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mexican leader who was supported by the united states during mexican civil war
United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution - wikipedia United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution Jump to : navigation , search See also : Mexico - United States relations United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution Part of the Mexican Revolution Aftermath of Pancho Villa 's attack on Columbus , New Mexico , in 1916 Date 1910 - 1919 Location Mexico , United States Belligerents United States Huertistas Villistas Constitutionalistas Carrancistas Maderistas Commanders and leaders Woodrow Wilson John J. Pershing Frank Friday Fletcher Victoriano Huerta Pancho Villa Alvaro Obregon Venustiano Carranza Francisco Madero United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution Tampico Affair Ypiranga incident Veracruz Border War 1st Agua Prieta 1st Ciudad Juarez Bandit War Norias Ranch Ojo de Agua 2nd Nogales Santa Isabel Columbus Mexican Expedition Guerrero Agua Caliente Parral Tomochic Ojos Azules Glenn Springs Rubio Ranch Castillon Las Varas Pass San Ygnacio Carrizal Zimmermann Affair Brite Ranch 1st Pilares Neville Ranch 2nd Pilares Porvenir 3rd Nogales 3rd Ciudad Juárez Ruby Mexican -- American wars ( 1845 -- 1920 ) Mexican -- American War -- Taos Revolt -- Cortina Troubles -- Las Cuevas War -- San Elizario Salt War -- Garza Revolution -- Nogales Uprising -- Mexican Revolution -- Border War -- Bandit War The United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution was varied and seemingly contradictory , first supporting and then repudiating Mexican regimes during the period 1910 - 1920 . For both economic and political reasons , the U.S. government generally supported those who occupied the seats of power , whether they held that power legitimately or not . A clear exception was the French Intervention in Mexico , when the U.S. supported the beleaguered liberal government of Benito Juárez at the time of the American Civil War ( 1861 - 1865 ) . Prior to Woodrow Wilson 's inauguration on March 4 , 1913 , the U.S. Government focused on just warning the Mexican military that decisive action from the U.S. military would take place if lives and property of U.S. nationals living in the country were endangered . President William Howard Taft sent more troops to the US - Mexico border but did not allow them to intervene in the conflict , a move which Congress opposed . Twice during the Revolution , the U.S. sent troops into Mexico . la The U.S. recognized the government of Porfirio Díaz in 1878 , two years after Díaz 's coup d'état brought him to power . Díaz 's long rule of Mexico brought close economic cooperation between the two countries , especially since Díaz imposed political order that allowed business to flourish . In 1908 , however , Díaz gave an interview to a U.S. journalist , James Creelman , in which Díaz stated he would not run for re-election in 1910 ; the statement gave rise to politicking of potential candidates . Díaz reversed himself , ran for re-election , and jailed the leading opposition candidate , Francisco I. Madero . Mexican revolutionaries prior to the 1910 events had sought refuge on the U.S. side of the border , a pattern Madero continued . He escaped Mexico and took refuge in San Antonio , Texas and called for nullification of the 1910 elections , himself as provisional president , and revolutionary support from the Mexican people . His Plan of San Luis Potosí did spark revolutionary uprisings , particularly in Mexico 's north . The U.S. stayed out of the unfolding events until March 6 , 1911 , when President William Howard Taft mobilized forces on the U.S. - Mexico border . `` In effect this was an intervention in Mexican politics , and to Mexicans it meant the United States had condemned Díaz . Although the United States appears to have pursued an inconsistent policy toward Mexico , in fact it was the pattern for the U.S. `` Every victorious faction between 1910 and 1919 enjoyed the sympathy , and in most cases the direct support of U.S. authorities in its struggle for power . In each case , the administration in Washington soon turned on its new friends with the same vehemence it had initially expressed in supporting them . '' The U.S. turned against the regimes it helped install when they began pursuing policies counter to U.S. diplomatic and business interests . When Díaz was forced to resign in 1911 and Francisco I. Madero was elected president in October 1911 , the U.S. president was a lame duck . The U.S. Ambassador to Mexico , Henry Lane Wilson was initially sympathetic to the new regime , but quickly came into conflict with it . Ambassador Wilson conspired with General Victoriano Huerta to oust Madero . The United States government under newly inaugurated president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta 's government . Under President Wilson , the United States had sent troops to bomb and occupy Veracruz . President Wilson 's government recognized the government of Venustiano Carranza in 1915 , which allowed arms from the U.S. to flow to Carranza 's forces . When former Carranza ally , Pancho Villa attacked the border town of Columbus , New Mexico in 1916 , the U.S. Army under Gen. John J. Pershing pursued him in a punitive mission , known as the Pancho Villa Expedition . The U.S. failed in the main objective of that raid , which was to capture Villa . Carranza forced the U.S. to withdraw across the border . A graphical timeline is available at Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Contents ( hide ) 1 Anglo - American attitudes and U.S. diplomacy in Latin America 2 Diplomatic relations 2.1 The U.S. and the overthrow of Madero , 1912 - 1913 2.2 U.S. and Huerta regime 1913 - 14 2.3 1916 -- 1917 2.4 1918 -- 1919 3 Foreign mercenaries in Mexico 4 U.S. military decorations 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links Anglo - American attitudes and U.S. diplomacy in Latin America ( edit ) Main article : Latin America -- United States relations 1914 cartoon by John T. McCutcheon illustrates the United States liberated former Spanish colonies from their oppressor ( Chicago Tribune 1914 ) U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America was to assume the region was the sphere of influence of the U.S. , initially articulated in the Monroe Doctrine . In the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine , President Theodore Roosevelt asserted the United States ' right to intervene militarily in the region to restore order if in the U.S. view a nation could not or would not do it itself . Thus there was a long history of U.S. intervention in Latin America prior to the Mexican Revolution . Underpinning these U.S. foreign policies was the assumption that Latin American countries and Latin Americans themselves were lesser . Many Protestant Anglo - Americans believed Catholic Latin Americans were the antithesis of all they themselves represented ; Latin Americans were seen to be lazy to Anglo - American industriousness , sluggish to their progress , violent to their peaceful , and genetically debased . These attitudes originated in Catholic Spain 's colonial - era political rivals , the Protestant English , who articulated anti-Spanish rhetoric , collectively known as the `` Black Legend '' . Protestant Anglo - Americans believed Spanish Americans dangerously misguided with their `` anti-Christ '' Pope . One political cartoon during the Mexican Revolution expressed the opinion that former Spanish colonies were only able to advance as they had , due to U.S. intervention . Mexico 's fruitless pursuit of progress , where `` lots of energy ( is ) expended but ( there is ) ... no discernible forward progress . '' It suggests that until Mexico willingly forgoes violence ( the pistol ) and anarchy ( the torch ) , they will remain stagnant . ( San Francisco Examiner 1913 ) The press in the U.S. portrayed Mexicans as innately violent and consistently missing opportunities for advancement , as seen in a 1913 San Francisco Examiner cartoon . Rather than considering the Revolution as a legitimate means of forcing change , it served merely to reinforce the perception of lawless Mexicans . Many contended it was only through dictator Porfirio Díaz that Mexico had previously been kept out of chaos . Land redistribution undertaken by Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa were condemned as `` offer ( ing ) evidence ... of the barbarity of Mexican politics , '' to which President Woodrow Wilson replied , `` the revolution was out of control and ... only U.S military intervention could stabilize ( the state ) . '' Constant oversight by the U.S. is effectively depicted in a cartoon where watchful American cannon `` eyes '' are directed on Mexico . The United States are ever watchful over the presumed chaos in Mexico ( Chicago Tribune 1913 ) These ideas led to the belief that the United States ought to militarily resolve the situation , reinforced by the second motivating factor of industrial interests in Mexico . Indeed , eighty percent of all investment linked to the railroads were attributed to the US , leading many to conclude , `` by the dawn of the new century , the United States controlled the Mexican economy . '' The railroads , mining and consolidated cash - crop farms were all designed to maximize American interests . US corporations were thus alarmed at the possibility of radical resource redistribution and elimination of the status quo previously maintained by Diaz , and demanded that their interests be secured . This fear was fanned with that under the Mexican Constitution of 1917 , the national government would be able to regulate foreign - owned operations . Many deemed that `` Mexico ... was the doorway to all of Latin America 's riches , but only if the neighbor remained under U.S economic tutelage . '' The U.S. government 's intervention would merely be safeguarding its interests and continuing its `` informal imperialism '' whereby threats of military involvement and economic pressures were used to keep Mexico in line with U.S. goals . Diplomatic relations ( edit ) Díaz opened Mexico to foreign investment of Britain , France , Germany , and most especially the United States , creating the conditions of `` order and progress '' that promoted Mexico 's modernization . Mexico - United States relations during Díaz 's presidency were generally strong , although he began to strengthen ties with Great Britain , Germany , and France to offset U.S. power and influence . U.S. President William Howard Taft recognized the role that Díaz played in transforming Mexico , saying `` Certainly no people have made greater relative progress than the Mexican people have made under the administration of Porfirio Díaz ... ( he ) has done more for the people of Mexico than any other Latin American has done for any of his people ; ... the truth is they need a firm hand in Mexico and everybody realizes it . '' Mexico was extremely important to U.S. business interests and Taft saw Díaz as key to protecting those investments . Taft met Díaz in person on the U.S. - Mexico border in 1909 , an historic event in itself since it was the first trip of a sitting U.S. president to Mexico . It was a way for the U.S. to signal its continuing support of Díaz , despite his advancing age . Taft was pragmatic , saying `` we have two billions American capital in Mexico that will be greatly endangered if Díaz were to die and his government go to pieces . '' Despite the importance of Mexico to U.S. business interests and the long border between the two countries that could make the U.S. vulnerable to unrest in Mexico having repercussions in the U.S. , the U.S. had `` a history of incompetent diplomatic representation . '' According to one scholar , the Taft administration 's appointment of Henry Lane Wilson as ambassador `` continued the tradition of incompetence . '' During the presidency of Porfirio Díaz , documents conveyed from the U.S. Consulate in Mexico kept the Secretary of State in Washington , D.C. informed about Mexican affairs . The Secretary of State told President Taft of the buildup to possible regime change in Mexico , when Díaz was unable to control rebellions in various areas of Mexico . Initially , Taft did not want to intervene but wanted to keep the Díaz government in power to prevent problems with business relations between the two countries , such as the sales of oil between Mexico and the United States . The U.S. and the overthrow of Madero , 1912 - 1913 ( edit ) Main article : Ten Tragic Days U.S. Ambassador to Mexico H.L. Wilson helped to plot the February 1913 coup d'état , during the Ten Tragic Days ( la decena trágica ) , which overthrew Francisco I. Madero . However , the Ambassador might have done this without the explicit approval of lame duck President Taft , but Ambassador Wilson had secured the support of the foreign diplomatic corps in Mexico , especially the British , German , and French envoys , for the coup and lobbied for U.S. recognition of the new head of state , General Victoriano Huerta . U.S. and Huerta regime 1913 - 14 ( edit ) See also : Tampico Affair , Ypiranga incident , and United States occupation of Veracruz Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated president in March 1913 , but the coup d'état in Mexico was an established fact , with the democratically elected president Madero murdered and his family in exile . President Wilson recalled Ambassador Wilson to Washington and later replaced him . President Wilson was horrified at the murders of President Madero and Vice President Pino Suárez and breaking from long - standing practice to recognize de facto regimes did not recognize the Huerta as the legitimate head of the Mexican government . A series of rebellions broke out in Mexico against Huerta 's regime , especially in the North ( Sonora , Chihuahua , and Coahuila ) , and continuing fighting in Morelos under Emiliano Zapata . Unlike the brief rebellions that helped bring Madero to power in 1910 - 11 , Mexico descended into civil war . However , the involvement of the U.S. in larger conflicts with its diplomatic and economic rivals in Mexico , particularly Great Britain and Germany , meant that foreign powers affected the way the Mexican situation played out . When U.S. agents discovered that the German merchant ship , the Ypiranga , was carrying arms to Huerta 's regime , President Wilson ordered troops to the port of Veracruz to stop the ship from docking . The U.S. did not declare war on Mexico city but the U.S. troops carried out a skirmish against Huerta 's forces in Veracruz . The Ypiranga managed to dock at another port , which infuriated Wilson . On April 9 , 1914 , Mexican officials in the port of Tampico , Tamaulipas , arrested a group of U.S. sailors -- including at least one taken from on board his ship , and thus from U.S. territory . After Mexico refused to apologize in the terms that the U.S. had demanded , the U.S. navy bombarded the port of Veracruz and occupied Veracruz for seven months . Woodrow Wilson 's actual motivation was his desire to overthrow Huerta , whom he refused to recognize as Mexico 's leader ; the Tampico Affair did succeed in further destabilizing Huerta 's regime and encouraging the revolutionary opponents . The ABC Powers ( Argentina , Brazil , and Chile ) arbitrated , in the Niagara Falls peace conference , held in Ontario , Canada , and U.S. troops left Mexican soil , averting an escalation of the conflict to war . 1916 -- 1917 ( edit ) Main articles : Border War ( 1910 - 1919 ) and Pancho Villa Expedition An increasing number of border incidents early in 1916 culminated in an invasion of American territory on 8 March 1916 , when Francisco ( Pancho ) Villa and his band of 500 to 1,000 men raided Columbus , New Mexico , burning army barracks and robbing stores . In the United States , Villa came to represent mindless violence and banditry . Elements of the 13th Cavalry regiment repulsed the attack , but 14 soldiers and ten civilians were killed . Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing immediately organized a punitive expedition of about 10,000 soldiers to try to capture Villa . They spent 11 months ( March 1916 -- February 1917 ) unsuccessfully chasing him , though they did manage to destabilize his forces . A few of Villa 's top commanders were also captured or killed during the expedition . The 7th , 10th , 11th , and 13th Cavalry regiments , 6th and U.S. 16th Infantry Regiments , part of the U.S. 6th Field Artillery , and supporting elements crossed the border into Mexico in mid-March , followed later by the 5th Cavalry , 17th and 24th Infantry Regiment ( United States ) , and engineer and other units . Pershing was subject to orders which required him to respect the sovereignty of Mexico , and was further hindered by the fact that the Mexican government and people resented the invasion . Advance elements of the expedition penetrated as far as Parral , some 400 miles ( 640 km ) south of the border , but Villa was never captured . The campaign consisted primarily of dozens of doughnut skirmishes with small bands of insurgents . There were even clashes with Mexican Army units ; the most serious was on 21 June 1916 at the Battle of Carrizal , where a detachment of the 10th Cavalry was nearly destroyed . War would probably have been declared but for the critical situation in Europe . Even so , virtually the entire regular army was involved , and most of the National Guard had been federalized and concentrated on the border before the end of the affair . Normal relations with Mexico were restored eventually by diplomatic negotiation , and the troops were withdrawn from Mexico in February 1917 . 