Did the Greeks build temples for all of the children of Cronus? I know that the Ancient Greeks built temples for a lot of the children of Cronus, such as the Temple of Zeus and the Temple of Hera. Were temples built for all of the children of Cronus, or were they only built for the major ones? If some were left out, is there any indication of why?
According to the traditional geneaology of the Greek Gods, Cronus had six children with Rhea: Hestia, Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades and Demeter. All children were part of at least one major variation of the Twelve Olympians and - with the exception of Hestia - had temples honouring them. Hestia was Cronus firstborn and her sanctuary was the hearth of the Prytaneion, the political and religious center of the community. Also, Hestia was thought of as being present in every offering fire in all temples and received first offering in sacrifices. Thus, she didn't need temples of her own. Of course there may have been temples honouring Hestia that we simply don't know about. After all, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
{ "answer_score": 22, "question_score": 23, "tags": "greek" }
Was the Minotaur a single being, or a race? In the legend of Theseus and the Minotaur, we know that the Minotaur dwelled at the center of the maze built by Daedalus. However, the creature itself (part man, part bull) doesn't appear to show up in any other well-known legends. Was this Minotaur the only being like him, or was he part of a larger "race" of creatures?
In Greek Mythology, the Minotaur was a singular creature, the man/bull hybrid offspring of King Minos' wife. Minotaur is a proper noun meaning "bull of Minos", while the creature itself was known as Asterion in its native Crete. The use of Minotaur as a _species_ name, and the idea that more of these creatures exist, is a purely 20th Century concept, exampled in such works as _The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe_ and Thomas Burnett Swann's _Minotaur Trilogy_. In Dante's _Inferno_ (14th C) he is still very much the singular Minotaur. See here for various references from Classical sources about the Minotaur as a singular creature.
{ "answer_score": 32, "question_score": 27, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures, daedalus" }
Did Zeus have any male lovers? Many of the Greek gods were bisexual. Did Zeus have any male lovers?
While the vast majority of Zeus's lovers were female, one of Zeus's lovers was the mortal Ganymede. Ganymede is noted as the only one of Zeus's lovers to whom he granted immortality.
{ "answer_score": 20, "question_score": 13, "tags": "greek, zeus" }
Why did Egyptian Gods have animal heads? Most Egyptian gods have animal heads. Why is that?
Egyptian gods were often depicted in therianthrophic – part human, part animal form, to depict the personality of that particular god/ess in a symbolic way. For example, Sekhmet, goddess of ferocious war, was sometimes shown with the head a lioness, as lions are ferocious creatures. Similarly Anubis was shown with a jackal head because the jackal was associated with the necropolis and Anubis was a god of the dead. There are also theriomorphic depictions, where gods are shown entirely in animal form. These are quite common, and in fact were the most common representations of gods in the very earliest periods of Egyptian history. For example, Anubis as a black jackal, or Thoth as either an ibis or a white baboon. Taweret was even a hybrid of hippo, crocodile and lioness. It is the same reasoning behind why Christians equate Jesus with the lamb, or why we give angels wings.
{ "answer_score": 32, "question_score": 34, "tags": "egyptian, animals" }
Who gave Hermes his winged shoes? Many tools and weapons were given to the gods as gifts in order to perform their daily tasks. However there is no mention about how Hermes got his fabled shoes. So were they crafted or given as a gift? How did Hermes get his winged shoes?
Zeus did that. Hermes was the son of Zeus, but he grew up very quickly and one day he decided to seek out adventure. The first thing he thought of was to steal Apollon's oxes and he actually did that. Apollon didn't know who it was at first, but he soon found out that Hermes stole the oxes and took Hermes to Olympus on trial. Hermes confessed the crime and made a deal with Zeus which made him the messenger of the gods. After that, Zeus gave Hermes a wand, a round hat and the Sandals. > When Zeus called Hermes to Olympus to chide him for stealing and lying, Hermes promised he would never again lie if Zeus named him as his messenger and herald. Zeus quickly accepted this offer, and told his son that his duties would also include protecting travelers, promoting trade, and negotiating treaties. > > To ensure rapid delivery of his messages, Zeus presented Hermes with golden winged sandals as swift as the wind > > The Little Rascal: Hermes
{ "answer_score": 21, "question_score": 21, "tags": "greek, god items, hermes" }
Why are Kore and Persephone interchangeable in the myth regarding Hades wife? In Greek mythology, Kore and Persephone were interchangeable as Hades' wife. Which is it? Kore or Persephone?
Kore was the Ancient Greek word for young girl, the equivalent of our maiden, and Persephone was often referred to as such to highlight her innocence.
{ "answer_score": 18, "question_score": 15, "tags": "greek, underworld, hades" }
What is the River Styx? The River Styx is mentioned quite a lot when a Greek hero meets his demise. However is this really a body of water in Hades? Is it made out of something else? What is the River Styx?
## The River Styx is one of the five rivers of the Greek Underworld, rivers that separate Hades from the land of the living. During the Titanomachy (the Titan war), which was fought between the Titans) and the Olympians, the goddess Styx sided with the Olympians. Once the war was won, Zeus, king of the Olympians, promised that every oath be sworn on Styx's name, as a sign of the greatest respect. He also proceeded to name the River Styx after her. Achilles was dipped in it as a child and was rewarded with invulnerability, except for his heel, which was where his mother was holding him, hence the term : Achilles' heel. The full list of rivers surrounding Hades : 1. Acheron \- the river of woe 2. Cocytus \- the river of lamentation 3. Phlegethon \- the river of fire 4. Lethe \- the river of forgetfulness 5. Styx \- the river of hate
{ "answer_score": 20, "question_score": 16, "tags": "greek, underworld" }
Was the Mjölnir usable by only the worthy? Present works of fiction present Mjölnir as a hammer of unbelievable power, which can only be used by the worthy. But, when the Mjölnir is given to Thor, its properties are described: > Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand; and if be desired, he might keep it in his sark, it was so small; but indeed it was a flaw in the hammer that the fore-haft was somewhat short. It says nothing of the "worthiness" of the weilder. Is there any significant evidence in Norse mythology about the Mjölnir and the worthiness of its user?
As your quote shows, the story of it's creation makes no such specification. If stealing it qualifies as "using" (I believe, in the the Marvel universe, simply lifting the hammer qualifies), the Þrymskviða from the Poetic Edda tells the story of the giant Þrymr stealing Mjollnir, in order to extort the gods into giving him Freyja as his wife. > "I have Hloritha's > Hammer hidden: > Under eight miles > of earth it lies, > And such no one > shall see again > Save he first bring me > Freyja to wife!" It does depend on your definition of "worthy", but I think Þrymr's intentions disqualify him by most reasonable definitions. Seems to indicate that the worthiness requirement is a Marvel invention.
{ "answer_score": 13, "question_score": 16, "tags": "norse, god items, weapons" }
Is there any explanation in greek mythology for the creation of Uranus and Gaea? I was just wondering because there never seems to be a beginning. Greek mythology always seems to start with just there being Uranus and Gaea with no events before that. Is there a beginning before the beginning?
Well, before Gaea and Uranus there were a few gods, but not many. In the Greek story of creation it says > In the beginning there was only Chaos. Then out of the void appeared Erebus, the unknowable place where death dwells, and Night. All else was empty, silent, endless, dark. Then, Love was born bringing along the beginning of order. From Love emerged Light, followed by Gaea, the earth. So before Gaea, there was Chaos, Erebus, Night, and Love. Love then created Light, which in turn had Gaea. Then, Erebus and Night has Ether and Day, heavenly and earthly light respectively and Night alone had "all things that dwell in the darkness haunting mankind." This includes Death, Fate, and Sleep. Gaea then gave birth to Uranus, who she then married. So, there were powerful beings before Gaea and Uranus. How these beings came into existence is less clear, but it seems that how it all starts with Chaos is similar to the creation story for Christians. Chaos was just there.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 11, "tags": "greek, origins, creation" }
What exactly did Apollo do with respect to the Sun? My understanding is that Helios (a Titan) was actually the one who drove the Sun Chariot across the sky every day. But why, then, was Apollo the god of the Sun? Am I correct in this understanding? Was Apollo (as a son of Zeus) sort of Helios's boss? He could ride the chariot if he wanted to, but he was also free to mate with Daphne, Cyrene and so forth, and otherwise meddle in human affairs, while Helios had to drive the bus every day? Or did it work another way?
Apollo didn't have any solar properties in Homeric times, and he and Helios were clearly distinct entities. Helios is extensively discussed in Book XII of the Odyssey, for example. From the 5th century BCE and onwards Helios started to be identified with Apollo. An early reference to the fusion of the two beings can be found in fragment 781 of Euripidis' Faethon, where the poet tells us that Helios is "rightly called Apollo": > ὦ καλλιφεγγὲς Ἥλι᾿, ὥς μ᾿ ἀπώλεσας καὶ τόνδ᾿ Ἀπόλλων δ᾿ ἐν βροτοῖς ὀρθῶς καλῇ, ὅστις τὰ σιγῶντ᾿ ἀνόματ᾿ οἶδε δαιμόνων. The association became a lot more commonplace during Hellenistic times.
{ "answer_score": 14, "question_score": 16, "tags": "greek, sun, apollo" }
What happened to Medusa's sisters? It is fairly well known that Medusa, the snake-headed Gorgon, had two sisters, Stheno and Euryale. While the story of Medusa is concluded when Perseus beheads her, in modern retellings and versions, we don't hear about her sisters. What happens to the other two Gorgons? Are they immortal? Do they seek revenge?
In pseudo-Apollodorus' version, Medusa's sisters sought revenge on Perseus, who escaped them by using the Cap of Hades (which rendered its wearer invisible): > So Perseus put the head of Medusa in the wallet (kibisis) and went back again; but the Gorgons started up from their slumber and pursued Perseus: but they could not see him on account of the cap, for he was hidden by it. > > Source: Apollod. 2.4.3 Also, at least according to Hesiod, Medusa's sister were immortal: > And again, Ceto bore to Phorcys the fair-cheeked Graiae, sisters grey from their birth: and both deathless gods and men who walk on earth call them Graiae, Pemphredo well-clad, and saffron-robed Enyo, and the Gorgons who dwell beyond glorious Ocean in the frontier land towards Night where are the clear-voiced Hesperides, Sthenno, and Euryale, and Medusa who suffered a woeful fate: she was mortal, but the two were undying and grew not old. > > Source: Hes. Th. 275
{ "answer_score": 17, "question_score": 22, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures, medusa" }
How did Gilgamesh die? Do we know how and in which circumstances Gilgamesh died? According to these answers seems that The Epic of Gilgamesh doesn't mention that, however Wikipedia page mention something about Sumerian poem - The Death of Gilgamesh.
According to **The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature** , my best guess from reading the translated text provided is he died of old age : > ..... hero ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. He who ...... wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. The young man ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was perfect in ...... and feats of strength has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... It doesn't give an specific explanation for his death, but the text is fragmentary at best and several parts are missing.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 7, "tags": "gilgamesh, sumerian, mesopotamia" }
Importance of Dionysos/Bacchus in Orphism How did Dionysus/Bacchus become the central figure of Orphism, given the relatively modest importance he has in classical Greek and Roman mythology? From a semi-god of Wine in the latter, he becomes in the former the central character of a metempsychosis-centered, mystical cult prescribing an "ascetic"(!) way of life. In Ovid's Metamorphosis he is even depicted as quite a powerful and vengeful god. There seems to be quite a mismatch between both visions of the supposedly same character: is it possible the Orphic cult was in fact worshiping another imported character, foreign to the Greek/Roman pantheon, that was later assimilated to Dionysus?
Dionysus was a mortal that was raised to divinity. While he is most well known for wine and revelry, his portfolio also grew to include: * festivals * fertility * the wilds * crops * sanity These are centrally important to the daily lives of average citizens for the time. Sure Zeus is the king, and sure Poseidon is incredibly powerful, but I need my crops to grow, sons to help me run the farm and carry on my name and lets face it an opportunity to drown my sorrows once in a while. Orphism espouses the idea of an immortal soul and in a similar fashion to Hindu reincarnation the goal of the follower is to exit a cyclical pattern of death and rebirth in human bodies to become one with the gods. Who better to worship and lead such a 'religion' than a man who became a god himself.
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 15, "tags": "greek, roman, orphism, dionysus" }
Were Sirens humans or Monsters? I can't seem to figure out if the Sirens) were, like, half human-half bird monsters, attracting men with their magical song... !Wikipedia Bird Image or if they were also very beautiful women. !Wikipedia Siren Image Were they humans with magical abilities / harps? Or did they have power derived from the blood of gods? Is the latter interpretation a (relatively) modern revision?
