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set (sequence)
[ "Millimeter-wave CMOS digital controlled artificial dielectric differential mode transmission lines for reconfigurable ICs", "CMP network-on-chip overlaid with multi-band RF-interconnect", "Route packets, not wires: on-chip interconnection networks" ]
[ "Millimeter-wave CMOS digital controlled artificial dielectric differential mode transmission lines for reconfigurable ICs", "CMP network-on-chip overlaid with multi-band RF-interconnect", "Entheses: tendon and ligament attachment sites" ]
[ "Millimeter-wave CMOS digital controlled artificial dielectric differential mode transmission lines for reconfigurable ICs", "CMP network-on-chip overlaid with multi-band RF-interconnect", "Packet leashes: a defense against wormhole attacks in wireless networks" ]
[ "Millimeter-wave CMOS digital controlled artificial dielectric differential mode transmission lines for reconfigurable ICs", "CMP network-on-chip overlaid with multi-band RF-interconnect", "Text2Action: Generative Adversarial Synthesis from Language to Action" ]
[ "Millimeter-wave CMOS digital controlled artificial dielectric differential mode transmission lines for reconfigurable ICs", "CMP network-on-chip overlaid with multi-band RF-interconnect", "Parsing Natural Language Conversations using Contextual Cues" ]
[ "Discriminative Representation Combinations for Accurate Face Spoofing Detection", "Deep Representations for Iris, Face, and Fingerprint Spoofing Detection", "The DET curve in assessment of detection task performance" ]
[ "Discriminative Representation Combinations for Accurate Face Spoofing Detection", "Robust Real-Time Face Detection", "trustworthy scrum : development of secure software with scrum ." ]
[ "Discriminative Representation Combinations for Accurate Face Spoofing Detection", "A face antispoofing database with diverse attacks", "The valuation of correlation-dependent credit derivatives using a structural model" ]
[ "Discriminative Representation Combinations for Accurate Face Spoofing Detection", "Deep Representations for Iris, Face, and Fingerprint Spoofing Detection", "Swallowing Preparation and Execution: Insights from a Delayed-Response Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study" ]
[ "Discriminative Representation Combinations for Accurate Face Spoofing Detection", "Robust Real-Time Face Detection", "Pseudo differential operational transconductance amplifier using common mode feed forward and HD3 feed forward" ]
[ "Integrating children's contributions in the interaction design process", "Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments", "What do prototypes prototype" ]
[ "Integrating children's contributions in the interaction design process", "Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments", "Fluorescence Concentric Triangles: A Case of Chemical Heterogeneity in WS2Atomic Monolayer" ]
[ "Integrating children's contributions in the interaction design process", "Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments", "Power Operation in ISD: Technological Frames Perspectives." ]
[ "Integrating children's contributions in the interaction design process", "Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments", "Entheses: tendon and ligament attachment sites" ]
[ "Integrating children's contributions in the interaction design process", "Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments", "Cloud Computing: Survey on Energy Efficiency" ]
[ "Structured Dictionary Learning for Classification", "Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information", "face recognition by humans : nineteen results all computer vision researchers should know about ." ]
[ "Structured Dictionary Learning for Classification", "Robust Face Recognition via Sparse Representation", "Relationship between the deep peroneal nerve and dorsalis pedis artery in the foot: a cadaveric study." ]
[ "Structured Dictionary Learning for Classification", "Regression Shrinkage and Selection Via the Lasso", "Specificity and Definiteness in Sentence and Discourse Structure" ]
[ "Structured Dictionary Learning for Classification", "C-HiLasso: A Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling Framework", "Unconstrained face recognition: Establishing baseline human performance via crowdsourcing" ]
[ "Structured Dictionary Learning for Classification", "Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information", "Bumpless Automatic Transfer for a Switched-Doubly-Fed-Machine Propulsion Drive" ]
[ "Low latency analytics for streaming traffic data with Apache Spark", "Semantic data provisioning and reasoning for the Internet of Things", "Streaming the Web : Reasoning over Dynamic Data" ]