1918 -- 1919 ( edit ) Main article : Battle of Ambos Nogales Minor clashes with Mexican irregulars , as well as Mexican Federales , continued to disturb the U.S. - Mexican border from 1917 to 1919 . Although the Zimmermann Telegram affair of January 1917 did not lead to a direct U.S. intervention , it took place against the backdrop of the Constitutional Convention and exacerbated tensions between the USA and Mexico . Military engagements took place near Buenavista , Sonora , on 1 December 1917 ; in San Bernardino Canyon , Chihuahua , on 26 December 1917 ; near La Grulla , Texas , on 9 January 1918 ; at Pilares , Mexico , about 28 March 1918 ; at the town of Nogales on the Sonora -- Arizona border on 27 August 1918 ; and near El Paso , Texas , on 16 June 1919 . Mexican War Service campaign streamer Foreign mercenaries in Mexico ( edit ) Members of Pancho Villa 's American Legion of Honor Many adventurers , ideologues and freebooters from outside Mexico were attracted by the purported excitement and romance of the Mexican Revolution . Most mercenaries served in armies operating in the north of Mexico , partly because those areas were the closest to popular entry points to Mexico from the U.S. , and partly because Pancho Villa had no compunction about hiring mercenaries . The first legion of foreign mercenaries , during the 1910 Madero revolt , was the Falange de los Extranjeros ( Foreign Phalanx ) , which included Giuseppe ( `` Peppino '' ) Garibaldi , grandson of the famed Italian unifier , as well as many American recruits . Later , during the revolt against the coup d'état of Victoriano Huerta , many of the same foreigners and others were recruited and enlisted by Pancho Villa and his División del Norte . Villa recruited Americans , Canadians and other foreigners of all ranks from simple infantrymen on up , but the most highly prized and best paid were machine gun experts such as Sam Dreben , artillery experts such as Ivor Thord - Gray , and doctors for Villa 's celebrated Servicio sanitario medic and mobile hospital corps . There is little doubt that Villa 's Mexican equivalent of the French Foreign Legion ( known as the `` Legion of Honor '' ) was an important factor in Villa 's successes against Huerta 's Federal Army . U.S. military decorations ( edit ) Mexican Service Medal The U.S. military awarded the Mexican Service Medal to its troops for service in Mexico . The streamer is yellow with a blue center stripe and a narrow green stripe on each edge . The green and yellow recalls the Aztec standard carried at the Battle of Otumba in 1520 , which carried a gold sun surrounded by the green plumes of the quetzal . The blue color alludes to the United States Army and refers to the Rio Grande separating Mexico from the United States . See also ( edit ) Mexican Revolution Mexico - United States relations Notes ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : Friedrich Katz , The Secret War in Mexico : Europe , the United States , and the Mexican Revolution . Chicago : University of Chicago Press 1981 , p. 563 . Jump up ^ http://www.angelfire.com/rebellion2/projectmexico/2.html Jump up ^ http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/William-Howard-Taft-Foreign-affairs.html ^ Jump up to : http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/5 Jump up ^ http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/37266/so-far-from-god-the-mexican-revolution-1913-1920 Jump up ^ John Womack , Jr . `` The Mexican Revolution '' in Mexico Since Independence , ed . Leslie Bethell . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press 1991 , p. 131 . Jump up ^ Katz , Secret War in Mexico , p. 564 . Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1998 ) : 30 . Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1997 ) : 28 . Jump up ^ Rayund A. Paredes , `` The Origins of Anti-Mexican Sentiment in the United States '' , New Scholar Vol. 6 ( 1977 ) : 139 , 158 Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1997 ) : 27 - 28 , also known as the Leyenda Negra . Jump up ^ Rayund A. Paredes , `` The Origins of Anti-Mexican Sentiment in the United States '' , New Scholar Vol. 6 ( 1977 ) : 140 . Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1998 ) : 30 - 31 . Jump up ^ John A. Britton , `` A Search for Meaning '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 29 . ^ Jump up to : Britton , John . A. `` Revolution in Context '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 5 . Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1997 ) : 40 . Jump up ^ Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1998 ) : 40 - 41 . Jump up ^ Gonzalez , Gilbert G. and Raul A. Fernandez . `` Empire and the Origins of Twentieth Century Migration from Mexico to the United States '' in A Century of Chicano History , New York , Routledge ( 2003 ) : 37 . Jump up ^ Gonzalez , Gilbert G. and Raul A. Fernandez . `` Empire and the Origins of Twentieth Century Migration from Mexico to the United States '' in A Century of Chicano History , New York , Routledge ( 2003 ) : 31 . Jump up ^ Britton , John . A. `` Revolution in Context '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 6 . Jump up ^ Gonzalez , Gilbert G. and Raul A. Fernandez . `` Empire and the Origins of Twentieth Century Migration from Mexico to the United States '' in A Century of Chicano History , New York , Routledge ( 2003 ) : 35 , emphasis mine . Jump up ^ Britton , John . A. `` Revolution in Context '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 8 . ^ Jump up to : Katz , The Secret War in Mexico . Jump up ^ quoted in Lars Schoultz , Beneath the United States : A History of U.S. Policy Toward Latin America . Cambridge : Harvard University Press 1998 , pp. 237 - 38 . ^ Jump up to : Schoultz , Beneath the United States , p. 238 . Jump up ^ http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1900s/p/veracruz.htm References ( edit ) Anderson , Mark . C. `` What 's to Be Done With ' Em ? Images of Mexican Cultural Backwardness , Racial Limitations and Moral Decrepitude in the United States Press 1913 - 1915 '' , Mexican Studies , Winter Vol. 14 , No. 1 ( 1998 ) : 23 - 70 . Britton , John . A . `` A Search for Meaning '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 25 - 49 . Britton , John . A. `` Revolution in Context '' in Revolution and Ideology : Images of the Mexican Revolution in the United States . Kentucky : The University Press of Kentucky ( 1995 ) : 5 - 23 . Gonzalez , Gilbert G. and Raul A. Fernandez . `` Empire and the Origins of Twentieth Century Migration from Mexico to the United States '' in A Century of Chicano History , New York , Routledge ( 2003 ) : 29 - 65 . Paredes , Rayund A . `` The Origins of Anti-Mexican Sentiment in the United States '' , New Scholar Vol. 6 ( 1977 ) : 139 - 167 . External links ( edit ) Soldiers of Fortune in the Mexican Revolution United States intervention in Latin America Policy Monroe Doctrine ( 1823 ) Platt Amendment ( 1901 -- 04 ) Roosevelt Corollary / Big Stick ideology ( 1904 ) Good Neighbor policy ( 1933 ) Dollar diplomacy Banana Wars Wars Mexican -- American War ( 1846 -- 48 ) Spanish -- American War ( 1898 ) Border War ( 1910 -- 19 ) United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution ( 1916 -- 19 ) Overt actions and occupations Paraguay expedition ( 1858 ) First Occupation of Cuba ( 1899 -- 1902 ) Panama -- Colombia separation and Hay -- Bunau - Varilla Treaty ( 1903 ) Second Occupation of Cuba ( 1906 -- 09 ) Occupations of Honduras Occupation of Nicaragua ( 1912 -- 33 ) Occupation of Veracruz ( 1914 ) Occupation of Haiti ( 1915 -- 34 ) Occupation of the Dominican Republic ( 1916 -- 24 ) Occupation of the Dominican Republic ( 1965 -- 66 ) Invasion of Grenada ( 1983 ) Invasion of Panama ( 1989 ) Covert actions 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Bay of Pigs Invasion ( 1961 ) Operation MONGOOSE Project FUBELT 1973 Chilean coup d'état Disputed claims 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt 2004 Haitian rebellion Other Cuban Missile Crisis ( 1962 ) United States involvement in regime change in Latin America Foreign policy of the United States Latin America -- United States relations Mexican Revolution Background History of Mexico Economic History of Mexico Encomiendas Haciendas Casta social system Constitution of 1857 Reform War La Reforma French Intervention in Mexico Porfiriato Científicos Important people Porfirio Díaz Francisco I. Madero Victoriano Huerta Francisco `` Pancho '' Villa Venustiano Carranza Emiliano Zapata Álvaro Obregón Ricardo Flores Magón Pascual Orozco Plutarco Elías Calles Lázaro Cárdenas José Yves Limantour Ramón Corral Francisco León de la Barra Félix Díaz Velasco Bernardo Reyes Eufemio Zapata Manuel Palafox Genovevo de la O Soldaderas Plans Plan of San Luis Potosí Plan of Ayala Plan of Guadalupe Plan of Agua Prieta Plan of San Diego Political developments Treaty of Ciudad Juárez Decena trágica Convention of Aguascalientes Querétaro Constitutional Convention Pancho Villa Expedition Maximato United States involvement Formations Legacy Emigration from Mexico Mexican Constitution of 1917 Cristero War Land Reforms Mexican Miracle 1968 Student Protests Popular culture Historical Museum Monument to the Revolution Institutional Revolutionary Party ( PRI ) Zapatista Army of National Liberation Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution Other Timeline Factions Liberation Army of the South Constitutionalists Federales Felicistas Magonistas Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_involvement_in_the_Mexican_Revolution&oldid=833163286 '' Categories : Mexican Revolution Banana Wars 1916 in Mexico Mexico -- United States relations Hidden categories : All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Português Edit links This page was last edited on 30 March 2018 , at 00 : 41 . 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[ "Benito Juárez" ]
[ "The United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution was varied and seemingly contradictory , first supporting and then repudiating Mexican regimes during the period 1910 - 1920 . For both economic and political reasons , the U.S. government generally supported those who occupied the seats of power , whether they held that power legitimately or not . A clear exception was the French Intervention in Mexico , when the U.S. supported the beleaguered liberal government of Benito Juárez at the time of the American Civil War ( 1861 - 1865 ) . Prior to Woodrow Wilson 's inauguration on March 4 , 1913 , the U.S. Government focused on just warning the Mexican military that decisive action from the U.S. military would take place if lives and property of U.S. nationals living in the country were endangered . President William Howard Taft sent more troops to the US - Mexico border but did not allow them to intervene in the conflict , a move which Congress opposed . Twice during the Revolution , the U.S. sent troops into Mexico . la The U.S. recognized the government of Porfirio Díaz in 1878 , two years after Díaz 's coup d'état brought him to power . Díaz 's long rule of Mexico brought close economic cooperation between the two countries , especially since Díaz imposed political order that allowed business to flourish . In 1908 , however , Díaz gave an interview to a U.S. journalist , James Creelman , in which Díaz stated he would not run for re-election in 1910 ; the statement gave rise to politicking of potential candidates . Díaz reversed himself , ran for re-election , and jailed the leading opposition candidate , Francisco I. Madero . Mexican revolutionaries prior to the 1910 events had sought refuge on the U.S. side of the border , a pattern Madero continued . He escaped Mexico and took refuge in San Antonio , Texas and called for nullification of the 1910 elections , himself as provisional president , and revolutionary support from the Mexican people . His Plan of San Luis Potosí did spark revolutionary uprisings , particularly in Mexico 's north . The U.S. stayed out of the unfolding events until March 6 , 1911 , when President William Howard Taft mobilized forces on the U.S. - Mexico border . `` In effect this was an intervention in Mexican politics , and to Mexicans it meant the United States had condemned Díaz ." ]
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where is the pause key on a dell laptop
Break key - wikipedia Break key Jump to : navigation , search `` Pause button '' redirects here . For the media control , see Media controls . For other uses , see Pause . Break / Pause key on PC keyboard The Break key of a computer keyboard refers to breaking a telegraph circuit and originated with 19th century practice . In modern usage , the key has no well - defined purpose , but while this is the case , it can be used by software for miscellaneous tasks , such as to switch between multiple login sessions , to terminate a program , or to interrupt a modem connection . Because the break function is usually combined with the pause function on one key since the introduction of the IBM Model M 101 - key keyboard in 1985 , the Break key is also called the Pause key . It can be used to pause some computer games . Contents ( hide ) 1 History 2 Sinclair 3 BBC Micro 4 Modern keyboards 5 Keyboards without Break key 6 Usage for breaking the program 's execution 7 References 8 See also History ( edit ) A standard telegraph circuit connects all the keys , sounders and batteries in a single series loop . Thus the sounders actuate only when both keys are down ( closed , also known as `` marking '' -- after the ink marks made on paper tape by early printing telegraphs ) . So the receiving operator has to hold their key down or close a built - in shorting switch in order to let the other operator send . As a consequence , the receiving operator could interrupt the sending operator by opening their key , breaking the circuit and forcing it into a `` spacing '' condition . Both sounders stop responding to the sender 's keying , alerting the sender . ( A physical break in the telegraph line would have the same effect . ) The teleprinter operated in a very similar fashion except that the sending station kept the loop closed ( logic 1 , or `` marking '' ) even during short pauses between characters . Holding down a special `` break '' key opened the loop , forcing it into a continuous logic 0 , or `` spacing '' , condition . When this occurred , the teleprinter mechanisms continually actuated without printing anything , as the all - 0s character is the non-printing NUL in both Baudot and ASCII . The resulting noise got the sending operator 's attention . This practice carried over to teleprinter use on time - sharing computers . A continuous spacing ( logical 0 ) condition violates the rule that every valid character has to end with one or more logic 1 ( marking ) `` stop '' bits . The computer ( specifically the UART ) recognized this as a special `` break '' condition and generated an interrupt that typically stopped a running program or forced the operating system to prompt for a login . Although asynchronous serial telegraphy is now rare , the Break key once used with terminal emulators can still be used by software for similar purposes . Sinclair ( edit ) On the Sinclair ZX80 and ZX81 computers , the Break is accessed by pressing Space . On the Sinclair ZX Spectrum it is accessed by Caps Shift + Space . The Spectrum+ and later computers have a dedicated Break key . It does not trigger an interrupt but will halt any running BASIC program , or terminate the loading or saving of data to cassette tape . An interrupted BASIC program can usually be resumed with the CONTINUE command . The Sinclair QL computer , without a Break key , maps the function to Ctrl + Space . BBC Micro ( edit ) On a BBC Micro computer , the Break key generates a hardware reset which would normally cause a warm restart of the computer . A cold restart is triggered by pressing Ctrl + Break . If a filing system is installed , ⇧ Shift + Break will cause the computer to search for and load or run a file called ! Boot on the filing system 's default device ( e.g. floppy disk 0 , network user BOOT ) . The latter two behaviours were inherited by the successor to Acorn MOS , RISC OS . These behaviours could be changed or exchanged in software , and were often used in rudimentary anti-piracy techniques . Modern keyboards ( edit ) On many modern PCs , Pause interrupts screen output by BIOS until another key is pressed . This is effective during boot in text mode and in a DOS box in Windows safe mode with 50 lines . On early keyboards without a Pause key ( before the introduction of 101 / 102 - key keyboards ) the Pause function was assigned to Ctrl + NumLock , and the Break function to Ctrl + ScrLock ; these key - combinations still work with most programs , even on modern PCs with modern keyboards . Pressing the dedicated Pause key on 101 / 102 - key keyboards sends the same scancodes as pressing Ctrl , then NumLock , then releasing them in the reverse order would do ; additionally , an E1 prefix is sent , which enables 101 / 102 - key - aware software to discern the two situations , while older software usually just ignores the prefix . The Pause key is different from all other keys in that it sends no scancodes at all on release ; therefore it is not possible for any software to determine whether this key is being held down . On modern keyboards , the Break key is usually labeled Pause with Break below , sometimes separated by a line , or Pause on the top of the keycap and Break on the front . In most Windows environments , the key combination ⊞ Win + Pause brings up the system properties . Keyboards without Break key ( edit ) Compact and notebook keyboards often do not have a dedicated Pause / Break key . These may use the following substitutes for Break : Ctrl + Fn + F11 or Fn + B or Fn + Ctrl + B on certain Lenovo laptops and certain Dell laptops . Fn + Esc on Samsung . Ctrl + Fn + ⇧ Shift on certain HP laptops . Substitutes for Pause : Fn + P or Fn + Ctrl + P or Fn + Alt + P ( on certain Lenovo laptops ) . Fn + ⇧ Shift on certain HP laptops . Apple keyboards do not have the Pause / Break key , as Mac OS X does not use it . The key may be substituted by Fn + Esc For Dell laptops without a Break key press the ALT + Space bar and select `` Interrupt '' . Usage for breaking the program 's execution ( edit ) While both Ctrl + Break and Ctrl + C combination are commonly implemented as a way of breaking the execution of a console application , they are also used for similar effect in integrated development environments . Although these two are often considered interchangeable , compilers and execution environments usually assign different signals to these . Additionally , in some kernels ( e.g. miscellaneous DOS variants ) Ctrl + C is detected only at the time OS tries reading from a keyboard buffer and only if it 's the only key sequence in the buffer , while Ctrl + Break is often translated instantly ( e.g. by INT 1Bh under DOS ) . Because of this , Ctrl + Break is usually a more effective choice under these operating systems ; sensitivity for these two combinations can be enhanced by the BREAK = ON CONFIG. SYS statement . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` Keyboard 101 - and 102 - Key '' . PS / 2 Hardware Interface Technical Reference ( PDF ) . IBM . October 1990 . p. 19 . Except for the Pause key , all keys are make / break . Jump up ^ https://support.lenovo.com/us/en/documents/ht074004 Jump up ^ http://forum.thinkpads.com/viewtopic.php?f=60&t=98708 ^ Jump up to : http://forum.thinkpads.com/viewtopic.php?t=105807 Jump up ^ `` Dell Inspiron 17 specification '' ( PDF ) . Jump up ^ Computer Hope , Pause key http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/p/pausekey.htm Jump up ^ Use your Apple Keyboard in Windows Bootcamp https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202676 Jump up ^ `` CTRL + C ( Break ) '' . Msdn.microsoft.com. 2010 - 03 - 30 . Retrieved 2010 - 10 - 22 . Jump up ^ `` Debug Break '' . Msdn.microsoft.com. 2010 - 03 - 30 . Retrieved 2010 - 10 - 22 . Jump up ^ `` Ctrl - Break definition of Ctrl - Break in the Free Online Encyclopedia '' . Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com . Retrieved 2010 - 10 - 22 . Jump up ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/windows/ntemacs/discuss/subproc-ctrl-c Archived October 22 , 2012 , at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ `` Vim documentation : vim online '' . Vim.org . Retrieved 2010 - 10 - 22 . Jump up ^ `` ClipX -- DOS 5.0 Ref . - int 23h ctrl - c handler '' . Ousob.com . Retrieved 2010 - 10 - 22 . See also ( edit ) System request Scroll lock Num lock ( hide ) Keyboard keys Dead keys Compose Modifier keys Control Shift Alt / Option ( Apple ) AltGr Meta Command ( Apple ) / Windows ( Microsoft ) Super Hyper Fn Lock keys Scroll lock Num lock Caps lock F - Lock Navigation keys Arrow keys Page Up / Page Down Home End Esc Menu Editing Enter / Return Carriage return Backspace Insert Delete Tab Space bar Numeric keypad Language input Contextual Function keys Print screen System request Break / Pause Misc . Power management keys ( Power , Sleep , Wake ) Any key Macro key Concepts Keyboard layout Keyboard shortcut Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Break_key&oldid=804985301 '' Categories : Computer keys Out - of - band management Hidden categories : Webarchive template wayback links All articles that may contain original research Articles that may contain original research from September 2016 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Čeština Deutsch Français 한국어 Italiano Қазақша မြန်မာဘာသာ Nederlands 日本 語 Polski Português Русский Татарча / tatarça 中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 12 October 2017 , at 09 : 56 . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia ® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation , Inc. , a non-profit organization . About Wikipedia
[ "Ctrl+Fn+F11", "Fn+Ctrl+B", "Fn+B" ]
[ "Ctrl + Fn + F11 or Fn + B or Fn + Ctrl + B on certain Lenovo laptops and certain Dell laptops . Fn + Esc on Samsung . Ctrl + Fn + ⇧ Shift on certain HP laptops ." ]
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who is singing in the movie i can only imagine
I Can Only Imagine ( film ) - wikipedia I Can Only Imagine ( film ) Jump to : navigation , search I Can Only Imagine Theatrical release poster Directed by Erwin Brothers Produced by Cindy Bond Kevin Downes Daryl Lefever Mickey Liddell Pete Shilaimon Raymond Harris Joe Knopp Screenplay by Jon Erwin Brent McCorkle Story by Alex Cramer Jon Erwin Brent McCorkle Based on The life story of Bart Millard Starring J. Michael Finley Madeline Carroll Trace Adkins Priscilla Shirer Cloris Leachman Dennis Quaid Music by Brent McCorkle Cinematography Kristopher Kimlin Edited by Andrew Erwin Brent McCorkle Production companies Kevin Downes Productions Mission Pictures International Distributed by Lionsgate Roadside Attractions Release date March 16 , 2018 ( 2018 - 03 - 16 ) Running time 110 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $7 million Box office $83.9 million I Can Only Imagine is a 2018 American Christian drama film directed by the Erwin Brothers and written by Alex Cramer , Jon Erwin , and Brent McCorkle , based on the story behind the MercyMe song of the same name , the best - selling Christian single of all time . The film stars J. Michael Finley as Bart Millard , the lead singer who wrote the song about his relationship with his father ( Dennis Quaid ) . Madeline Carroll , Priscilla Shirer , Cloris Leachman , and Trace Adkins also star . I Can Only Imagine was released in the United States on March 16 , 2018 . It has grossed $83 million worldwide against a production budget of $7 million , and is the third highest - grossing music biopic of all - time in the United States . Some critics praised it as inspiring and noted it as an improvement compared to other faith - based films , while others called it flat and by - the - numbers . Contents ( hide ) 1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production 4 Reception 4.1 Box office 4.2 Critical response 5 References 6 External links Plot ( edit ) Coming from a home with an abusive father , 10 - year - old Bart Millard is dropped off at a Christian camp by his mother , where he meets Shannon . Upon his return from camp , Bart finds his mother has left and movers are removing her belongings , leading to a physical confrontation with his father Arthur , who takes custody of him . Years later , Millard is in Lakeside high school and dating Shannon . Hoping to impress his father , he begins playing football . However , he is injured , breaking both ankles and ending his career . In order to make up the credits he would miss from football , he signs up for music class , the only available class left . Initially , Millard is assigned to be a sound technician . After the director catches him singing in the empty auditorium of Lakeside high school , she casts him as Curly , the lead role in the school production of Oklahoma . He does n't tell his father of his role in the play , and while Bart has risen to the singing demands of the part , Arthur subsequently collapses with severe abdominal pain , but refuses to tell Bart or Shannon about his cancer diagnosis . The following morning , Millard voices his frustrations with his father and is assaulted by his father , who smashes a plate over his head . Shannon presses Bart to open up , but he responds by breaking up with her and leaving to seek his fortune in the city after graduation . Millard then connects with the band who would become MercyMe , and eventually attracts the attention of Christian music producer Scott Brickell ( Trace Adkins ) , who coaches Millard and gets them a showcase in Nashville , leading to meetings with Amy Grant ( Nicole DuPort ) and Michael W. Smith ( Jake B. Miller ) . Millard has been unable to reconcile with Shannon , who rejects his invitation to tour with the band to their upcoming Nashville showcase . While the band felt their performance was the best of their career , industry representatives reject the band as not being good enough to sell records . In despair , Millard quits the band . After talking with Brickell , who encourages him to resolve his issues with his father , Millard rejoins the band but asks they wait for him to confront his father and settle the conflict before they play again . Millard returns home and is greeted enthusiastically by his father , who prepares breakfast for him the next morning . His father claims to have become a Christian , but Bart is initially skeptical and rejects his father 's offer to start over . In anger , Arthur takes a baseball bat and hits his old Jeep , which he had hoped to repair with his son . As Bart prepares to leave , he finds out his father has terminal cancer . Bart and his father reconcile and form a deep bond before Arthur dies of his illness . After his father 's funeral , Millard rejoins the band and writes `` I Can Only Imagine '' . Brickell sends the demo tape to several artists , including Grant , who , deeply moved by the song , asks to record it herself as her next single . The band accepts Grant 's offer . Millard is seated in the audience when Grant intends to unveil the song live in concert . However , Grant decides that Millard should be the one to sing the song , and offers it back to him , calling him to the microphone to sing it before the large audience . Millard 's unexpected performance is wildly applauded and he reunites with Shannon , who had also been in attendance at the concert . The band releases the song as their first single , achieving success on Christian and mainstream radio . Cast ( edit ) This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it . J. Michael Finley as Bart Millard Brody Rose as Young Bart Dennis Quaid as Arthur Millard , Bart 's father Cloris Leachman as Meemaw , Bart 's grandmother Madeline Carroll as Shannon , Bart 's girlfriend Taegen Burns as Young Shannon Trace Adkins as Scott Brickell , MercyMe 's manager Priscilla Shirer as Mrs. Fincher , Bart 's teacher Nicole DuPort as Amy Grant Jake B. Miller as Michael W. Smith Mark Furze as Nathan Production ( edit ) This section needs expansion . You can help by adding to it . ( March 2018 ) The film was announced in December 2016 . Dennis Quaid joined the cast in January 2017 . Broadway actor J. Michael Finley makes his film debut as Bart Millard . The same month , it was announced that the film was slated for release in the spring of 2018 . In August 2017 , Lionsgate and Roadside Attractions signed on as distributors for the film for a nationwide release in the United States . Reception ( edit ) Box Office ( edit ) As of May 13 , 2018 , I Can Only Imagine has grossed $82.4 million in the United States , and Canada and $1.1 million in other territories , for a worldwide total of $83.5 million , against a production budget of $7 million . It is the third - highest grossing music biopic of all - time in the United States , behind Straight Outta Compton and Walk the Line . The film was released on March 16 , 2018 , alongside Tomb Raider and Love , Simon , and was originally projected to gross $2 -- 4 million from 1,620 theaters in its opening weekend . However , after making $6.2 million on its first day ( including $1.3 million from Thursday night previews ) , weekend estimates were increased to $14 million . It ended up grossing $17.1 million , exceeding expectations and finishing third at the box office behind Black Panther and Tomb Raider. 67 % of the opening weekend audience was female while 80 % was over the age of 35 . It was the fourth best - ever opening for a faith - based film , following The Passion of the Christ ( $83.8 million ) , Son of God ( $25.6 million ) and Heaven Is for Real ( $22.5 million ) . In its second weekend the film was added to 624 additional theaters and dropped just 19 % to $13.8 million , again finishing third . It was added to another 395 venues and finished fourth in its third weekend , making $10.4 million ( including $3 million on Easter Sunday ) . The film will be released on DVD , Blu - ray and available at iTunes Store and Google Play Store , June 5 , 2018 . Critical response ( edit ) On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes , the film holds an approval rating of 70 % based on 23 reviews , and an average rating of 6 / 10 . The site 's critical consensus reads , `` I Can Only Imagine 's message will have the most impact among Christian audiences , but overall , its performances and storytelling represent a notable evolution in faith - based cinema . '' On Metacritic , the film has a weighted average score of 29 out of 100 , based on 7 critics , indicating `` generally unfavorable reviews '' . Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of `` A + '' on an A+ to F scale , one of fewer than 80 films in the history of the service to earn such a score . The Arizona Republic 's James Ward gave the film 4 / 5 stars and wrote , `` Too often faith - based films -- say anything with Kirk Cameron or the terrible God 's Not Dead series -- tend to preach to the choir or hector their audience . The Erwins ' films -- I Can Only Imagine definitely among them -- are more inclusive , charitable of spirit and hopeful , all qualities that are always appreciated , be they rooted in Christian faith or otherwise . '' David Ehrlich of IndieWire gave the film a `` C -- '' saying : `` There 's a reason why all of these movies are so amateurishly made ; why they all end with links to religious websites ; why they all look like they were shot on an iPhone by a Walmart - brand Janusz Kaminski who lit each interior like the white light of heaven was streaming through every window ... Art can be affirmation , but affirmation can not be art . '' References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : Anita , Busch ( August 14 , 2017 ) . `` Faith - Based ' I Can Only Imagine ' Picked Up By Lionsgate & Roadside Attractions '' . Deadline Hollywood . Penske Business Media . Retrieved March 19 , 2018 . ^ Jump up to : `` I Can Only Imagine ( 2018 ) '' . The Numbers . Nash Information Services , LLC . Retrieved May 20 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Ryan , Patrick ( March 13 , 2018 ) . `` How did ' I Can Only Imagine ' become the biggest Christian hit ever ( and inspire a movie ) ? '' . USA Today . Retrieved April 18 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Staff Reports ( December 2 , 2016 ) . `` MercyMe hit song turning into Okie production '' . NewsOK . Retrieved March 19 , 2018 . ^ Jump up to : Busch , Anita ( January 5 , 2017 ) . `` Faith - Based Film ' I Can Only Imagine ' With Dennis Quaid , Cloris Leachman And Trace Adkins Eyes Spring 2018 Release '' . Deadline Hollywood . Penske Business Media . Retrieved March 19 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Galuppo , Mia ( August 14 , 2017 ) . `` Lionsgate , Roadside Acquire Faith - Based Drama ' I Can Only Imagine ' '' . The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved March 19 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Biopic - Music Movies at the Box Office '' . Box Office Mojo . Retrieved April 20 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Fuster , Jeremy ( March 13 , 2018 ) . `` Will ' Tomb Raider ' Be the Movie to Finally Knock ' Black Panther ' From Box Office Perch ? '' . TheWrap . Retrieved March 19 , 2018 . ^ Jump up to : D'Alessandro , Anthony ( March 16 , 2018 ) . `` ' Black Panther ' Poised For $460 M+ In Profit ; ' I Can Only Imagine ' Surprises -- Box Office Update '' . Deadline Hollywood . Penske Business Media . Retrieved March 17 , 2018 . Jump up ^ D'Alessandro , Anthony ( March 18 , 2018 ) . `` ' Black Panther ' Keeps B.O. Treasure From ' Tomb Raider ' ; How ' I Can Only Imagine ' Hit A $17 M High Note '' . Deadline Hollywood . Penske Business Media . Retrieved March 18 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Box Office : ' I Can Only Imagine ' Revives Faith - Based Genre '' . The Hollywood Reporter . March 20 , 2018 . Retrieved March 20 , 2018 . Jump up ^ D'Alessandro , Anthony ( March 25 , 2018 ) . `` Does ' Pacific Rim : Uprising ' Break Even At The Global B.O. ? ; ' Black Panther ' Sets Marvel Record -- Sunday Postmortem '' . Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved March 25 , 2018 . Jump up ^ D'Alessandro , Anthony ( April 1 , 2018 ) . `` How Warner Bros. Sold ' Ready Player One ' On The Spielberg Spirit & Beat Tracking With $53 M+ 4 - Day -- Sunday Postmortem '' . Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved April 4 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` I Can Only Imagine ( 2018 ) '' . Rotten Tomatoes . Fandango . Retrieved March 29 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` I Can Only Imagine Reviews '' . Metacritic . CBS Interactive . Retrieved March 22 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Ward , James ( March 15 , 2018 ) . `` Faith - based drama ' I Can Only Imagine ' does n't just preach to the choir '' . The Arizona Republic . Retrieved March 22 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Ehrlich , David ( March 21 , 2018 ) . `` ' I Can Only Imagine ' Review : A Christian Rock Biopic Shows Why Faith - Based Films Struggle to Convert Secular Audiences '' . IndieWire . Retrieved March 22 , 2018 . External links ( edit ) Official website I Can Only Imagine on IMDb I Can Only Imagine at the TCM Movie Database I Can Only Imagine at AllMovie I Can Only Imagine at Box Office Mojo I Can Only Imagine at History vs. Hollywood Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=I_Can_Only_Imagine_(film)&oldid=843658836 '' Categories : 2018 films English - language films American films American drama films 2010s drama films Drama films based on actual events Films based on actual events Roadside Attractions films Films shot in Oklahoma Hidden categories : Incomplete lists from March 2018 Articles to be expanded from March 2018 All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2018 All articles containing potentially dated statements Talk Contents About Wikipedia فارسی Bahasa Indonesia 日本 語 Edit links This page was last edited on 30 May 2018 , at 16 : 00 . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia ® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation , Inc. , a non-profit organization . About Wikipedia
[ "J. Michael Finley as Bart Millard" ]
