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8
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15 values
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17 values
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stringclasses
3 values
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stringclasses
2 values
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2 values
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17
162
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9 values
image
image
0001.jpg
NORWELL
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0002.jpg
COLRAIN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
No
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0003.jpg
PETERSHAM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0004.jpg
LENOX
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0005.jpg
SAVOY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
Yes
Savoy image by CVB, edited and cropped by Cart, CC BY-SA 4.0
Andrew
0006.jpg
FLORIDA
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0007.jpg
SHUTESBURY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0008.jpg
FITCHBURG
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
Yes
Castle image by C.Stadler/Bwag, CC BY-SA 4.0
Andrew
0009.jpg
ERVING
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0010.jpg
ATHOL
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
Ath image by Paul Hermans, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0011.jpg
MONTGOMERY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0012.jpg
BUCKLAND
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0013.jpg
TEWKSBURY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
Yes
null
Andrew
0014.jpg
DEERFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0015.jpg
BILLERICA
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
Yes
null
Andrew
0016.jpg
LAKEVILLE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
Lake image by Tobias Alt, Tobi 87, CC BY-SA 4.0; Charlottesville image by UVA Health System Image Library, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0017.jpg
ROWLEY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Copyright by Jeff Kinney; fair use
Andrew
0018.jpg
RAYNHAM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0019.jpg
LITTLETON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
Yes
null
Andrew
0020.jpg
GOSHEN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0021.jpg
BOSTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
Yes
Michael Scott image by Eva Rinaldi, CC BY-SA 2.0
Michelle
0022.jpg
WILLIAMSBURG
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
No
Yes
No
Gherkin image by Marcin Floryan, CC BY 3.0
Andrew
0023.jpg
READING
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
Yes
Copyright by Parker Brothers; fair use
Andrew
0024.jpg
SHARON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Sharon Stone image by Gage Skidmore from Peoria, AZ, United States of America, CC BY-SA 2.0
Andrew
0025.jpg
BRIDGEWATER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
Yes
null
Andrew
0026.jpg
STERLING
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0027.jpg
EGREMONT
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Shrek image copyrighted by DreamWorks Animation; fair use
Andrew
0028.jpg
ACUSHNET
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0029.jpg
BOXFORD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0030.jpg
MONTEREY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
Jack image copyrighted by Jack Dorsey; fair use
Andrew
0031.jpg
BEDFORD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0032.jpg
LEOMINSTER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0033.jpg
HATFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0034.jpg
EASTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0035.jpg
CHESTERFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Chester Bennington image by Stefan Brending
Andrew
0036.jpg
WAYLAND
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
Lil Wayne image by Megan Elice Meadows, CC BY-SA 2.0; Lil Yachty image by Anton Mak, CC BY 2.0; Lil Peep image by First Access Entertainment Limited, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0037.jpg
WESTFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0038.jpg
EAST BRIDGEWATER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0039.jpg
NORTH READING
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0040.jpg
GOSNOLD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
Yes
Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz is copyrighted by the Walt Disney Company; fair use
Andrew
0041.jpg
MIDDLETON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0042.jpg
HUNTINGTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Huntington Mansion photo by Mfield, Matthew Field, http://www.photography.mattfield.com, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0043.jpg
LINCOLN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0044.jpg
WOBURN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0045.jpg
FAIRHAVEN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0046.jpg
HARDWICK
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0047.jpg
LEE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0048.jpg
REVERE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0049.jpg
LYNN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Lynn Whitfield image by John Mathew Smith & www.celebrity-photos.com, CC BY-SA 2.0; Sarah Lynn image copyrighted by Netflix; fair use
Andrew
0050.jpg
HANOVER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
Denver image by Sheila Sund, CC BY 2.0
Andrew
0051.jpg
MAYNARD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
May'n image by Dennis Amith, CC BY-SA 2.0
Andrew
0052.jpg
DALTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0053.jpg
PELHAM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
Yes
null
Andrew
0054.jpg
IPSWICH
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0055.jpg
PALMER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0056.jpg
AYER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
Yes
Bayer image by Fridolin freudenfett, CC BY-SA 4.0
Andrew
0057.jpg
HANCOCK
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Han Solo image is copyrighted by the Walt Disney Company; fair use
Andrew
0058.jpg
TYRINGHAM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
Tyone image is copyrighted by Viacom; fair use
Andrew
0059.jpg
NORTH ANDOVER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0060.jpg
WILLIAMSTOWN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0061.jpg
ORANGE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0062.jpg
WHATELY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
Yes
WinRAR image copyrighted by Eugene Roshal; fair use
Andrew
0063.jpg
BEVERLY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0064.jpg
CHICOPEE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0065.jpg
RUSSELL
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
Labrinth image by Walterlan Papetti, CC BY-SA 4.0; Diplo image by mtheory LLC, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0066.jpg
CLARKSBURG
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
No
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0067.jpg
SANDISFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
Yes
null
Andrew
0068.jpg
WENDELL
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0069.jpg
SHELBURNE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
No
Yes
No
Ley Lines image copyrighted by Firaxis/2K Games; fair use
Andrew
0070.jpg
HADLEY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
Ley Lines image copyrighted by Firaxis/2K Games; fair use
Andrew
0071.jpg
SUDBURY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0072.jpg
LEICESTER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Shire image by Jackie.lck (photos · photo sets), CC BY 2.0
Andrew
0073.jpg
ALFORD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Oxford image copyrighted by Firaxis/2K Games; fair use
Andrew
0074.jpg
MOUNT WASHINGTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0075.jpg
SPENCER
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0076.jpg
WINDSOR
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0077.jpg
ACTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
No
Yes
No
Actin image by Thomas Splettstoesser, CC BY-SA 3.0
Andrew
0078.jpg
NORTHBOROUGH
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0079.jpg
WENHAM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0080.jpg
WALPOLE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
LE image by dispatchsns, CC BY 3.0
Andrew
0081.jpg
GEORGETOWN
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0082.jpg
SOUTH HADLEY
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0083.jpg
NORTH BROOKFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
No
Vector image copyrighted by Nintendo; fair use
Andrew
0084.jpg
BOYLSTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0085.jpg
DANVERS
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Hard
Yes
Yes
Yes
Zig image copyrighted by Xilam animation; fair use
Andrew
0086.jpg
HANSON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Hans Zimmer image by ColliderVideo, CC BY 3.0
Andrew
0087.jpg
RICHMOND
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0088.jpg
BOLTON
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
Yes
Dan image by FILMORA NEWS, CC BY 3.0
Andrew
0089.jpg
SALEM
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0090.jpg
HARVARD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Medium
Yes
Yes
Yes
null
Andrew
0091.jpg
WEST STOCKBRIDGE
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0092.jpg
ASHFIELD
null
Towns in Massachusetts
Easy
Yes
Yes
No
Ash image copyrighted by Nintendo; fair use
Andrew
0093.jpg
BICYCLE THIEVES
null
Famous movies
Hard
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0094.jpg
CITIZEN KANE
null
Famous movies
Hard
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0095.jpg
VERTIGO
null
Famous movies
Medium
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0096.jpg
null
Famous movies
Medium
Yes
Yes
No
null
Andrew
0097.jpg
BATTLESHIP POTEMKIN
null
Famous movies
Hard
Yes
No
No
null
Andrew
0098.jpg
THE GODFATHER
null
Famous movies
Hard
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0099.jpg
GONE WITH THE WIND
null
Famous movies
Medium
No
No
No
null
Andrew
0100.jpg
DIE HARD
null
Famous movies
Easy
No
No
No
null
Andrew