[ "Low latency analytics for streaming traffic data with Apache Spark", "Big Data: Principles and best practices of scalable realtime data systems", "Spin orbitronics: Charges ride the spin wave" ]
[ "Low latency analytics for streaming traffic data with Apache Spark", "Big Data: Principles and best practices of scalable realtime data systems", "Implications of Mobility: The Uses of Personal Communication Media in Everyday Life" ]
[ "Low latency analytics for streaming traffic data with Apache Spark", "Semantic data provisioning and reasoning for the Internet of Things", "A review of algorithms for audio fingerprinting" ]
[ "Low latency analytics for streaming traffic data with Apache Spark", "Big Data: Principles and best practices of scalable realtime data systems", "Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis" ]
[ "Time-dependent trajectory regression on road networks via multi-task learning", "Adaptive Fastest Path Computation on a Road Network: A Traffic Mining Approach", "A training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers" ]
[ "Time-dependent trajectory regression on road networks via multi-task learning", "Convex multi-task feature learning", "GAN-based Synthetic Medical Image Augmentation for increased CNN Performance in Liver Lesion Classification" ]
[ "Time-dependent trajectory regression on road networks via multi-task learning", "Sparsity and smoothness via the fused lasso", "[Travelers diarrhea]." ]
[ "Time-dependent trajectory regression on road networks via multi-task learning", "A Convex Formulation for Learning Task Relationships in Multi-Task Learning", "Spatially adaptive FLIP fluid simulations in bifrost" ]
[ "Time-dependent trajectory regression on road networks via multi-task learning", "Adaptive Fastest Path Computation on a Road Network: A Traffic Mining Approach", "Pachinko allocation: DAG-structured mixture models of topic correlations" ]
[ "A Comparison of Noise Handling Techniques", "Robust Decision Trees: Removing Outliers from Databases", "Prototype and Feature Selection by Sampling and Random Mutation Hill Climbing Algorithms" ]
[ "A Comparison of Noise Handling Techniques", "Robust Decision Trees: Removing Outliers from Databases", "Learning drifting concepts: Example selection vs. example weighting" ]
[ "A Comparison of Noise Handling Techniques", "Robust Decision Trees: Removing Outliers from Databases", "A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Flexible Convolutional Autoencoder for Image Classification" ]
[ "A Comparison of Noise Handling Techniques", "Robust Decision Trees: Removing Outliers from Databases", "A Ku/Ka dual-band dual-CP tracking feed" ]
[ "A Comparison of Noise Handling Techniques", "Robust Decision Trees: Removing Outliers from Databases", "Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis" ]
[ "Effective 3D action recognition using EigenJoints", "Mining actionlet ensemble for action recognition with depth cameras", "On Space-Time Interest Points" ]
[ "Effective 3D action recognition using EigenJoints", "A spatio-temporal descriptor based on 3D-gradients", "Fidaxomicin: A novel macrocyclic antibiotic for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection" ]
[ "Effective 3D action recognition using EigenJoints", "Behavior recognition via sparse spatio-temporal features", "Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics Between Virtual Synchronous Generator and Droop Control in Inverter-Based Distributed Generators" ]
[ "Effective 3D action recognition using EigenJoints", "Mining actionlet ensemble for action recognition with depth cameras", "Anal skin tags in inflammatory bowel disease: New observations and a clinical review" ]
[ "Effective 3D action recognition using EigenJoints", "Mining actionlet ensemble for action recognition with depth cameras", "Using Sampling and Queries to Extract Rules from Trained Neural Networks" ]
[ "Normal-Mode Decomposition of Surface Power Distribution in Multiple-Coil Induction Heating Systems", "Dynamic Analysis and Control for Resonant Currents in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System", "FPGA-Based Test-Bench for Resonant Inverter Load Characterization" ]
[ "Normal-Mode Decomposition of Surface Power Distribution in Multiple-Coil Induction Heating Systems", "Dynamic Analysis and Control for Resonant Currents in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System", "Deconstructing Stem Cell Tumorigenicity: A Roadmap to Safe Regenerative Medicine" ]
[ "Normal-Mode Decomposition of Surface Power Distribution in Multiple-Coil Induction Heating Systems", "Dynamic Analysis and Control for Resonant Currents in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System", "GAN-based Synthetic Medical Image Augmentation for increased CNN Performance in Liver Lesion Classification" ]
