battery to ensure it is still operating properly. If it is not, replace it with a new battery. These annual visits should begin after your vehicle is two years old if you live in a warm climate, or after your vehicle is four years old if you live in a colder climate. After buying a new car battery, you’ll need to discard your old one. Don’t just throw it in the bin, though. Contact your local auto garage and find out if they accept old batteries. If they don’t ask, for information regarding how to dispose of your battery responsibly.", "Different cars require different amounts of power and differently sized batteries. Check your vehicle’s maintenance guide for information regarding what sort of batter your vehicle requires. If you no longer have the maintenance guide, take your car to a mechanic for assistance in identifying the type of battery your vehicle needs. Additionally, buy a battery appropriate for your local climate. Hot-weather batteries are often labeled “S” or “South.” Cold-weather batteries might be labeled “N” or “North.” If you drive off-road, you might want to invest in an battery that is better able to endure constant vibrations. Maintenance-free batteries are sealed and require no special attention. Most car batteries are maintenance-free, but some require periodic filling with water. Whenever possible, save yourself future hassle by purchasing a maintenance-free battery. Car batteries are tested by consumer organizations and auto enthusiasts. Check a consumer reporting site or auto blog based in your nation for information about the types of car batteries sold there. Batteries should be rated based on their longevity and power. Even when stored, batteries can lose strength. Always buy a new battery that was produced within the last six months. Some car batteries have dates labeled on them in an easy-to-understand way. Others, however, will have a date in a kind of code, in which A stands for January, B stands for February, and so on. (The letter “I” is excluded in such a system.)", "You could buy online, or you could shop at a physical auto parts store. Since shipping a battery can be prohibitively expensive, your best bet is to buy a battery at a physical store. Doing so will also make it easier to make a return, if necessary. Plus, buying a battery at an store often includes free installation. Compare the price of car batteries sold at different shops. If possible, browse prices online or call the shop to find out how much they charge for the type of batteries you need. Doing so will save you time and effort. Before leaving the auto store, be sure that the battery you’ve purchased is the right one for your car. Auto shop employees should be able to look up the make and model of your car to determine if you’re buying the right battery." ], "summary": [ "Buy a car battery proactively. Test your battery annually. Recycle your old battery.", "Buy the right battery for your car. Buy a maintenance-free battery. Buy a battery that has good reviews. Don’t purchase old batteries.", "Decide how to buy. Shop around. Confirm you’ve got the right part." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Summon-Herobrine-on-Minecraft-PE-Using-a-Mod { "section_name": [ "Installing the Herobrine Mod (Android)", "Installing the Herobrine Mod (iOS)" ], "document": [ "This is a free app that manages mod files so that they can be loaded into Minecraft PE. It is not possible to summon Herobrine without installing a mod. BlockLauncher only works with the paid version of Minecraft PE downloaded from the Google Play Store. Note that the mod described in this method does not currently work with version 0.10.0. One of the most popular sites is mcpedl.com. Because these are user created mods, there will likely be several to choose from, all with differing functions. One of the most highly-rated Herobrine mods on mcpedl.com is \"Lord Herobrine\". Another popular Herobrine mod is Herobrine/Holy Mod by mclover521. The instructions for installing both mods are the same. Find the download link to download the .js file to your Android device. Find the download link to download the .zip file to your Android device. You should see a \"BlockLauncher\" option on the main menu. Tap it to open the BlockLauncher menu. This will allow you to load the Herobrine Texture Pack. Tap \"Texture Pack\". Tap \"Select\". Open the \"Download\" folder. Select the .zip file that you just downloaded. Select \"Manage ModPE scripts\". This will allow you to load the Herobrine script file. Tap the \"Import\" button. Select \"Local storage\" from the list of options. Select your \"Download\" folder from the list of options. Tap the .js file that you downloaded. This will load the Herobrine mod into Minecraft PE. Now that you've loaded the Herobrine mod, you can summon Herobrine in your Minecraft game. Gather your materials. You'll need two Gold Blocks, two Netherrack Blocks, and Flint and Steel. Stack the Gold Blocks on top of each other. Stack the Netherrack Blocks on top of the Gold Blocks to make a pillar. Use the Flint and Steel to start a Fire on top of the Netherrack. You will receive a message indicating that Herobrine has been summoned to your world.", "There is no way to install mods on a device that is not jailbroken. Jailbreaking your iOS device can be tricky and may cause your phone to stop working or void your warranty. Click here for instructions on attempting to jailbreak your iOS device. Currently, the only Herobrine mods available for iOS are downloaded through Cydia. Many require that Winterboard be installed as well. Note: If you find a Herobrine mod online as a .deb file, you can install it using iFile, which is available on Cydia. This still; requires a jailbroken iOS device. There will likely be several to choose from. Find one with good reviews, or look up YouTube videos to see which one you like the best. Different Herobrine mods will have different features. Use the download link on the Cydia page to download and install the mod through the Cydia package manager. Some mods require you to apply a Winterboard theme in order for the mod to work. To do so, launch Winterboard and then tap the Herobrine mod entry until a blue checkmark appears. You will then need to respring or reboot your device. When you launch Minecraft PE, your Herobrine mod will be installed. The summoning method for Herobrine varies depending on the mod (many just risking the regular Zombie enemies to be Herobrine, so you don't actually summon it)." ], "summary": [ "Download and install the BlockLauncher app. Visit a Minecraft PE mod site. Search for a Herobrine mod. Tap the \"Download Script\" link at the bottom of the page. Tap the \"Download Texture Pack\" link. Start Minecraft PE. Select \"Launcher Options (Requires restart)\". Restart Minecraft PE and open the BlockLauncher menu again. Summon Herobrine.", "In order to install mods, your iOS device MUST be jailbroken. Open Cydia. Search for a Herobrine mod. Install the mod. Apply the Winterboard theme. Start Minecraft PE." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Flick-a-Card { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Replace-a-Flat-Roof { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Prevent-Greasy-Hair { "section_name": [ "Adjusting Your Shampooing Routine", "Using At-Home Remedies" ], "document": [ "Apply a small, quarter-sized amount of shampoo to your palms and work it into a lather. Then, apply the shampoo to your scalp and massage vigorously with your fingertips. Then, work the lather through your hair and rinse. Rinse hair thoroughly so no shampoo is left behind. Washing your hair should take about five minutes. Even though greasy hair looks and feels dirty, washing your hair every day will make your hair more greasy because shampoo strips hair of its nutrients and natural oils, causing your scalp to produce even more oil. Wash your hair every 2-3 days at the very most. This gives your hair enough time to replace the natural oils, so you're not producing an excess. If you usually shampoo your hair every day, it may take a few months for your scalp to stop overproducing oil after you change your shampoo habits. Use dry shampoo on the days you don't wash your scalp to help absorb excess oil as you transition. In addition to not shampooing every day, use a high-quality, gentle cleansing shampoo. Shampoos that are aggressive tend to irritate hair follicles, causing the scalp to produce more oil. Common irritants include sulfates like sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate, as well as silicones like dimethicone and cyclomethicone. You can find silicone and sulfate-free hair products in most drug stores, as well as specialty beauty and hair-care stores. Shampoos with salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, or ketoconazole are good for greasy hair. Salicylic acid helps reduce oil on the scalp. Oily hair does not need to be conditioned often. Condition every other time you wash or just once a week. Only use conditioner on the tips of your hair instead of the roots, where grease gathers more easily. Apply it by squeezing your conditioner into your palms and scrunching it into the ends of your hair. The best dry shampoos for greasy hair come in a powder form. Try not to use liquid dry shampoos. Massage the dry shampoo powder in your hair and on your scalp between washes to soak up grease and leave hair smelling fresh, but don’t use them more than once a day. It can be difficult to resist washing your hair after working out, but when your hair is wet with sweat, you do not need to wash it to feel clean again. Just rinse your hair in the shower to remove the salts from your sweat and use a bit of conditioner on your ends to detangle if necessary. If you don't have access to a shower, you can also use a spray bottle to wet your hair and blow-dry it instead of washing. Many hair products have silicone in them, which causes hair to be heavy and greasy. Try using fewer hair styling products in general. If you must use products, avoid ones with silicone. After one month, your hair should be less greasy from adjusting your shampooing methods. If changing your habits does not help at all, try seeing a dermatologist, who will most likely prescribe you shampoo or medication to reduce oil.", "Apple cider vinegar helps balance the pH level of your scalp. To use this method, mix 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in one cup of water. After washing your hair, pour the apple cider vinegar and water mix over your hair, and rinse out after 3-5 minutes. Rinse with cold water. You can do this up to 3 times a week. Squeeze the juice from two lemons, and mix with two cups of water. Massage the lemon and water mixture on your hair for 3-5 minutes, then rinse your hair with warm water. Repeat 3 times a week. Keep in mind that this could cause your hair to become lighter. Mix 1 teaspoon of aloe vera gel, one tablespoon of lemon juice, and one cup of your shampoo. Wash your hair with the mixture, allowing the shampoo to sit for 3 minutes. Then, rinse with warm water. Repeat this method up to a few times a week. If you don’t use the whole shampoo mixture, store it in the fridge for up to a week. Mix one part baking soda in three parts water to make a paste for your hair. Longer hair will require more paste. Rub the paste into damp hair and leave it on for 5 minutes. Then, wash your hair with warm water. Repeat this method twice a week." ], "summary": [ "Shampoo properly. Wash your hair every 2-3 days. Use different types of gentle shampoos. Condition less often. Use dry shampoos between washes. Skip washing your hair after workouts. Style hair with without silicone or oils. See a dermatologist if you see no results.", "Rinse hair with apple cider vinegar. Massage hair with lemon juice. Wash hair with homemade aloe vera shampoo. Make a hair mask with baking soda and water." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Write-an-Email-with-a-Sense-of-Urgency { "section_name": [ "Creating a Subject Line", "Structuring the Email’s Text", "Refining the Email" ], "document": [ "If you address the other person directly, your email stands out more. You can do this by mentioning the person’s name or by using the words “you” and “your.” These words are direct, conversational, and encourage the recipient to open the email. For example, start the subject line with a phrase like “Hey Bill!” or “Did you call yet?” If you don’t know the person’s name, you can reference a personal detail like the recipient’s location. For instance, say, “Best restaurants in your city.” It’s important to relay urgency as soon as possible. Encourage the reader to click on the email by including a call to action or a reference to scarcity. These tactics suggest that the reader needs to act right away to benefit from the email. For instance, use words and phrases like “Hurry!” or “24 hours left” to call the reader to act now. Hint that something is limited, such as by saying, “This item is flying off the shelves.” Follow up the urgent word with a clear picture of what the reader should expect inside the email. Use action-oriented words to suggest how the reader should respond. Make sure you keep the subject line clear and concise so the title isn’t confusing. For example, you can say something like, “Hurry! It’s a sale.” You can also explain the email through numbers. For instance, say, “5 ways to reduce your electric bill.” A question can be a great way of hinting at what is inside your email. The question has to be relevant to the reader. It should reference an urgent event or a subject the reader needs to know, encouraging them to read the email right away. For example, you can say something like, “Last chance - have you ordered your tickets yet?” Another example is, “How can you be more productive today?\"", "In the text, explain why you are sending the email. Show the reader what makes this email urgent and why they should respond to it as soon as possible. Be as specific as possible to suggest what the other person gets out of reading your email. For example, you can say something like, “Tired of walking around on worn-out shoes? Our sale has brand-name shoes at rock-bottom prices.” You might write, “Call the client today to get in under the deadline.” Avoid making an urgent email long and confusing. Limit yourself to a couple of short sentences or paragraphs. Relay your message in a way that is easy to understand and grammatically correct. To avoid making your message too long, try making a list of the most important points you need to make. Many businesses include an image in the email. A sales ad explains the email’s purpose efficiently. By trying to sound urgent, you may come off as pushy or intimidating. Avoid demanding that the reader pays attention and responds, since this backfires more often than not. Instead, pair time-related words with suggestions of actions the reader should take. For example, say, “There are 5 spots left on the plane. Please call today to reserve your seat.” To avoid sounding intimidating, be a little indirect. For instance, say, “Identity theft increases by 5% every year, making it more important than ever to protect your personal information.” Use the last sentence of your email to guide the reader towards the action you want them to take. This needs to be specific, so include any information they need to respond to your email. This could be a button to press, a website link, or a phone number. For instance, if you want someone to make a call, say, \"Please call me today” and follow up with your phone number. Provide the exact website link. If you want a person to see a specific product, post the link to the product page, not the overall website. If you wish to direct someone to a physical location, it helps to provide directions, maps, and other references.", "A lot of people see the email address first, and if it isn’t recognizable, they may skip the email. Make sure your email address suggests what the other person can expect to see in the email. Personalize your email address to make your email more visible. For example, use your name. The email should look something like, “John Smith, wikiHow” or “johnsmith@wikihow.com.” Avoid using random numbers and symbols, since this isn’t professional and makes your email look like spam. To sound urgent, give off the impression that the reader needs to act now. Even if you do not have a specific deadline, pretend that there is one. Make sure you reference this deadline as often as possible throughout the email. For example, you can say, “This deal ends tomorrow.” If you don’t have a specific deadline, try saying, “Please respond by Tuesday” or “I’d appreciate it if you responded by 5:00 PM.” All of the information in the email should relate to your purpose for sending it. This purpose is what needs to be emphasized in the subject line and throughout the text. Every detail needs to lead into that purpose, telling the reader what they need to know to act upon it. Edit out any details that do not fit, since they detract from the urgent tone. If you are selling a product, you would include the product’s features and biggest benefits. Long stories or small details may be distracting. For instance, if you are reaching out to a customer, you might want to tell them, “Save 20% when you shop at my new website.” Think of what the person needs to know. If you have already contacted someone, you do not need to repeat what you said before. Good typing techniques and grammatical sense make your email so much easier to understand. Avoid using lots of exclamation marks or unnecessary capital letters. Use proper language and be respectful. Avoid shorthand words like “u,” “ur,” “plz,” and emojis. Lots of exclamation marks, capital letters, or numbers can also trigger a spam filter, meaning your email may not get seen at all." ], "summary": [ "Refer to the recipient in your subject line. Use urgent language in the subject line. Hint at what is inside the email. Ask the reader a question for an alternative way to be engaging.", "Lead with a solution to a relevant problem. Describe the email’s purpose in concise sentences. Use a gentle and non-confrontational tone. Include a call to action at the end.", "Use an email address that is easy to recognize. Create a deadline for a response to the email. Reread the email to ensure it has a consistent purpose. Avoid typing in capital letters or shorthand." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Display-the-Contents-of-Your-DNS-Cache { "section_name": [ "Viewing the DNS Cache on a Mac", "Viewing the DNS Cache on a PC", "Flushing the DNS Cache on a Phone or Tablet" ], "document": [ "Spotlight's icon is a magnifying glass located in the top right corner of your screen. Terminal lets you access system information--such as your DNS cache--through typed commands. Don't include the quotation marks. Press ⏎ Return when you're done. The \"sudo\" part of the command sets up the rest of the command for \"root privilege\", which allows you to view sensitive system information. The \"discoveryutil\" part of the command request the DNS information from your system. The \"udnscachestats\" part of the command displays one of two sections of your DNS cache. This should be the password you use to log in. Press ⏎ Return when you finish typing. Terminal should display your Unicast DNS cache. The Unicast DNS (UDNS) cache translates website addresses (such as Facebook) into IP addresses for your computer to use during future searches. With Unicast, your address sends out one IP address request to one server per site, regardless of how many servers exist. If that server becomes unresponsive, you will encounter a DNS error. You can use the results of your search to view the IP addresses of frequently-visited sites. If you encountered a DNS error, the UDNS cache is the most likely location of the problem. You can also use the UDNS cache to check your recent site history. You will need to check the Multicast DNS cache as well for a complete report. This will help you avoid command errors when checking the next section of your DNS cache. Don't include the quotation marks. Press ⏎ Return when you're done. The \"sudo\" part of the command sets up the rest of the command for \"root privilege\", which allows you to view sensitive system information. The \"discoveryutil\" part of the command request the DNS information from your system. The \"mdnscachestats\" part of the command displays your Multicast DNS cache. This should be the password you use to log in. Press ⏎ Return when you finish typing. Terminal should display your Multicast DNS cache. The Multicast DNS (MDNS) cache also translates website addresses (such as Facebook) into IP addresses for your computer to use during future searches. With Multicast, your address sends out multiple IP address requests to multiple servers per site. If one server becomes unresponsive, you still have multiple connections to other servers, meaning you're much less likely to encounter a DNS error on a Multicast network than on a Unicast network. You can use the results of your search to view the IP addresses of frequently-visited sites. You can also use the MDNS cache to check your recent site