There are a lot of different stories about the Sirens'nature, looks, number and parentage. One that keeps coming back is that initially they were indeed beautiful sea nymphs/ demi-godesses, able to lure seamen purely with the beauty of their song. They were also Persephone's handmaidens. When Persephone was abducted by Hades, Demeter gave them the bodies of birds so that they could assist in the search for the girl (in some versions they requested this, in others , e.g. that of Ovid, they were punished by Demeter because she held them responsible for Persephone's abduction - due to negligence). Check out this link: it has a lot of information gathered on the sirens from different sources.
{ "answer_score": 12, "question_score": 13, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures" }
Was Eurystheus a lover of Heracles? Did Heracles have any other male lovers? In some versions of the 12 labors of Heracles, Eurystheus is a lover of Heracles and he undertook the 12 labors for Eurystheus' love. Did Heracles have any other male lovers?
Heracles had a number of male lovers. Plutarch's Dialogue sur l'amour (Eroticos) mentions that the number of Heracles' male lovers were beyond counting. Hence, the list of lovers presented here is incomplete (most probably): * Abderus * Admetus * Adonis * Corythus * Diomus * Elacatas * Euphemus * Hylas * Iolaus * Iphitus * Jason * Nestor * Nireus * Perithoas * Philoctetes * Phrix * Sostratus Nowhere it is mentioned that Eurystheus and Heracles were lovers, neigh, had feeling for each other. Hence the probability of Eurystheus being one of Heracles' lovers is ruled out. sources: Wikipedia Hellenica
{ "answer_score": 4, "question_score": 7, "tags": "greek, hercules, demi gods, love" }
What was the Plant of Everlasting Youth? In which story we can find information about the Plant of Everlasting Youth and what kind of plant it was? Did it give immortality or something else?
The information about the _Plant of Everlasting Youth_ form the Sumerian mythos can be found on the second half of **The Epic of Gilgamesh**. In the _Tablet eleven_ Utnapishtim's wife asks her husband to offer a parting gift to Gilgamesh, so he learns that > at the bottom of the sea there lives a boxthorn-like plant that will make **him young again** (Note: there is already a related question with an answer that states that this plant _was most probably a species of Rhamnus_ ). The _Tablen eleven_ states that > if you can possess this plant, you'll be again as you were in your youth [...] with it a man can regain his vigour and that Gilgamesh was planing to test this plant on a man of old age to see it the plan would rejuvenate him. The epic explains how Gilgamesh loses the plant, so he can never make use of it. It is not described if it rejuvenating effects ara permanent or just a work-only-once-per-take property.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 1, "tags": "sumerian, gilgamesh, immortality, plants" }
What items were made by the dwarves for the Norse gods? On the Wikipage of Mjölnir, it is said to be made by the dwarves Eitri and Brokkr. Wikipedia also states that they created other items for the gods. Those items being: Skidbladnir, the ship of Freyr, Mjölnir, Draupnir and Gungnir. Wiki Quotes: > "the Sons of Ivaldi are a group of dwarfs who fashion Skidbladnir, the ship of Freyr, and the Gungnir, the spear of Odin, as well as golden hair for Sif to replace what Loki had cut off." > > "Eitri succeeded in making the golden boar Gullinbursti, the golden ring Draupnir, and the hammer Mjöllnir." My question being, are there any other items that the dwarves made for the gods of the Norse mythology?
The objects mentioned in your question were created by Eitri and Brokkr, and the Sons of Ivaldi. However, there are more objects that exist which were crafted by the dwarves. You can find a list of objects belonging to Norse deities here: ## **Viking Mythology** ## **Timeless Myth** Most of the objects mentioned in the list were created by the Dwarf craftsmen.
{ "answer_score": 4, "question_score": 17, "tags": "norse, god items" }
How many Annunaki were living on Earth at the peak of their time? The Anunnaki were a group of deities in ancient Mesopotamian culture. How many of them were there at the peak time (which we know about)? For example on Wikipedia page we can read: > In the Epic of Creation, it is said that there are 300 lgigu of heaven.
Based on excavation and digs we have currently found over 560 deities. However scientist believe that there could be as many as 750. According to Bottéro's book titled: _Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia_ > A Sumerian list of around 560 deities that did this was uncovered at Fâra and Tell Abû Ṣalābīkh and dated to circa 2600 BCE, ranking five primary deities as being of particular importance.
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 9, "tags": "mesopotamia, anunnaki" }
How are future apocalyptic events detailed so greatly? For example, From Wikipedia article on Ragnarök (emphasis mine): > In Norse mythology, Ragnarök is a series of **future events** , including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr, and Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water. Afterward, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet, and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors . Ragnarök is an important event in the Norse canon, and has been the subject of scholarly discourse and theory. Not wanting to make the question broad, I'm putting it in scope of the Norse mythology and it becomes: **If the events of Ragnarok are set in the future, how is it that it is detailed so greatly at present?**
In the Völuspa (part of the poetic Edda), the tale is told to Odin as a prophecy by a völva who tell him both the story of earth creation and destruction. In the Gylfaginning (part of the prose Edda), which quotes extensively the latter, the tale is told by three characters in Ásgard (Hárr, the king, Janhárr and Thridi). Presumably in the first case it is a vision that the völva had while in the second case the characters are, I think, meant to be omniscient. Alternatively, an interesting theory is the one argued by Rudolf Simek (in _Lexikon der germanischen Mythologie_ ), according to which the norse timeline is a palingenesis (i.e. time is cyclical): Ragnarokr being, according to him, a prelude to the creation myth. In this case these events would be set both in the future and in the past, which would explain how the völva and the three characters from Ásgard can recount it as if it already happened.
{ "answer_score": 17, "question_score": 16, "tags": "norse, apocalypse, gylfaginning" }
What did the Labyrinth look like? Did the Labyrinth have concentric circular walls with passages blocked by radials or it did it have rectangular lines? Or do we simply not know?
### It is a commonly held belief that The Labyrinth is in fact the Palace of Knossos The Labyrinth has been described as : > ... a maze-like building of winding corridors and complicated twists and turns, which confused anyone who entered it so much that he could not find the way out. Which could be considered an apt description of the palace. !enter image description here The Palace of Knossos And according to legend : > Knossos itself was built by the architect Daedalus !enter image description here The Minoan building complex at Knossos, from the excavations of Arthur Evans (1851 – 1941)
{ "answer_score": 19, "question_score": 15, "tags": "greek, labyrinth" }
How did the ranking system for the Sumerian pantheon work? According to this source, the gods had some numerical ranks as below: 1. Anu (ranking #60) 2. Antu (ranking #55) 3. Enlil (ranking #50) 4. Ninlil / Sud (ranking #45) 5. Enki / EA (ranking #40) 6. Ninki / Damkina (ranking #35) 7. Nanna / Nannar / Sin / El (ranking #30) 8. Ningal (ranking #25) 9. Utu / Shamash / Allah (ranking #20) 10. Inanna / Ishtar (ranking #15) 11. Adad / Ishkur (ranking #10) 12. Ninhursag / Ninmah / Ninti (ranking #5) How did this system work?
The ranking system (which I believe to be a little off) seem to be how powerful the god was according to the people and priests. Anu is the top dog while his wife Antu is 5 below symbolizing that man was considered higher than women. As you can see the system is based on 5's with every male in the 10's and their spouses 5 below.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 7, "tags": "mesopotamia, anunnaki, pantheon" }
What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243? Here is the picture of cylinder seal VA/243. !cylinder seal VA/243 Image credits: Z. Sitchin This seal was named like that because it is number 243 in the collection of the Vorderasiatische Museum in Berlin. What is the correct meaning of the star symbol (including 11 dots around) shown below? !cylinder seal VA/243 - star symbols So in total 12 mysterious objects (I guess). This is I guess explained in A Brief Analysis of Cylinder Seal VA 243, however it's still not clear for me. And the star in the middle, is it our Sun or it's not? If it's not, is it referring to some specific constellation?
My name is Emerson C Velloso, and this is my archaeoastronomical contribution to Professor Michael S Heiser: The man seated is Ninurta, He's not only the God of the Farmers and Plow, He is also the God of War, related to the planet Saturn! The big star in the center is Saturn. ![Ninurta - the God of the Farmers and Plow, the God of War, planet Saturn]( These Akkadian representations are not realistic, but only systematic... even so, the astronomical order is right: the planets on the ecliptic trajectory passes between Betelgeuse/Aldebaran and the Pleiades. ![star symbol of cylinder seal VA/243 - Orion, Betelgeuse, Pleiades, Saturn, Aldebaran](
{ "answer_score": 13, "question_score": 21, "tags": "sumerian, mesopotamia, interpretation, symbolism" }
Why did Charon collect a toll at the River Styx Charon is known as the ferryman of the River Styx, letting certain people cross the river with a fee. Charon himself is well known for helping many significant heroes in multiple Greek legends. He always seems to collect a toll from those who cross the River Styx with his assisstance. What exactly does Charon do with the toll money he receives from his passengers? And why exactly does he need to collect a toll?
Coins (specifically a type called an obol or obolos) were left on the body or placed in the mouths of the dead. The dead give Charon the coin, which shows they have had proper funeral rites and therefore deserve to be transported to Hades. The Aenid by Vergil, Chapter 6 has this to say > Why some were ferried o'er, and some refus'd. "Son of Anchises, offspring of the gods," The Sibyl said, "you see the Stygian floods, The sacred stream which heav'n's imperial state Attests in oaths, and fears to violate. The ghosts rejected are th' unhappy crew Depriv'd of sepulchers and fun'ral due: The boatman, Charon; those, the buried host, He ferries over to the farther coast; Despite having neither coin, nor being dead, Heracles managed to cross as did Orpheus and various other heroes.
{ "answer_score": 18, "question_score": 27, "tags": "greek, underworld, afterlife" }
Did ancient Greek religion ever become monotheistic? Unlike modern monotheistic religions that only accept one, omnipotent and omniscient god, ancient Greek religion has a pantheon of fallible gods. Yet it was also well developed, where the pantheon has hierarchy (Zeus, king of gods) and lineage. Was there ever a time and place where the religion evolved into a monotheistic form? That is, only accepting one god, rejecting the others as false ones or manifestations of the one true god. For example, ancient Egyptian religion briefly gave rise to Atenism, the offshoot religion that states the sun-disc _Aten_ was the only god. Did a similar thing happen to Greek religion? If so, which god became the one? Or was it an amalgam?
No, at least not that we know of. If there was a monotheistic cult in ancient Greece, it certainly wasn't as popular as Atenism. There are traces of monotheistic thought in Platonism (e.g. the Euthyphro dilemma), but that's more about philosophy than religion. There's one theory, put forth by Elizabeth Kessler in _Dionysian Monotheism in Nea Paphos_ that "two monotheistic religions, Dionysian and Christian, existed contemporaneously in Nea Paphos during the 4th century C.E.". The only evidence cited, however, is a mosaic where Dionysus is the central figure, so I'd take this with a grain of salt.
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 15, "tags": "greek, history, theology" }
Are there any points of mythology/religion that all Native Americans have in common? I have been exposed to some different Native American mythologies and there seem to be many differences. Are there any beliefs or stories that they all share?
The idea of the Coyote Trickster god is pretty widespread. My copy of The Book of the Navajo contains "The Tale of Coyote, the Troublemaker". The Coyote is also known to the Apache in the "Badger carries Darkness: Coyote and Bobcat scratch each other" A Cheyenne tale called "How he got tongue" And a Blackfoot Coyote tale called "Little Friend Coyote" He's known to the Sioux, the Caddo in Why Coyote Stopped Imitating His Friends and the Cherokee in How the Bluebeard and the Coyote got their Color A list of other tribes and legends can be found here
{ "answer_score": 12, "question_score": 11, "tags": "comparative, native american" }
Why was Medusa's hair made of snakes? Medusa was a mythical creature that could turn all living beings into stone. However why was her hair made into snakes? Was it Medusa's eyes that turned people or the snakes'?