[ "Normal-Mode Decomposition of Surface Power Distribution in Multiple-Coil Induction Heating Systems", "Dynamic Analysis and Control for Resonant Currents in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System", "Safety assessment modeling for thermal power plants using hierarchical SDG-HAZOP method" ]
[ "Normal-Mode Decomposition of Surface Power Distribution in Multiple-Coil Induction Heating Systems", "Dynamic Analysis and Control for Resonant Currents in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System", "Spatially adaptive FLIP fluid simulations in bifrost" ]
[ "Authorship Attribution Based on Life-Like Network Automata", "Influence of Word Normalization on Text Classification", "A comparison of event models for Naive Bayes text classification" ]
[ "Authorship Attribution Based on Life-Like Network Automata", "Influence of Word Normalization on Text Classification", "Entheses: tendon and ligament attachment sites" ]
[ "Authorship Attribution Based on Life-Like Network Automata", "Influence of Word Normalization on Text Classification", "Packet leashes: a defense against wormhole attacks in wireless networks" ]
[ "Authorship Attribution Based on Life-Like Network Automata", "Influence of Word Normalization on Text Classification", "Dense scene reconstruction with points of interest" ]
[ "Authorship Attribution Based on Life-Like Network Automata", "Influence of Word Normalization on Text Classification", "Parsing Natural Language Conversations using Contextual Cues" ]
[ "Research Note - Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions", "a self - awareness approach to computer - mediated communication .", "Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs." ]
[ "Research Note - Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions", "Internet users' information privacy-protective responses: a taxonomy and a nomological model", "Web accessibility for older adults: effects of line spacing and text justification on reading web pages" ]
[ "Research Note - Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions", "Internet users' information privacy-protective responses: a taxonomy and a nomological model", "Analysing Semantic Flow in Academic Writing" ]
[ "Research Note - Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions", "a self - awareness approach to computer - mediated communication .", "the variable nature of cognitive control : a dual mechanisms framework ." ]
[ "Research Note - Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions", "Internet users' information privacy-protective responses: a taxonomy and a nomological model", "An integrated model of factors affecting consumer attitudes towards online shopping" ]
[ "Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain", "LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines", "Learning Continuous Phrase Representations and Syntactic Parsing with Recursive Neural Networks" ]
[ "Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain", "From Frequency to Meaning: Vector Space Models of Semantics", "Multi-fingered telemanipulation - mapping of a human hand to a three finger gripper" ]
[ "Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain", "stanford ' s multi - pass sieve coreference resolution system at the conll - 2011 shared task .", "Relationship between the deep peroneal nerve and dorsalis pedis artery in the foot: a cadaveric study." ]
[ "Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain", "LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines", "Robot Manipulator Capability in MATLAB: A Tutorial on Using the Robotics System Toolbox [Tutorial]" ]
[ "Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain", "From Frequency to Meaning: Vector Space Models of Semantics", "Unconstrained face recognition: Establishing baseline human performance via crowdsourcing" ]
[ "The Literature Review of Technology Acceptance Model: A Study of the Bibliometric Distributions", "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", "bibliometrics and beyond : some thoughts on web - based citation analysis ." ]
[ "The Literature Review of Technology Acceptance Model: A Study of the Bibliometric Distributions", "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", "Web accessibility for older adults: effects of line spacing and text justification on reading web pages" ]
[ "The Literature Review of Technology Acceptance Model: A Study of the Bibliometric Distributions", "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", "Analysing Semantic Flow in Academic Writing" ]
[ "The Literature Review of Technology Acceptance Model: A Study of the Bibliometric Distributions", "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", "Text2Action: Generative Adversarial Synthesis from Language to Action" ]
