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dataset (string)example_uid (string)question (string)answer (string)turker_answer (string)rule-based (string)
"SQuAD"
"572812523acd2414000df3bf"
"What was Prince Albert 's nickname ?"
"Bertie"
"Prince Albert 's nickname was Bertie ."
"Prince Albert 's nickname was Bertie ."
"SQuAD"
"572817584b864d1900164464"
"Where is the centre of London said to be located ?"
"Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall"
"The centre of London is said to be located by the Eleanor Cross in Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall ."
"The centre of London is said to be located in Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall ."
"SQuAD"
"57312c6005b4da19006bce36"
"What pigment was used to paint villas in ancient Rome ?"
"vermilion"
"Vermillion pigment was used to paint villas in ancient Rome ."
"Vermilion was used to paint villas in ancient Rome ."
"SQuAD"
"57266b70708984140094c56a"
"Who was the Queen 's first grandchild ?"
"Wilhelm"
"Wilhelm was the Queen 's first grandchild ."
"Wilhelm was the Queen 's first grandchild ."
"SQuAD"
"56db66a2e7c41114004b509a"
"Who did BMG partner with in 2005-2007 ?"
"Sony Music Entertainment"
"BMG partnered with Sony Music Entertainment in 2005-2007 ."
"BMG partner with Sony Music Entertainment in 2005-2007 ."
"SQuAD"
"572739b6dd62a815002e99bc"
"Who later confirmed that racial classifications were only to be upheld if they were necessary ?"
"U.S. Supreme Court"
"The U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that racial classifications were only to be upheld if they were necessary ."
"U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that racial classifications were only to be upheld if they were necessary ."
"SQuAD"
"56dc5baa14d3a41400c26805"
"What is the term that accounts for the constituents of the haploid genome ?"
"Genome composition"
"Genome composition is the term that accounts for the constituents of the haploid genome ."
"The term that accounts for the constituents of the haploid genome is genome composition ."
"SQuAD"
"573378a84776f41900660b5a"
"What does Bruno Wenn of the German DEG recommend to attract new investors ?"
"sound economic policymaking and good governance"
"Bruno Wenn of the German DEG recommends sound economic policymaking and good governance to attract new investors ."
"Bruno Wenn of the German DEG recommends to attract sound economic policymaking and good governance new investors ."
"SQuAD"
"571d29295efbb31900334eb6"
"Drug manufacturers paid off doctors a total of how much money ?"
"$ 2 billion"
"Drug manufacturers paid off doctors a total of $ 2 billion ."
"Drug manufacturers paid off doctors a total of $ 2 billion ."
"SQuAD"
"573425204776f4190066194f"
"When was South Tucson first incorporated ?"
"1936"
"South Tucson was first incorporated in 1936 ."
"South Tucson was first incorporated in 1936 ."
"SQuAD"
"57304a9c8ab72b1400f9c3ea"
"What airport provides service to the City to Charleston ?"
"Charleston International Airport"
"Charleston International Airport provides service to the City of Charleston ."
"Charleston International Airport provides service to the City to Charleston ."
"SQuAD"
"572a9e1bf75d5e190021fba7"
"Who currently holds the power to grant royal assent to measures ?"
"the lieutenant governor"
"The lieutenant governor currently holds the power to grant royal assent to measures ."
"The lieutenant governor holds the power to grant royal assent to measures ."
"SQuAD"
"57319878e17f3d1400422257"
"Who was the mother of Romulus and Remus ?"
"Rhea Silvia"
"Rhea Silvia was the mother of Romulus and Remus ."
"Rhea Silvia was the mother of Romulus and Remus ."
"SQuAD"
"572ecf2503f9891900756a42"
"Which century produced the seven readings selected by Ibn Mujāhid ?"
"8th"
"The 8th century produced the seven readings selected by Ibn Mujāhid ."
"8th produced the seven readings selected by Ibn Mujāhid ."
"SQuAD"
"572a29476aef05140015532c"
"What year did Napoleon end of the War of the Fourth Coalition ?"
"1807"
"Napoleon ended the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1807 ."
"Napoleon end of the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1807 ."
"SQuAD"
"56e11801e3433e1400422bca"
"What group took issue with the Roman canons ?"
"the Presbyterians"
"The Presbyterians took issue with the Roman canons ."
"The Presbyterians took issue with the Roman canons ."
"SQuAD"
"56dfe7dc231d4119001abe76"
"What sort of theme is thought memorable for modern pub names ?"
"comic"
"Comic theme is thought memorable for modern pub names ."