### It was an especially cruel and specific punishment for Medusa as she was known for her beautiful golden hair Medusa's transformation from a beautiful golden haired priestess of Athena to not-so-beautiful Gorgon snake-lady was not instant, is was a gradual and drawn out punishment: > She was originally a golden-haired, fair maiden, who, as a priestess of Athena, was devoted to a life of celibacy; however, after being wooed by Poseidon and falling for him, she forgot her vows and married him. For this offence, **she was punished by the goddess in a most terrible manner. Each wavy lock of the beautiful hair that had charmed her husband was changed into a venomous snake** ;
{ "answer_score": 16, "question_score": 15, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures, medusa" }
How did the seasons change, according to the Romans? In Greek mythology the seasons change because Hades takes a beautiful girl down to the Underworld, her mother weeps and while in deep sorrow it becomes winter. What did the Romans believe for the change of seasons?
The Romans believed the same thing, actually. In the Roman version, Ceres) is the goddess of agriculture and mother to Proserpina, an obvious copy of the Greek Persephone. Like her Greek version, Proserpina was abducted by Pluto, and Ceres caused the earth to stop growing food until her daughter was returned at the behest of Jupiter, but not before eating seeds from the underworld. > Most prominent [of Italian rites connected to fertility] were the annual rites to Ceres, which were **performed at all crossroads in the city by Roman _matronae_** , commemorating the kidnap of Proserpina, and Ceres' search for her daughter which resulted in the story explaining the changing seasons. > > **\- Lennon, Jack J. _Pollution and Religion in Ancient Rome._ Cambridge University Press, 2013.** Rome imported Persephone's story from the Greek colonies in southern Italy around 205 BC.
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 10, "tags": "roman" }
In ancient Egypt what did the Ba and the Ka represent? In ancient Egypt what did the Ba and the Ka represent? They were parts of the soul but why two parts?
The _`ka`_ is like the spirit; its the element that makes something alive. In contrast, the _`ba`_ is more like the personality of a person. > The Ka was the life force, astral double or spiritual twin ... the Ba was the impersonal life force of the soul, the essence of one's individuality and unique characteristics. > > **\- Ruiz, Ana. The spirit of ancient Egypt. Algora Publishing, 2001.** There were in fact five parts to the Egyptian view of the soul, not just two.
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 9, "tags": "egyptian" }
What did Mimir do with Odin's eye? Odin is known to be one-eyed because of a trade between Mimir and Odin. When Odin asked Mimir for some water in the well, Mimir declined him of giving any water unless Odin gave him an eye. Surprisingly, Odin took one of his eyes out and gave it to Mimir for water. The trade was made and Odin was very happy for the water. But what did Mimir do with Odin's eye? The source tells nothing about the use for Odin's eye or what happens to it.
Odin's eye remains at the bottom of Mimir's Well: > I know where Othin's eye is hidden, > Deep in the wide-famed well of Mimir; > Mead from the pledge of Othin each mom > Does Mimir drink: would you know yet more? > > Source: Völuspá, the Poetic Edda, translated by by Henry Adams Bellows The point of the tale is to convey the message that no sacrifice is too great for wisdom. What happens to Odin's eye after it has been thrown into Mimir's Well is not particularly significant.
{ "answer_score": 18, "question_score": 22, "tags": "norse, odin" }
What is the story behind Thor wearing a wedding dress to get Mjölnir back? I often hear of a story of Loki taking Mjölnir away from Thor and selling it to giants. Thor then gets angry and makes Loki join him in wearing wedding dresses to enter the giants place unnoticed to get it back. What is the actual story behind this and who were these giants and were they actually able to wield Mjölnir?
The source of the story is the Þrymskviða poem (The Lay of Thrym), which is included in the Poetic Edda. It was Thrymr, king of the jötnar, who stole Mjölnir. He then demanded the gods allow him to marry Freyja, in order to return it. Thor travelled to Jötunheimr to claim back his hammer, and he managed to sneak in dressed as a bride. Loki wasn't involved in stealing the hammer, but he did accompany Thor, disguised as his bridesmaid.
{ "answer_score": 21, "question_score": 19, "tags": "norse, thor, mjolnir, myth identification" }
Are there any apocalypse myths other than Ragnarok in which some people survive to repopulate the world? In the story of Ragnarok, Lif and Lifthrasir survive by hiding in Yggdrasil, and presumably they go on to repopulate the world after all the fighting is over. Are there any other cultures whose end-of-the-world myths explicitly include some survivors who could potentially rebuild civilization?
Yes. Many different cultures and mythologies depict really similar stories about floods. There are only a handful survivors of the flooding, who have to repopulate the earth. For the Sumerian version of the myth, Enlil sends a flood to kills the too-numerous and too-noisy humans. The god Enki intervenes and warns the king to save his family and a collection of animals. Babylonians have a similar version of the myth in which a man called Tnapishtim built a boat, took aboard his family and a selection of craftspeople and animals. The well-known Judeo-Christian version of the myth has Noah build an ark, take aboard seven family members and representatives of all land animals to survive a global flood. The list goes on.
{ "answer_score": 13, "question_score": 17, "tags": "comparative, apocalypse, ragnarok" }
Is there a canonical ending to the story of Antigone? As I understand it, it was common practice for a playwright to retell a well-known story with the details changed to suit the playwright's needs. A tidy way to avoid a lot of tedious exposition. In Antigone), this leads to some significantly different endings: * In Sophocles' play, she is imprisoned and hangs herself, Creon has a change of heart too late, and Haemon commits suicide. * In Euripides' play, Dionysus intercedes, and everyone lives happily ever after. * In Hyginus' interpretation, Antigone is hidden away, and discovered years later, when she is finally executed by Haemon, in spite of intercession from Heracles. So artistic license aside, is there a canonical ending to the myth?
Since Sophocles wrote first, his account is perhaps the "most canonical"; it seems not even the _Oedipodea_ mentions Antigone's actions (as Gantz attests). However, ancient Greeks didn't really think of mythological accounts in terms of "canonicity" until very late. Playwrights were free to change the narrative at will and often did so. For us, since Sophocles' _Antigone_ is so well known, that has become canonical to us.
{ "answer_score": 4, "question_score": 21, "tags": "greek, sophocles, tragedy" }
Is there a creature in mythology that is a frost bird or a frost phoenix? I searched a lot but I couldn't find a creature that is similar to a frost phoenix or a frost bird, or a giant creature similar to a frost bird for example. It's for a project (I like to keep real mythology in my story) and I want something as close as this as possible.
### The Pomola is a snow bird spirit in Native American mythology, it lived on Mt Katahdin and caused cold weather > In Penobscot folklore, the Pomola was a bird spirit that lived on Mt Katahdin. It was associated with night, wind, snow, and storms. Apparently it had a moose's head according to some legends. The Penobscots and Abenakis avoided climbing to the top of this mountain so as not to disturb it. ![enter image description here](
{ "answer_score": 17, "question_score": 19, "tags": "mythical creatures, myth identification" }
Is Mjolnir actually capable of flying back into Thor's hand like a boomerang after being thrown? This is something Marvel's Thor does all the time: !enter image description here So I was wondering: **Has Thor/Mjolnir ever done anything like this in actual Norse mythology?**
Yes, it seems so. In the Prose Edda, when Thor is presented with the hammer by Brokkr, this property is in the description (Page 147, here): > Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand;
{ "answer_score": 21, "question_score": 18, "tags": "norse, thor, mjolnir" }
What were the five parts of the Egyptian soul? This is an offshoot of a question asked about the Ba and Ka. What were the other 3 parts of the Egyptian soul and what did they represent?
The five parts of the Egyptian soul were the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. * The Ren was the **name** given to a person at birth. Egyptians believed it was part of a person's soul and that it would live for as long as that name was spoken or the person remembered. * The Sheut was the person's **shadow** or silhouette. Egyptians believed that the shadow, somehow, contained part of the essence of the person. * The _Ib_ was a metaphysical **heart** and to ancient Egyptians it was the focus of emotion, thought, will and intention. They understood it as the seat for the soul. * The _Ba_ was the notion of **personality**. Everything that makes a person unique. * The _Ka_ was the **vital fire** or spark, that distinguishes living people from dead (warm vs. cold).
{ "answer_score": 17, "question_score": 20, "tags": "egyptian" }
Why were the Greek Gods on Olympus? It's a well known fact that the Greek Gods resided in the fabled mountain of Olympus. However most mythology was created based on factual stories that have been twisted or altered. Why is Mount Olympus so important to the Greeks that the Gods would live there?
### The Olympians defeated the Titans on Mt. Olympus and decided to build their kingdom at the scene of their greatest victory. The Titanomachy (the great war between the Olympians and the Titans) took place on Olympus. After the Olympians defeated the Titans, they proceeded to build their kingdom there, in honour of their victory. The exact mountain range referred to by Homer is still unknown as he offers little to no geological information about it. But there are some theories that the Greeks assumed Olympus was the seat of power for their gods as it was so high it _touched the clouds_. If this is true, then of all of the mountain ranges called Olympus throughout ancient Greece, Turkey and Cyprus only one breaks the 2000 meter trehsold to reach the clouds : Mytikas at 2918 meters (9570 feet).
{ "answer_score": 10, "question_score": 16, "tags": "greek, olympus" }
Was Hermes Trismegistus a historical figure? I am aware that Hermes Trismegistus is a combination of the greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. But he is credited as the writer of a few books with Asclepius and the Corpus Hermeticum. So in the end was he a historical figure that was promoted to divinity? Or are the books written by other "ghostwriters" and simply credited to him?
He was not a historical person. Those writings were simply credited to Hermes Trismegistus because they were held to be **divinely inspired** by him. > [The author] gave shape and form to the text, but its substance was of transcendent origin. Those who held Hermes Trismegistus to be the author of a text believed that Hermetic tradition embodied a knowledge inspired by Hermes Trismegistus Himself. There is little reason to doubt that the authors of Hermetic writings were convinced that they were passing down an age-old, divinely inspired knowledge. > > **\- Ebeling, Florian. _The Secret History of Hermes Trismegistus: Hermeticism from Ancient to Modern times._ Cornell University Press, 2007.** The _Hermetica_ basically takes the form of dialogues involving Hermes Trismgistus. Since the authors believe they were merely recording his words, it would've made easy sense to attribute the works to him as well.
{ "answer_score": 13, "question_score": 11, "tags": "greek, egyptian" }
Why isn't Loeg disabled by Macha's curse? In the Táin Bó Cúailnge, the men of Ulster are disabled by a curse placed upon them by Macha to feel her labor pains in their hour of greatest need, thus disabling them when the army of Connacht attacks. Cúchulainn is immune to this curse. As I understand it, he is immune because he is yet a beardless youth, and so a curse upon the men does not apply to him. This makes sense, since, when an exhausted Cúchulainn sleeps three days, the boys of Ulster come to the defense. I've also read that the explanation of his immunity is due to his demi-godhood, being that he is the son of Lugh, the Long Arm. So why isn't Cúchulainn's charioteer, Loeg mac Riangabra, affected? I can't find where it's stated he's older that Cúchulainn, but if I'm mistaken on that point, I must not be alone Related question: Why isn't Sualtam disabled by Macha's curse?
Láeg may have been a descendant of the Tuatha Dé Danann. His father Riangabar may have been one of the fairy folk, _sidhe_, a later version of the Tuatha Dé Danann. This would explain why he would be exempted from Macha's curse. > Cu Chulainn, the hero of the chief epic Tain Bo Cuailnge ("The Cattle-Raid of Cooley"), whose father is alternately made out to be Lug or the mortal Sualtam; and Loeg, Cu chulainn's charioteer, is the son of **the elf-chieftain Riangabar** , as are the charioteers of some other Ulster heroes. > > **\- Fulk, Robert D. “History in Medieval Scandinavian Heroic Literature and the Northwest European Context.” In _Epic and History_ , ed. David Konstan and Kurt A. Raaflaub, 328–46. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.**
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 13, "tags": "irish, ulster cycle, tain bo cuailnge" }
What is the story of the Chimera? The Neo-Hittite Chimera (850–750 BC) from Karkemish is housed in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey: !Neo-Hitte Chimera "Museum of Anatolian Civilizations080" by Georges Jansoone (JoJan) - Self-photographed. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons. This chimera is presumably a precursor to the more well known Greek chimera. Do we know of any stories associated with it? Is it mentioned in Hittite mythology?
After researching on the topic for a considerable amount of time, it seems most of the sources which describe the Neo-Hittite Chimera, do not contain any myths about the creature nor any in-depth details. Therefore, it leads me to believe what another source said (emphasis mine): > "On the orthostats at Neo-Hittite sites, **the Chimaera had no narrative context and served only to ward off evil** , but in Greek myth the beast was to be conquered by a hero" > > source: < Which means, the Neo-Hittite Chimera was created just to "ward off evil" and hence does not have any myths associated with it.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 17, "tags": "myth identification, mythical creatures, hittite, anatolia" }
Who were the weapons-makers for the Norse gods? Who were the weapons-makers for the Norse gods? Was there a specific god like in Greek mythology?