history. Checking the MDNS cache in conjunction with the UDNS cache will give you a full history report. Type \"sudo dscacheutil -flushcache; sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder; say cache flushed\" into Terminal. Hit ⏎ Return to finalize the flush. This will reset your saved website data and clear any DNS errors you may encounter. This command is appropriate for the the latest version of OS X (10.11). This command flushes both cache sections (UDNS and MDNS). Flushing both sections resolves any current errors and prevents future errors from occurring, so you should always flush both for consistency. Flushing the cache will not harm your computer. The Terminal commands to flush the DNS cache vary between OS X versions. Find out what version you are running by going to the Apple menu and selecting \"About This Mac\". For OS X 10.10.4 and up type \"sudo dscacheutil -flushcache; sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder; say cache flushed\". For OS X 10.10 to 10.10.3 users should type \"sudo discoveryutil mdnsflushcache; sudo discoveryutil udnsflushcaches; say flushed\". For OS X 10.7 to 10.9 type \"sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder\". For OS X 10.5 to 10.6 type \"sudo dscacheutil -flushcache\" For OS X 10.3 to 10.4 type \"lookupd -flushcache\". Use your browser of choice to visit a site on which you encountered a DNS error. You should now be able to access the site! Loading your frequently-used sites for the first time after a DNS flush will take longer than usual, since your DNS cache is being updated.", "For earlier operating systems, replace clicking \"All Apps\" with clicking \"All Programs\" and then selecting \"Accessories\". This should open \"Command Prompt\" with full access, allowing you to enter system commands. Double-check your typing, then hit ↵ Enter to view the cache. You can use the results of your search to view the IP addresses of frequently-visited sites, or you can flush your DNS cache. The DNS cache also stores your web browsing history - even if you clear it from your browser. Don't include the quotation marks. If you're encountering DNS errors in your browser, flushing your cache will fix this problem. Flushing can also help your computer run faster by keeping your website data up-to-date. Open a browser and visit a site where you previously encountered a DNS error. You will now be able to access the site! Loading sites after a DNS flush will often take longer than usual.", "You can't actually view the DNS cache on mobile, but you can flush the cache and thereby fix any DNS or \"timing out\" errors you have encountered. Make sure your browsers in particular are closed. Scroll until you find the \"Wi-Fi\" menu. For an Android, find the \"Wireless and Networks\" menu in \"Settings\". Wait until your data indicator appears in the upper left-hand corner of the phone. If you have an Android, tap the \"Wi-Fi\" switch to turn the wifi off. Wait until the wifi icon appears, then return to the \"Settings\" menu. Find \"Airplane Mode\" at the top of your Settings menu on iPhone. Be sure to wait a few moments (for the wifi indicator in the upper left-hand corner to disappear) before turning Airplane Mode back off again This will reset your network settings, thereby enabling the DNS cache to flush. For Android, select \"More\" in the Settings menu to access the Airplane Mode setting toggle. This will turn off your phone and flush your DNS cache. Leave your phone off for at least 15 seconds. For Android, you need to hold down the \"Power\" button, then tap \"Power off\" in the resulting menu. This will turn your phone back on. Use your phone's browser to visit any site where you encountered a DNS error. You should now be able to access the site! Loading your frequently-used sites for the first time after a DNS flush will take longer than usual, since your DNS cache is being updated." ], "summary": [ "Open \"Spotlight\". Search for \"terminal\" and open the Terminal app. Type \"sudo discoveryutil udnscachestats\" into Terminal. Enter your Administrator password into Terminal. Look over the Unicast DNS cache by scrolling through the Terminal. Close and reopen Terminal. Type \"sudo discoveryutil mdnscachestats\" into Terminal. Enter your Administrator password into Terminal. Look over the Multicast DNS cache by scrolling. Flush your DNS cache(s). Confirm that your DNS cache flush worked.", "Open the Start menu and click on \"All Apps\". Click \"Windows System\". Right-click the \"Command Prompt\" app and select \"Run as Administrator\". Type \"ipconfig /displaydns\" without the quotation marks. Look over the DNS cache by scrolling through the \"Command Prompt\" interface. Flush your cache by typing in \"ipconfig /flushdns\". Confirm that your DNS cache flush worked.", "Close all apps to prepare to flush your DNS cache. Open the \"Settings\" menu. Select the \"Wi-Fi\" tab, then swipe the \"Wi-Fi\" switch to the left. Swipe your phone's wifi switch back on. Turn \"Airplane Mode\" on, then off again. Hold the \"lock screen\" button down, then swipe the \"Slide to Power Off\" button to the right. Hold down the \"lock screen\" button until the screen lights up. Confirm that your DNS cache flush worked." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Grade-a-Paper { "section_name": [ "Assigning Letter Grades", "Writing Effective Comments", "Going Through an Essay" ], "document": [ "and let the students see it. A rubric is used to assign numerical values to various criteria used to make up the letter grade, usually based on a scale of 100. To get a letter grade, you assign numerical values to each section and tally the score. Making the students aware of the rubric used will keep the process transparent and eliminate the idea that you pull arbitrary grades out of nowhere. A rubric, for example, might look like this: Thesis and argument: _/40 Organization and paragraphs: _/30 Introduction and conclusion: _/10 Grammar, usage, and spelling: _/10 Sources and Citations: _/10 Let the students see a description of what an A means, what a B means, etc. Write your own according to your own specific criteria and emphasis for the class. Share it with the students so they can interpret the grade they receive. These are fairly standard designations, often worded like this: A (100-90): Work completes all of the requirements of the assignment in an original and creative manner. Work at this level goes beyond the basic guidelines of the assignment, showing the student took extra initiative in originally and creatively forming content, organization, and style. B (89-80): Work completes all of the requirements of the assignment. Work at this level is successful in terms of content, but might need some improvement in organization and style, perhaps requiring a little revision. A B reveals less of the author’s original thought and creativity than A-level work. C (79-70): Work completes most of the requirements of the assignment. Though the content, organization, and style are logical and coherent, they may require some revision and may not reflect a high level of originality and creativity on the part of the author. D (69-60): Work either does not complete the requirements of the assignment, or meets them quite inadequately. Work at this level requires a good deal of revision, and is largely unsuccessful in content, organization, and style. F (Below 60): Work does not complete the requirements of the assignment. In general, students who put forth genuine effort will not receive an F. If you receive an F on any assignment (particularly if you feel you have given adequate effort), you should speak with me personally. Put the grade at the very end of the paper, after they've seen the rubric and your comments. Slapping a big letter grade at the top near the title will ensure that the student probably won't go through and read all the smart and helpful comments you've included. Some teachers like to hand out papers at the end of the day because they fear discouraging or distracting students during class time. Consider giving the students time to go through the papers in class and be available to talk about their grades afterwards. This will ensure that they read and understand your comments.", "The goal of comments is to point out the strengths and weaknesses in a student's writing and to offer them concrete strategies toward improving their work. Completely shredding apart a failed paragraph with your red pen does not accomplish any of these aims. Use marginal comments to point out specific points or areas in the essay the student could improve. Use a paragraph note at the end to summarize your comments and direct them toward improvement. Comments should not justify a letter grade. Never start a note, \"You got a C because...\". It's not your job to defend the grade given. Instead, use the comments to look toward revision and the next assignment, rather than staring backward at the successes or failures of the given assignment. Try to start your comments by finding something the student has done well and encouraging them. Seeing exclamation points or \"Good job\" on an essay tends to be more memorable for the student, and will ensure that they'll repeat the behavior. If you struggle to find anything, you can always praise their topic selection: \"This is an important topic! Good choice!\" Even if your student has written a disaster of a paper, don't overwhelm them with every single thing that needs to be fixed. Try to focus on no more than three main areas of improvement in your comments. This will give the student concrete strategies toward improvement, and avoid overwhelming them with \"failures.\" When you give your first read-through, Try to determine what these three points might be to make it easier when you're going through the paper and writing comments. Instead of focusing your comments on everything the student did wrong in an essay, direct your comments toward the next essay, or toward a re-write of the current essay, if that fits in with the conventions of the assignment. \"In your next assignment, make sure to organize your paragraphs according to the argument you're making\" is a better comment than \"Your paragraphs are disorganized.