"Comic is thought memorable for modern pub names ."
"SQuAD"
"56e786e700c9c71400d77244"
"At least how many different degree-granting programs exist at KU ?"
"345"
"At least 345 different degree-granting programs exist at KU ."
"At least 345 exist at KU ."
"SQuAD"
"5722d1770dadf01500fa1f04"
"How was the House of Orleans and the British Royal family related ?"
"by marriage through the Coburgs"
"The House of Orleans and the British Royal family are related by marriage through the Coburgs ."
"The House of Orleans and the British Royal family was related by marriage through the Coburgs ."
"SQuAD"
"56df6b9d56340a1900b29ae6"
"What do the people in the Indian subcontinent call Jesus ?"
"Isa Masih"
"The people in the Indian subcontinent call Jesus Isa Masih ."
"The people in the Indian subcontinent call Isa Masih Jesus ."
"SQuAD"
"5731b729b9d445190005e4aa"
"What act was decreed in times of crisis in Rome ?"
"public rites"
"The public rites act was decreed in times of crisis in Rome ."
"Public rites was decreed in times of crisis in Rome ."
"SQuAD"
"5729317d6aef051400154b5e"
"What measurable value obeys a similar rule of angular momentum ?"
"time vs. energy"
"Time versus energy obeys a similar rule of angular momentum ."
"Time vs. energy obeys a similar rule of angular momentum ."
"SQuAD"
"572a332b1d0469140077983d"
"Roughly 200,000 individuals of what group left Crimea during the war ?"
"Crimean Tatars"
"Roughly 200,000 individuals of the Crimean Tatars left Crimea during the war ."
"Roughly 200,000 individuals left Crimea during the war of crimean Tatars ."
"SQuAD"
"57111370b654c5140001faf7"
"What was the slogan for the Nintendo brand ?"
"It ca n't be beaten"
"The slogan for the Nintendo brand is it ca n't be beaten ."
"The slogan for the Nintendo brand was it ca n't be beaten ."
"SQuAD"
"56e7910400c9c71400d772eb"
"In January of 2007 , what internet company did the National Archives partner with ?"
"Fold3.com"
"In January of 2007 , the National Archives partnered with Fold3.com ."
"In January of 2007 , the National Archives partner with fold3.com ."
"SQuAD"
"57304b48396df9190009604c"
"How much of the overseas trade did the Port of London take on ?"
"one-third of overseas trade"
"The Port of London took on one-third of overseas trade ."
"The Port of London took on one-third of overseas trade ."
"SQuAD"
"57326d6ce99e3014001e67ad"
"What aircraft had an incident with Air Force Flight 8610 ?"
"Eastern Airlines Flight 8610"
"Eastern Airlines Flight 8610 had an incident with Air Force Flight 8610 ."
"Eastern Airlines Flight 8610 had an incident with Air Force Flight 8610 ."
"SQuAD"
"5727507f5951b619008f8829"
"Who developed the procedures used in this transfer ?"
"Schell and Van Montagu"
"Schell and Van Montagu developed the procedures used in this transfer ."
"Schell and Van Montagu developed the procedures used in this transfer ."
"SQuAD"
"5727a043ff5b5019007d9144"
"Why did Reprise only release one 78 rpm vinyl ?"
"lack of sales for the single , and a lack of general interest"
"Reprise only released one 78 rpm vinyl because of lack of sales for the single , and a lack of general interest ."
"Reprise only released one 78 rpm vinyl because of lack of sales for the single , and a lack of general interest ."
"SQuAD"
"56dec4913277331400b4d71f"
"What was the controversy around Schwarzenegger 's first gubernatorial campaign nicknamed ?"
"Gropegate"
"The controversy around Schwarzenegger 's first gubernatorial campaign was nicknamed Gropegate ."
"The controversy around Schwarzenegger 's first gubernatorial campaign was nicknamed Gropegate ."
"SQuAD"
"5728cbea3acd2414000dfead"
"What is the Detroit Electronic Music Festival known as ?"
"Movement"
"The Detroit Electronic Music Festival is known as Movement ."
"The Detroit Electronic Music Festival is known as movement ."
"SQuAD"
"56df7abd56340a1900b29c05"
"From where did Drake 's Leat draw water ?"
"River Meavy"
"Drake 's Leat drew water from the River Meavy ."
"Drake 's Leat drew water from River Meavy ."
"SQuAD"
"56cf56b2aab44d1400b89056"
"How many tourists visited New York in 2011 ?"
"51 million"
"51 million tourists visited New York in 2011 ."
"51 million visited New York in 2011 ."
"SQuAD"
"57305d5e396df919000960b6"
"What was the name of the area in which youth played and exercised ?"
"Campus Martius"
"The name of the area in which youth played and exercised was Campus Martius ."
"The name of the area in which youth played and exercised was campus Martius ."
"newsqa"
"55531"
"What did previous rumors say ?"
"Apple will show no new devices , and that the event will center around Apple 's new partnerships with textbook publishers ."