Dwarfs, mostly. Some particular examples: * Gungnir: created by the Sons of Ivaldi (Prose Edda, p 145) > Loki went to those dwarves who are called Ívaldi's Sons; and they made the hair, and Skídbladnir also, and the spear which became Odin's possession [Gungnir] * Mjölnir: created by Eitri and Brokkr (Prose Edda, p 146) > Then he [Eitri] took from the forge a hammer [Mjölnir], put all the precious works into the hands of Brokkr his brother... * Dainsleif (Prose Edda, p. 189) > Thou hast made this offer over-late, if thou wouldst make peace: for now I have drawn Dáinsleif, which the dwarves made * Tyrfing: created by Dvalinn and Durin (Hervarar Saga (1. KAPÍTULI)) And just maybe Völundr (Wayland the Smith) (who forged Gram), who _might_ also have forged: * Lævateinn (Viktor Rydberg’s Investigations into Germanic Mythology Vol. II)
{ "answer_score": 22, "question_score": 17, "tags": "norse, weapons" }
Who translated the Iliad or the Odyssey to Latin first? Who was the first person to translate part or all of Homer's works, the Iliad and/or the Odyssey, to Latin? Have these translations survived to current times? My original motivation for the question is the following: Devecseri Gábor has written an epistle about the art of poetic translation addressed to Horace, the ancient Roman poet. From this, it seems like Devecseri considered Horace (as well as Babits Mihály) his master and role model in poetry and translation. I had mistakenly assumed that this was because Horace also translated the Homeric epics, but it turns out this was a false assumption.
I have asked this question on the English Wikipedia Reference Desk a few months ago. This answer contains a copy of the answers volunteered there. **Livius Andronicus** (c. 284 – c. 204 BC) was possibly the first who translated the Odyssey into Latin, but his translation has not survived. There have been many Latin translations of Homer over the centuries, but the **oldest surviving** seems to be by **Leontius Pilatus** (died 1366): see catalog entry of a modern publication of that translation. This answer contributed by [Lindert.] Educated Romans read Homer in the original Greek, so I'm not sure there was great demand for a written literary translation into Latin. There was the Ilias Latina, which was kind of "downmarket" (not a full translation, and not very literary). This answer contributed by [AnonMoos.] Attius Labeo was renowned for the badness of his translations of Homer, so there was clearly a market. Comment by [Paul Barlow.]
{ "answer_score": 17, "question_score": 18, "tags": "greek, roman, odyssey, iliad, translation" }
How does the "mighty man of magic" atone for his plague? In _Lludd and Lleuelys_, three plagues fall upon Britain. The first consists of a fierce race, the Coranians; the second consists of a terrible noise which renders the Britons terrified, and the third is a plague of disappearing food and drink. Lludd, after council with his brother, Lleuelys, king of France, figures out how to end the first two plagues, and then fights the "mighty man of magic" who is responsible for the third, defeating him. The magician pleads for mercy. > All the losses that ever I have caused thee," said he, "I will make thee atonement for, equal to what I have taken. And I will never do the like from this time forth. But thy faithful vassal will I be." And the king accepted this from him. How does he atone for his deeds? The tale ends shortly after, and I cannot find another story in which it continues. I suspect that this detail is never revealed, but I could be wrong.
The answer is in the quote: > All the losses that ever I have caused thee," said he, "I will make thee atonement for, **equal to what I have taken**. And I will never do the like from this time forth. **But thy faithful vassal will I be**." And the king accepted this from him. Presumably, the atonement consists of this man giving Lludd the food back (or something equivalent in value), and of becoming Lludd's vassal. The magician isn't mentioned anywhere else in the Welsh cannon, so this is as much information as you are going to get.
{ "answer_score": 2, "question_score": 8, "tags": "welsh, the native tales" }
What was Plato's inspiration for the Atlantis myth? Did an island actually sink in ancient Greece, due to a volcanic eruption or some other cataclysmic event perhaps? Was it completely wiped off the map by a tsunami? Did Plato base his story on fact or is it a work of fiction?
We don't know. The only sources for the story are Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, for all we know the story of Atlantis is a completely fictitious product. That said, any of the following historical catastrophes _may_ have been an inspiration for Atlantis: * Minoan eruption Thera (partially) sunk as a result of the eruption, which also produced a tsunami that devastated Minoan Crete and reached as far as Egypt. * Helike The city was completely submerged by an earthquake or its subsequent tsunami in 373 BC, about a decade before Plato wrote Timaeus and Critias. * Pavlopetri The city was completely submerged by an earthquake sometime around 1000 BC.
{ "answer_score": 26, "question_score": 25, "tags": "greek, atlantis, plato" }
Where did the Roman gods live? The ancient Greek gods lived on the famous Mount Olympus, which is an actual mountain in Greece. The Romans borrowed quite a bit of mythology from the Greeks, so I at first assumed that the Roman gods lived somewhere similar, if not in the exact same place (though perhaps with the mountain renamed and moved somewhere else). Strangely enough, though, I have not been able to find any ancient accounts that make that claim - nor any mention of the home of the Roman gods at _all_ , save for on a certain (rather untrustworthy and often inaccurate) question-and-answer site. Where did the Roman gods live? Were they said to live on Mount Olympus (or an equivalent place), or was their home somewhere else?
The Romans also thought them to live on Mount Olympos. For instance, Lucius Annaeus Seneca writes in his play _Hercules Furens_ that, appealing to Jupiter for mercy, Amphitryon prayed: > **[205]** _O magne **Olympi rector** et mundi arbiter,_ > _Jam statue tandem gravibus aerumnis modum_ > > O mighty ruler of **Olympus** , judge of all the world, > set now at length a limit to our crushing cares, an end to our disasters. In the rest of the play, Senea used Roman names to refer to the deities, such as Juno instead of Hera: > **[213-4]** _Sequitur a primo statim infesta **Juno_** > > From his very birth relentless Juno has pursued him. Hence, the Roman equivalent of Olympos _is_ Olympos.
{ "answer_score": 26, "question_score": 33, "tags": "roman, comparative" }
Why was the Minotaur enclosed in a labyrinth and not in jail of some sort? Is there a specific reason the Minotaur was kept in a labyrinth instead of a normal jail? If not mentioned in the original writings, are there any speculations as to why go through the trouble of making a labyrinth?
The Minotaur was certainly the son of the Queen of Knossos, and possibly the grandson of Poseidon, the patron of Crete. You cannot just sling such a being in a cell; building a separate wing of the palace for him (specially designed for him by the leading architect Daedalus and visited at regular intervals by the best and brightest young people of Greece) sounds much better. Royalty, by definition, is not treated like the rest of the population when it comes to crime or disease; there was a twentieth-century story of the 'Monster of Glamis', allegedly a member of the British Royal Family born with terrible mental and physical defects who was confined to Glamis Castle for life. The story had almost nothing behind it: what credibility it had came from the undoubted fact that if such a child had been born, it would certainly not have been been put in a normal asylum or seen in public.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 16, "tags": "greek, labyrinth" }
Was the development of Greek mythology dynamic or static? Did Greek mythology develop dynamically or statically? Let me explain a little more what I mean by "dynamic" and "static". **Static:** Given the religious element of the stories, I could imagine that they were very "official", implying that they were created in a relatively short time and by a relatively small group off people. Without many extensions or modifications afterwards. **Dynamic:** I could also imagine that the stories were more naturally developed, like an on-going ad hoc collection of stories. A scenario where anyone could just make up a myth/god and where the popular ones got picked up and written down? (Is it be clear that the last two pieces of text are merely meaningful as an attempt to further clarify my answer, and are by no means attempts to provide actual answers to the question?)
Definitely dynamic. In Burkert's "Graechische Religion..." (Intro/2: sources), we can find the following reasons: \- as there were no holy scriptures there was no "canon" whatsoever to tell apart "canonical" myths from "non-canonical" \- myths were continuously being rewritten, as poets were composing new hymns to the gods for celebrations or contests. In "Elliniki Mythologia" (edited by Ekdotiki Athinon) there is a description of the process of myth creation (pg.24-26) and, while to big to transcript here, its main points is that, at first, myths were created by the people from fairy-tale-like stories that they were telling the children and, then, it passed on to the poets. Plus, it definitely says on pg.26:"so, greek myths were processed and reprocessed for approximately 1,500 years".
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 9, "tags": "greek, history" }
Name of Electra's brother In Sophocles' _Electra_ , it is revealed at the end that one of the guards there is Electra's long lost brother. What is the name of this guard? I have looked for it online, and in the book he is referred to by his title.
While the passage in question is unreadable through Google Books, I fear you've just misunderstood the translation. This is the part, right? < That's not her brother. She has but one brother, Orestes, and the "guardian" is actually the pedagogue (paidagōgos).
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 8, "tags": "greek, sophocles, tragedy, atreidai" }
Who fathered Gefjun's ox sons? Gefjun, an Aesir, apparently had four ox sons with a giant: > But this woman was of the asa-race; her name was Gefjun. She took from the north, from Jotunheim, four oxen, which were the sons of a giant and her, and set them before the plow. Then went the plow so hard and deep that it tore up the land, and the oxen drew it westward into the sea, until it stood still in a sound. > > Source: Gylfaginning (The Fooling Of Gylfe), Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, Wikisource Do we know who this giant was?
This is probably not a very satisfying answer but it seems that his name isn't mentioned in any account of this story, and knowing that he comes from Jotunheim doesn't really help narrowing down the possibilities. One thing to consider is the way the plowing of Denmark is related in the _Ynglinga saga_ (which is the first chapter of the _Heimskringla_ , which was also written by Snorri Sturluson): > Then he [Odin] sent Gefion across the sound to the north to discover new countries; and she came to King Gylve, who gave her a ploughgate of land. Then she went to Jotunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed them into a yoke of oxen. Here it is explicitly said that she had those four sons precisely for the purpose of having them plough the land of Gylfi. From that, one can assume that which Giant fathered them didn't really matter to her, as long as it was a Giant, hence, maybe, why the Giant remained anonymous.
{ "answer_score": 3, "question_score": 8, "tags": "norse, gylfaginning" }
Origin of the 'vampires have no reflection' myth Depending on what stories you read or movies you watch, vampires will and won't have reflections. But what is the earliest reference to this particular myth and do we know it's origin?
### It's a relatively new addition to the vampire mythos. Attributed to Bram Stoker's Dracula. > Despite its important contributions to vampire fiction, several popular traits of fictional vampires are absent. Count Dracula is killed by a bowie knife, not a wooden stake. The destruction of the vampire Lucy is a three-part process (staking, decapitation, and garlic in the mouth), not the simple stake-only procedure often found in later vampire stories. Dracula has the ability to travel as a mist and to scale the external walls of his castle. **One very famous trait Stoker added is the inability to be seen in mirrors, which is not something found in traditional Eastern European folklore**.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 17, "tags": "vampires" }
Did any ancient cultures or scholars recognize the Hero's Journey monomyth? In _The Hero with a Thousand Faces,_ Joseph Campbell talked about the monomyth, and the overarching structure of the Hero's Journey: the hero is called on an adventure, may have a helper, goes through various trials, passes thresholds, goes through a death and rebirth, eventually succeeds and transforms, and returns to the starting point with new knowledge. Campbell originally wrote in 1949, with access to thousands of years of comparative culture and a literate, open, secular, post-Enlightenment society. Did any ancient scholars (let's define "ancient" as "pre-Gutenberg press") draw similar conclusions about various religions and myths? That is, was Campbell really the first to step far enough back to see all the similarities?
Well, this assumes that Campbell is accurate! Campbell is playing fast, loose, and vague with the evidence, but that's a different story. The ancients as far as I am aware did not recognize Campbell's "monomyth." They did, however, recognize a few things. First, at least with Mediterranean and Near Eastern cultures, they all engaged in a process of _interpretatio_ , through which various heroes and deities were seen as the same. Heracles was Melqart, though the Greeks called both "Heracles", one "Tyrian" and the other "Greek." (Herodotus, 2.43–45, Cicero, _De Natura Deorum_ , 3.43)This was very common.4 Another process common especially during the Hellenistic era was something called "Euhemerism," named after Euhemerus, a Greek philosopher who thought e.g. the gods were once kings and mighty men who subsequently were worshiped as gods. This presumes an interpretation of similarities, though not of journeys, but of kingship.5 Does this answer your question?