[ "The Literature Review of Technology Acceptance Model: A Study of the Bibliometric Distributions", "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", "An integrated model of factors affecting consumer attitudes towards online shopping" ]
[ "Dynamics of Driver's Gaze: Explorations in Behavior Modeling and Maneuver Prediction", "Car that Knows Before You Do: Anticipating Maneuvers via Learning Temporal Driving Models", "Driver Gaze Region Estimation without Use of Eye Movement" ]
[ "Dynamics of Driver's Gaze: Explorations in Behavior Modeling and Maneuver Prediction", "A computational framework for driver's visual attention using a fully convolutional architecture", "Multi-fingered telemanipulation - mapping of a human hand to a three finger gripper" ]
[ "Dynamics of Driver's Gaze: Explorations in Behavior Modeling and Maneuver Prediction", "Supervised Descent Method and Its Applications to Face Alignment", "Deep Logic Networks: Inserting and Extracting Knowledge From Deep Belief Networks" ]
[ "Dynamics of Driver's Gaze: Explorations in Behavior Modeling and Maneuver Prediction", "Car that Knows Before You Do: Anticipating Maneuvers via Learning Temporal Driving Models", "Deep Learning for Recommender Systems" ]
[ "Dynamics of Driver's Gaze: Explorations in Behavior Modeling and Maneuver Prediction", "A computational framework for driver's visual attention using a fully convolutional architecture", "Pseudo differential operational transconductance amplifier using common mode feed forward and HD3 feed forward" ]
[ "Real-time verification of network properties using Atomic Predicates", "Real Time Network Policy Checking using Header Space Analysis", "Detecting BGP configuration faults with static analysis" ]
[ "Real-time verification of network properties using Atomic Predicates", "Header space analysis: Static checking for networks", "Learning drifting concepts: Example selection vs. example weighting" ]
[ "Real-time verification of network properties using Atomic Predicates", "Header space analysis: Static checking for networks", "A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Flexible Convolutional Autoencoder for Image Classification" ]
[ "Real-time verification of network properties using Atomic Predicates", "Real Time Network Policy Checking using Header Space Analysis", "estimating the economic benefits of bicycling and bicycle facilities : an interpretive review and proposed methods in ." ]
[ "Real-time verification of network properties using Atomic Predicates", "Header space analysis: Static checking for networks", "Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis" ]
[ "Trading off prediction accuracy and power consumption for context-aware wearable computing", "The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory", "Estimating the dimension of a linear model" ]
[ "Trading off prediction accuracy and power consumption for context-aware wearable computing", "Sampling frequency, signal resolution and the accuracy of wearable context recognition systems", "Learning drifting concepts: Example selection vs. example weighting" ]
[ "Trading off prediction accuracy and power consumption for context-aware wearable computing", "Sampling frequency, signal resolution and the accuracy of wearable context recognition systems", "A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Flexible Convolutional Autoencoder for Image Classification" ]
[ "Trading off prediction accuracy and power consumption for context-aware wearable computing", "The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory", "estimating the economic benefits of bicycling and bicycle facilities : an interpretive review and proposed methods in ." ]
[ "Trading off prediction accuracy and power consumption for context-aware wearable computing", "Sampling frequency, signal resolution and the accuracy of wearable context recognition systems", "Coupled semi-supervised learning for information extraction" ]
[ "All digital phase interpolator", "A Wide-Tracking Range Clock and Data Recovery Circuit", "Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators" ]
[ "All digital phase interpolator", "A Semidigital Dual Delay-Locked Loop", "FACIAL ANIMATION AND MOTION CAPTURE : KEY ROLE FOR THE COMMUNICATION" ]
[ "All digital phase interpolator", "A Semidigital Dual Delay-Locked Loop", "Quantity and Quality Aware Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Clustering" ]
[ "All digital phase interpolator", "A Wide-Tracking Range Clock and Data Recovery Circuit", "A Ku/Ka dual-band dual-CP tracking feed" ]
[ "All digital phase interpolator", "A Semidigital Dual Delay-Locked Loop", "Coupled semi-supervised learning for information extraction" ]