"Previous rumors said Apple will show no new devices , and that the event will center around Apple 's new partnerships with textbook publishers ."
"Previous rumors said Apple will show no new devices , and that the event will center around Apple 's new partnerships with textbook publishers ."
"SQuAD"
"56dee59b3277331400b4d7cf"
"What is a requirement for equipment for the CAF ?"
"equipment must be suitable for a mixed-gender force"
"A requirement for equipment for the CAF is that equipment must be suitable for a mixed-gender force ."
"A requirement for equipment for the CAF is equipment must be suitable for a mixed-gender force ."
"SQuAD"
"56de24b24396321400ee2600"
"Whose thoughts were impacted by Montesquieu 's philosophy ?"
"the framers of the United States Constitution"
"The framers of the United States Constitution 's were impacted by Montesquieu 's philosophy ."
"The framers of the United States Constitution 's were impacted by Montesquieu 's philosophy ."
"SQuAD"
"572970db6aef051400154ec5"
"The value quoted here for the Planck constant is based on a measurement in what year ?"
"2007"
"The value quoted here for the Planck constant is based on a measurement in 2007 ."
"The value quoted here for the Planck constant is based on a measurement in 2007 ."
"SQuAD"
"5727b2003acd2414000de9f7"
"What is the name of the a cappella musical that debuted Off-Broadway in the same year as Perfect Harmony ?"
"In Transit"
"The name of the a cappella musical that debuted Off-Broadway in the same year as Perfect Harmony is in Transit ."
"The name of the a cappella musical that debuted Off-Broadway in the same year as Perfect Harmony is in Transit ."
"SQuAD"
"5726dfbbf1498d1400e8ee41"
"What lists 2,500 common characters ?"
"Chart of Common Characters of Modern Chinese"
"The Chart of Common Characters of Modern Chinese lists 2,500 common characters ."
"Chart of Common Characters of Modern Chinese lists 2,500 common characters ."
"SQuAD"
"572936abaf94a219006aa1a3"
"What can give glass a faint green tinge ?"
"iron ( II ) oxide"
"Iron ( II ) oxide can give glass a faint green tinge ."
"Iron ( II ) oxide can give glass a faint green tinge ."
"SQuAD"
"570fcc155ab6b81900391009"
"What market made up the majority of Dell 's sales ?"
"PC"
"PC made up the majority of Dell 's sales"
"Made up PC the majority of Dell 's sales ."
"SQuAD"
"570bf0896b8089140040fada"
"Why did the committee debate adding a shift function ?"
"would allow more than 64 codes to be represented by a six-bit code"
"Committees debated on adding a shift function because it would allow more than 64 codes to be represented by a six-bit code ."
"The committee debate added a shift function because would allow more than 64 codes to be represented by a six-bit code ."
"SQuAD"
"573426c64776f41900661987"
"Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities during what two decades ?"
"1990s and 2000s"
"Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities during the 1990s and 2000s ."
"Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities during 1990s and 2000s two decades ."
"SQuAD"
"5728f1da6aef051400154891"
"Until what year was the Academie royale de peinture et de sculpture the top art school ?"
"1793"
"Until 1793 , the Academie royale de peinture et de sculpture the top art school ."
"The Academie royale de peinture et de sculpture the top art was school until 1793 ."
"SQuAD"
"571e005cb64a571400c71e61"
"What year did the US Census write in response category have a code-listing ?"
"2000"
"in the year 2000 the US Census write in response category had a code-listing ."
"The US Census wrote in response category have a code-listing in 2000 ."
"SQuAD"
"56df660896943c1400a5d4d8"
"When did the Royal Naval Engineering College shut its doors in Plymouth ?"
"1910"
"The Royal Naval Engineering College shut its doors in Plymouth in 1910 ."
"The Royal Naval Engineering College shut its doors in Plymouth in 1910 ."
"SQuAD"
"56e18710cd28a01900c679b8"
"How are a and e in western dialects ?"
"distinct"
"A and E in western dialects are distinct ."
"A and e in western dialects are by distinct ."
"SQuAD"
"5706aecd75f01819005e7d2e"
"what is credited as the first house hit in the UK ?"
"Farley `` Jackmaster '' Funk 's `` Love Ca n't Turn Around ''"
"Farley `` Jackmaster '' Funk 's `` Love Ca n't Turn Around '' is credited as the first house hit in the UK ."
"Farley `` Jackmaster '' Funk 's `` Love Ca n't Turn Around is credited as the first house hit in the UK ."
"SQuAD"
"57269d06f1498d1400e8e4e9"