[ "I Can Only Imagine is a 2018 American Christian drama film directed by the Erwin Brothers and written by Alex Cramer , Jon Erwin , and Brent McCorkle , based on the story behind the MercyMe song of the same name , the best - selling Christian single of all time . The film stars J. Michael Finley as Bart Millard , the lead singer who wrote the song about his relationship with his father ( Dennis Quaid ) . Madeline Carroll , Priscilla Shirer , Cloris Leachman , and Trace Adkins also star ." ]
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when did prison break season 4 come out
Prison Break ( season 4 ) - wikipedia Prison Break ( season 4 ) Jump to : navigation , search Prison Break ( season 4 ) DVD cover Country of origin United States No. of episodes 24 Release Original network Fox Original release September 1 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 01 ) -- May 15 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 15 ) Season chronology ← Previous Season 3 Next → Season 5 List of Prison Break episodes The fourth season of Prison Break , an American serial drama television series commenced airing in the United States on September 1 , 2008 . It consists of 24 episodes ( 22 television episodes and 2 straight to DVD episodes ) , 16 of which aired from September to December 2008 . After a hiatus , it resumed on April 17 , 2009 and concluded on May 15 , 2009 with a two episode finale . The fourth season was announced as the final season of Prison Break , however the series returned in a limited series format as Prison Break : Resurrection , which premiered on April 4 , 2017 . Contents ( hide ) 1 Cast 1.1 Main characters 1.2 Recurring characters 2 Episodes 3 Production 4 Home media release 5 References 6 External links Cast ( edit ) Main characters ( edit ) Dominic Purcell as Lincoln Burrows Wentworth Miller as Michael Scofield Michael Rapaport as DHS Special Agent Don Self Amaury Nolasco as Fernando Sucre Wade Williams as Brad Bellick Robert Knepper as Theodore `` T - Bag '' Bagwell Chris Vance as James Whistler Danay García as Sofia Lugo Jodi Lyn O'Keefe as Gretchen Morgan Sarah Wayne Callies as Sara Tancredi William Fichtner as Alexander Mahone Recurring characters ( edit ) Leon Russom as General Jonathan Krantz Shannon Lucio as DHS Special Agent Miriam Hultz Stacy Haiduk as Lisa Tabak Cress Williams as Wyatt Mathewson Kathleen Quinlan as Christina Rose Scofield Ted King as Downey James Hiroyuki Liao as Roland Glenn Michael Bryan French as Gregory White Raphael Sbarge as Ralph Becker Ron Yuan as Feng Huan Barbara Eve Harris as FBI Agent Felicia Lang Steve Tom as Stuart Tuxhorn Dameon Clarke as Andrew Blauner Heather McComb as Rita Morgan Graham McTavish as Ferguson Jude Ciccolella as Howard Scuderi Shaun Duke as Griffin Oren Wilbur Fitzgerald as Bruce Bennett Michael O'Neill as DHS Director Herb Stanton Callie Thorne as Pam Mahone Paul Adelstein as Paul Kellerman Mark Pellegrino as Patrick Vikan Titus Welliver as Scott Ivar Brogger as Dr. Vincent Sandinsky Jason Davis as FBI Agent Mark Wheeler William Mapother as FBI Agent Chris Franco Reno Wilson as FBI Agent Wilson Wright Rockmond Dunbar as Benjamin Miles `` C - Note '' Franklin John Sanderford as Nathaniel Edison Crystal Mantecon as Carmelita Marshall Allman as L.J. Burrows Kim Coates as Internal Affairs Agent Richard Sullins Muse Watson as Charles Westmoreland Episodes ( edit ) Main article : List of Prison Break episodes No . overall No. in season Title Directed by Written by Original air date Prod . code U.S. viewers ( millions ) 58 `` Scylla '' Kevin Hooks Matt Olmstead September 1 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 01 ) 4AKJ01 6.53 Scofield tracks Whistler , Morgan and Mahone to a party , where Whistler acquires a specific card before copying it secretly . Scofield arrives to kill her for Tancredi 's murder , but she reveals that the latter is alive . Scofield calls Lincoln , who is living a peaceful life with L.J. and Sofia in Panama . The General blames Morgan for bringing a copy instead of the original card and orders Wyatt Mathewson , his henchman to take care of her . Scofield meets Whistler , who tell the former about Scylla , the latter 's card that contains the Company 's black book ; but Mathewson arrives , kills Whistler and recovers the card . Lincoln kills a Company operative and is arrested . Mahone finds out that Mathewson has killed the former 's son . Sucre and Bellick are revealed to have escaped Sona , which was burnt . Bagwell has also escaped and has plans to return to the U.S. to investigate Whistler 's book . He is abandoned with his friend in the American deserts . Scofield reunites with Tancredi and they accept DHS agent Donald Self 's offer to recover Scylla and defeat the Company in exchange for immunity , teaming up with Burrows , Mahone , Sucre and Bellick . 59 `` Breaking & Entering '' Bobby Roth Zack Estrin September 1 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 01 ) 4AKJ02 6.53 The team arrives in Los Angeles ; and the members are given ankle GPS devices and meet teammate Roland Glenn , a computer expert . Burrows promises revenge to Mahone after the mission is accomplished . Mahone manages to find the cardholder through his driver , whom Mahone saw at the party . Glenn states that they only need to copy the card using his special device , which can steal any electronic storage device 's data in proximity . The team realizes that entering the mansion is impossible and instead put Glenn 's device in the servant 's bag and have the card copied ; but she leaves the device at the mansion and the team manages to enter and recover the device . Meanwhile , Mathewson is having Morgan tortured for information and finds out that the brothers and the others are n't incarcerated ; he finds Bruce Bennett and starts torturing him . Bagwell kills his friend and eats him in order to survive . He is given a ride by bikers to San Diego , mentioned in the book , where he recovers important material from a box . The team finds out that they only have one of the six cards that form the complete Scylla . Scofield notices his nose bleeding . 60 `` Shut Down '' Milan Cheylov Nick Santora September 8 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 08 ) 4AKJ03 6.36 The team investigates other data recovered from the mansion in order to find the other cardholders . Mahone asks FBI agent Lang to help him find his son 's killer . Self 's supervisor , agent Herb Stanton , convinces Senator Dallow to order the abort of the mission . The team recovers emails , which are incomplete and they infiltrate the server building and obtain the rest . Sucre and Bellick are arrested by DHS agents , Glenn stays behind and the others escape . They manage to find the meeting location and Scofield proceeds while the others are arrested too . Scofield returns with a film he recorded showing the faces of the six cardholders , one being the General himself . Self decides to let the team continue the mission . Meanwhile , Mathewson gets no information from Bennett and kills him . Bagwell begins having fun in Whistler 's house and calls a company called `` GATE '' and is requested to go and receive his check . Mahone receives a file from Lang containing the possible shooters . The team discovers that his son is killed and Burrows finally reconciles with him . 61 `` Eagles & Angels '' Michael Switzer Karyn Usher September 15 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 15 ) 4AKJ04 5.79 The team believes the Turkish consul is a cardholder , but realizes that his wife , Lisa Tabak who is also the General 's daughter , is . They find her difficult to get close to before spotting Bagwell and capturing him ; but they ca n't find the book and he escapes . The team finds out that Tabak will attend a police celebration . Scofield , Burrows and Mahone wear uniforms and successfully copy the card ; but one of her bodyguards recognizes and follows Burrows and the latter kills him by Bellick 's help . Meanwhile , Tancredi is informed of Bennett 's death and gets depressed . She goes to a pub , where a man steals and uses her credit card , which is detected by the Company . Bagwell starts working at GATE , meeting Gregory White , the CEO , Trishanne Smith , the secretary and Blauner , another clerk . The former notices a name , Xing , in the book . In New York City , Xing is killed by his boss for his failure to get Scylla . Mahone instructs Glenn to help him find his son 's killer . Mathewson arrives at the pub and starts chasing Tancredi . 62 5 `` Safe & Sound '' Karen Gaviola Seth Hoffman September 22 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 22 ) 4AKJ05 5.84 Mahone 's wife , Pam , identifies Mathewson and encourages him to kill the latter . Tancredi manages to lose the latter and the team realizes that he wants to kill them . They move for the next card while Mahone starts investigating Mathewson . Self enters the cardholder 's room and fails to copy the card , but gives the specifics of the safe to the team and gets them in the building . Burrows notices Scofield 's nose bleeding . They manage to copy the card while Oren , the cardholder , is meeting the General , who states that Scylla is the reason the Company has power . Meanwhile , Mahone finds the motel Mathewson was staying in and notices the acceptant calling Mathewson , and takes the number by force . Morgan manages to free herself . Sucre and Bellick search the nearby buildings for Bagwell and tell Smith that there is a prize for helping them find Bagwell ; but she decides to get more from Bagwell instead . Bagwell is visited by Feng Huan , Xing 's boss , who threatens to kill him if he does n't get Scylla soon . The team deduces that the General is the head of the Company . 63 6 `` Blow Out '' Bryan Spicer Kalinda Vazquez September 29 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 29 ) 4AKJ06 5.28 The team manages to copy the next card with an elaborate plan ; but Mahone is arrested by the police while recovering Glenn 's device ; and Self only manages to get the device . The team is divided whether to save Mahone or move to the next card . They finally choose to rescue him in the court , where Mathewson has also arrived to kill him . Mahone is saved successfully . He calls Mathewson and promises to find him before throwing the number away , which is recovered by Glenn . Meanwhile , Gretchen reunites with her sister , Rita , and daughter , Emily , who believes Rita is her mother . Gretchen recovers a gun and some money from a gift she had given Rita previously and proceeds with plans of working for herself . The General has found out Self 's investigation on him and orders a DHS double agent to search his computer and Mathewson to warn him . Blauner finds illegal background in Bagwell 's faked career and the latter clears the house and attempts to escape before being attacked by Gretchen . 64 7 `` Five the Hard Way '' Garry A. Brown Christian Trokey October 6 , 2008 ( 2008 - 10 - 06 ) 4AKJ07 5.37 Bagwell offers Morgan to work together . Mahone advises Self to take the fight to the General instead of hiding ; and Self makes the latter cancel the assault on him . The team realizes that Scuderi , the next cardholder , is currently in Las Vegas , while they are informed by Smith of Bagwell 's whereabouts . Scofield , Mahone and Bellick stay to find Bagwell while the others travel to Vegas . Burrows tells Tancredi of Scofield 's condition , which resembles to what killed their mother at that age . The card is successfully copied ; but Glenn 's indiscretion results in losing the device . Meanwhile , Scofield 's team realizes that the call was a ruse by Bagwell ; only Mahone manages to escape . Bagwell forces Scofield to reassemble the blueprint hidden in the papers of the book . Mahone finds the house by the GPS devices ; but they are already gone as Morgan spotted the devices in time . Morgan kills Blauner as a caution . Scofield manages to complete the blueprint and leads Bagwell to an underground accessed by Bagwell 's office in GATE . Mahone arrives and Bagwell is locked in a room . Scofield gets a call from Morgan , who hid herself the whole time . 65 8 `` The Price '' Bobby Roth Graham Roland October 20 , 2008 ( 2008 - 10 - 20 ) 4AKJ08 5.45 Morgan makes a truce with Scofield , giving him the rest of the papers and Bagwell is released . They decide to work together to bring down the Company . Burrows suggests an attack on Krantz ' car and taking the last card , which is approved . Glenn is cast out of the plan because of his indiscretion that resulted in losing the device . He offers the team 's whereabouts to Mathewson in exchange for money and proves his validity by giving the team 's plan away , resulting in Sucre being critically shot , whose wounds Tancredi tends to . Glenn goes to meet Mathewson , who shoots and tortures him to tell the team 's location . Having followed Glenn by a tracker Scofield put in his laptop , the team arrives and abducts Mathewson , everyone apart from Michael leaves Glenn to succumb to his wounds . Meanwhile , Feng tries to kill Bagwell as he promised ; but Morgan convinces him to give them more time . Bagwell instructs Smith to investigate the others . Tancredi reconciles with Morgan because of the team . Deducing that the attempt was for his card not his life , Krantz decides to transfer Scylla . 66 9 `` Greatness Achieved '' Jesse Bochco Nick Santora November 3 , 2008 ( 2008 - 11 - 03 ) 4AKJ09 5.23 The team tortures Mathewson to make him tell Krantz that they are dead while preventing Mahone from taking his revenge until the deed is done . Tancredi is chosen to convince Mathewson ; but she fails . It is revealed to be a plan to record his voice using different words and Self assembles those words , making a sentence stating the mission 's accomplishment , which Self plays to Krantz on the phone ; and he gets relieved and cancels the newspaper coverage he planned . Mahone tortures Mathewson until he agrees to express apology to Pam , after which he is killed . Meanwhile , White starts investigating Blauner 's disappearance ; but Bagwell solves the situation by manipulating the records , showing the illegal background in Blauner 's career , making White to close the case in order to prevent the scandal . Morgan apparently reconciles with Krantz , revealed to have been involved with him before . She finds out about the transfer . The team finds a water pipe blocking their way and manages to get across it , but at the cost of Bellick 's life . 67 10 `` The Legend '' Dwight H. Little Karyn Usher November 10 , 2008 ( 2008 - 11 - 10 ) 4AKJ10 5.38 The team forces Self to recover Bellick 's body and send it to his mother . Sucre reveals that he would have died in the Sona riot , incited by Bagwell , if Bellick had n't saved the former . Morgan informs the team of Krantz ' plan . They realize that they ca n't translate the blueprint without the legend . They find an architect 's name in the papers ; and Mahone goes to the architect 's house , where Krantz has sent his own men to recover the architect for his plan . The team finds mines in a room they reach on their way . Sucre puts his foot on a mine , which will detonate after the foot is pulled . Morgan tries to defuse it . Mahone recovers the legend and manages to defuse the mine and save Sucre . Bagwell realizes that Smith is knowing more than expected . He gets her call register and finds out that she is in contact with Self . Meanwhile , Scofield is diagnosed with hypothalamus hamartoma and Tancredi states that he will die if he does n't have a surgery soon . 68 11 `` Quiet Riot '' Kevin Hooks Seth Hoffman November 17 , 2008 ( 2008 - 11 - 17 ) 4AKJ11 5.52 Scofield designates the plan for the team , as he will not join them because of his surgery . Morgan arranges a tryst with Krantz , in which she tries to steal his card ; but he already knows and tries to kill her before she reminds him of their child ; and he spares her and leaves . Scofield decides to join the team and finish the mission before surgery ; and Tancredi goes to do her part , revealed to be involving Tabak . Morgan and Bagwell prepare to kill Scofield 's team when they come back with Scylla. Smith intercepts Bagwell 's call about a buyer and teams up with Self to enter the house , where Feng 's men capture them . Scofield 's team starts working silently because of the sound sensors . They get past the wall and make a ladder to reach the glass room while using nitrogen gas to avoid the temperature sensors . They finally enter the glass room , which contains a box . As Scofield touches it , Krantz finds out and takes a team to neutralize the threat . 69 12 `` Selfless '' Michael Switzer Kalinda Vazquez November 24 , 2008 ( 2008 - 11 - 24 ) 4AKJ12 5.25 The team takes Krantz hostage and uses the six cards to open the box and recover Scylla . They proceed to Krantz ' room , where , he tries to allure them to surrender , reveling that he and Aldo Burrows worked closely . He finds out that Tancredi has taken Tabak hostage ; and she will kill her if the team is n't allowed a safe passage outside . The team leaves the building with Scylla and Krantz orders their chase . Meanwhile , Self and Smith manage to free themselves and kill Feng and his men . At GATE , Bagwell and Morgan take the staff hostage and kill White . Smith arrives and saves them . Morgan escapes and Bagwell is captured by Smith , who reveals that she is DHS agent Miriam Hultz . The team separates , with the brothers taking the bag to an airport , where the Company operatives take it . But it is revealed that Mahone and Sucre actually have Scylla . The team gives Scylla to Self , who gives them a package containing their transfer papers and tells them to wait for the authorities . They wait for hours without anyone coming and find out that the package contains plain papers . Self kills Hultz and takes Scylla . 