REBUS

REBUS: A Robust Evaluation Benchmark of Understanding Symbols

Paper | 🤗 Dataset | GitHub | Website

Introduction

Recent advances in large language models have led to the development of multimodal LLMs (MLLMs), which take both image data and text as an input. Virtually all of these models have been announced within the past year, leading to a significant need for benchmarks evaluating the abilities of these models to reason truthfully and accurately on a diverse set of tasks. When Google announced Gemini Pro (Gemini Team et al., 2023), they displayed its ability to solve rebuses—wordplay puzzles which involve creatively adding and subtracting letters from words derived from text and images. The diversity of rebuses allows for a broad evaluation of multimodal reasoning capabilities, including image recognition, multi-step reasoning, and understanding the human creator's intent.

We present REBUS: a collection of 333 hand-crafted rebuses spanning 13 diverse categories, including hand-drawn and digital images created by nine contributors. Samples are presented in the table below. Notably, GPT-4V, the most powerful model we evaluated, answered only 24% of puzzles correctly, highlighting the poor capabilities of MLLMs in new and unexpected domains to which human reasoning generalizes with comparative ease. Open-source models perform even worse, with a median accuracy below 1%. We notice that models often give faithless explanations, fail to change their minds after an initial approach doesn't work, and remain highly uncalibrated on their own abilities.

image

Evaluation results

Model Overall Easy Medium Hard
GPT-4V 24.0 33.0 13.2 7.1
Gemini Pro 13.2 19.4 5.3 3.6
LLaVa-1.5-13B 1.8 2.6 0.9 0.0
LLaVa-1.5-7B 1.5 2.6 0.0 0.0
BLIP2-FLAN-T5-XXL 0.9 0.5 1.8 0.0
CogVLM 0.9 1.6 0.0 0.0
QWEN 0.9 1.6 0.0 0.0
InstructBLIP 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.0
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