"In what month and year did George VI discontinue using the title Emperor of India ?"
"June 1948"
"George VI discontinued using the title Emperor of India in June 1948 ."
"George VI discontinued using the title Emperor of India in June 1948 ."
"SQuAD"
"56de39a6cffd8e1900b4b698"
"In what year did the supreme court determine that delegating powers by congress was unconstitutional ?"
"1935"
"In 1935 , the supreme court determined that delegating powers by congress was unconstitutional ."
"The supreme court determined that delegating powers by congress was unconstitutional in 1935 ."
"SQuAD"
"570a718e4103511400d5971f"
"What year did the brewing company BrewDog start producing a beer called Ghost Deer ?"
"2011"
"The brewing company BrewDog started producing a beer called Ghost Deer in 2011 ."
"The brewing company BrewDog started producing a beer called Ghost Deer in 2011 ."
"SQuAD"
"57304e592461fd1900a9cd09"
"What showed RAF night fighter effectiveness was increasing ?"
"63 German fighters were sent with the bombers"
"63 German fighters were sent with the bombers , showing RAF night fighter effectiveness was increasing ."
"63 German fighters were sent with the bombers showed RAF night fighter effectiveness was increasing ."
"SQuAD"
"57277af45951b619008f8af2"
"What did the Canadians do to children that did not wish to work ?"
"stipulated jail terms"
"The Canadians stipulated jail terms to children that did not wish to work ."
"The Canadians stipulated jail terms to children that did not wish to work ."
"SQuAD"
"57278262dd62a815002e9f20"
"How did Armando Dias die ?"
"electric shock"
"Armando Dias died from electric shock ."
"Armando Dias died by electric shock ."
"SQuAD"
"56f97a649e9bad19000a0999"
"In which other country is the UK thinking about installing a military base ?"
"Oman"
"The UK is thinking about installing a military base in Oman ."
"The UK is thinking about installing a military base in Oman ."
"SQuAD"
"572f8c1fa23a5019007fc725"
"What mode do both JFET and IGFET operate in ?"
"depletion mode"
"Both JFET and IGFET operate in depletion mode ."
"Both JFET and IGFET operate in depletion mode ."
"SQuAD"
"56fdcccd761e401900d28c0c"
"James Thomson was the brother of what famous figure ?"
"Lord Kelvin"
"James Thomson was the brother of Lord Kelvin ."
"James Thomson was the brother of Lord Kelvin famous figure ."
"SQuAD"
"572f87a704bcaa1900d76a4b"
"What was the area of Hyderabad before the GHMC ?"
"175 km2 ( 68 sq mi )"
"The area of Hyderabad before the GHMC was 175 km2 ( 68 sq mi ) ."
"The area of Hyderabad before the GHMC was 175 km2 ( 68 sq mi ."
"SQuAD"
"572849ebff5b5019007da0fe"
"Why did the US use the CIA instead of the Air Force to run drones ?"
"to avoid breaching sovereignty through military invasion"
"The US used the CIA instead of the Air Force to run drones to avoid breaching sovereignty through military invasion ."
"The US used the CIA instead of the Air Force to run drones to avoid breaching sovereignty through military invasion ."
"SQuAD"
"573045c504bcaa1900d7744b"
"Who wears clothing that easily sets them apart from everyone else on the field ?"
"goalkeeper"
"Goalkeepers wear clothing that easily sets them apart from everyone else on the field ."
"Goalkeeper wears clothing that easily sets them apart from everyone else on the field ."
"SQuAD"
"5730bc458ab72b1400f9c746"
"What were the main types of loans in Sumerian society ?"
"Commercial credit and agricultural consumer"
"Commercial credit and agricultural consumer were the maint ypes of loans in Sumerian society ."
"The main types of loans in Sumerian society were commercial credit and agricultural consumer ."
"SQuAD"
"5731c137e99e3014001e624c"
"When was Nanking captured ?"
"December 1937"
"Nanking was captured in December 1937 ."
"Nanking was captured in December 1937 ."
"SQuAD"
"56f961049b226e1400dd13e9"
"Who comprises the upper house of the Marshall Islands Parliament ?"
"twelve tribal chiefs"
"Twelve tribal chiefs comprises the upper house of the Marshall Islands Parliament ."
"Twelve tribal chiefs comprises the upper house of the Marshall Islands Parliament ."
"SQuAD"
"5726172c89a1e219009ac23d"
"When was Euclid born ?"
"325"
"Euclid was born in the year 325 ."
"Euclid was born in 325 ."
"SQuAD"
"573143ba497a881900248d27"
"What is another use for one-color light ?"
"exit signs"
"Another use for one-color light is exit signs ."
"Another use for one-color light is exit signs ."
"SQuAD"
"56de66ce4396321400ee288a"
"What was the medium that brought the BBC 's signal to the transmitter ?"
"telephone line"
"The medium that brought the BBC 's signal to the transmitter was the telephone line ."