70 13 `` Deal or No Deal '' Bobby Roth Christian Trokey December 1 , 2008 ( 2008 - 12 - 01 ) 4AKJ13 5.84 Self makes Stanton believe that the team has killed him and seized Scylla . The team deduces Self 's plan , to sell Scylla and disappear . They unite with Gretchen to find Self , who unites with Bagwell and they take Rita and Emily hostage , forcing Gretchen to give the team away to DHS and find a new buyer . The team is attacked by DHS agents and Burrows is captured . Burrows manages to convince Stanton and Dallow of the truth . They offer a new deal for the team to testify against Self . Scofield instructs Mahone to get Tancredi and Sucre outside the city and proceeds to the warehouse to testify with Burrows . Stanton and Dallow decide to kill the brothers to prevent the scandal . The Company mole kills Stanton and other agents before Sucre arrives and saves them , with the mole being killed . They let Dallow leave . Meanwhile , Krantz kills Scuderi for humiliating him . Bagwell stays at Rita 's while Gretchen and Self meet a conduit , who reveals that a piece of Scylla is missing . Self calls Scofield and demands it , who defies him to come and get it . 71 14 `` Just Business '' Mark Helfrich Graham Roland December 8 , 2008 ( 2008 - 12 - 08 ) 4AKJ14 5.40 The team prepares for Self 's attack . They capture Self , who convinces them to let him sell Scylla and the Company will be destroyed anyway . They let him leave , while Sucre hides in his trunk . Self and Gretchen arrive in a motel and Sucre informs the others , who arrive and attack the duo . Scofield 's condition makes him collapse ; and the duo escape . The Company recovers Scofield . Having put a camera in the warehouse , Self finds where Scofield has hidden the piece and obtains it before calling the conduit . Meanwhile , Bagwell is visited by a man pretending to be a bible salesman . The former finally decides to let Rita and Emily escape and is captured by the man , who is a Company man in fact . Self meets and kills the conduit in order to keep the whole money . Mahone meets FBI agents Lang and Wheeler , who can grant the team immunity in exchange for Scylla . The latter arrests the former after hearing that Scylla is gone . Tabak resigns from the Company . Burrows makes a deal with Krantz to return Scylla in exchange for Scofield 's surgery . 72 15 `` Going Under '' Karen Gaviola Zack Estrin December 15 , 2008 ( 2008 - 12 - 15 ) 4AKJ15 5.37 Burrows tortures Bagwell and finds Self and Morgan 's whereabouts . The former and Sucre arrive at the location ; but they are already gone . They keep searching using the Company 's surveillance technology and track the duo to a place where they are meeting the buyer 's henchman , Scott . The latter takes Scylla and escapes while Self and Morgan are captured . Meanwhile , Scofield goes under surgery and meets Westmoreland in his dream , where he manages to deduce what Scylla really is . The operation is successful and Scofield reveals to Tancredi that Scylla contains next generations technologies that can end the energy crisis and provide infinite energy ; and that is why Krantz believes Scylla to be the source of power . Mahone escapes the transfer car and Lang stops him ; but he convinces her to let him leave . Sucre departs and Krantz forces Burrows to team up with Self , Morgan and Bagwell in order to recover Scylla . Scofield blames Burrows for his decision and the latter reveals that their mother worked for the Company and he will continue the family business . 73 16 `` The Sunshine State '' Kevin Hooks Matt Olmstead & Nicholas Wootton December 22 , 2008 ( 2008 - 12 - 22 ) 4AKJ16 4.98 Burrows ' team arrives in Miami , where Scott has been tracked to . Self attempts to force a vote to depose Burrows as the boss and take the position , but it is negated by Mahone 's arrival . The team obtains surveillance footage which Morgan investigates and finds Scott , but she does n't inform the team and arranges a meeting with Scott on her own . Meanwhile , Michael wakes up in a countryside mansion where a Company psychiatrist informs him that his mother , Christina Rose Scofield , is still alive and working for the Company . Michael demands to talk to her , but the psychiatrist replies that they will talk when he decides to join the Company . Tancredi meets Tabak , who gives her Michael 's whereabouts . Krantz gives orders for Michael to be given a medical treatment that could kill him , but which will certainly damage his mind ; however , he manages to escape with Tancredi 's help . He tells Tancredi that he believes his mother is alive . Morgan takes the team to a location where they are ambushed by Scott 's men . Morgan changes sides again , being shot by Scott , who is killed along with his men . Morgan is left for the police . Burrows answers the call from the buyer , who is Christina . 74 17 `` The Mother Lode '' Jonathan Glassner Seth Hoffman April 17 , 2009 ( 2009 - 04 - 17 ) 4AKJ17 3.34 Burrows ' team members receive images of their loved ones , sent by Krantz to make them finish the mission . They possess a special key obtained from Scott . They track it and find two locations it is used . Self and Bagwell go for one that is in a church ; but they are not allowed inside . Burrows and Mahone arrive in a house where they decrypt a message Christina has left for Burrows where to meet her . Burrows meets Christina in a restaurant , where she asks him to give her time to defeat Krantz , whom Oren attempts to kill as her plan . She has Oren killed for the failure , making Krantz suspect her . The other three attack the church and find guns and special keycards there . Meanwhile , Michael and Tancredi hide in a truck heading to Miami . They are attacked by a man , who is attacked and dies after stating that he does n't work for Krantz . Michael recovers an encrypted note from him . Burrows decides to meet Christina again , what she instructed him not to . Thus she orders a sniper to shoot him . 75 18 `` VS . '' Dwight H. Little Christian Trokey & Kalinda Vazquez April 24 , 2009 ( 2009 - 04 - 24 ) 4AKJ18 3.06 The team saves Burrows and kills the sniper . Michael and Tancredi arrives in Miami , where they meet Mahone and tell him that they will destroy the Company no matter the cost , making the two teams potential enemies . Burrows ' team tracks Christina to the Indian embassy and enter it at the cost of Bagwell being beaten . Christina convinces Naveen Banarjee , a politician , to talk about Scylla in the upcoming energy conference , promising him to take care of a scientist named Sandinsky from causing trouble . Burrows ' team recovers a note from the embassy . Michael and Tancredi decrypt their note and arrive at the airport Sandinsky 's plane is landing . Burrows ' team arrives too and abduct Sandinsky while the duo take his cell phone , realizing that he has been in contact with Christina , a claim he denies when asked by Burrows ' team . Bagwell secretly informs Krantz that Christina has Scylla ; and he decides to go to Miami personally . Michael calls Christina , who tries to reason with him ; but he hangs up . Tancredi finds out that she is pregnant . 76 19 `` S.O.B. '' Garry A. Brown Karyn Usher May 1 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 01 ) 4AKJ19 3.20 Michael calls Christina again and she manages to track him . She arrives with her men ; but this was revealed to be a ruse by Michael , who along with Tancredi abduct her and leave . Krantz arrives and blames Burrows for not telling him about Christina . He gives the team , excluding Bagwell , another chance ; and they go to a house and then a bank to acquire a suitcase ; but they realize that it was just taken ; and they give chase . Meanwhile , Christina reveals to Michael that Burrows is not his true brother and Aldo adopted Burrows when he lost his parents , who worked for the Company . She also reveals that Burrows is falling in a trap she has set ; and Michael rushes to save Burrows before locking her . She finds out about the baby before locking Tancredi and escaping . Bagwell kills Sandinsky on Krantz ' order . Burrows ' team tracks the man to the energy conference , where Burrows enters before Banarjee is assassinated and Burrows is framed for it . Michael arrives and teams up with him . 77 20 `` Cowboys & Indians '' Milan Cheylov Nick Santora May 8 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 08 ) 4AKJ20 2.99 Michael and Burrows escape to one of the floors . Christina makes a deal with the Indian Prime Minister , who was also Banarjee 's father , to sell him Scylla . Self tells Michael and Burrows how the police is going to capture them and kills a DHS agent who spots him . Michael finds a countermeasure and they escape the attacking unit , but are spotted by the captain , who is killed by Krantz ' operative , who captures the duo . Mahone frees Tancredi and informs Michael , who is brought to Krantz with the others . Krantz punishes them by performing a lottery . Self is picked and Krantz has Self 's wife killed and Self escapes , but is critically shot . Michael , Burrows and Mahone find Christina and take Scylla ; but Burrows is captured . Bagwell , who overheard Michael and Mahone 's conversation , captures Tancredi and brings her to Krantz , who calls Michael and demands Scylla in exchange for her . Christina calls Michael and makes the same demand in exchange for Burrows , critically shooting him to force Michael to hurry . 78 21 `` Rate of Exchange '' Bobby Roth Zack Estrin May 15 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 15 ) 4AKJ21 3.32 While walking in the streets of Chicago , Sucre meets Benjamin Franklin , who reveals that there is a man , called Paul , who has great power and is ready to grant Michael and the others immunity in exchange for Scylla . Michael arranges a location with Christina and tries to kill her there ; but the police arrive and both parties escape . Burrows tells Michael about the baby and asks him to let him die . Christina loses the deal with Banarjee because of failure to deliver Scylla . Mahone apparently betrays Michael and calls Christina , making a deal to bring Scylla in exchange for his wife , Pam , being saved from the Company . Michael arranges a transaction with Krantz , who leaves without Tancredi , intending to kill Michael after taking Scylla . Bagwell tries to rape her ; but Michael arrives and rescues her . Meanwhile , the FBI interrogates Self in the hospital until Christina 's assistant , posed as a doctor , arrives and injects him with toxic substance . Mahone gives a device to Christina for testing and enters the room Burrows is held . The device is revealed to be a bomb instead of Scylla ; and this is all revealed to be Michael 's plan to save everyone . 79 22 `` Killing Your Number '' Kevin Hooks Matt Olmstead & Nicholas Wootton May 15 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 15 ) 4AKJ22 3.32 The bomb detonates and Mahone and Burrows escape ; but Christina survives . Michael , Burrows , Mahone and Tancredi reunite and decide to destroy Scylla before Paul Kellerman , revealed to have been saved by Aldo 's men during his transfer , calls and offers them freedom in exchange for Scylla . Self gets paralyzed as a result of the injection . Bagwell arranges a meeting with Sucre and is captured by him and Franklin . The duo start torturing him to find the others . They take Burrows outside a hospital and Mahone covers for Tancredi to take the necessary tools , but is arrested by the FBI himself . The trio are captured by the Company operatives . Sucre and Franklin arrive and kill Krantz ' men ; Tancredi convinces Michael to spare Krantz ' life and they lock him before leaving . They are attacked by Christina , whom Tancredi kills . Michael gives Scylla to Kellerman and the former , Burrows , Tancredi , Sucre , Franklin and Mahone are given immunity . Krantz and Bagwell are arrested . Four years later , the team visits Michael 's grave , stating his apparent death . 80 23 `` The Old Ball and Chain '' Brad Turner Story by : Christian Trokey Teleplay by : Nick Santora & Seth Hoffman May 27 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 27 ) ( UK ) 4AKJ23 N / A Michael and Sara wed but happiness is short lived when Sara is arrested for the murder of Christina Scofield . 81 24 `` Free '' Kevin Hooks Story by : Kalinda Vazquez Teleplay by : Zack Estrin & Karyn Usher May 27 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 27 ) ( UK ) 4AKJ24 N / A Michael , Lincoln , Sucre , and Alex reunite to break out Sara , who is ordered by the General to be killed . Michael sacrifices himself to help Sara escape . In the last scene of the series , Lincoln and Sara watch the DVD Michael left them explaining why he did what he did . Production ( edit ) On January 13 , 2009 , Fox president Kevin Reilly confirmed the series would end at the conclusion of this season . He explained , `` Prison Break got to a point where a lot of the stories had been told . '' At the time , he said there was a possibility of adding two extra episodes , he said `` We want to finish strong . '' These extra two episodes became Prison Break : The Final Break , although they never aired on Fox , and became available only on DVD . Home media release ( edit ) Prison Break : The Complete Fourth Season Set details Special features 22 episodes 6 - disc Set 1.78 : 1 aspect ratio Subtitles : English English ( Dolby Digital 5.1 Surround ) Audio commentaries `` Scylla '' and `` Breaking and Entering '' `` Blow Out '' `` Greatness Achieved '' `` Quiet Riot '' `` Just Business '' `` Going Under '' `` The Sunshine State '' `` S.O.B. '' `` Cowboys and Indians '' Deleted scenes Fade Out : The Final Episode featurette The Plan , the Execution and the Bullet featurette Director 's World featurette Release dates United States Canada United Kingdom Australia New Zealand June 2 , 2009 July 6 , 2009 July 15 , 2009 References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : Mitovich , Matt ( January 13 , 2009 ) . `` Fox Boss Announces Prison Break 's Return ... and Finale '' . TV Guide . Retrieved February 1 , 2011 . ^ Jump up to : Gorman , Bill ( September 10 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , September 1 -- 7 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Gorman , Bill ( September 17 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , September 8 -- 14 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Gorman , Bill ( September 23 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , September 15 -- 21 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Gorman , Bill ( September 30 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , September 22 -- 28 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Gorman , Bill ( October 7 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , September 29 -- October 5 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Gorman , Bill ( October 14 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , October 6 -- 12 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( October 29 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , October 20 -- 26 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( November 11 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , November 3 -- 9 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( November 18 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , November 10 -- 16 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( November 25 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , November 17 -- 23 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( December 3 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , November 24 -- 30 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( December 9 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , December 1 -- 7 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( December 16 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , December 8 -- 14 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( December 23 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , December 15 -- 21 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( December 30 , 2008 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , December 22 -- 28 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( April 21 , 2009 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , April 13 -- 19 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( April 28 , 2009 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , April 20 -- 26 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( May 6 , 2009 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , April 27 - May 3 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Seidman , Robert ( May 12 , 2009 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , May 4 -- 10 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . ^ Jump up to : Seidman , Robert ( May 19 , 2009 ) . `` Top Fox Primetime Shows , May 11 -- 17 '' . TV by the Numbers . Retrieved January 26 , 2010 . External links ( edit ) List of Prison Break episodes on IMDb List of Prison Break season 4 episodes at TV.com ( hide ) Prison Break Seasons Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5 Episodes `` Pilot '' `` Allen '' `` Cute Poison '' `` English , Fitz or Percy '' `` Riots , Drills and the Devil '' `` Manhunt '' `` Rendezvous '' `` Bolshoi Booze '' `` Disconnect '' `` The Killing Box '' `` John Doe '' `` The Message '' `` Chicago '' `` Panama '' `` Fin Del Camino '' `` Scylla '' `` Breaking & Entering '' `` Shut Down '' `` Eagles & Angels '' `` Safe & Sound '' `` Blow Out '' `` Five the Hard Way '' `` The Price '' `` Greatness Achieved '' `` The Legend '' `` Quiet Riot '' `` Selfless '' `` Ogygia '' `` Kaniel Outis '' `` The Liar '' `` The Prisoner 's Dilemma Characters Theodore `` T - Bag '' Bagwell Brad Bellick Lincoln Burrows Benjamin Miles `` C - Note '' Franklin Paul Kellerman Alexander Mahone Michael Scofield Fernando Sucre Sara Tancredi Minor characters Cast members Universe Fox River State Penitentiary Penitenciaría Federal de Sona The Company Other media The Final Break ( movie ) Proof of Innocence The Conspiracy Soundtracks Seasons 1 & 2 Seasons 3 & 4 Related Awards and nominations Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prison_Break_(season_4)&oldid=802522488 '' Categories : Prison Break Prison Break episodes 2008 American television seasons 2009 American television seasons Talk Contents About Wikipedia فارسی Français Italiano ქართული Kiswahili Magyar Nederlands 日本 語 Suomi Edit links This page was last edited on 26 September 2017 , at 18 : 08 . 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[ "September 1, 2008" ]