[ "Fast and memory-efficient regular expression matching for deep packet inspection", "fast regular expression matching using fpgas .", "introduction to automata theory , languages and computation ." ]
[ "Fast and memory-efficient regular expression matching for deep packet inspection", "fast regular expression matching using fpgas .", "Providing privacy, safety, and security in IoT-based transactive energy systems using distributed ledgers" ]
[ "Fast and memory-efficient regular expression matching for deep packet inspection", "Algorithms to accelerate multiple regular expressions matching for deep packet inspection", "Self-Attention Networks for Connectionist Temporal Classification in Speech Recognition" ]
[ "Fast and memory-efficient regular expression matching for deep packet inspection", "fast regular expression matching using fpgas .", "Quantity and Quality Aware Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Clustering" ]
[ "Fast and memory-efficient regular expression matching for deep packet inspection", "fast regular expression matching using fpgas .", "Valid Items for Screening Dysphagia Risk in Patients With Stroke: A Systematic Review" ]
[ "Packet Inspection for Unauthorized OS Detection in Enterprises", "SubVirt: implementing malware with virtual machines", "Copilot - a coprocessor-based kernel runtime integrity monitor" ]
[ "Packet Inspection for Unauthorized OS Detection in Enterprises", "SubVirt: implementing malware with virtual machines", "A Subsequence Interleaving Model for Sequential Pattern Mining" ]
[ "Packet Inspection for Unauthorized OS Detection in Enterprises", "SubVirt: implementing malware with virtual machines", "Providing privacy, safety, and security in IoT-based transactive energy systems using distributed ledgers" ]
[ "Packet Inspection for Unauthorized OS Detection in Enterprises", "SubVirt: implementing malware with virtual machines", "Self-Attention Networks for Connectionist Temporal Classification in Speech Recognition" ]
[ "Packet Inspection for Unauthorized OS Detection in Enterprises", "SubVirt: implementing malware with virtual machines", "Cloud Computing: Survey on Energy Efficiency" ]
[ "A low phase noise oscillator using SIW combline resonator", "Theory and Design of Octave Tunable Filters With Lumped Tuning Elements", "Highly Loaded Evanescent Cavities for Widely Tunable High-Q Filters" ]
[ "A low phase noise oscillator using SIW combline resonator", "A Low Phase-Noise VCO Using an Electronically Tunable Substrate Integrated Waveguide Resonator", "Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: Current options." ]
[ "A low phase noise oscillator using SIW combline resonator", "A compact-size microstrip spiral resonator and its application to microwave oscillator", "[Travelers diarrhea]." ]
[ "A low phase noise oscillator using SIW combline resonator", "Design of High-Q Tunable SIW Resonator and Its Application to Low Phase Noise VCO", "Anal skin tags in inflammatory bowel disease: New observations and a clinical review" ]
[ "A low phase noise oscillator using SIW combline resonator", "Theory and Design of Octave Tunable Filters With Lumped Tuning Elements", "Bumpless Automatic Transfer for a Switched-Doubly-Fed-Machine Propulsion Drive" ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "SPECTER"

Dataset Summary

Dataset containing triplets (three sentences): anchor, positive, and negative. Contains titles of papers.

Disclaimer: The team releasing SPECTER did not upload the dataset to the Hub and did not write a dataset card. These steps were done by the Hugging Face team.

Dataset Structure

Each example in the dataset contains triplets of equivalent sentences and is formatted as a dictionary with the key "set" and a list with the sentences as "value".

Each example is a dictionary with a key, "set", containing a list of three sentences (anchor, positive, and negative):

{"set": [anchor, positive, negative]}
{"set": [anchor, positive, negative]}
...
{"set": [anchor, positive, negative]}

This dataset is useful for training Sentence Transformers models. Refer to the following post on how to train models using triplets.

Usage Example

Install the 🤗 Datasets library with pip install datasets and load the dataset from the Hub with:

from datasets import load_dataset
dataset = load_dataset("embedding-data/SPECTER")

The dataset is loaded as a DatasetDict and has the format:

DatasetDict({
    train: Dataset({
        features: ['set'],
        num_rows: 684100
    })
})

Review an example i with:

dataset["train"][i]["set"]

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information

Contributions

Models trained or fine-tuned on embedding-data/SPECTER