"The medium that brought the BBC 's signal to the transmitter was telephone line ."
"SQuAD"
"56f9f869f34c681400b0bf16"
"What is heartwood naturally resistant to ?"
"decay"
"Heartwood is naturally resistant to decay ."
"Heartwood is naturally resistant to decay ."
"SQuAD"
"570c2cd7ec8fbc190045bd2c"
"What was Griffith 's tool designed to detect ?"
"conflict of interest edits"
"Griffith 's tool was designed to detect conflict of interest edits ."
"Griffith 's tool designed to detect was conflict of interest edits ."
"SQuAD"
"573039a3b2c2fd1400568a9a"
"What percentage of cloud-based instant messaging platform Telegram 's users are from Iran ?"
"Over 80 %"
"80 % of cloud-based instant messaging platform Telegram 's users are from Iran ."
"Over 80 % are from Iran ."
"SQuAD"
"572a5b9e7a1753140016aecf"
"During what time period was Ottoman literate most influenced by the west ?"
"the latter half of the 19th century"
"Ottoman literature was most influenced by the west during the latter half of the 19th century ."
"Ottoman was literate most influenced by the west during the latter half of the 19th century ."
"SQuAD"
"5728b7b9ff5b5019007da554"
"What type of music did the electric five-string mandolin help popularize ?"
"Western Swing music"
"The electric five-string mandolin help popularize Western Swing music ."
"Western Swing music did the electric five-string mandolin help popularize ."
"SQuAD"
"573422234776f4190066190f"
"Over what age are higher education applicants considered mature ?"
"over 23 years old"
"Higher education applicants are considered mature when they are over 23 years old ."
"Higher education applicants are considered mature over over 23 years old ."
"SQuAD"
"5727a0b22ca10214002d9252"
"What did the BBC say that Glencore used child labour for in 2012 ?"
"mining and smelting operations of Africa"
"The BBC said that Glencore used child labour for mining and smelting operations in Africa in 2012 ."
"The BBC said mining and smelting operations of Africa that Glencore used child labour for in 2012 ."
"SQuAD"
"5731585ea5e9cc1400cdbecd"
"How many viceroys were there in China Proper ?"
"eight"
"There were eight viceroys in China Proper ."
"There in China Proper were eight ."
"SQuAD"
"56df578c8bc80c19004e4adf"
"Where does The Fund work to raise awareness and provide support ?"
"developing countries"
"The Fund works to raise awareness and provide support in developing countries ."
"The Fund work to raise awareness and provide support in developing countries ."
"SQuAD"
"572facde04bcaa1900d76bd2"
"What is an important goal in in this final stage ?"
"data independence"
"Data Independence is an important goal in in this final stage ."
"An important goal in in this final stage is data independence ."
"SQuAD"
"572feda5b2c2fd14005685f0"
"What could be the best possible output versus input ratio ?"
"lossless"
"Lossless could be the best possible output versus input ratio ."
"Lossless could be the best possible output versus input ratio ."
"SQuAD"
"5729fc3caf94a219006aa71f"
"What is a process ultimately using the gravitational potential energy in the creation of these heavy elements before they were incorporated into the solar system and the Earth ?"
"nucleosynthesis"
"Nucleosynthesis is a process ultimately using the gravitational potential energy in the creation of these heavy elements before they were incorporated into the solar system and the Earth ."
"A process is ultimately using nucleosynthesis the gravitational potential energy in the creation of these heavy elements before they were incorporated into the solar system and the Earth ."
"SQuAD"
"5728abdeff5b5019007da428"
"Where is Gerda Abst a professor mandolin ?"
"Koninklijk Conservatorium Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen"
"Gerda Abst is a professor mandolin at Koninklijk Conservatorium Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen ."
"Gerda Abst a professor mandolin is in Koninklijk Conservatorium Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen ."
"SQuAD"
"572802574b864d1900164200"
"What was Droysen 's work called that explained the era ?"
"Geschichte des Hellenismus"
"Droysen 's work Geschichte des Hellenismus explained the era ."
"Droysen 's work called that explained the era was Geschichte des Hellenismus ."
"SQuAD"
"5726f9365951b619008f83d1"
"When did the Nigerian film industry begin ?"
"the 1960s"
"The Nigerian film industry began in the 1960s ."
"The Nigerian film industry began in the 1960s ."
"SQuAD"
"572817dbff5b5019007d9d10"
"What ideology 's victims were being honored by the Memorial Society ?"