\"", "Sometimes called \"higher\" and \"lower\" concerns, it's important to prioritize major issues like content, creative thinking, and organization over more minor issues like grammar, usage, and spelling. These designations obviously depend upon many things, like the assignment, the grade-level of your students, and their individual concerns. If you're in the middle of a unit on comma usage, it's perfectly fine to call that a \"higher\" concern. But in general, a basic writing assignment should prioritize the higher concerns listed above. When you've got a stack of 50 or 100 papers to go through and another stack of quizzes to finish and lessons to plan it can be tempting to jump right in and start slapping Bs on everything. Resist that temptation. Read through each essay individually before marking anything. Look for the highest order of concerns first: Does the student address the prompt and fulfill the assignment effectively? Does the student think creatively? Does the student clearly state their argument, or thesis? Is the thesis developed over the course of the assignment? Does the writer provide evidence? Does the paper show evidence of organization and revision, or does it seem like a first draft? Getting an assignment back that looks like someone bled all over it can be a source of great anxiety in the life of a student. Some teachers argue that red asserts authority. While that may be true, there are other ways to assert your authority than pen color. Marking essays in pencil can suggest that the issues are easily fixable, keeping the student looking forward, rather than dwelling on their success or failure. Pencil, blue, or black pen is perfectly appropriate. Write comments, criticisms, and questions in the margins as neatly as possible. Find moments that the writer needs to clarify and circle them or underline them. Be as specific as possible when asking questions. \"What?\" is not a particularly helpful question to scrawl in the margin, compared to \"What do you mean by 'some societies'?\" When you've addressed the most important issues of the essay, its content, feel free to mark some lower-order concerns, like usage, grammar, and punctuation. Depending on the grade-level of the essays and the skill-level of your students, these may be more or less important. Typical proofreading marks include the following: ¶ = to start a new paragraph three underscores under a letter = to lowercase or uppercase the letter \"sp\" = word is spelled incorrectly word crossed out with a small \"pigtail\" above = word needs to be deleted Some teachers use the first page as a rule of thumb for marking later concerns. If there are sentence-level issues, mark them on the first page and then stop marking them throughout the essay, especially if the assignment needs more revision." ], "summary": [ "Use a rubric Know or assign a description of each letter grade. Make the grade the last thing the student sees.", "Write no more than one comment per paragraph and a note at the end. Find something to praise. Address three main issues of improvement in your note. Encourage revision.", "Learn the difference between major and minor errors. Read the paper through once without marking anything. Keep the red pen in your desk. Read through the paper again with your pencil ready. Proofread for usage and other lower-order concerns." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Use-a-Urinal-Without-Splashing-Yourself { "section_name": [ "Picking Your Urinal", "Peeing" ], "document": [ "Some public restrooms have privacy guards between urinals. These guards serve the dual purpose of providing you privacy, and shielding you from other people’s splash back. Try to find a restroom that comes equipped with privacy guards, as you’ll be much less likely to fall victim to someone else’s splash back. If you can’t find a restroom with privacy guards, pick a urinal on the end, next to the stalls or the sink, instead of a middle urinal. This way, you’ll be half as likely to fall victim to the splash back generated by the guy next to you. Studies have shown that the closer you are to someone else, the more anxiety and difficulty you and that other person will have when it comes to peeing. The resulting panic and anxiety that you both experience might just lead you or your neighbor to create splash back. It is generally considered okay to stand and pee directly next to another person (men next to men or boys next to boys) when the restroom is crowded and there is no alternative urinal available. Many times the floor in front of the urinal will be wet – that’s other people’s urine. Be aware as you approach the urinal, you don’t want to step in someone else’s puddle and unwittingly splash urine onto yourself that way. Sometimes we’ve really got to go, and we rush up to the urinal and get peeing in a hurry. Try not to do this. You need to think before you pee so that you’ll be able to take steps and precautions that will limit your splash back.", "Urinal cakes are designed to fight odor and are often small and placed on the bottom of the urinal. They're not meant to be targets. If you hit them, they might create splash back and deflect urine spray in your direction. Change the angle of your stream. Don't hit the urinal dead on. The splash back will be worse the closer it is to 90 degrees. Instead, try to hit the urinal at a soft angle -- less than 45 degrees. Some urinal inserts and splash guards are designed to absorb the impact of your urine stream to reduce potential splash back. Shoot for these, especially if you can pee on one that bends upward so that it is vertical and so you can hit it at less than 45 degrees. Splash back is greatly increased when your urine hits a surface at a sharp angle and from a great distance. After a few inches, your urine starts to break up into droplets. These droplets create more splash back than a solid stream of urine. Distance matters because your stream will start to break up if you are too far, and you will have a higher chance of creating splash back. In addition, your urine picks up a lot of velocity the farther you stand from the urinal, resulting in more splash back. If you can impact that porcelain before stream breakup occurs, you will be in good shape. While you may not want to be too close, you definitely don't want to be standing too far away. Generally, your stream will begin to lose coherence and power after about six inches from your urethra, so take this into account when you pee. Remember though, there is no \"magic\" number when it comes to how far to stand from a urinal, because each urinal is different, every person is different, and everyone's comfort level is different. When you’re done, don’t shake too quickly. This might cause your urine to fly through the air or it might hit the urinal and you could create splash back by accident." ], "summary": [ "Choose a urinal with privacy guards, if you can. Pick a urinal on the end, rather than in the middle. Select a urinal remote from other men or boys. Look at the floor before you approach your urinal. Think before you pee.", "Avoid hitting the urinal cake. Hit the wall of the urinal at a gradual angle. Aim for splash-reducing urinal inserts. Stand closer (but at the right angle). Don't stand too far. Avoid “shaking” too briskly." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Create-and-Work-a-Juxl-Puzzle { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Survive-Becoming-Poor { "section_name": [ "Taking Care of Yourself", "Getting Help", "Managing Financial Decisions", "Shopping Smart" ], "document": [ "You’ll not survive becoming poor if you take sick. Not only will you be sick, but you may have to take work off, further compounding your strained financial situation. Stave off illness and maintain a strong immune system by eating nutritious, balanced meals each day. A good diet consists mostly of grains, fruits, and vegetables. A modest amount of protein should also be included, though it’s not necessary to do so at every meal. There are plenty of healthy meal options you can try on a budget. Check out the US Department of Agriculture’s menus and cookbooks online at http://www.choosemyplate.gov/budget-sample-two-week-menus. Being with people who care for you will help you realize that even though you’re poor, you’re still a wonderful, rational person whose life has value. Make time for family and friends who affirm that you are important and make you feel good. Strong social support systems will build psychic resilience. In the face of adversity, including poverty, you will be less likely to feel anxious, worried, or depressed when you know you have friends and family you can rely on. When you’re poor, it can be hard to see anything outside your immediate circumstances. You’re focused on paying the rent, the electric bill, the car insurance, and so on. The constant threat that one of these costs will push you further into financial ruin can distract you from planning for tomorrow. No matter how bad things seem, there’s always a new day tomorrow. Focusing on and planning for better days ahead can relieve stress and distract you from whatever problems you’re facing today. Don’t worry about what-ifs. Focusing on things you did wrong or dwelling on the past will not help you change your current predicament. Envision yourself in 5, 10, and 15 years. Where do you imagine you’ll be living? What kind of work will you do? Share your thoughts with a friend and invite them to do the same. Try to find something positive in each week or day that you can look forward to. Try to make it something different each day (don’t just think about how desperately you want to get out of work every day). Things like meeting a friend for a bike ride, or taking your child to the playground might be some of the things you look forward to after each day. People living in poverty often rate themselves low on scales of self-efficacy, their own beliefs about what they can and cannot do. Accept the things that you cannot change. You’ve become poor, but hey, it’s not the end of the world! Recognize that your situation is temporary and you’ll come out of it better and stronger. Challenge negative thoughts. When you feel a thought such as “I’m no good” or “I’ll always be poor,” do not dwell on it. Introduce a contrary thought such as “I am a good person and many people like being around me” or “Someday I will be financially independent.” Forgive yourself. You’re a fallible person, just like everyone else. Your mistakes do not define you, they are only bumps in your personal life path. Use positive self-talk to forgive yourself. Say to yourself “I made a mistake but I am still a good person.” In poverty, people find it more difficult to exercise self-control. You’re often in situations where you need help -- financial and material -- immediately. Think about occasions where you did not exercise proper self-control. You might have felt tempted to engage in habits like drinking or binge-eating which release endorphins and make you feel good. You might have lost your temper more than you did before you were struggling with poverty. Whatever the case, try to become conscious of occasions where you lose control and take positive steps to reign yourself in. Try to find positive outlets for your energy. When you feel that you might blow up on someone or want to have a drink, go for a run or bike ride instead. Try painting a picture or playing a musical instrument. Get enough rest. A full night’s sleep -- 6 to 8 hours -- is important for thinking clearly and deliberately. You’ll be more able to exercise self-control when you are well-rested. Set a regular bed time and stick to it each night.", "A food bank is an organization run by a church, homeless shelter, or community aid organization which offers food to those in need. Community dinners are often offered at local churches and community aid organizations for free or at extremely low cost. Call local churches to find out if they have weekly spaghetti dinners, soup kitchens, or other events where meals are provided to the general public. SNAP provides nutrition assistance to low-income individuals and families. The program is provided by the US Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service, and funded publicly. To qualify for SNAP, you can have up to$2,250 in total household bank accounts, or $3,250 if you’re 60 or older. Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and most retirement plans do not count against the total financial resources used to determine whether you qualify. The amount of income you earn also determines eligibility. To apply, find your state’s public assistance office. A full list of such offices and the online SNAP applications of states which offer them are available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/apply. Fill in the required paperwork and mail, digitally submit, or print your application. Response times vary by state. You might also try identifying and calling your local SNAP hotline with this list: http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/state-informationhotline-numbers. SNAP benefits can be used for food purchases only. Pet foods, soaps, household supplies, vitamins and medicines, alcohol, and hot foods (take-out or deli pizzas, for example) cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. CSFP is a nutritional assistance program designed to improve healthy eating in low-income elderly people by providing them with healthy foods. The program is administered by the US Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service and is similar to other nutritional assistance programs like WIC and SNAP. To sign up for CSFP, contact your local human resources office. Search the USDA’s database for a CSFP provider at http://www.fns.usda.gov/fdd/food-distribution-contacts. If you are a low-income mother, you may be eligible for WIC benefits. The program is publicly funded and administered through the US Department of Agriculture to provide food for poor mothers and their children. Foods given to qualifying individuals as part of WIC packages include juice, milk, breakfast cereal, cheese, eggs, fruits and vegetables, whole wheat bread, canned fish, peanut butter, and legumes. To apply for WIC, contact your local state or county public assistance office. Public housing is a comprehensive suite of three rental assistance programs, plus Section 8 vouchers, designed to give low-income individuals more affordable housing options. The programs are run by local agencies but overseen by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Most tenants in public housing pay around just 30% of their income to subsidize their rent. Limiting your housing costs in this way is an important step toward surviving poverty. To qualify for public housing, you must earn 80% or less of the average local income. Contact your local HUD office or search for publicly subsidized housing on HUD’s site at http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/topics/rental_assistance to learn how you can apply for public housing in your state or municipality.", "Do not invest your money in banks. Credit unions tend to have lower fees, higher savings rates, and lower loan rates than banks, which cater more toward businesses. Credit unions are also more likely to have lower minimum account balance requirements than banks. These places offer you your cash instantly, but take a percentage out of your total check. This will leave you with significantly less income over time. For instance, assume you cash a$100 check each week, and the check cashing service takes 5% of the check. It doesn’t seem like much, but it adds up quickly. At that rate, it translates to five dollars each week; by year’s end, that’s $260. Overdrawn accounts are more likely to happen when you are financially on the edge. This leads to late fees and charges. Ending automatic debit for utilities, rent, and other regular costs might take more time out of your schedule each month, but you will have financial control returned to you. This can be a challenge when you’re living on a fixed or limited income, but there are positive steps you can take to reduce your financial risks. Don’t take out new credit cards; work instead on paying off the balance on your current credit cards and loans. Draw up a household budget. In one column, calculate your household’s total income. This includes revenue coming in not only from you, but from everyone in your house. Then calculate your household’s total expenses. Think about the costs accumulated by children and pets as well as by you and any other adults in the house. Subtract the expenses from the income total. If the expenses exceed the income, try to find where you can cut some expenses, or figure a way to increase your income streams. Before buying anything, always ask yourself this question: \"Is this really necessary?\" If not, put it back on the shelf for another day when you are not so poor. Full-time jobs are exceedingly rare. You’ll likely have to cobble together a work schedule consisting of multiple part-time jobs to make ends meet. While it can be inconvenient to juggle two or even three work schedules, such an arrangement will ensure you always have some source of income. If one job fails to provide an adequate amount of hours in a given week or month, you’ll already have your other job(s) to fall back on. Don’t be afraid to request working more hours if you think you can take them on. Employers like seeing helpful employees who are eager to work. If you have trouble finding additional time in your schedule to work due to the presence of small children, ask a trusted relative or neighbor to tend to them while you go to work. If you have a hard time locating transportation to get to or from a place of work, ask coworkers, friends, or family to give you a ride. Check local public transit options as well. If it is impossible to take on extra work, ask for a raise at your current place of employment. You are more likely to get a raise if you’ve been on the job for at least a year. If the restaurant you work at pays 10 bucks an hour and the restaurant up the street pays 11 bucks an hour, you should think about jumping ship. Don’t feel bad about leaving a job. It’s nothing personal, you’re just looking out for your own economic interests. If you are in debt, you might consider speaking with a debt counselor. Debt counselors can help you consolidate your debt or construct a repayment plan to get your debt under control. You could also seek assistance from a financial advisor, a specially trained economic expert who helps individuals utilize and save their money in the most efficient way possible. Financial advisors can educate and train you on how to budget your money. They are often available over the phone or online, as well as in person. Be on the lookout for credit counseling scams. Some organizations purport to be debt counseling agencies but are in fact in the business of preying on economically vulnerable individuals, and charge lots of fees Do not allow any agency to add you as an authorized user on another bank account, or obtain an Employer Identification Number for you.", "Almost anything can be repaired -- cobblers, hardware stores, and electronics repair shops are all available for hire. For instance, instead of investing in a whole new couch, have it reupholstered. Instead of buying a new TV, take it to the repair shop to extend its life or replace broken parts. If a new household purchase is unavoidable, save money slowly over time in order to purchase the item you need. Avoid rent-to-own options. Rent-to-own furniture or electronic equipment is a tempting offer because you can pay in small installments over a long period. But in the long run, it will cost you more than if you had just paid the whole amount all at once. Check supermarket flyers, factory outlets, and thrift stores to help you save. Try to find stores that offer price-matching sales so that you can save time by bringing in competitors’ ads instead of hoofing it all over to the stores which offer the best deals. Compare prices carefully. Many stores provide direct price comparisons if you look closely on shelf tags in the grocery store. For instance, price-per-unit shelf tags might indicate that one brand of juice might cost$1 per liter, while another might cost $1.20 per liter. Whenever possible, opt for the less expensive choice. Buying in bulk means you pay by the pound for one large bag of something rather than buying several smaller pre-measured packages of the same foodstuff. Doing this will lower your grocery costs. Since grocers can move more product this way, you’ll get a lower rate per pound. For instance, instead of buying three two-pound bags of rice for$2 each, you might buy a seven pound bag for $5, and end up with more food for less money. Ethnic grocers are good places to stock up on staples like rice, beans, and vegetables in bulk. Economy size indicates a product you’ll pay less per unit of measure for when buying more of it. For example, many grocery stores offer a one pound box of cereal for$3 per pound, or a somewhat larger two pound box of the same cereal for only $2.50 per pound. This nominal difference will save you more in the long run. Even though the total cost of the somewhat larger box is more expensive ($5 as compared to $3 for the smaller box), you’re getting more cereal for your money. Shop consciously when you go to the grocery store (or any store, really). This way, you’ll have a kind of roadmap when you’re visiting the grocery store, and won’t just wander all over the store looking at (and possibly buying) things you don’t really need. Obtain the items on your shopping list, head to checkout, and leave. Look for more spartan shops. Part of what you pay for when you visit a grocery store is the experience. An upscale place like Whole Foods is not the best place to shop if you’re trying to survive being poor." ], "summary": [ "Stay healthy. Spend time with friends and family. Plan for the future. Recognize your own abilities. Exercise self-control.", "Take advantage of local food banks. Apply for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Sign up for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP). Apply for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits. Apply for public housing.", "Open a credit union account. Do not cash your checks at check cashing services. Do not utilize automatic debit services from your bank. Live within your means. Don’t rely on a single income stream, if possible. Keep an eye out for better work opportunities. Solicit financial advice from a consultant.", "Repair or refresh what you have instead of buying new stuff. Hunt for bargains. Buy foods in bulk. Buy economy size when you can. Make a shopping list before going shopping." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Copy-and-Paste-Google-Books { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Personal-Statement-for-UCAS { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Compress-Photo-Files-With-Microsoft-Office-Picture-Manager { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Use-a-Derma-Roller { "section_name": [ "Cleaning the Roller and Your Skin", "Rolling the Area", "Cleaning Up" ], "document": [ "Tiny needles are penetrating your skin, so obviously you want to disinfect those needles first. Soak the roller in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Leave it for 10 minutes. 70% is better than 99% because it doesn't evaporate as quickly. After it's soaked for 10 minutes, pull it out, and shake off the excess alcohol. Let it air dry for a few minutes. It's important to start with clean skin. For example, you could use a gentle foaming cleanser for your face to thoroughly clean your skin. Bar soap or shower gel and water for other parts of your body are fine. The point is you need to start with clean skin, and it's fine to use your typical cleansers. However, you don't want to start with anything too harsh, so skip facial cleansers with things like salicyclic acid in them. Opt for something gentler. Longer needles mean deeper penetration, which in turn can lead to infection. If you're using needles longer than 0.5 millimeters long, you should disinfect your skin in addition to the roller. Gently swipe rubbing alcohol (70% isopropyl) all across your skin.", "Most people aren't sensitive to the needles, but if you're sensitive to pain, you can use a numbing cream first, particularly if you have needles that are 1.0 millimeter or longer. Rub a lidocaine cream into the area, and leave it for 20 minutes before you start rolling. Wipe off any excess cream before you roll. Start on one edge of the area. Roll up it from top to bottom, avoiding the eye socket area if you're doing your face. Lift it up, and roll over the same area again, repeating 6 times in total. Move the roller over and repeat. Keep going until you've done the whole area. If you're using longer needles, such as 1.0 millimeter or higher, you may see some light bleeding. However, if you notice more than pinpricks of blood, you should stop. You may need a smaller needle. Starting at the top or bottom, roll across the area horizontally. Lift up, and roll over the same area again. Roll over it 6 times altogether. Move down or up a little bit, and repeat the process until you've done the whole area. You can also go diagonally, but that can lead to uneven needling. You can overdo it with microneedling, especially on your face. Therefore, it's a good idea to limit each rolling session to under 2 minutes if you can. Using it too often can lead to inflammation. At most, try using your derma roller 3 to 5 times a week, making sure to give your skin a break every now and then. Some people only use this treatment every 6 weeks, for instance.", "After you're done, rinse off your face. You can just use water, since you've already cleansed your face, but you need to remove any blood traces. You can also use a gentle cleanser if you prefer. It can help to use a hydration product after you're done. For instance, a sheet mask can help you hydrate and heal. Another option is applying an anti-aging or anti-wrinkle serum after you're done. These serums will penetrate more deeply because of the micro holes. Wash your roller off using dish soap and hot water. Dish soap is better than other soaps at removing the tiny particles of blood and skin on your roller. Put the soap and water in a clean container, and shake the roller around in the water. Shake off excess water. Put the roller in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Let it soak for 10 minutes before shaking off the alcohol. Give it a chance to air dry before putting it away." ], "summary": [ "Disinfect the roller before use. Wash your skin in warm water. Disinfect your skin if you're using longer needles.", "Begin with a numbing cream if you prefer. Roll vertically. Roll horizontally. Stop rolling after 2 minutes, particularly on your face. Use a derma roller every other day or so.", "Rinse your face. Hydrate your skin. Clean the roller in dish soap and water. Disinfect the roller after use." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Diagnose-Your-Tree-Frog%27s-Illness { "section_name": [ "Looking for More Signs of Illness", "Noticing Obvious Changes", "Getting a Veterinary Diagnosis" ], "document": [ "Damage on the frog's skin when you first get it is probably due to being banged around while in transit. However, if the injury doesn't heal in a few days the damage could be the result of a bacterial infection. If it doesn't heal over the course of a week or so, the frog needs to be taken care of by a vet. If not treated, these infections and wounds can let harmful bacteria into your frog's body. This can result in death. Sores and bruises, as well as cuts, can cause a frog's skin to look strange. If your frog's eyes are smoky, cloudy, foggy, or blueish, it most likely has a condition known as Cloudy Eye. This occurs when the eye is bashed, poked, or scratched. If your frog's eyes are cloudy, you should get it veterinary care. If your frog has lost weight, it may have either an internal parasite or Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD). A vet can cure both MBD and a parasitic infection, so take your frog to be seen by a vet if it has lost weight. If your frog has gained weight, this is probably due to overfeeding, or it could be a sign of edema. Cut back on the amount of food it gets and make sure its weight stabilizes by weighing it every few days. If your frog is losing weight, it could be that your frog is just naturally thin or that it needs to be fed more. You will need a digital scale to weigh your tree frog. Set a container with a lid on it on your scale and zero it out. Then put the frog in the container and read the screen. If you plan on documenting the frog's weight over time, be sure to write down its weight every time you weigh it.", "There are a variety of illnesses that can cause a tree frog to become discolored. Red-Leg, a common disease in pet tree frogs, causes the skin near the frog's legs to turn reddish. Sometimes something as simple as lack of humidity, stress, or a poor diet can cause a frog to have darkened skin. If your frog's skin is dry in addition to being discolored, this can be caused by a combination of stress and dehydration. However, some tree frogs naturally have a bit of red pigment on their legs. Keep track of your frog's coloring so that you can tell when it changes. If your frog is discolored, you should have it seen by a veterinarian. Lethargy can be a key symptom of a variety of illnesses that occur in tree frogs. They include Red-Leg, MBD, edema, and others. Look for a lack of activity, the frog's jaw to hang open, and its legs to be sprawled out. Red-Leg is often fatal — there is no known cure for it. MBD is usually curable if it is treated right away. MBD usually makes the frog stop eating and jumping. This is due to improper feeding, which causes a lack of vitamin D and calcium. Edema is when the frog swells up and becomes lethargic because it is so bloated. If your frog is lethargic and not bloated, then it does not have edema. If your frog has swollen up, it is most likely caused by edema. There are actually two types of edema. One is a bacterial infection and the other is from kidney failure due to vitamin toxicity. If it is the bacterial kind, you should soak your frog in clean spring water for a few hours to clear out the infection. The frog should be alright after that. Unfortunately, if your frog has edema caused by kidney failure, it will most likely die from the condition. Since bacterial edema can be cleared up relatively easily at home and the one caused by kidney failure is always fatal, it is up to you whether to take your frog in to be seen by a vet. To prevent edema, clean your frog's cage weekly and change its water frequently. Dying from kidney failure can be a slow, painful process. If your frog has edema caused by kidney failure, humane euthanasia performed by your vet is an option. Changes in your frog's appetite can signal a problem with their digestive system or an illness that does not allow them to catch their prey. For example, lack of appetite is a symptom of MBD. This disease weakens the bones of your frog and decreases its energy so much that it can't chase down its prey. MBD is often caused by improper feeding. Trouble with eating could also be the result of a parasite. If you have more than one frog housed in the terrarium, some frogs could be getting more food than others. You should also make sure you are feeding your frogs small crickets, because medium and large ones are too big for a tree frog to swallow. Your frog may be ill if it is awake during the day. Lack of sleep can occur when the frog is stressed out, such as right after you bring it home. However, it can also be a symptom of diseases that make the animal uncomfortable, such as edema.", "To find a vet that works with frogs, contact local veterinary schools or look online for lists of veterinarians that work with amphibians. For example, you can look at the website of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. If there are several vets in your