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 7, "tags": "comparative, history, monomyth, joseph campbell" }
In Norse mythology, is there a reference to a stone/rock place, entity, object? I've read up a bit but I'm struggling to get a reference to a place, entity or object consisting or containing stone (or rock). Are there beings, mythological objects, or locations that are characterised by stone in Norse mythology?
Hrungnir, a mighty jötunn, is said to **have a stone head and heart** , as well as a stone shield and weapon. He appears in the _Prose Edda_ where he fought and was slain by Thor. A translation of the account can be found here: > Hrungnir had the heart which is notorious, of hard stone and spiked with three corners, even as the written character is since formed, which men call Hrungnir's Heart. His head also was of stone; his shield too was stone, wide and thick, and he had the shield before him when he stood at Grjótúnagard and waited for Thor. Moreover he had a hone for a weapon, and brandished it over his shoulders, and he was not a pretty sight.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 8, "tags": "norse" }
What are the "Treasures of the Dragon Kings"? I found reference to the "Treasures of the Dragon Kings" whilst in this wiki article on mythological objects. > Ǒusībùyúnlǚ (Cloud-stepping Boots or Cloud-stepping Shoes), made of lotus fiber, these are one of the treasures of the Dragon Kings; Ào Ming gives them to Sun Wukong in order to get rid of him when he acquires the Ruyi Jingu Bang. (Chinese mythology) What are the remaining treasures?
This comes from the _Journey to the West_ , when the monkey king Sun Wukong "visited" the Dragon King of the East Seas for a weapon. Each of the dragon kings produced a treasure to appease him into leaving in a full set of armaments. Theses were: 1. The **_According-To-Your-Wishes Gold-Banded Rod_** , from the Dragon King of the East Seas. 2. The **_Lotus-Threaded Cloud-Stepping Treads_** , from the Dragon King of the North Seas. 3. The **_Golden Chainmail_** , from the Dragon King of the West Seas. 4. The **_Phoenix-Winged Rose-Golden Crown_** , from the Dragon King of the South Seas. (These are my own translation, and I tried to be as literal as possible. Published translations of the _Journey_ presumably have different names for these items.) I wrote up a fuller post with the original text, but apparently the CJK ban is in effect again so I'm unable to post it. I'll amend this post with the item's proper names and the source text if/when the restriction gets rescinded.
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 9, "tags": "chinese" }
What is the symbolism behind Pandora's Box? The myth of Pandora is basically the story of a woman who is given a box by the gods, and told not to open it. Of course, she opens the box, and evil is released to the world. Is it possible that the box represents a womb? I think that makes a lot of sense, because it's a cavity with an opening, and things come out of it (that were never seen on earth before). The myth also is a commentary on gender, because it's a woman who releases evil to the world, and Pandora's husband is at fault only because he is stupid enough to marry her.
It is 100% supportable that the "box" represents the womb in Hesiod's version of the myth from his Theogony. In brief: * In the Theogony, Hesiod never mentions any vessel save Pandora herself. * Pandora is cast as the mother of the "race of women" who were created to vex men (i.e. they are the source of evil named by Hesiod in the Theogony.) * In other versions of the myth, no "box" is mentioned, but instead a _pithou_ meaning "jar" for wine or oil. (If wine, it could represent blood, and oil is a lubricant.) * The idea of woman as vessel is a major point in Apollo's notorious arguments in Orestes' defense in The Eumenides, demonstrating the existence of this concept in Ancient Greek thought. You can find a more detailed explanation of this element of the myth here, as well as a discussion of the possible meaning in Aesop and Hesiod.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 7, "tags": "greek, pandora" }
Are dwarves and dark elves the same? I remember reading somewhere that in Norse mythology dwarves and dark elves are the same thing. Then I started reading Gylfaginning and it sounded like they were different, but then later on they send someone to get help from the dwarves in Svartalfheim, which I'm pretty sure is probably 'dark elf home.' So, are dwarves and dark elves the same thing? Or are they different beings that happen to live in the same place? Something else? (Note: I haven't finished Gylfaginning yet, I'm finding it a bit of a tough read.)
Norse mythology often alludes to nine worlds. Eight of these are known with relative certainty: * Asgard, realm of the Aesir * Vanaheim, realm of the Vanir * Alfheim, realm of the (light) elves * Midgard, realm of men * Jotunheim, realm of the Jotun (giants) * Muspell, realm of fire * Niflheim, realm of ice * Hel, real of the dishonorable dead The missing ninth world depends on the source. The two most frequently cited are Svartalfheim, realm of the dark elves, and Nidavellir, realm of the dwarves. As there are supposed to be exactly nine worlds, not ten, the logical conclusion is that Svartalfheim and Nidavellir are the same. Thus dark elves and dwarves refer to the same creature.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 16, "tags": "norse, gylfaginning" }
How were the Furies (Erinyies) born? How were the Erinyes born? They seem like mystical creatures that are there to do Hades' bidding, but how were they actually born? Are they just other monsters magically born?
According to Hesiod, the Erinyes were born of Gaia (Earth) when she received the blood of Ouranos (Sky): > And Heaven came, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Earth spreading himself full upon her. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Earth received, and as the seasons moved round she bore the strong Erinyes and the great Giants with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphs whom they call Meliae all over the boundless earth. > > Source: Hesiod, Theogony
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 7, "tags": "greek, erinyes" }
Why is the Oedipus complex named after Oedipus? What is the relationship between the Oedipus complex and the character Oedipus? Is there any? It is a big jump between someone who answered a riddle to a psychological complex.
The full story (in short) of Oedipus is that his father heard a prophecy that his son will kill him. So he threw him away (basically ordered him to be killed but the killers spared him). After growing up he came back (solved the riddle on his way back) and then rebelled against his dad (without knowing that he was his father), killed him, and married his mother having children with her. After he found out that he in fact married his mother and killed his father he took his eyes out. Basically the prophecy that Oedipus' father heard was in fact a self fulfilling prophecy. If he never had ordered his son to be killed, he would never return to kill him. So since Oedipus killed his father, fell in love with and married his own mother, the Oedipus syndrome was named after him. To simplify things enormously, the complex refers to a subconscious love for one's mother, and thus jealousy towards one's father (as the father has a legitimate relationship with the mother).
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 6, "tags": "greek, oedipus" }
What caused the Deluge? In Tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Uta-napishti relays the story of the Deluge: > Said Uta-napishti to him, to Gilgamesh: > > 'Let me disclose, Gilgamesh, a matter most secret, > to you will tell a mystery of gods. > > 'The town of Shuruppak, a city well known to you, > which stands on the banks of the river Euphrates: > this city was old - the gods once were in it - > when the great gods decided to send down the Deluge. > > Source: The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Andrew George, Penguin Books Why? What cause had the gods to destroy mankind?
_The Story of Atrahasis_, which is thought to be closely related to _The Epic of Gilgamesh_ , is partially lost, but enough fragments remain to figure out its meeting. Humanity annoys the gods many times with its incessant noise. The gods, spearheaded by Enlil, cast several plagues on humanity; Enki (Ea) advises Atrahasis on how to help his people through each one. The last of these is the Deluge. _The Epic of Ziusudra_, also partially lost, is a very similar version of the story. Again, Enki helps one ruler survive the flood brought on by the gods in an attempt to completely wipe out mankind. It does not appear that the two kings (Atrahasis and Ziusudra) are the same person, as both the names appear in different places on the Sumerian King List.
{ "answer_score": 4, "question_score": 6, "tags": "gilgamesh, flood myth" }
What is this myth about Helios? Well, there was a guy who wanted to get on the sun chariot, but eventually he died or something happened to him, but he got too close or something. What is the name of the boy, and what is the time period?
You are confusing Helios, the original Titan Greek sun god, with Phaethon, the son of Apollo (or maybe Helios) who insisted on driving the sun's chariot and couldn't control the horses so the earth burned and froze until Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 5, "tags": "greek, myth identification" }
Symbolism behind Hephaestus riding a donkey When Hephaestus returns to Olympus after being thrown out by Hera, some authors/artists portray him as riding a donkey: ![enter image description here]( (Source: Is there any reason why he rides a donkey? Why not a horse or a turtle?
According to Wikipedia (though I cannot confirm), it is a mule. A donkey would actually make _more_ sense, as Dionysus was the one who helped Hephaestus return to Olympia after his fall (source), and **the donkey is associated with Dionysus** and his ways, according to _The Book of Symbols_ (316).
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 10, "tags": "greek" }
Why did Hera have so many sacred things? Theoi has quite the list. **SYMBOLS** * Crown, Lotus-staff, Cuckoo **ATTRIBUTES** * Lotus-staff; Crown; Cuckoo; Peacock; Pomegranate **~~CHARIOTS~~** Who cares? **SACRED PLANTS** * Pomegranate, Lotus/Waterlily, Willow **SACRED ANIMALS** * Heifer, Lion **SACRED BIRDS** * Cuckoo, Peacock, Wide Winged Hawk, and Crane **SACRED PLANET** * Venus She even stole another goddess' Planet. Is there a tangible reason why she has so many symbols and sacred stuff?
The problem is that you can't look at a God as an equivalent of a person with a distinct and very limited identity. The gods we more fluid in how they were represented and worshipped and during the time in which they were worshipped. When simply enumerating that Hera's sacred birds are a Cuckoo, Peacock, etc., you lose that people living in one community may have had a lot of Peacocks but had never seen a Cuckoo before, so they naturally revered the Peacock instead. > Priest: And Hera's sacred bird is the Cuckoo > > Worshiper: Ohh. What's a "Cuckoo"? > > Priest: Uhm, [ _looks around frantically_ ] ... that bird over there! > > Worshiper: ...Looks kind of like a Peacock to me. > > Priest: Well, it would. That is why I am a priest. Now kneel before the goddess and pray or I will give you such a pinch!!
{ "answer_score": 3, "question_score": 2, "tags": "greek, symbolism, hera" }
How did Sindri and Brokkr win the bet with Loki, when Mjölnir is clearly faulty? I understand that the brothers endured a lot of tough challenges, especially from Loki (who tried to disturb them in the form of a fly). But still, Mjölnir is clearly faulty, which is supported by this quote from The Prose Edda, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur (1916): > Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand; and if be desired, he might keep it in his sark, it was so small; **but indeed it was a flaw in the hammer that the fore-haft was somewhat short.** So, a bet is a bet, and when it is betted upon a head, it should/would be much more intolerant. So, why and how did the brothers won the bet when the hammer is clearly faulty? On what criterion is the quality/bet gauged?
The bet didn't call for flawless creations; Sindri and Brokkr just had to do better than the sons of Ivaldi. > After that, Loki went to those dwarves who are called Ívaldi's Sons; and they made the hair, and Skídbladnir also, and the spear which became Odin's possession, and was called Gungnir. Then Loki wagered his head with the dwarf called Brokkr that Brokkr's brother Sindri could not make three other precious things equal in virtue to these. > > Source: Skáldskaparmal, The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturlson, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur Apparently, the Aesir decided this was the case: > This was their decision: that the hammer was best of all the precious works, and in it there was the greatest defence against the Rime-Giants; and they gave sentence, that the dwarf should have his wager.
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 6, "tags": "norse, thor, skaldskaparmal" }
Twice a bridesmaid, never a bride? I was reading Lafcadio Hearn's New Orleans Superstitions, when I came upon this proverb: > There are many superstitions about marriage, which seem to have a European origin, but are not less interesting on that account. "Twice a bridesmaid, never a bride," is a proverb which needs no comment. Is there a vodun, voodoo or even European story behind the superstition?
From what I gather, the origin is uncertain, but it seems common sense that "if association with a bride and the high profile of the day did not attract a husband after two opportunities, then perhaps there was little hope" ( _Marriage Customs of the World_ 98). In terms of pinpointing the locale of the superstition, I believe that the modern use of bridesmaids -- in the sense that they appear alongside the bride at the time of wedding -- stems perhaps from Biblical origins, at least if you believe Wikipedia, and so it makes sense that this superstition would crop up in Europe. Further research is needed.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 4, "tags": "folklore, superstition" }
What gender was the Midgard Serpent Jormungand? Is there any documentation detailing the gender of the Midgard Serpent Jormungand? is it Male, Female, Both, Neither, Null, etc?