"Stalinism"
"The victims of Stalinism were being honored by the Memorial Society ."
"Stalinism were being honored by the Memorial Society ."
"SQuAD"
"57341dde4776f419006618bd"
"On what date did the Battle of Ourique take place ?"
"25 July 1139"
"The Battle of Ourique took place on 25 July 1139 ."
"The Battle of Ourique took place on 25 July 1139 ."
"SQuAD"
"56d4dd502ccc5a1400d832ae"
"Beyoncé 's early recordings empowered who ?"
"Women"
"Beyoncé 's early recordings empowered women ."
"Beyoncé 's early recordings empowered women ."
"SQuAD"
"57326b2be99e3014001e678d"
"What country was made a full partner in NATO as the result of the failure of EDC ?"
"West Germany"
"West Germany was made a full partner in NATO as the result of the failure of EDC ."
"West Germany was made a full partner in NATO as the result of the failure of EDC ."
"SQuAD"
"5710fbc0b654c5140001fa6a"
"Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about what topics than they were in political theory itself ?"
"criminals and political corruption"
"Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself ."
"Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself ."
"SQuAD"
"57332caa4776f41900660747"
"Why was Gödels finding ironic ?"
"Gödel could not have come to this conclusion without Whitehead and Russell 's book"
"Gödels finding was ironic , because he could not have come to this conclusion without Whitehead and Russell 's book ."
"Gödels was finding ironic because Gödel could not have come to this conclusion without Whitehead and Russell 's book ."
"SQuAD"
"572ea63ac246551400ce446c"
"What white cloud group on Neptune is farther south than the dark great spot ?"
"The Scooter"
"The Scooter was the white cloud group on Neptune that is farther south than the dark great spot ."
"Farther south than the dark great spot is the Scooter ."
"SQuAD"
"57315596a5e9cc1400cdbe9b"
"What was depicted on the Butrint mosaics in abundance ?"
"natural life"
"Natural life was depicted on the Butrint mosaics in abundance ."
"Natural life was depicted on the Butrint mosaics in abundance ."
"SQuAD"
"5730271b04bcaa1900d77259"
"By April of 1941 about how many mines had been dropped ?"
"3,984 mines"
"By April of 1941 3,984 mines had been dropped ."
"By April of 1941 about 3,984 mines had been dropped ."
"SQuAD"
"56f6fbeb711bf01900a448c5"
"What is comparable in domestic law to a treaty in international law ?"
"contracts"
"A contract is comparable in domestic law to a treaty in international law ."
"Comparable in domestic law to a treaty in international law is contracts ."
"SQuAD"
"5726d31af1498d1400e8ec66"
"Where was Queen Elizabeth II said to have made critical remarks about the European Union ?"
"Windsor Castle"
"Queen Elizabeth II was said to have made critical remarks about the European Union at the Windsor Castle ."
"Queen Elizabeth II was said to have made critical remarks about the European Union in Windsor Castle ."
"SQuAD"
"56e7974337bdd419002c41c1"
"When was the first AFL season played ?"
"1987"
"The first AFL season was played in 1987 ."
"The first AFL season was played in 1987 ."
"SQuAD"
"57296a8baf94a219006aa3ce"
"What name is given to the bronze line on the floor of a heliometer ?"
"la Meridiana"
"La Meridiana is the name given to the bronze line on the floor of a heliometer ."
"La Meridiana is given to the bronze line on the floor of a heliometer ."
"SQuAD"
"573367eed058e614000b5a5e"
"Reefs are almost always in what type of water ?"
"shallow"
"Reefs are almost always in shallow water ."
"Reefs are almost always in shallow ."
"SQuAD"
"56fb6383b28b3419009f1cf2"
"In what country did Gregory of Tours live ?"
"Merovingian Gaul"
"Gregory of Tours lived in Merovingian Gaul ."
"Gregory of Tours lived in Merovingian Gaul ."
"SQuAD"
"5731a5bfe99e3014001e61a7"
"Who made the choices of personal religious practices in Rome ?"
"individual"
"Individuals made the choices of personal religious practices in Rome ."
"Individual made the choices of personal religious practices in Rome ."
"SQuAD"
"572844763acd2414000df815"
"In what year did Gabe Newell call the PS3 `` a total disaster '' ?"
"2007"
"Gabe Newell called the PS3 `` a total disaster '' in 2007 ."
"Gabe Newell called the PS3 `` a total disaster in 2007 '' ."
"SQuAD"
"573174bc05b4da19006bd1c1"
"When were indigenous scribes taught to use Latin letters ?"
"the sixteenth century"
"Indigenous scribes were taught to use Latin letters in the sixteenth century ."
"Indigenous scribes were taught to use Latin letters in the sixteenth century ."
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for QA2D