area who work with amphibians, make sure the vet you choose is the one that has the most experience with tree frogs. It's a good idea to find a vet before your frog is actually sick. Having an established relationship with a veterinarian that treats tree frogs will make it easier to get your pet quick care when it needs it. It is best to have your frog checked out by a veterinarian if you see a symptom of illness. While you may end up bringing your pet in for a problem that is non-existent, it is better to be safe than sorry. Some diseases require quick treatment in order to be eliminated. If you suspect that your tree frog is sick but you are unsure about bringing it in to be seen by a vet, at least call the veterinary office and talk to them. Tell them about your pet's symptoms and ask them if they think your frog needs treatment. If your tree frog is indeed ill, your veterinarian will begin its treatment and will give you instructions on how to continue treatment at home. Follow these directions and be sure to continue treatment for as long as your veterinarian suggests, even if your tree frog seems completely healed. If treatment is not minimizing your frog's symptoms or they are getting worse, contact your vet once again. It may be that your frog needs a different type or amount of treatment." ], "summary": [ "Look for sores, cuts, and bruises. Inspect your frog's eyes. Monitor your tree frog's weight.", "Check for discoloration. Assess your frog's energy level. Look for bloating. Consider trouble with eating. Pay attention to changes in your frog's sleeping habits.", "Find a vet that is experienced with treating tree frogs. Take your frog in for an examination. Follow your veterinarian's suggestions for treatment." ] } https://www.wikihow.com/Fold-Paper-Airplanes { "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] } https://www.wikihow.com/Cancel-a-Credit-Card-Payment { "section_name": [ "Stopping a Pre-Arranged Payment Before It Happens", "Withholding or Reversing a Payment After It Has Been Made" ], "document": [ "If you have an automatic payment option established with your account, accessing the account online will typically allow the cardholder to view the list of pending payments along with the scheduled dates. A quick review of the upcoming payments will make it easy to see if one or more need to be stopped and rescheduled for a later date. Many providers allow a time frame in which pending payments may be canceled, changed or rescheduled. Make sure to initiate the change within the required period in order to prevent possible rejections by your bank, a situation that would result in the assessment of late charges and other fees and penalties. Stopping a scheduled credit card payment requires nothing more than telephoning the provider, identifying the upcoming payment date and canceling that pending payment. Be prepared to provide information that confirms your identity and serves as authorization to make the changes. Alternatively, log into the account using your account credentials, access the pending payments and cancel the payment or payments that need to be delayed. Keep a record of who you talked to, date, time, and outcome of call. Follow up with letter confirming conversation. Confirmation of the changes to your payment schedule are usually provided instantly in an online environment or follow shortly thereafter in the form of an official email confirmation. If the changes are made by phone, the customer service representative will confirm that the changes are complete before ending the call, and will typically offer a confirmation number. Write down the number and keep in on file, just in case the changes do not make it all the way through the system for some reason. If stopping a pre-arranged payment also means that you will be unable to make a payment on time, it is important to call the provider to notify them. This can help to potentially waive any late fees, and could establish good will. For example, if you are postponing your monthly cell phone, call the provider and notify them you will be late. They may be able waive or negotiate a one-time reduction or elimination in your late fee.", "If a payment has already been made to a vendor, there are certain circumstances in which you can withhold or even reverse a payment on a credit card. These rights are granted to you under the Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA). Under the FCBA, if you make a purchase over$50, and the merchant is in your state, or, within 100 miles (160 km) you may withhold a purchase under various circumstances. These circumstances include: If you order a goods and they show up damaged or defective (and the seller will not take it back or replace it), if you order goods and they do not appear within 30 days (and the seller is not dealing with it), if a package you did not order appears from a merchant which has your credit card information, or if you made a purchase from a merchant that went out of business. While the FCBA does indicate you have the right to withhold payment in the above situations, it also states you can only do so if you made a good-faith effort to correct the issue directly with the merchant. What constitutes a good-faith effort? Firstly, attempt to contact the seller via phone. If they do not answer, or if they refuse to refund payment or refund or resolve the issue, this would constitute a good faith effort. Keep records of your phone calls including name of person talked to, date, time of call, and outcome. Follow up any phone call with a letter. Explain in detail the situation, the product, and your rights as previously mentioned under the FCBA. Mail the letter to the seller (or hand deliver it if possible), and retain a copy for yourself. To withhold a payment is to not pay the amount in dispute. If you go ahead and pay the amount in dispute, this could complicate the situation, and at this point you would be looking to reverse a payment, which will be discussed in the following steps. Be sure to pay any other charges to your account that are not related to the disputed amount. This could include other charges to your card or fees. If working out the situation with the merchant directly fails, it is essential to contact your credit card issuer to inform them of the matter and express your desire to withhold payment. Write the issuer of your credit. In your letter make sure to state your name, the card number, the name of the seller as it appears on the credit card statement, the date of purchase, the amount paid, and an explanation of your reason for withholding the purchase. It is possible to conduct this by telephone. If you do so, make sure to follow up with a letter. As well, send a copy of this letter to the merchant to ensure they are aware that you have contacted the credit card company about the matter. Make sure to retain a copy of the letter. Act as promptly as possible. The Fair Credit Card Billing act states that you have 60 days to take action after you received the bill for the disputed amount. The quicker you act the better your odds of success. The credit card company will analyze the required information and make a decision as to side either with your, or with the merchant. Often, because credit card companies want to retain customers, they will issue a temporary credit to your account in the amount of the disputed purchase. The company will then contact the merchant. After consulting with the merchant, if the credit card company agrees that you are in the right, they will either maintain the credit they already issued you, or issue one of they have no already. If they side with the merchant, you will be required to make the payment on your card. The above steps should be sufficient to allow to withhold payment on your card. There are however some limitations in which you will not be able to withhold. You can only withhold payments for consumer transactions. That is to say, if you are using your card to make a personal, family, or household purchase. If the card is used for business purposes, these benefits do not apply. You can only withhold payments if you used your credit card as a credit card. What this means is that if no credit was extended (like if you use overdraft or cash advance feature), you will not be able to withhold payments. You can only withhold payment if it is over \$50 or if the sale took place in your home state or within 100 miles (160 km) of your home address. You can only withhold payment on the balance of the purchase that is unpaid. That is to say, the remaining unpaid balance of the purchase on the day that you initially notified the seller is the only amount you can withhold payment on. If you've already paid your credit card bill and are later unhappy with your purchase, you can request a payment be reversed or refunded. The steps to do so follow the exact steps as withholding a payment. Contact the seller first and request a refund. If unsuccessful, follow through with your credit card issuer as described above. If the credit card company deems your complaint to be valid, they will permit the reversal and issue a refund to your account. For example, if you notice a charge on your card from a merchant that previously had your card information, or if you notice any other mysterious transactions on your card. In cases of fraudulent payments (like if you notice a transaction you simply never made, or from a merchant you have no prior relationship) simply contact your credit card company and they will quickly resolve your dilemma." ], "summary": [ "Identify the credit card payment that you need canceled or stopped. Check any restrictions that may apply to stopping credit card payments. Notify the credit card provider of the need to stop the pending credit card payment. Verify that the credit card payment has been canceled. Notify the merchant if your payment will be late.", "Understand your rights. Attempt to resolve the dispute with the seller. Ensure you do not pay the disputed amount. Contact the issuer of your credit card. Wait for a decision by your credit card company. Understand the limitations. Reverse a payment that was already made. Apply these same steps to any other form of disputed payment." ] }
https://www.wikihow.com/Become-a-Nature-Photographer
https://www.wikihow.com/Check-Your-Screen-Resolution
https://www.wikihow.com/Date-a-Short-Guy-As-a-Tall-Girl
https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Portable-and-Rechargeable-USB-Charger
{ "section_name": [], "document": [], "summary": [] }
https://www.wikihow.com/Make-Hermit-Crab-Food
https://www.wikihow.com/Skim-Coat