Male. Jörmungandr is referred to as a "he" in translations of the Prose Edda, such as (quotes, in both cases, from this text): > When they came to him, straightway he cast the serpent [Jörmungandr] into the deep sea, where _he_ lies about all the land; and this serpent grew so greatly that _he_ lies in the midst of the ocean encompassing all the land, and bites upon his own tail. To go a step further, the use of the pronoun "he" is not incidental, the old norse text for the above line is: > Ok er þau kómu til hans, þá kastaði hann orminum í inn djúpa sæ, er liggr um öll lönd, ok óx sá ormr svá, at hann liggr í miðju hafinu of öll lönd ok bítr í sporð sér. Where "hann" is a male pronoun, analogous to the English "he".
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 8, "tags": "norse, ragnarok" }
Why does the dragon emerge at the dawn of the new world? The final stanza of the Völuspá \- which immediately follows the stanzas describing the beauty of the reborn world - seems a bit out of place, if not outright bizarre: > 66\. Then comes the gloomy > dragon flying, > serpent from below, > from Nidafjollum;. > bears in feather corpse > \- flying over plain - > Nidhoggr now pale. > Now may she sink.. > > Source: Poetic Edda/Völuspá, Wikisource. Ragnarök and all its ills ended when the earth was submerged in the ocean. Why then does Nidhoggr emerge, bearing corpses in his feathers?
This is a really good question; it is one which even experts on Norse mythology has trouble finding a good answer for. Gro Steinsland, in _Fornnordisk religion_ , lists three different suggested explanations: 1. A suggestion by Else Munkdal that Níðhöggr is there as a kind of monstrous transport: the corpses he bears are being moved into the new world to be reborn. 2. That he is there as proof that even the reborn world is not perfect: the cosmology is cyclical, and conflict will soon begin again, after a short respite. 3. Steinsland's own suggestion, that Níðhöggr is there as a framing device. Steinsland argues that as the new world is in many ways show to be better, the cosmology has to be linear, and Níðhöggr has no place in the new world order. Instead, he is there to move listeners back to their own world, and the Völva can sink back from trance. From what I can tell, 2. is the most widespread explanation.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 11, "tags": "norse, ragnarok" }
What is the symbolism of the name of the Parcae? According to, Parcae/Moirai means "parts": > Their name means "Parts." "Shares" or "Alottted Portions." Is there a symbolism behind this? Is it because Fate was split into 3?
So, there are a couple things here. _Parcae_ refers to the Roman Fates, while Moirai (or Moerae) refer to the Greek Fates. Next, "parts" is a not particularly helpful translation. The better one is the third one you shared, "allotted portions" (or apportioned lots). It instead refers to their activity. There were three Fates in Greek mythology, which you can read if you just look a little further in the same paragraph you link to: > Klotho, whose name means "Spinner," spinned the thread of life. Lakhesis, whose name means "Apportioner of Lots"--being derived from a word meaning to receive by lot--, measured the thread of life. Atropos (or Aisa), whose name means "She who cannot be turned," cut the thread of life. The "parts" or "apportioned lots" refers to their activity. The spin, weave, and cut the "thread of life", so to speak. The life you get is the life they allot you.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 5, "tags": "greek, symbolism, fates" }
Is there a myth of someone living in the sun? Is there a Greek myth of some sort of a god, human, or other creature living in the sun?
So far as I know the Greco-Roman myths about the sun consistently refer to it as an object, usually the wheel of a chariot which is handled by Apollo or Helios. The Greeks didn't personify or anthropomorphize the sun.
{ "answer_score": 2, "question_score": 4, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures, myth identification, sun" }
How did angels get their halos? How did angels come to get halos? I don't think the Bible, Qu'ran, or Torah says anything about them. But now, when we say "angels," we think of winged humans with halos on top of them. So where did they come from?
I seem to recall it's actually related to visual iconography, not anything from a text. Divine beings were said to have a glow around them showing their divinity, and people drawing or painting had various ways to represent that. As painting styles changed, so did styles of the glow, eventually becoming first a disk behind the head and then the floating golden frisbee we currently see.
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 3, "tags": "angels" }
Do the leaves of Yggdrasil (the World Tree) have any special properties? Do the leaves of the World Tree (Yggdrasil) have any special properties in Norse Mythology?
I don't know if the leaves had any magical properties, but apparently it dripped honey: I know an ash-tree stands called Yggdrasill, a high tree, soaked with shining loam; from there come the dews which fall in the valley, ever green, it stands over the well of fate. (Vsp. 19, Larrington) The dew that falls from it on to the earth, this is what people call honeydew, and from this bees feed. (Snorri/Faulkes, Gylf 17) (The translations are by Carolyne Larrington and Anthony Faulkes.) Ash trees exude a sticky sap called manna or honeydew, which runs from the branches and leaves. Apart from bees, the goat Heidrun ate this honey, which probably was transformed into the mead that ran from her udders.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 8, "tags": "norse, yggdrasil" }
Is there a Sumerian Pandora myth? On the FOX show _Sleepy Hollow,_ the Big Bad this season calls herself Pandora, and she has a box from which supernatural evil things come, but one of the protagonists says she's from Sumeria. The character herself talks about how her father sold her into slavery, which is not part of the Greek story. Also, in the Greek story, Pandora is clearly an innocent pawn, not an evildoer. I've tried to research this, but I can't find any equivalents to the Greek Pandora myth (woman is created with many gifts from many gods, including intense curiosity; she is given as a wife to punish someone; she's given a jar/box/container and told "don't open it" but she does, and all manner of evils fly out to plague humanity; hope remains) in Sumerian mythology. Is this just artistic license, or was there a similar figure or story in the Sumerian mythos?
The Pandora story you cite is 100% Greek. There's probably a pre-Hesiodic tradition surrounding it, but as it stands, it's not Mesopotamian. However, there are parallels with Eve from Hebrew mythology. Both ruin a utopian world through their curiosity, causing misery and strife for humans thereafter. However, both endeavor to explain why the world is toilsome, and since the world is toilsome and women were easy targets for blame (especially in a male-dominated society), it's not impossible these are entirely independent of each other. And even if there is some relationship between the two, the way the Greek story is told is without parallel.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 8, "tags": "greek, sumerian, pandora" }
What happened if a god or goddess had his/her head cut off? So in mythology, _most_ gods and goddesses are immortal. But you can't really live once you have your head cut off. So, specifically Greek mythology, what would happen if your head got cut off, and you were an Olympian or lesser god??
From Here, Zeus didn't have his head chopped off, but one could argue that the damage from having an adult armored female inside his head, which was removed by cracking open his skull should be equally lethal or incapacitating. Yet all he felt was a headache. From Sacred Texts, > Born from his sacred head, in battle-array ready dight, Golden, all glistering. Fear took hold of them all at the sight-- Them, the Immortals; but she, before Zeus of the Ægis-shield, Burst and flashed and leaped in birth from the deathless head, Shaking a sharp-edged spear.
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 5, "tags": "greek" }
What is the relationship between Jesus, Iseous, and Zeus Zeus was a Greek god, Iseous was a Roman god and Jesus is the Christian faith Messiah, who is also referred to as "Son of Man." My question is: What is the origin of the name Jesus, and what is its relationship with Zeus and Iseous?
Jesus is the Medieval Latin spelling of Iesus (the 'i' is consonantal), itself derived from the Greek Ἰησοῦς, as bleh noted, which transcribed in Latin characters would be Iesous, close to your Iseous (which does not otherwise exist as a name). The name is ultimately Semitic, and came into Greek as the Aramaic שׁוּעַ (Yeshua), from the Hebrew יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yehoshuah, which in English we usually "translate" to Joshua). There is no relationship between that name and Zeus, which is proto-Indo-European and only looks similar to Iesus in its late form—its stem is dio- (whence Dios "of Zeus", and its many derivatives in names like Dionysus and Diomedes or even Dioscuri, the two "sons of Zeus"). This name ultimately comes from the PIE root * _dewos_ , and is related to the Latin _deus_ , Old Persian _daiva_ -, both words for god, as well as the Latin _dies_ or Russian день (dyen') meaning "day".
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": -4, "tags": "greek, roman, christianity, history" }
Are there any ancient unicorn myths that originated from Tibet or its bordering regions? I remember reading some years back how missionaries in Tibet were told stories of how prevalent in the 1800's the belief that there were unicorns living in the mountains of Tibet! Do any ancient Tibetan unicorn myths exist?
Well, here's one. > The existence of these Eurasian nomads called the Qiang, who were known as the “goat people” and who practised animals ordeals, may help to account for the fact that later in the West there was “a vigorous and widespread belief in a unicorn inhabiting the table-lands of Tibet—a region included with the “India” of Ctesias—(which) can be traced in existing documents as far back as the time of Genghis Khan, and there is good reason for supposing that it is much older still” (Shepard [1930] 1982, 32). The reality which lay behind this notion was the presence in Tibet of an elusive long horned wild “antelope” called the chiru by the Tibetan nomads, or, by the Mongolians, the orongo (colour plate 7). Source: The Tibetan Unicorn, So basically, they thought an antelope was a unicorn. As far as I know, it never did anything. I think it's name was "Serou".
{ "answer_score": 4, "question_score": 8, "tags": "mythical creatures, folklore" }
Roughly, where was Ogygia? There was an island, called Ogygia. Apparently, It was an island where Calypso was cursed to stay on forever, because she supported her father, Atlas, in the Titan war. Roughly, where is it?
It likely wasn't anywhere. Homer, or rather the author of the _Odyssey_ , had some conception of the broader Mediterranean, but it was largely unexplored by the Greeks at that time, and so magical islands didn't need to be mapped onto the known world. You know, now that I say it, it's true in today's fiction, too. That said, that didn't stop the ancients from theorizing. Strabo (9.18) thought Ogygia was in the Atlantic Ocean, while Plutarch ( _Moralia_ 12.26) said it was "five day's sail from Britain". Interestingly, and there's a distinct lack of good research on this topic, but Ogyges, whence the name Ogygia, was tied to both Boeotia and Thessaly (via flood-myths) in early myths. That's clearly not the Ogygia that Homer had in mind, though.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 6, "tags": "greek, odyssey, homer" }
Which one was older, Artemis or Apollo? On the island of Delos, Leto had twins, Apollo and Artemis. But usually, twins have a time in between before they are born. Not sure if this is the same in mythology. So which was older?
Most accounts that make the distinction agree that it was Artemis who was born first. From _Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 21_ : > She [Leto] finally reached Delos and gave birth to Artemis, who thereupon helped her deliver Apollon. Artemis became a practised huntress and remained a virgin. From _Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 22_ : > Even in the hour when I [Artemis] was born the Moirai (Fates) ordained that I should be their helper [women in childbirth], forasmuch as my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me win her womb, but without travail put me from her body. Both quotes from Theoi. Note that some accounts imply that there was a separation between the birth of the twins (see e.g. the references in _Woman's Power, Man's Game: Essays on Classical Antiquity in Honor of Joy K. King_), but this is not explicitly stated anywhere, as far as I know.
{ "answer_score": 10, "question_score": 7, "tags": "greek, apollo, artemis" }
What is the differences between the two versions of these myths? What is the differences between the two versions of these myths? How can they be interpreted? The first image is a Bell crater by a Berlin painter in Tarquinia (Italy), Museum. C. 490 BC, it has detail with Zeus and Europa.The next image pertains to Europa and is a wall painting in Naples, National Museum(from Pompeii (IX,5,18)). I understand they both have ties to Europa but I want to identify the differences between the intended versions of the myth. How can each of them be interpreted possibly differently? I have recently been interested in Greek Art and want to learn more about these specific pieces as I believe they can be very much related to one another but there much be differences? ![enter image description here]( ![enter image description here](
Really, none. Both paintings show that Zeus led Europa away in the form of a bull. The only difference I can make between those paintings are the fact that the first one is only Europa is the only one, while the second, she is with her friends, being misled by Zeus.
{ "answer_score": 1, "question_score": -3, "tags": "greek, interpretation" }
Are there any universal creatures in all of the myth systems? When reading the Egyptian myths I was struck by their similarity to Greek myths. This lead me to wonder whether any non human creature (so no ghosts, giants or dwarfs) appears universally or nearly universally across many cultures myths.
> It has long been a popular fantasy among amateur students of myth that all peoples share the same stories. This is clearly an example of wishful thinking. (Alan Dundes) Folklorists have developed these tools called Motif Indexes. I'm not quite sure what you mean by "non human creature", but creatures like phoenix have entries in the index. A motif index would then list every culture that contains a myth/story about phoenix. **The key here is that there isn't a single example that we can point to where the motif is universal** , i.e. it is present in the stories of every culture known to mankind. So no, there isn't an example of a "non human creature" that "appears universally or nearly universally across many cultures myths." If you're interested in the similarities and differences between the stories of different cultures, then I would recommend that you learn more about motif indexes.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 6, "tags": "mythical creatures, comparative" }
Why did Tantalus try to trick the gods? Tantalus, who was a king beloved of the gods, ruled over the kingdom of Tmolus. He hated his sons. He fed the gods human meat, specifically Pelops, his son, and tried to trick them. Later he was sent to Fields of Punishment for trying to trick them. Why?