Dataset Summary

Existing datasets for natural language inference (NLI) have propelled research on language understanding. We propose a new method for automatically deriving NLI datasets from the growing abundance of large-scale question answering datasets. Our approach hinges on learning a sentence transformation model which converts question-answer pairs into their declarative forms. Despite being primarily trained on a single QA dataset, we show that it can be successfully applied to a variety of other QA resources. Using this system, we automatically derive a new freely available dataset of over 500k NLI examples (QA-NLI), and show that it exhibits a wide range of inference phenomena rarely seen in previous NLI datasets.

This Question to Declarative Sentence (QA2D) Dataset contains 86k question-answer pairs and their manual transformation into declarative sentences. 95% of question answer pairs come from SQuAD (Rajkupar et al., 2016) and the remaining 5% come from four other question answering datasets.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[Needs More Information]

Languages

en

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

See below.

Data Fields

  • dataset: lowercased name of dataset (movieqa, newsqa, qamr, race, squad)
  • example_uid: unique id of example within dataset (there are examples with the same uids from different datasets, so the combination of dataset + example_uid should be used for unique indexing)
  • question: tokenized (space-separated) question from the source QA dataset
  • answer: tokenized (space-separated) answer span from the source QA dataset
  • turker_answer: tokenized (space-separated) answer sentence collected from MTurk
  • rule-based: tokenized (space-separated) answer sentence, generated by the rule-based model

Data Splits

Dataset Split Number of Instances in Split
Train 60,710
Dev 10,344

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

This Question to Declarative Sentence (QA2D) Dataset contains 86k question-answer pairs and their manual transformation into declarative sentences. 95% of question answer pairs come from SQuAD (Rajkupar et al., 2016) and the remaining 5% come from four other question answering datasets.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[Needs More Information]

Who are the source language producers?

[Needs More Information]

Annotations

Annotation process

[Needs More Information]

Who are the annotators?

[Needs More Information]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[Needs More Information]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[Needs More Information]

Discussion of Biases

[Needs More Information]

Other Known Limitations

[Needs More Information]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[Needs More Information]

Licensing Information

[Needs More Information]

Citation Information

@article{DBLP:journals/corr/abs-1809-02922, author = {Dorottya Demszky and Kelvin Guu and Percy Liang}, title = {Transforming Question Answering Datasets Into Natural Language Inference Datasets}, journal = {CoRR}, volume = {abs/1809.02922}, year = {2018}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1809.02922}, eprinttype = {arXiv}, eprint = {1809.02922}, timestamp = {Fri, 05 Oct 2018 11:34:52 +0200}, biburl = {https://dblp.org/rec/journals/corr/abs-1809-02922.bib}, bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography, https://dblp.org} }

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