# Dataset Card for "wiki_lingua"

### Dataset Summary

We introduce WikiLingua, a large-scale, multilingual dataset for the evaluation of cross-lingual abstractive summarization systems. We extract article and summary pairs in 18 languages from WikiHow, a high quality, collaborative resource of how-to guides on a diverse set of topics written by human authors. We create gold-standard article-summary alignments across languages by aligning the images that are used to describe each how-to step in an article.

### Languages

The table below shows number of article-summary pairs with a parallel article-summary pair in English.

Language Num. parallel
English 141,457
Spanish 113,215
Portuguese 81,695
French 63,692
German 58,375
Russian 52,928
Italian 50,968
Indonesian 47,511
Dutch 31,270
Arabic 29,229
Vietnamese 19,600
Chinese 18,887
Thai 14,770
Japanese 12,669
Korean 12,189
Hindi 9,929
Czech 7,200
Turkish 4,503

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

{
'article': {
],
'section_name': ['Finding Other Transportation',
'Designating a Driver',
'Staying Safe'
],
'summary': ['Walk to the venue where you will be drinking if it is close enough. Take public transit. Show up in style by hiring a limo or black car service. Flag a taxi cab for a convenient option to get where you’re going. Request a rideshare service like Uber or Lyft using an app on your phone. Reserve a designated driver service.',
'Plan in advance. Assign a designated driver. Leave your car at home. Leave the venue with your designated driver.',
'Pay attention to your body. Give up your keys. Listen to other people. Accept help. Stay where you are. Have an emergency back-up plan. Make sure that your phone is charged.'
]
},
'url': 'https://www.wikihow.com/Avoid-Drinking-and-Driving'
}


### Data Fields

• url: WikiHow URL of the article
• article: A dictionary containing section_name, document and summary
• section_name: List of section headings in an article
• document: List of documents, one for each section in the section_name list
• summary: List of summarized document

train
arabic 9995
chinese 6541
czech 2520
dutch 10862
english 57945
french 21690
german 20103
hindi 3402
indonesian 16308
italian 17673
japanese 4372
korean 4111
portuguese 28143
russian 18143
spanish 6616
thai 5093
turkish 1512
vietnamese 6616

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Citation Information

@inproceedings{ladhak-etal-2020-wikilingua,
title = "{W}iki{L}ingua: A New Benchmark Dataset for Cross-Lingual Abstractive Summarization",
Durmus, Esin  and
Cardie, Claire  and
McKeown, Kathleen",
booktitle = "Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020",
month = nov,
year = "2020",
publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
url = "https://aclanthology.org/2020.findings-emnlp.360",
doi = "10.18653/v1/2020.findings-emnlp.360",
pages = "4034--4048",
}


### Contributions

Thanks to @katnoria for adding this dataset.