According to this Wikipedia article about Atreus it was to test the omniscience of the gods. He wanted to know if the gods would _know_ it was human flesh. Not only was it human flesh, it was the flesh of his son, Pelops. This article on "Greek Myths & Greek Mythology" suggests that it was for one of two reasons, either to test their genius, a similar story to that in the Wikipedia article, or simply because he ran out of food to serve them. Perhaps worth noting that this was _not_ Tantalus's first offense.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 5, "tags": "greek" }
Did ancient myths center on deities because individualism was not valued? Are there any books/essays/discussions about the idea that ancient cultures didn't value individualism (for a variety of reasons) like we do today, and so poetry, literature, and art were primarily about celebrating deities or deities interacting with archetypal humans, rather than so much of what we see from recent history (say the last two thousand or so years), where art works develop towards a lack of deity, even no deity at all, or any kind of super human interaction, instead featuring a story of everyday humanity? Perhaps I'm misreading history, or misunderstanding much of mythology, but that seems to be my impression. Thanks!
Perhaps for something to be mythology it needs some superhuman or extra-human element, otherwise it's classed as a story or tale? For instance, I don't think I've seen the Tale of the Eloquent Peasant described as a myth. But it might fit as a tale of everyday humanity.
{ "answer_score": 2, "question_score": 6, "tags": "comparative, history" }
What was the symbolism behind Tantalus's punishment? Tantalus, who was a bad person, was sent to the fields of punishment. He stood in a pool, with a fruit tree above him, but the food and drink would always go away from him when he tried to eat it. So what was symbolized of this punishment, to starve and thirst forevermore?
There are two main reasons attributed to Tantalus's punishment, sources from * He was invited to Olympus by Zeus, ate the food of the gods (ambrosia and nectar), and was given divine secrets, which he then blabbed (Hom. Od. xi. 582). * He wanted to test the gods and see how perceptive they were, so he invited them to his home for dinner, and killed his son Pelops and cooked and served the boy to the gods. (Hygin. Fab. 83 ; Serv. ad Aen. vi. 603, ad Georg. iii. 7.) Theoi mentions other stories which I've never heard before, so I don't know how common they are (including one which says he fell in love with Zeus's cup-bearing boy Ganymede and carried him off!). In any case, the punishment is that food and drink always seem to be within his grasp but are never attainable, and his two major sins both involved food which should not have been eaten.
{ "answer_score": 10, "question_score": 6, "tags": "greek, symbolism" }
What was the earliest werewolf myth? So, the earliest werewolf I can find is in Greek times. But, was there ever an earlier werewolf myth?
There's a wolf transformation in the Epic of Gilgamesh, and as written texts go they don't come any earlier. Although in this case it was a spell cast upon him and he never had a chance to transform back into human form. There may of course be earlier oral mythology.
{ "answer_score": 16, "question_score": 7, "tags": "mythical creatures, myth identification, comparative, werewolves" }
Were all the sons of Zeus brothers of all the godly sons and daughters of Zeus? Since in Greek mythology, there are sons of Zeus as demigods, are they brothers of all the godly sons and daughters of Zeus? Also, wouldn't the demigod's mother technically be the mother in law of Zeus' offspring?
The Demigods and the Godly offspring of Zeus would be half-siblings. The title step-mother comes by marriage, at the very least in the common law sense, however most of Zeus's special lady friends were mistresses or one night stands. This is all without going in to some of the more curious reproductive methods.
{ "answer_score": 3, "question_score": 2, "tags": "greek, demi gods" }
What happens to the Dwarves during Ragnarok? When Ragnarok comes what are the dwarves up to? What happens to them?
The fate of the dwarves is one of the minor mysteries of Ragnarok. Volupsa doesn't mention them after v. 48, although to be fair it's mainly concerned with the few gods who survive. Snorri is more concerned with humans, as he tells us two will survive and repopulate the earth. The myths don't tell us what happens to the elves either. More mystery.
{ "answer_score": 3, "question_score": 7, "tags": "norse, ragnarok" }
Are the nodes of Greek mythology a major concept? The Wikipedia article for the Calydonian Boar says that > Like the quest for the Golden Fleece (Argonautica) or the Trojan War that took place the following generation, the Calydonian Hunt is one of the nodes in which much Greek myth comes together. There is no reference on this claim, and I was wondering what scholastic work has been done on the "nodes" of Greek mythology (presumably defined as the episodes during which many heroes of a generation come together). Is this a major concept in the study of mythology?
The word "node" is not (as far as I know) used in the study of literature/folklore/mythology. What I think the Wikipedia article is trying to refer to is the idea that the Calydonian Boar story features a gathering of many _characters_ in Greek mythology come together. The academic word for this concept would probably be an epic catalogue. The phrase epic catalogue refers to the poetic device of making really long lists of things, e.g. a list of characters. I talk a little bit more about epic catalogues in the Stack Exchange question I linked to above.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 3, "tags": "greek, concepts" }
Was there an epic or drama detailing Menelaus's return? In book IV of the Odyssey (translator Robert Fitsgerald), Menelaus mentions he spent 7 years returning to Sparta. This seems like it would be something that somebody in ancient times would write about. If it was written, what is the piece called?
The wanderings of Menelaus were described in the “Nostoi” attributed to Agias of Troezen. The remnants of this poem are collected by M.L. West in the Loeb volume “Greek Epic Fragments”. This is older than Herodotus or Euripides.
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 8, "tags": "greek, odyssey, homer, trojan war" }
What is the connection of Egyptian mythology to Atlantis? As writing an answer to my own question, I came across this, > Plutarch, Life of Solon 26. 1 (trans. Perrin) (Greek historian C1st - C2nd A.D.) : > > "He [Solon] also spent some time in studies with Psenophis of Heliopolis [in Egypt] and Sonkhis (Sonchis) of Sais, who were very learned priests. From these, as Plato says, he heard the story of the lost Atlantis, and tried to introduce it in a poetical form to the Greeks." What is the connection of the Greek and Egyptian myths about Atlantis?
If there ever was one, we don't know what it was. Most likely, there never was one. The only real original source we have for the story of Atlantis is Plato. He used it as an allegory to help describe his vision of the best way to run things politically. It was sort of his equivalent of Thomas More's Utopia). The society itself appears to be very maritime (like Greece and decidedly unlike Egypt). It doesn't look at all like a myth an inland river-centered Egyptian would come up with. All other sources we have for the story came after Plato, and seem to be based on his stories. So the most likely (and currently favored) supposition is that Plato himself made it up. Even if he didn't, he might as well have, because that's all we have.
{ "answer_score": 12, "question_score": 7, "tags": "greek, egyptian, atlantis" }
How many gods/goddesses are there in total in greek mythology? If there was a diagram with every god in it, that would be cool, but I doubt you can find that, so a number will do I guess. How many gods/goddesses are there in total in greek mythology?
A lot. Theoi has a nice family tree- ![fam tree]( And so you count, and get a total of... # 3142 gods/godesses If you count the Potami, Naiads, and Astriaos as 1 god/goddess, and including Titans as gods.
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 3, "tags": "greek" }
Could someone tell me about good books about Hawaiian mythology? Could someone tell me about good books about Hawaiian mythology? I've been really interested in it for a long time but I have no idea where to ask for advice or whom to believe.
As mentions by @bleh in a comment, Hawaiian Mythology by Martha Warren Beckwith (1940) seems like a good start. In the references section of this book you will find a large amount of books/scholarly articles on polynesian and hawaiian mythology. Among the hawaiian references, some names of scholars pop up frequently: those of Joseph S. Emerson and Nathaniel B. Emerson (sons of a missionary), but also Mary Kawena Pukui and Laura Green. The page on the website on Pacific mythologies contains also several other works, in addition to 'Hawaiian Mythology', by Martha W. Beckwith and by W. D. Westervelt. The works of these few scholars should already cover a significant portion of the subject, I think.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 3, "tags": "hawaiian" }
Can anyone identify what Chinese mythology creature this is? I got this as a gift and I originally thought it was a foo dog but it has both paws on turtles, not on a cub or ball as foo dogs do. It may be a Pi Yao or Pixiu but I'm not so sure. ![Image](
Since it has hooves (not paws), scales, and horns, it is almost certainly a qilin or "Chinese unicorn". I don't know why it is standing on four turtles, except that the turtle and qilin were two of the sishou or "four divine creatures", along with the phoenix and dragon. They could be guarding dragon and phoenix eggs (the red spheres are different sizes) but this is just a guess.
{ "answer_score": 6, "question_score": 9, "tags": "mythical creatures, chinese" }
What is the earliest known myth about mermaids? Stories about mermaids have been around since time immemorial. I would like to know what is the earliest confirmed evidence about the origins of the mythological creature called mermaids?
Among the earliest known mermaid myths is that of the Assyrian goddess Atargatis, also called Ataratheh or Derceto. She fell in love with a shepherd, accidentally killed him, and ashamed of what she had done she jumped into a lake. But the water could not conceal her divine beauty, and while she became a fish below the waist she became a woman above it. She predates the Greek Nereids, Tritons and Sirens, and also Thessalonike, Alexander the Great's sister. She is said to have originated around 1000 BC, but the earliest representation of her that I have found a reference to is on coinage in Hierapolis in the 4th century BC, and the earliest I have found showing her as part fish and part woman is on a coin from as late as the 1st century BC.
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 7, "tags": "origins, mermaids" }
Are there any mythologic Gods, creatures or equipment that have "exponential" characteristics? The hydra is classically described as growing two heads back for every one cut down. Mjolnir, theoretically, became exponentially heavier to the unworthy. What other Gods, creatures or equipment have powers that are tied to doubling or exponential characteristics?
Not associated with any "gods" as such; there are a large number of folktales containing items with exponential growth. The Aarne-Thompson classification system groups many of these stories into category, AT 565. One of the best-known of these is **_Why the Sea is Salt_** , where an out-of-control salt mill grinds out an endless amount of salt. The goings-on in **_The Sorceror's Apprentice_** certainly smack of the Lernaean Hydra, but that one is more literary than folkloric. And of course there is the matter of how darn fast that beanstalk grew...
{ "answer_score": 9, "question_score": 9, "tags": "mythical creatures, myth identification, god items" }
Were Argus's eyes gradual or all at once? Argus has 100 eyes, 50 awake and 5 sleeping all the time. That way, he would be able to keep guard constantly. But would Argus's eyes have a set time to fall asleep, like 50 immediately going to sleep and 50 immediately coming awake? Or would he have one eye going, right as another would come awake?
Who says half of his eyes were asleep and half awake? While a number of sources refer to his eyes taking sleep in turns, the only source I can find that specifies how many slept at once is Ovid: > Argus, Aristorides, whose head was circled with a hundred glowing eyes; of which but two did slumber in their turn whilst all the others kept on watch and guard. > Ovid's Metamorphoses I, 622-641 Also, when he is being lulled to sleep by Hermes, more of his eyes close gradually, rather than as a unit: > but Argus strove his languor to subdue, and though some drowsy eyes might slumber, still were some that vigil kept. > Ovid's Metamorphoses I, 682-688
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 5, "tags": "greek, mythical creatures" }
Trolls in Norway I learned that people put a big stone on their chimney in Norway to prevent from trolls and I am wondering about the myth behind this story.
I don't know that this is the origin of the practice, but the story of Butterball (Smørbukk) makes reference to Trolls being defeated using a large stone placed on a chimney: > And when that was done, he scrambled up over the door, dragging the pine root and the stone with him, and one he placed over the door and the other on the Troll's chimney pipe. > ... > But when they got to the door, Butterball threw the pine root and the stone at their heads and killed them all. You can read the whole story here: Norwegian Folk Tales, by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, pgs 52-56
{ "answer_score": 7, "question_score": 12, "tags": "norse, mythical creatures" }
Are the Anunnaki mentioned in the Bible? The following Bible passages mention “ _Anakim_ ” and “ _Anak_ ”: * Num 13:22; 13:28; 13:33 * Deut 1:28; 2:10-11; 2:21, 9:2 * Josh 11:21-22; 14:12; 14:15; 15:13-14; 21:11 * Judg 1:20. They sound similar. Is there any known connection between the biblical _Anakim_ / _Anak_ entities and the Sumerian Anunnaki gods?