[ "Prison Break ( season 4 ) DVD cover Country of origin United States No. of episodes 24 Release Original network Fox Original release September 1 , 2008 ( 2008 - 09 - 01 ) -- May 15 , 2009 ( 2009 - 05 - 15 ) Season chronology ← Previous Season 3 Next → Season 5 List of Prison Break episodes" ]
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World of Dance ( tv series ) - wikipedia World of Dance ( tv series ) For the entertainment brand , see World of Dance . For the current season , see World of Dance ( season 2 ) . World of Dance World of Dance title card Genre Competition Presented by Jenna Dewan Judges Jennifer Lopez Ne - Yo Derek Hough Country of origin United States Original language ( s ) English No. of seasons No. of episodes 22 ( list of episodes ) Production Executive producer ( s ) Jennifer Lopez Elaine Goldsmith - Thomas Benny Medina Matilda Zoltowski Kris Curry Running time 60 - 120 minutes Production company ( s ) Nuyorican Productions World of Dance Production Universal Television Alternative Distributor NBCUniversal Television Distribution Release Original network NBC Original release May 30 , 2017 -- present External links Website World of Dance is an American reality competition television series , hosted by Jenna Dewan and executive produced by Jennifer Lopez . The series features dance performers , including solo acts and larger groups , representing any style of dance , competing for a grand prize of $1 million . The contestants are scored by judges Jennifer Lopez , Ne - Yo , and Derek Hough . The series ' first season premiered on NBC on May 30 , 2017 , as a complement to America 's Got Talent . On June 29 , 2017 , World of Dance was renewed for a second season , and was renewed for a third in May 2018 . Contents 1 Premise 1.1 Format changes 1.2 Show concept 1.3 Scoring 2 Production 2.1 Development 3 Series overview 4 International versions 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Premise ( edit ) Format changes ( edit ) While the format for season 2 remained relatively unchanged , there were a few slight alterations . Season 2 received a 16 - episode order. , six more than the ten - episode first season . Additionally , this season , a fourth category , Junior Team , was added for acts under 18 with 5 or more members . The qualifier rounds are cut down from a two minutes to an one - minute routine . The Duels are cut down from two minutes to a ́ 80 seconds ́ - routine . The top three highest - scoring acts in The Cut from each division will move on to the Divisional Final , in last season it was just the top two . Show concept ( edit ) In preparation for season two , handpicked competitors , being talented in any styles of dancing , from qualifying events around the nation and thousands of online submissions , are divided into four divisions : Junior ( groups of 1 - 4 , under 18 ) , Upper ( groups of 1 - 4 , 18 and older ) , Junior Team ( groups of 5 + , under 18 ) and Upper Team ( groups of 5 + , 18 and older ) . In some cases dancers who did n't apply were directly contacted by the producers or their agents . The elimination process of the contestants are in four rounds : The Qualifiers - The contestants have to qualify with at least 80 points to make it to The Duels . The Duels - The contestants choose their opponent starting with the highest scorer from the qualifiers . If the number of contestants in a division is uneven , the last duel will be competed by the three remaining opponents that were unpicked previously . The winner of the dual is the contestant / s with the highest score who then move on to The Cut . The Cut - Mentors are assigned to each division to prepare the contestants for their performances . The top three scoring acts in each division move on to The Division Finals . The Division Finals - The mentors still support the contestants from each division . The top scoring act in each division will become division champion and move on to The World Final . In The World Final all four division champions will compete for the $1,000,000 USD grand prize . It is expected that the concept of last season is copied ; every contestant will perform twice in two separate rounds . The average score of both rounds by each contestant will make their final score . The contestant ( s ) with the highest final score will be crowned World of Dance champion 2018 and will win the $1,000,000 USD grand prize . Scoring ( edit ) The judges are scoring in 5 categories . Each category is worth 20 points , with a perfect score of 100 : Performance ( 20 points ) : Effort : How many different elements put into the routine . What is the whole effort to dance the performance by the act . Personality : How characters and personality put into the performance , in the sense of acting to stimulate emotions by the audience , telling a story or framing pictures . Technique ( 20 points ) : Transitions : How smooth and elegant the transitions from move to move were without lacking a performance moment . Cleanness : How synchronized , ordered by a pattern , precise and committed the movements were within the act . Execution : How flawless the execution of the performance by the act was to the performance song . Choreography ( 20 points ) : Difficulty : How difficult it was to perform the figures and movements by the act from judges point of view . Musicality : How well pictures , figures and movements were choreographed to the sound and beat of the performance song . Tricks : Are unexpected show elements included by properties , clothing or the bodies of the dancers and how well was it done . Creativity ( 20 points ) : Originality : How unique and interesting was the performance . Artistic Choices : What styles of dancing were shown and merged . How well was it done regarding basic dance styles and style culture , e.g. costumes , shoes . The performance song is an artistic choice as well . How well did it fit to the performance . Dynamics : How energizing and powerful the performance was and how much action was on stage . Presentation ( 20 points ) : Crowd Appeal : How the crowd around the show stage reacted to the performance . Impact : How memorable and worth talking about it later the performance was . Production ( edit ) Development ( edit ) Jennifer Lopez , who executive produces the series and serves as a judge , felt that the series would be a return to her roots ; Lopez had achieved early fame as a member of In Living Color 's dance crew , The Fly Girls . She explained that dance had been her `` first form of artistic expression '' , and that the series `` reminded me of all the reasons why I love dance and why I wanted to do this in the first place '' . The series premiere was originally scheduled for May 8 , 2017 ( as a lead - out for The Voice ) , but was pushed back to May 30 , 2017 to serve as a lead - out for the season premiere of America 's Got Talent . On June 29 , 2017 , NBC renewed the series for a second season , which will premiere on May 29 , 2018 -- once again complimenting the next season of America 's Got Talent . In May 2018 , prior to its season 2 premiere , World of Dance was renewed for a third season . Series overview ( edit ) Season Duration Episodes Winner 's prize Finalists Presenter Judges Premiere Finale Winner Runner - up Third place May 30 , 2017 August 8 , 2017 10 $1,000,000 Les Twins Eva Igo Swing Latino Jenna Dewan Ne - Yo Jennifer Lopez Derek Hough May 29 , 2018 September 12 , 2018 16 TBD International versions ( edit ) There will be an upcoming Polish version of the show on Polsat titled World of Dance Polska . There will also be an upcoming Filipino version of the show on ABS - CBN . There will also be an upcoming Thailand version of the show on One31 See also ( edit ) So You Think You Can Dance References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : `` NBC 's ' World of Dance ' Brings Jennifer Lopez Back to Her Roots : ' It 's the Perfect Job for Me ' '' . Variety . Retrieved May 28 , 2017 . Jump up ^ Lemoncelli , Jenna ( 2 May 2018 ) . `` Jennifer Lopez Vs. Jenna Dewan : Which Hot Mama 's Look Was Your Fave At ' World Of Dance ' Event '' . Jump up ^ `` JNBC 's `` World of Dance '' Welcomes Ciara , Julianne Hough , Mel B , Misty Copeland , Paula Abdul and Savion Glover as Guest Mentors and Judges `` . 23 July 2018 . Jump up ^ `` NBC Shifts ' World of Dance ' to Premiere Alongside ' Talent ' '' . The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved May 28 , 2017 . Jump up ^ `` NBC 's Jennifer Lopez Dance Show to Launch out of ' The Voice ' '' . The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved May 28 , 2017 . Jump up ^ Otterson , Joe ( 2017 - 06 - 29 ) . `` ' World of Dance ' Renewed for Season 2 at NBC '' . Variety . Retrieved 2018 - 03 - 19 . Jump up ^ Mitovich , Matt Webb ( 2018 - 03 - 06 ) . `` NBC 's World of Dance , Ninja Warrior and AGT Get Summer Return Dates '' . TVLine . Retrieved 2018 - 03 - 19 . Jump up ^ Pedersen , Erik ( May 10 , 2018 ) . `` ' World Of Dance ' Renewed On NBC Ahead Of Its Season 2 Premiere '' . Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved May 10 , 2018 . External links ( edit ) Official website World of Dance on IMDb World of Dance at TV Guide NBC programming ( current and upcoming ) Primetime American Ninja Warrior ( since 2011 ) America 's Got Talent ( since 2006 ) A.P. Bio ( since 2018 ) The Blacklist ( since 2013 ) Blindspot ( since 2015 ) Chicago Fire ( since 2012 ) Chicago Med ( since 2015 ) Chicago P.D. 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neil young everybody knows this is nowhere album cover
Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere - wikipedia Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere For the cover of this album , see Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere ( Mother Hips album ) . This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( April 2010 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere Studio album by Neil Young with Crazy Horse Released May 14 , 1969 Recorded January and March 1969 Studio Wally Heider Recording , Hollywood , California Genre Country rock hard rock Length 40 : 29 Label Reprise Producer Neil Young , David Briggs Neil Young chronology Neil Young ( 1968 ) Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere ( 1969 ) After the Gold Rush ( 1970 ) Singles from Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere `` Down by the River '' Released : May 14 , 1969 `` Cinnamon Girl '' Released : April 20 , 1970 Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere is the second studio album by the Canadian musician Neil Young , released on Reprise Records catalogue RS 6349 . His first with his longtime backing band Crazy Horse , it peaked at number 34 on the US Billboard 200 during a ninety - eight week chart stay in August 1970 and has been certified platinum by the RIAA . The album is on the list of 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die . In 2003 , the album was ranked number 208 on Rolling Stone magazine 's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time . Contents 1 Content 2 Reception 3 Track listing 4 Personnel 5 Charts 5.1 Weekly charts 5.2 Singles 6 References Content ( edit ) The album contains four songs that became standards in Young 's performance repertoire : `` Cinnamon Girl '' , `` Down by the River '' , the title track , and `` Cowgirl in the Sand '' , all of which were written in a single day while Young had a 103 ° F ( 39.5 ° C ) fever . Young 's lead vocal track on the song `` Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere '' ( on the original album ) was actually a temporary scratch vocal he sang through the low quality talk - back microphone on the mixing board , with no effects such as reverb . Young liked the stark contrast to the rest of the recording , which became one of his many innovations . Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere was remastered and released on HDCD - encoded compact disc and digital download on July 14 , 2009 , as part of the Neil Young Archives Original Release Series . It was released on audiophile vinyl in December 2009 , both individually and as part of a box - set of Young 's first four LPs available via his official website . ( This box set was limited to 1000 copies . A CD version of 3000 copies exists , too . ) A high resolution digital Blu - ray disc is planned , although there has been no release date set . Reception ( edit ) Retrospective reviews Review scores Source Rating AllMusic Encyclopedia of Popular Music Music Story MusicHound Rock 5 / 5 Pitchfork 10 / 10 Rolling Stone The Rolling Stone Record Guide Spin Alternative Record Guide 6 / 10 Upon its release , Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere received generally favorable reviews from critics . Bruce Miroff of Rolling Stone wrote a favorable review , describing Young 's voice as `` perpetually mournful , without being maudlin or pathetic . It hints at a world in which sorrow underlies everything ( ... ) because that world is recognizable to most of us , Young 's singing is often strangely moving . '' Despite stating that `` in several respects ( the album ) falls short of his previous effort '' and that `` the lyricism of the first album can only be found in faint traces , '' he went on to state that the album `` offers ample rewards . Young 's music partially makes up for its lack of grace by its energy and its assurance . '' Robert Christgau wrote in The Village Voice that `` Young is a strange artist and I am not all the way into him yet , but this record is haunting . '' The original review was printed with a grade of `` B + '' , but Christgau later said he would have changed it to an `` A -- '' . In a retrospective review , Greg Kot wrote in Rolling Stone called the record `` raw , rushed , energised '' and the band 's interplay `` at once primitive and abstract '' , a `` gloriously spontaneous sound '' that `` would endure , not only as a blueprint for Young ... but as an influence on countless bands . '' William Ruhlmann of music database website AllMusic said of the album , `` released only four months after his first ( album ) , ( it ) was nearly a total rejection of that polished effort . '' He noted that `` Cinnamon Girl , '' `` Down by the River , '' and `` Cowgirl in the Sand '' were , `` useful as frames on which to hang the extended improvisations Young played with Crazy Horse and to reflect the ominous tone of his singing . '' He concluded that the album `` set a musical pattern Young and his many musical descendants have followed ever since ( ... ) and a lot of contemporary bands were playing music clearly influenced by it . '' Mark Richardson of Pitchfork wrote , `` the opening riff to ' Cinnamon Girl ' erases the memory of Neil Young completely in about five seconds '' and that `` Crazy Horse were loose and sloppy , privileging groove and feeling above all . '' He also said that `` Young sounds comfortable and confident , singing with the versatile voice that has changed remarkably little in the 40 years since '' and concluded that it `` was a sort of big bang for Young , a dense moment of creative explosion that saw possibilities expanding in every direction . '' In 2003 , the album was ranked number 208 on Rolling Stone magazine 's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time . Track listing ( edit ) All tracks written by Neil Young . Side one No . Title Length 1 . `` Cinnamon Girl '' 2 : 58 2 . `` Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere '' 2 : 26 3 . `` Round & Round ( It Wo n't Be Long ) '' 5 : 49 4 . `` Down by the River '' 9 : 13 Side two No . Title Length 5 . `` The Losing End ( When You 're On ) '' 4 : 03 6 . `` Running Dry ( Requiem for the Rockets ) '' 5 : 30 7 . `` Cowgirl in the Sand '' 10 : 06 Personnel ( edit ) Neil Young -- guitar , lead vocals Crazy Horse Danny Whitten -- guitar , harmony vocals , co-lead vocal on `` Cinnamon Girl '' Billy Talbot -- bass guitar Ralph Molina -- drums , harmony vocals Additional musicians Bobby Notkoff -- violin on `` Running Dry ( Requiem for the Rockets ) '' Robin Lane -- harmony vocal on `` Round and Round '' Technical Henry Saskowski -- engineer David Briggs -- engineer Kendal Pacios -- engineer Charts ( edit ) Weekly charts ( edit ) Year Chart Position 1970 Billboard Pop Albums 34 Singles ( edit ) Year Single Chart Position 1970 `` Cinnamon Girl '' Billboard Pop Singles 55 References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` 20 Best Second Albums of All Time '' . Rolling Stone . March 24 , 2014 . Retrieved November 10 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Daniel Durchholz ; Gary Graff ( 2012 - 11 - 05 ) . Neil Young : Long May You Run : The Illustrated History , Updated Edition . Voyageur Press . p. 76 . ISBN 978 - 0 - 7603 - 4411 - 8 . Jump up ^ `` Neil Young Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere Chart History '' . Billboard.com . Retrieved 8 August 2018 . Jump up ^ `` 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die '' . discogs.com . Retrieved 2015 - 04 - 03 . Jump up ^ Neil Young . Decade. 1976 : Reprise 3RS 2257 , liner notes . ^ Jump up to : Ruhlmann , William . Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere - Neil Young & Crazy Horse at AllMusic . Retrieved March 3 , 2012 . ^ Jump up to : `` Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere '' . Acclaimed Music . Retrieved April 20 , 2018 . ^ Jump up to : Richardson , Mark ( December 11 , 2009 ) . `` Neil Young : Neil Young / Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere / After the Gold Rush / Harvest '' . Pitchfork Media . Retrieved March 2 , 2012 . ^ Jump up to : Kot , Greg ( August 19 , 1999 ) . `` Review '' . Rolling Stone . p. 118 . Jump up ^ Marsh , Dave ; Swenson , John ( Editors ) . The Rolling Stone Record Guide , 1st edition , Random House / Rolling Stone Press , 1979 , p. 425 . Jump up ^ Miroff , Bruce ( 9 August 1969 ) . `` Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere '' . Rolling Stone . San Francisco : Straight Arrow Publishers , Inc. ( 39 ) : 36 . Retrieved 1 October 2015 . Jump up ^ Christgau , Robert ( July 31 , 1969 ) . `` Consumer Guide ( 2 ) '' . The Village Voice . Retrieved April 20 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Anon. ( April 25 , 2002 ) . `` Nitpicking Issues With the Lists '' . Robertchristgau.com . Retrieved April 20 , 2018 . Neil Young Crazy Horse The Stray Gators Promise of the Real Studio albums Neil Young Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere After the Gold Rush Harvest On the Beach Tonight 's the Night Zuma American Stars ' n Bars Comes a Time Hawks & Doves Re ac tor Trans Everybody 's Rockin ' Old Ways Landing on Water This Note 's for You Freedom Ragged Glory Harvest Moon Sleeps with Angels Mirror Ball Broken Arrow Silver & Gold Are You Passionate ? Greendale Prairie Wind Living with War Chrome Dreams II Fork in the Road Le Noise Americana Psychedelic Pill A Letter Home Storytone The Monsanto Years Peace Trail The Visitor EPs Eldorado Live albums Time Fades Away Rust Never Sleeps Live Rust Life Arc Weld Unplugged Year of the Horse Road Rock Vol. 1 Earth Soundtracks Journey Through the Past Where the Buffalo Roam Philadelphia Dead Man Paradox Compilations Decade Lucky Thirteen Greatest Hits Archives series Box sets The Archives Vol. 1 1963 -- 1972 Performance Series Live at the Fillmore East Live at Massey Hall 1971 Sugar Mountain -- Live at Canterbury House 1968 Live at the Riverboat 1969 Dreamin ' Man Live ' 92 A Treasure Live at the Cellar Door Bluenote Café Roxy : Tonight 's The Night Live Special Release Series Hitchhiker Unreleased albums Homegrown Chrome Dreams Songs `` Mr. Soul '' `` Broken Arrow '' `` Expecting to Fly '' `` Sugar Mountain '' `` The Loner '' `` I 've Been Waiting for You '' `` Cinnamon Girl '' `` Down by the River '' `` Cowgirl in the Sand '' `` Helpless '' `` Ohio '' `` Tell Me Why '' `` After the Gold Rush '' `` Only Love Can Break Your Heart '' `` Southern Man '' `` Do n't Let It Bring You Down '' `` When You Dance I Can Really Love '' `` Bad Fog of Loneliness '' `` A Man Needs a Maid '' `` Heart of Gold '' `` Are You Ready for the Country ? '' `` Old Man '' `` The Needle and the Damage Done '' `` New Mama '' `` Cortez the Killer '' `` Will to Love '' `` Like a Hurricane '' `` Love Is a Rose '' `` Lotta Love '' `` Hey Hey , My My ( Into the Black ) '' `` Pocahontas '' `` Powderfinger '' `` Sedan Delivery '' `` Rockin ' in the Free World '' `` No More '' `` Wrecking Ball '' `` Harvest Moon '' `` Downtown '' `` Let 's Impeach the President '' `` Angry World '' `` A Rock Star Bucks a Coffee Shop '' Films and Videos Journey Through the Past Human Highway Neil Young in Berlin Solo Trans Year of the Horse Neil Young : Silver and Gold Greendale Neil Young : Heart of Gold CSNY / Déjà Vu Neil Young Trunk Show Neil Young Journeys Paradox Books Waging Heavy Peace : A Hippie Dream Special Deluxe Related Discography The Squires The Mynah Birds Buffalo Springfield Crosby , Stills , Nash & Young The Stills -- Young Band The Bridge : A Tribute to Neil Young Myrmekiaphila neilyoungi Pono Old Black Farm Aid Bridge School Benefit Pegi Young ( former wife ) Carrie Snodgress Portal Crazy Horse Billy Talbot Ralph Molina Frank `` Poncho '' Sampedro Danny Whitten Jack Nitzsche Nils Lofgren George Whitsell Greg LeRoy John Blanton Rick Curtis Michael Curtis Sonny Mone Crazy Horse Crazy Horse Loose At Crooked Lake Crazy Moon Left for Dead Gone Dead Train : The Best of Crazy Horse 1971 -- 1989 Scratchy : The Complete Reprise Recordings Neil Young & Crazy Horse Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere After the Gold Rush Tonight 's the Night Zuma American Stars ' n Bars Comes a Time Rust Never Sleeps Live Rust Re ac tor Trans Life Ragged Glory Weld Arc Sleeps with Angels Broken Arrow Year of the Horse Are You Passionate ? Greendale Live at the Fillmore East Americana Psychedelic Pill Related articles Neil Young The Rockets Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Everybody_Knows_This_Is_Nowhere&oldid=854073176 '' Categories : 1969 albums Neil Young albums Albums produced by David Briggs ( producer ) Reprise Records albums Albums produced by Neil Young Crazy Horse ( band ) albums Albums recorded at Wally Heider Studios Hidden categories : Articles needing additional references from April 2010 All articles needing additional references Articles with hAudio microformats Talk Contents About Wikipedia Brezhoneg Čeština Dansk Deutsch Español Français Frysk Italiano Magyar Nederlands 日本 語 Norsk Norsk nynorsk Polski Português Suomi Svenska 8 more Edit links This page was last edited on 8 August 2018 , at 19 : 45 ( UTC ) . About Wikipedia
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where is the smokey and the bandit truck
Smokey and the Bandit - wikipedia Smokey and the Bandit Smokey and the Bandit Promotional poster by John Solie Directed by Hal Needham Produced by Mort Engelberg Robert L. Levy Screenplay by James Lee Barrett Charles Shyer Alan Mandel Story by Hal Needham Robert L. Levy Starring Burt Reynolds Sally Field Jackie Gleason Jerry Reed Mike Henry Music by Bill Justis Jerry Reed Cinematography Bobby Byrne Edited by Walter Hannemann Angelo Ross Production company Rastar Distributed by Universal Pictures Release date May 27 , 1977 ( 1977 - 05 - 27 ) Running time 96 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $4.3 million Box office $300 million Smokey and the Bandit is a 1977 American action comedy film starring Burt Reynolds , Sally Field , Jackie Gleason , Jerry Reed , Pat McCormick , Paul Williams and Mike Henry . The film was the directorial debut of stuntman Hal Needham . It inspired several other trucking films , including two sequels , Smokey and the Bandit II and Smokey and the Bandit Part 3 . There was also a series of 1994 television films ( Bandit Goes Country , Bandit Bandit , Beauty and the Bandit , and Bandit 's Silver Angel ) from original director / writer Hal Needham that were loosely based on the earlier version , with actor Brian Bloom playing Bandit . The three original films introduced two generations of the Pontiac Trans Am , and the Dodge Stealth in the television movie . Smokey and the Bandit was the second - highest - grossing film of 1977 behind Star Wars . Contents ( hide ) 1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production 3.1 Vehicles 3.2 Legal status of Coors beer 4 Soundtrack 4.1 Track listing 5 Reception 6 Cultural impact 6.1 Trans Am 6.2 Diablo sandwich 6.3 The Bandit Run 6.4 Mobil 1 commercial 7 Television censorship and alternative versions 8 Spinoff 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Plot ( edit ) Wealthy Texan Big Enos Burdette and his son Little Enos seek a truck driver willing to bootleg Coors beer to Georgia for their refreshment . At the time , Coors was regarded as one of the finest beers in the United States , but it could not be legally sold east of the Mississippi River . Truck drivers who had taken the bet previously had been caught and arrested by `` Smokey '' ( CB slang for highway patrol officers , referring to the Smokey Bear -- type hats worn in some states ) . The Burdettes find legendary trucker Bo `` Bandit '' Darville competing in a truck rodeo at Lakewood Fairgrounds in Atlanta ; they offer him $80,000 to haul 400 cases of Coors beer from Texarkana , Texas back to Atlanta in 28 hours ; Big Enos has sponsored a driver running in the Southern Classic stockcar race and `` when he wins I want to celebrate in style . '' Bandit accepts the bet and recruits his partner Cledus `` Snowman '' Snow to drive the truck , while Bandit drives the `` blocker '' , a black Pontiac Trans Am bought on an advance from the Burdettes , to divert attention away from the truck and its illegal cargo . The trip to Texas is mostly uneventful except for at least one pursuing Arkansas State Trooper whom Bandit evades with ease . They reach Texarkana an hour ahead of schedule , load their truck with the beer and head back toward Atlanta . Immediately upon starting the second leg of the run , Bandit picks up runaway bride Carrie , whom he eventually nicknames `` Frog '' because she is `` kinda cute like a frog , '' she is `` always hoppin ' around , '' and because he `` wants to jump '' her . But in so doing , Bandit makes himself a target of Texas Sheriff Buford T. Justice , a career lawman whose handsome but slow - witted son Junior was to have been Carrie 's bridegroom . Ignoring his own jurisdiction , Sheriff Justice , with Junior in tow , chases Bandit all the way to Georgia , even as various mishaps cause his cruiser to disintegrate around them . The remainder of the film is one lengthy high - speed chase , as Bandit 's antics attract more and more attention from local and state police across Dixie while Snowman barrels on toward Atlanta with the contraband beer . Bandit and Snowman are helped along the way via CB radio by many colorful characters , including an undertaker with his hearse driver and their funeral procession , an elderly lady , a drive - in waitress and all her customers , a convoy of trucks , and even a madam who runs a brothel out of her RV . Neither Sheriff Justice nor any other police officers have any knowledge of Snowman 's illegal manifest . The chase intensifies as Bandit and Snowman get closer to Atlanta ; moments after crossing back into Georgia , Bandit comes to the rescue when Snowman is pulled over by a Georgia State Patrol motorcycle patrolman , and state and local police step up their pursuit with more cruisers , larger roadblocks , and even a police helicopter to track Bandit 's movements . Discouraged by the unexpected mounting attention , and with just four miles left to go , Bandit is about to give up , but Snowman refuses to listen and takes the lead , smashing through the police roadblock at the entrance to the fairgrounds . They arrive back at Lakewood Speedway ( while the Southern Classic race is being run ) with only 10 minutes to spare , but instead of taking the payoff , Frog and Bandit accept a double - or - nothing offer from Little Enos -- a challenge to run up to Boston and bring back clam chowder in 18 hours . They quickly escape in one of Big Enos ' Cadillac convertibles as Georgia State Patrol cruisers flood the racetrack to confiscate the Trans Am and truck , passing Sheriff Justice 's badly damaged police car by the side of the road . Bandit first directs Sheriff Justice to Big and Little Enos , but then in a gesture of respect , reveals his true location and invites Justice to give chase , leaving Junior behind . Cast ( edit ) Burt Reynolds as Bo Darville ( `` Bandit '' ) Sally Field as Carrie ( `` Frog '' ) Jerry Reed as Cledus Snow ( `` Snowman '' ) Jackie Gleason as Sheriff Buford T. Justice ( `` Smokey '' ) Mike Henry as Junior Justice Pat McCormick as Big Enos Burdette Paul Williams as Little Enos Burdette Macon McCalman as Mr. B Susan McIver as Hot Pants George Reynolds as Sheriff George Branford Laura Lizer Sommers as Little Beaver Michael Mann as Branford 's Deputy Lamar Jackson as Sugar Bear Ronnie Gay as Georgia Trooper Quinnon Sheffield as Alabama Trooper Alfie Wise as Alabama Patrolman Pat Hustis as Tow Truck Driver Ingeborg Kjeldsen as Foxy Lady Ben Jones as Trucker # 1 Joe Klecko as Trucker # 2 Hank Worden as Trucker # 3 Production ( edit ) Director Hal Needham originally planned the film as a low - budget B movie with a production cost of $1 million , with Jerry Reed as the Bandit . It was not until Needham 's friend Burt Reynolds read the script , and said he would star , that the film was aimed at a more mainstream release ; Reed would now portray Bandit 's friend Snowman ( Reed would eventually play the Bandit in Smokey and the Bandit Part 3 ) . At that time Reynolds was the top box office star in the world . In the original script Carrie was called Kate while Big Enos and Little Enos were called Kyle and Dickey . Bandit 's car was a second generation Ford Mustang and the prize for completing the run was a new truck rather than $80,000 . Burt Reynolds revealed in his autobiography that Needham had written the first draft script on legal pads . Upon showing it to his friend , Reynolds told Needham that it was the worst script he had ever read but that he would still make the movie . Most of the dialogue was improvised on set . Universal Studios bankrolled Smokey and the Bandit for $5.3 million , figuring it was a good risk . Just two days before production was to begin , Universal sent a `` hatchet man '' to Atlanta to inform Needham that the budget was being trimmed by $1 million . With Reynolds ' salary at $1 million , Needham was left with only $3.3 million to make the film . Needham and assistant director David Hamburger spent 30 hours revising the shooting schedule . `` Buford T. Justice '' was the name of a real Florida Highway Patrolman known to Reynolds ' father , who was once Police Chief of Riviera Beach , Florida . His father was also the inspiration for the word `` sumbitch '' used in the film , a variation of the phrase `` son - of - a-bitch '' that , according to Reynolds , he uttered quite often . Jackie Gleason was given free rein to ad - lib dialogue and make suggestions . It was his idea to have Junior alongside him throughout . In particular , the scene where Sheriff Justice unknowingly encounters the Bandit in the `` choke and puke '' ( a roadside diner ) was not in the original story , but rather was Gleason 's idea . Before Gleason was cast in the film , Richard Boone was originally considered for the role of Buford T. Justice . Sally Field only accepted the part after her agent advised her that she needed a big movie role on her resume . Reynolds actively pushed for her casting after Universal initially resisted , claiming Field was not attractive enough . Field enjoyed making the film , but remembers that virtually the entire project was improvised . Reportedly , Needham had great difficulty getting any studios or producers to take his project seriously , as in the film industry , he was better known as a stuntman . He managed to obtain studio attention after his friend Reynolds agreed to portray the Bandit in the film . The movie was primarily filmed in Georgia in the cities of McDonough , Jonesboro and Lithonia . The scenes set in Texarkana were filmed in Jonesboro and the surrounding area , and many of the chase scenes were filmed in the surrounding areas on Highway 54 between Fayetteville and Jonesboro for a majority of the driving scenes , Mundy 's Mill Road , Main Street in Jonesboro , Georgia State Route 400 , I - 85 ( Pleasant Hill exit ) , and in McDonough . However , the scene where they drive through the Shell gas station was filmed in Ojai , California on the corner of Ojai and El Paseo . Much of the surrounding scene comes from that immediate vicinity . The scene featuring the racetrack was filmed at Lakewood Speedway at the old Lakewood Fairgrounds on the south side of Atlanta . The roller coaster seen in the movie was the Greyhound . It had not been used for some time and was repainted for the film . It was destroyed in Smokey and the Bandit II and a flashback scene in Part 3 . The film 's theme song , `` East Bound and Down '' , was written virtually overnight by Jerry Reed . He gave Needham a preview of the song , and when initially he got no reaction from the director , offered to rewrite the song . Needham , however , liked the song so much he assured Jerry not to change a word . It became one of Reed 's biggest hits and his signature song . The area around Helen , Georgia was also used for some locations . The scene where Buford T. Justice 's car has the door knocked off by a passing semi truck was shot on Georgia State Route 75 , 3 miles ( 4.8 km ) north of Helen . The tow truck driver was a local garage owner , Berlin Wike . The film features the custom clothing and costuming of Niver Western Wear of Fort Worth , Texas . Niver provided much of the western attire worn in the film , as well as the custom - made sheriff 's uniforms ( waist size 64 inches ) that Jackie Gleason wore throughout the film . Reynolds and Sally Field began dating during the filming of Smokey and the Bandit . While made to take advantage of the ongoing 1970s CB radio fad , the film added to the craze . Though the film Moonrunners ( 1975 ) is the precursor to the television series The Dukes of Hazzard ( 1979 - 1985 ) , from the same creator and with many identical settings and concepts , the popularity of Smokey and the Bandit and similar films helped get the Dukes series on the air . Three actors from the main cast of The Dukes of Hazzard appear in small uncredited roles in Smokey and the Bandit : Ben Jones , John Schneider and Sonny Shroyer ( who played a police officer in both ) . In return , Reynolds portrayed the Dukes character Boss Hogg ( originally portrayed by Sorrell Booke ) in the film adaptation The Dukes of Hazzard ( 2005 ) . Reynolds is also referenced by name in several early episodes of the series . Vehicles ( edit ) Needham saw an advertisement for the soon - to - be-released 1977 Pontiac Trans Am and knew right away that would be the Bandit 's car , or , as Needham referred to it , a character in the movie . He contacted Pontiac and an agreement was made that four 1977 Trans Ams and two Pontiac LeMans 4 - door sedans would be provided for the movie . The Trans Ams were actually 1976 - model cars with 1977 front ends . ( From 1970 to 1976 , both the Firebird / Trans Am and Chevrolet Camaro had two round headlights , and in 1977 , the Firebird / Trans Am was changed to four rectangular headlights , while the Camaro remained unchanged . ) The decals were also changed to 1977 - style units , as evidenced by the engine size callouts on the hood scoop being in liters rather than cubic inches , as had been the case in 1976 . The hood scoop on these cars says `` 6.6 LITRE '' , which in 1977 would have denoted an Oldsmobile 403 - equipped car or a non W - 72 , 180 hp version of the 400 Pontiac engine . All four of the cars were badly damaged during production , one of which was all but destroyed during the jump over the dismantled bridge . The