How could they be related ? Anakim just means " _sons of Anak_ ". It is just a race of giants, and there is nothing giving them godlike power or something. Anunnaki, as I explained in another post, means sons of An. While the terminology is the same, there is nothing in common between those 2 words. EDIT : The sumerian language is apparently an language isolate. So it is just a coincidence. More than that, in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, an hypothesis linked this word with a goddess from the eastern cultural block, but it is not linked to a semitic deity. Still, I don't see any link with the sumerian gods.
{ "answer_score": 8, "question_score": 8, "tags": "comparative, sumerian, anunnaki, bible" }
How did the animosity between Loki and Heimdal start? I'll admit my Norse mythology is rather rusty, but I do recall after an incident these two particular gods saw each other as mortal enemies and would eventually kill each other at Ragnarok. What was it that turned them against one another (I vaguely remember a story where Heimdal caught Loki stealing a piece of jewelry from Freya and kicked his ass over it but the details have eluded me)?
You are thinking about a story referenced in the _Húsdrápa_ , which Snorri excerpted in his _Edda_. It plays out more or less as you described, except Heimdall does not catch Loki in the act, but is asked by Freya to retrieve Brisingamen. The only detail to add was that evidently Heimdall and Loki fought as seals. That is really all we know about it. Further than this, as have already been noted, Loki and Heimdall will fight and kill eachother at Ragnarök. They also interact in the _Lokasenna_ , a poem where Loki shows up at a party and insults the other gods. Heimdall does not seem to be under more fire than his fellow gods.
{ "answer_score": 5, "question_score": 7, "tags": "norse, loki" }
Who are the parents of Taweret? Taweret is arguably one of the most popular goddesses of the Egyptian pantheon. Although much about her consorts is known, nothing is said about the Hippo Goddess' parentage and I would like to find out about it.
She is surely the daughter of Ra. Not sure who the mother could be. But that the same with Sekhmet. Another daughter of Ra without a defined mother. Chance for the mother could roll on Hathor, you often find Hathor and Taweret together, but considering Hathor could also be Ra's daughter... Or Heset which is more or then Ra's traditional wife. Ra's spouse is so an incredibly unsure topic.
{ "answer_score": 2, "question_score": 5, "tags": "egyptian" }
Mythical Creatures associated with Bells Pretty much what it says on the can. I was wondering if there where any mythical creatures or "folk" (little people, Huldufolk, etc) associated with bells, or the sound of bells. Thank-you in advance to anyone who takes the time out of their day to answer my curiosity.
I somehow associated fairies with bells. Quick check on wiki shows that > Bells also have an ambiguous role; while they protect against fairies, the fairies riding on horseback — such as the fairy queen — often have bells on their harness There is a prooflink on the passage: "Briggs (1976) "Bells" p. 20."
{ "answer_score": 2, "question_score": 5, "tags": "mythical creatures" }
Why is Gilgamesh considered to be one-third human and two-third god? Most of the time, the term "demigod" is used to describe people who are the offspring of a god and a human. As far as I know, Gilgamesh is the child of a goddess and a king. Why then is Gilgamesh considered to be one-third human and two-third god when he is the offspring of a god(dess) and a human? Is there a story behind this, one that's about his conception?
Gilgamesh was a recurring character in Mesopotamian myths/stories. The most renown of those stories is the Epic of Gilgamesh where those numbers appears. But he and his slave/servant/friend/buddy/lover Enkidu are in numerous other stories. And in none other those funny proportions are mentioned. It is also good to be aware that the Epic comes to us in various versions. There is no (right now) any complete version of the myth per se. It is just a reconstruction from different tablets. Now the Epic does not give any rational explanation about the proportion. Just remind it is barely a detail trying to make clear Gilgamesh is far beyond any normal human being. As long as it is striking you enough as being "totally abnormal" the one who wrote it did succeed.
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 10, "tags": "sumerian, gilgamesh" }
Where did the wood of Dodona come from? So the wood thing that killed Jason was like from some Dodona thing. I forgot if that's the right name, but it was prophesying wood. > _Philostratus the Elder,_ > "The keel which had been fitted beneath the ship [Argo] was wrought of an ancient tree, the tree which Zeus used for his oracular utterances at Dodona." Now where did that prophesying wood come from?
This is a reference to the oracle in the sanctuary of Dodona, Epirus: > During classical antiquity, according to various accounts, priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted the rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be taken. According to a new interpretation, the oracular sound originated from bronze objects hanging from oak branches and sounded with the wind blowing, similar to a wind chime. However, we have no way of knowing if the piece of wood that fell from the stern and killed Jason was part of the keel (and thus had originated in Dodona). Furthermore, mythologically it doesn't quite fit. Dodona was Zeus' sanctuary and Jason's death was an act of Hera (for Jason had betrayed Medea). These two were very rarely allied, and Hera had no reason to risk angering Zeus.
{ "answer_score": 3, "question_score": 3, "tags": "greek" }
Is "Viking mythology" the same as "Norse mythology" Does "Viking mythology" and "Norse mythology" mean the same, or are there any differences? The Norse deities were: Odin, Thor, Heimdall... Does it mean, that the Viking deities were them too?
A "Viking" was a a warrior who went raiding abroad. (See the Jorvik site for more on this.) They were probably the most famous medieval Scandinavians, but they were a small subset of all the Norse people. Having said that, warrior gods would have been closest to their hearts, and Michael Enright has theorized that the rise of the god Odin was linked to the cultural and religious rise of warbands with a charismatic leader. (You'll notice on the show Vikings that Ragnar Lothrbrok has a close connection to Odin.) So while farmers would have mainly worshipped Frey or Thor, and merchants and sailors probably focused on Njord, warriors certainly focused on Odin.
{ "answer_score": 14, "question_score": 12, "tags": "norse" }
Are there any gods who are in a different species than humans? As we probably know, most gods look like humans e.g. Zeus, Osiris. I am interested to find out if there are any gods that are a different species than humans. The only god that I found so far is Ryujin, the Japanese god of the sea, who is in the shape of a dragon. Are there any other gods like Ryujin? Note: Gods,like Ganesha and Ra, who have animal heads, are not counted.
Raven (Xu'uya) is the creator god in the Haida stories (from islands off the West Coast of Canada). This is one of the main cultures that used totem poles. Although many of the stories from Haida have been lost, you can find much amazing artwork, and there are anthologies written up. Raven found the first men in a clam shell (you can find a related sculpture here which was shown on the Canadian $20 bill from 2004-2012) and he played a role in the conception of the first children. The full story is here (though if you read this, please read the footnote at the bottom - the initial version I read was slightly different, and I think the version on this webpage may be "sanitized" - the footnote describes the version I am familiar with). Raven got up to quite a few other tricks in his time.
{ "answer_score": 11, "question_score": 12, "tags": "mythical creatures, myth identification" }

Stackexchange Instructions for OpenAssistant

This dataset is taken from

There's a single parquet file combining all stackexchange sites. The threads have been filtered as follows: only threads with an accepted answer, for which both the question and response is less than 1000 characters have been choosen. Other answers, or questions without accepted answers, or long entries have been droppped.

Each row consists of

  • SOURCE («stackexchange-ai«)
  • METADATA (tags, question_score, answer_score).

Original extraction code by

How to Reproduce this Dataset

  1. Download all XML files from the stackexchange archive into the xml/ folder
  1. Process the XML, filter conversations and convert to OA format into parquet/ folder
  1. Run stats on all files in the parquet/ folder
  1. Combine all parquet files into one large stackexchange.parquet file
  1. Upload to huggingface hub, you'll first need use huggingface-cli login


  • 3dprinting: 1,006
  • academia: 6,956
  • ai: 1,169
  • android: 11,591
  • anime: 3,688
  • apple: 32,603
  • arduino: 3,725
  • askubuntu: 78,472
  • astronomy: 2,425
  • aviation: 4,945
  • avp: 1,949
  • beer: 387
  • bicycles: 4,835
  • bioacoustics: 70
  • bioinformatics: 903
  • biology: 5,344
  • bitcoin: 7,456
  • blender: 25,527
  • boardgames: 4,538
  • bricks: 1,457
  • buddhism: 911
  • cardano: 670
  • chemistry: 7,430
  • chess: 2,185
  • chinese: 4,897
  • christianity: 1,248
  • civicrm: 3,221
  • codegolf: 943
  • codereview: 2,171
  • coffee: 350
  • cogsci: 645
  • computergraphics: 540
  • conlang: 101
  • cooking: 7,951
  • craftcms: 4,533
  • crafts: 438
  • crypto: 4,425
  • cs: 9,478
  • cseducators: 71
  • cstheory: 2,196
  • datascience: 5,045
  • dba: 16,850
  • devops: 961
  • diy: 14,400
  • drones: 190
  • drupal: 24,090
  • dsp: 4,470
  • earthscience: 922
  • ebooks: 323
  • economics: 2,120
  • electronics: 41,717
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  • english: 42,415
  • eosio: 626
  • es_stackoverflow: 21,475
  • esperanto: 617
  • ethereum: 9,603
  • expatriates: 973
  • expressionengine: 3,638
  • fitness: 1,833
  • freelancing: 338
  • french: 5,193
  • gamedev: 9,678
  • gaming: 44,899
  • gardening: 4,492
  • genealogy: 487
  • german: 6,715
  • gis: 30,249
  • graphicdesign: 10,563
  • ham: 790
  • hardwarerecs: 647
  • health: 804
  • hermeneutics: 782
  • hinduism: 1,036
  • history: 1,776
  • homebrew: 2,357
  • hsm: 484
  • interpersonal: 199
  • iot: 331
  • iota: 292
  • islam: 1,496
  • italian: 1,356
  • ja_stackoverflow: 9,734
  • japanese: 13,862
  • joomla: 1,875
  • judaism: 6,156
  • korean: 754
  • languagelearning: 135
  • latin: 1,387
  • law: 3,475
  • lifehacks: 934
  • linguistics: 1,507
  • literature: 582
  • magento: 20,537
  • martialarts: 364
  • materials: 338
  • math: 501,019
  • matheducators: 316
  • mathematica: 19,529
  • mathoverflow_net_7z: 23,803
  • mechanics: 4,735
  • meta: 34,161
  • meta_askubuntu: 2,076
  • meta_mathoverflow_net_7z: 333
  • meta_serverfault: 823
  • meta_stackoverflow: 12,641
  • meta_superuser: 1,748
  • moderators: 39
  • monero: 1,443
  • money: 7,996
  • movies: 6,789
  • music: 5,740
  • musicfans: 781
  • mythology: 271
  • networkengineering: 4,637
  • opendata: 1,117
  • opensource: 805
  • or: 586
  • outdoors: 1,503
  • parenting: 815
  • patents: 582
  • pets: 1,081
  • philosophy: 1,505
  • photo: 6,386
  • physics: 35,386
  • pm: 982
  • poker: 431
  • politics: 1,903
  • portuguese: 658
  • proofassistants: 87
  • pt_stackoverflow: 27,650
  • puzzling: 11,959
  • quant: 3,303
  • quantumcomputing: 1,604
  • raspberrypi: 6,794
  • retrocomputing: 1,016
  • reverseengineering: 1,606
  • robotics: 1,020
  • rpg: 9,517
  • ru_stackoverflow: 106,714
  • rus: 8,210
  • russian: 1,960
  • salesforce: 27,962
  • scicomp: 1,403
  • scifi: 15,174
  • security: 11,733
  • serverfault: 81,229
  • sharepoint: 24,934
  • sitecore: 2,691
  • skeptics: 1,043
  • softwareengineering: 10,526
  • softwarerecs: 3,032
  • solana: 602
  • sound: 2,031
  • space: 3,145
  • spanish: 3,049
  • sports: 1,715
  • sqa: 1,944
  • stackapps: 702
  • stackoverflow: 4,269,779
  • stats: 23,102
  • stellar: 373
  • substrate: 812
  • superuser: 128,488
  • sustainability: 240
  • tex: 42,808
  • tezos: 635
  • tor: 887
  • travel: 9,957
  • tridion: 1,769
  • ukrainian: 577
  • unix: 54,338
  • ux: 7,403
  • vegetarianism: 151
  • vi: 4,360
  • webapps: 10,159
  • webmasters: 9,413
  • windowsphone: 1,110
  • woodworking: 677
  • wordpress: 24,270
  • workplace: 4,104
  • worldbuilding: 2,766
  • writers: 1,957

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