Trans Am used for the dismantled bridge jump was equipped with a booster rocket , the same type that was used by Evel Knievel during his failed Snake River Canyon jump . Needham served as the driver for the stunt ( standing in for Reynolds ) while Lada St. Edmund was in the same car ( standing in for Sally Field during the jump ) . By the movie 's ending , the final surviving Trans Am and LeMans were both barely running and the other cars had become parts donors to keep them running . The Burdettes ' car is a 1974 Cadillac Eldorado convertible painted in a `` Candy Red '' color scheme , and is seen briefly at the beginning of the movie and as Bandit , Snowman , Fred , and Frog make their escape in the final scene . The film also made use of three Kenworth W900A short - frame semi trucks , which Jerry Reed can be seen driving , each equipped with 38 - inch sleepers . Two units were 1974 models as evidenced by standard silver Kenworth emblems on the truck grille , and one unit was a 1973 model as evidenced by the gold - painted Kenworth emblem on the truck 's grille signifying Kenworth 's 50 years in business . The paint code for each truck was coffee brown with gold trims , and the 48 - foot ( 15 m ) mural trailer used was manufactured by Hobbs Trailers in Texas with a non-operational Thermo King Refrigeration unit . This is obvious , because there is no fuel tank on the underside of the trailer to power the refrigeration unit , and the unit is never heard running . Legal status of Coors beer ( edit ) In 1977 , Coors was unavailable for sale east of Oklahoma . A 1974 Time magazine article explains why Coors was so coveted that one would be willing to pay the Bandit such a high price to transport it . Coors Banquet Beer had a brief renaissance as certain people sought it out for its lack of stabilizers and preservatives . The article says that future Vice President Gerald Ford hid it in his luggage after a trip to Colorado in order to take it back to Washington . President Dwight D. Eisenhower had a steady supply airlifted to Washington by the Air Force . The article also mentions Frederick Amon , who smuggled it from Colorado to North Carolina and sold it for four times the retail price . The lack of additives and preservatives meant that Coors had the potential for spoiling in a week if it were not kept cold throughout its transportation and in storage at its destination . This explains the 28 - hour deadline . Soundtrack ( edit ) Smokey And The Bandit : Music from the Motion Picture Soundtrack album by Various artists Released 1977 ( 1977 ) Genre Truck - driving country country rock country bluegrass rock Length 41 : 11 Label MCA Records Producer Sonny Burke Singles from Smokey And The Bandit : Music from the Motion Picture `` East Bound and Down '' Released : August 1 , 1977 The theme music , `` East Bound and Down '' , was sung and co-written by Reed ( credited under his birth name , Jerry Hubbard ) and Dick Feller . It became Reed 's signature song and is found on multiple albums , including Country Legends and his live album Jerry Reed : Live Still . In 1991 it was arranged for orchestra by Crafton Beck and recorded by Erich Kunzel and the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra for their album Down on the Farm . Several other groups , such as US rock band Tonic , have also covered it . Reed also penned and performed the song for the opening credits , entitled `` The Legend '' , which tells of some of The Bandit 's escapades prior to the events of the film , and the ballad `` The Bandit '' , which features in several versions in the movie and on the soundtrack . Reed 's hit notwithstanding , Bill Justis is the first name on the credits for the soundtrack as he composed and arranged original music throughout the film . Musicians such as Beegie Adair and George Tidwell played on the soundtrack as part of long careers in music . Legendary five - string banjo player Bobby Thompson is also heard prominently towards the end of `` East Bound and Down . '' The soundtrack album was released in 1977 on vinyl , cassette and 8 - track through MCA Records . Track listing ( edit ) No . Title Writer ( s ) Length 1 . `` The Legend '' Jerry R. Hubbard 2 : 09 2 . `` Incidental CB Dialogue '' ( Voice ( `` Bandit '' ) -- Burt Reynolds , Voice ( `` Snowman '' ) -- Jerry Reed ) 0 : 28 3 . `` West Bound And Down '' Jerry R. Hubbard , Dick Feller 2 : 45 4 . `` Foxy Lady '' Bill Justis 2 : 51 5 . `` Incidental CB Dialogue '' ( Voice ( `` Bandit '' ) -- Burt Reynolds , Voice ( `` Smokey '' ) -- Jackie Gleason , Voice ( `` Snowman '' ) -- Jerry Reed ) 0 : 56 6 . `` Orange Blossom Special '' Ervin T. Rouse 2 : 40 7 . `` The Bandit '' Dick Feller 3 : 00 8 . `` March Of The Rednecks '' Bill Justis 2 : 22 9 . `` If You Leave Me Tonight I 'll Cry '' Gerald Sanford , Hal Mooney 2 : 47 10 . `` East Bound and Down ( Incidental CB Dialogue Included ) '' ( Voice ( `` Bandit '' ) -- Burt Reynolds , Voice ( `` Snowman '' ) -- Jerry Reed ) Jerry R. Hubbard , Dick Feller 4 : 42 11 . `` The Bandit '' Dick Feller 2 : 48 12 . `` And The Fight Played On ! '' Bill Justis 2 : 22 13 . `` Ma Cousin Plays Steel '' Bill Justis 3 : 11 14 . `` Hot Pants Fuzz Parade '' Bill Justis 4 : 48 15 . `` Incidental CB Dialogue '' ( Voice ( `` Bandit '' ) -- Burt Reynolds , Voice ( `` Snowman '' ) -- Jerry Reed ) 1 : 05 16 . `` The Bandit ( Reprise ) '' Dick Feller 2 : 17 Total length : 41 : 11 Reception ( edit ) Smokey and the Bandit was a smash hit at the box office . With an original budget of $5.3 million ( cut to $4.3 million two days before initial production ) , the film grossed $126,737,428 in North America , making it the second - highest - grossing movie of 1977 . The worldwide gross is estimated at over $300 million . Film critic Leonard Maltin gave the film a good rating ( 3 stars out of a possible 4 ) and characterized it as `` About as subtle as The Three Stooges , but a classic compared to the sequels and countless rip - offs which followed . '' Gene Siskel , in his review in the Chicago Tribune , gave the film two stars and complained that the film failed to tell the audience when the clock started on the beer run , thus removing suspense throughout the film concerning how long remained to them . He also claimed that Bandit is never made aware of Frog 's leaving Junior at the altar , which is why the Bandit continually asks why a Texas sheriff is chasing him . However , this is inaccurate : within seconds of Bandit picking her up , Frog tells him `` there is a wedding in search of a bride '' , and goes on to explain her ill - advised romance with Junior , as Bandit holds up the CB mic for Snowman to hear . The film 's editors , Walter Hannemann and Angelo Ross , were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing . It currently holds a 79 % `` Fresh '' rating on review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes , based on 28 reviews . Burt Reynolds rated the film as the one he most enjoyed and had the most fun making in his career . Legendary film maker Alfred Hitchcock stated that the movie was one of his favorites . Upon meeting Burt Reynolds , Billy Bob Thornton told him that the picture was not considered as such in the south , and was considered more of a documentary . Smokey and the Bandit was released in the United Kingdom on August 28 , 1977 and was a sizeable success there , garnering positive reviews . American Film Institute Lists AFI 's 100 Years ... 100 Laughs -- Nominated AFI 's 100 Years ... 100 Thrills -- Nominated AFI 's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains : Bandit ( Bo Darville ) -- Nominated Hero Cultural impact ( edit ) Trans Am ( edit ) After the debut of the film the Trans Am became wildly popular with sales almost doubling in two years of the film 's release , to the delight of General Motors ; in fact , it outsold its Camaro counterpart for the first time ever . Reynolds was given the 1977 vehicle used during promotion of the film as a gift , though the car itself never actually appeared in the film . Because of the popularity of the movie and the sales success of the Trans Am , then President of Pontiac Alex Mair promised to supply Reynolds with a Trans Am each year . Owing to his financial difficulties , in 2014 Reynolds put his vast collection of artwork and memorabilia up for auction , including the Trans Am . High estimates for the car were up to $80,000 , but that was dwarfed by the actual sale price of $450,000 . Also up for auction was a go - kart replica of the car , which sold for nearly $14,000 . In 2016 , Trans Am Depot , a Florida - based automobile customization company , announced that it would build 77 Trans Ams that would be modeled after the car that Reynolds drove in the 1977 original , despite Pontiac having been discontinued by GM in 2009 . These new models were built off the Camaro platform ( the very same one that the real Firebird and Trans Am used ) , came with Pontiac arrowhead , flaming bird and Bandit logos , as well as instrument panels , center consoles and hood scoops emulating their 1977 counterparts , and were signed by Reynolds . Some differences included the use of a supercharged 454 - cid ( 7.4 - liter ) Chevrolet - sourced engine that put out 840 HP , and four round headlights , which appeared on the 1967 - 69 Firebirds / Trans Ams only ; the actual 1977 - 81 models had rectangular headlights . Diablo sandwich ( edit ) The diablo sandwich ordered by Sheriff Justice in the Arkansas barbecue restaurant scene has entered popular culture as a minor reference to the film . While no authoritative source identifies the composition of the sandwich , there are several possibilities . A segment of the CMT program Reel Eats used a sloppy joe - style recipe consisting of seasoned ground beef , corn and sour cream . Another proposal , based more closely on images from the film and the shooting location of the scene ( at an Old Hickory House restaurant in Georgia ) , is pulled pork and hot sauce on a hamburger bun . The Bandit run ( edit ) First run in 2007 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the movie , The Bandit Run was the brainchild of Dave Hall , owner of Restore A Muscle Car . A group of Trans Am owners and fans of the movie take part in an annual road trip from Texarkana to Jonesboro , Georgia , recreating the route taken by the characters in the film . The Bandit Run quickly caught on and has become a fixture , most recently celebrating the 40th anniversary of the movie with a special screening of the film attended by Burt Reynolds and a recreation of the jump undertaken by Bandit and Frog across a river . Mobil 1 commercial ( edit ) In 2014 , petroleum company Mobil 1 produced television commercials , featuring NASCAR star Tony Stewart , closely based on the film . Called Smoke is the Bandit playing on Stewart 's nickname , the commercials featured him as the Bandit opposite Darrell Waltrip who played Snowman and Jeff Hammond as Buford T. Justice . The story replaced the Coors beer with Mobil 1 products . The adverts poked fun at the film and even featured a Pontiac Trans Am and a cover version of the song East Bound and Down . The commercials were produced after Stewart mentioned that the movie was one of his favorites . Television censorship and alternative versions ( edit ) When Smokey and the Bandit first aired on American network television in the early 1980s , censors were faced with the challenge of toning down the raw language of the original film . For this purpose , they overdubbed dialogue deemed offensive , which was ( and remains , to an extent ) common practice . The most noted change made for network broadcast was the replacing of Buford 's often - spoken phrase `` sumbitch '' ( a contraction of `` son of a bitch '' ; usually in reference to the Bandit ) with the phrase `` scum bum '' . This phrase achieved a level of popularity with children , and the 2007 Hot Wheels release of the 1970s Firebird Trans Am has `` scum bum '' emblazoned on its tail . The TV prints of the first two Bandit films are still shown regularly on television , although a few TV stations aired the unedited version in recent years as some of the phraseology ( i.e. `` ( son of a ) bitch '' , `` ass '' , etc . ) became more acceptable on TV . The original actors mostly redubbed their own lines for the television version , except for Gleason . Actor Henry Corden , who voiced Fred Flintstone after original performer Alan Reed died , was used to replace a considerable amount of Sheriff Justice 's dialogue . This is fitting , as Fred Flintstone was a parody of / homage to Gleason 's character Ralph Kramden and The Flintstones was a parody of / homage to The Honeymooners . In the UK , the heavily dubbed version was shown for a number of years , particularly by the BBC . However , in more recent years , the original version has been shown ( on ITV , a commercial channel ) , usually with the stronger language edited out , often quite awkwardly and noticeably . The theatrical release itself had a few lines deleted , including a creative edit in which Sheriff Justice tells a state trooper to `` fuck off . '' His expletive is obscured when a passing big rig sounds its horn . At the time , using the ' F ' word would immediately require an R rating and this clever self - censorship allowed the film to avoid this rating and reach a much larger audience . However , the scene and the obscured expletive was played for comedy value and written as such , with the passing truck being the gag of the scene more than a way to avoid the censors . In 2006 , a DVD re-release was issued of Smokey and the Bandit featuring a digitally - remastered audio track with 5.1 Dolby - compatible surround sound . It should be noted however that many of the film 's original sounds were replaced . For instance , the diesel engine start and run up sequence in the opening sequence of the film was completely dubbed over with a totally new sound . A few other examples of `` sound effect replacement '' occur when Bandit takes off after managing to get a reluctant Cledus involved in the bet , and after he comes to a screeching halt on a roadway moments before picking up Carrie . Some of the original sound effects ( such as Cledus ' dog Fred 's barking ) and music ( such as the final chase to the Southern Classic ) were removed and not replaced . ( Note : earlier DVD releases and the 40th Anniversary Blu - ray of the film have the original soundtrack intact . ) Major portions of the audio ' background ' have been modified with different engine sounds or tire squeals from the original film . The updated version of the film features sounds inaccurate for what would be produced by the Trans Am or the numerous other Pontiac vehicles in the film . The original film had correct sounds that were usually recorded live as the action took place . Some TV versions also feature a longer version of the scene where Cledus wades into the pond after Fred . Spinoff ( edit ) This section needs expansion . You can help by adding to it . ( April 2013 ) A series of television movies aired in 1994 . The car featured was a Dodge Stealth . See also ( edit ) Film portal The Bandit Run The Cannonball Run Hooper References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` Smokey and the Bandit ( A ) '' . British Board of Film Classification . 1977 - 06 - 13 . Retrieved October 28 , 2014 . ^ Jump up to : How `` Smokey and the Bandit '' Was Born . CNN Money . Retrieved April 1 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` BREWING : The Beer That Won the West '' . Time . February 11 , 1974 . Jump up ^ http://mentalfloss.com/article/80484/13-fast-facts-about-smokey-and-bandit ^ Jump up to : `` 13 Fast Facts About Smokey and the Bandit '' . May 25 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Greyhound - Lakewood Park ( Atlanta , Georgia , USA ) '' . Roller Coaster DataBase . Retrieved March 21 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Page not found - Movieline '' . Jump up ^ Niver Western Wear Corporate Records Jump up ^ `` Media Now : Understanding Media , Culture , and Technology '' . Retrieved February 24 , 2016 . Jump up ^ http://www.pontiacsonline.com/JIM%20WANGERS.htm Jump up ^ `` How `` Smokey and the Bandit '' was born `` . Fortune . Jump up ^ `` BIZARRE QUESTION '' . Archived from the original on October 16 , 2007 . Retrieved September 14 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Author Unknown . `` BREWING : The Beer That Won the West '' Time . 11 February 1974 . http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,908509,00.html Jump up ^ Koerth - Baker , Maggie . `` How the Bandit , Coors and a bunch of Makers changed the course of booze history '' . Boing Boing . Retrieved March 21 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Various -- Smokey And The Bandit ( Music From The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack ) '' . Discogs . Retrieved July 29 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Smokey and the Bandit , Box Office Information '' . Box Office Mojo . Retrieved January 29 , 2012 . Jump up ^ Maltin , Leonard , ed. ( 2003 ) . Leonard Maltin 's Movie & Video Guide : 2004 Edition . Penguin . Jump up ^ Smokey and the Bandit , Movie Reviews . Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved April 1 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Burt Reynolds at the 2015 Macon Film Festival '' . Atlanta 's CW69 . July 21 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Seven Quirky Lowbrow Favorite Films of Highbrow Directors - The Moveable Fest '' . July 15 , 2012 . Jump up ^ Rebello , Stephen . `` Remembering Hal Needham and the Birth of Redneck Cinema '' . Jump up ^ `` Smokey and the Bandit - Film from RadioTimes '' . RadioTimes . Jump up ^ `` Smokey and the Bandit ( 1977 ) '' . IMDb . Retrieved February 24 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Nunez , Alex ( 15 December 2014 ) . `` Burt Reynolds ' Bandit Trans Am sells for $450,000 '' . Road & Track . Retrieved 10 August 2015 . Jump up ^ Hlavaty , Craig ( 30 March 2016 ) . `` See a `` New '' Vintage Bandit Trans Am Approved by Burt Reynolds Himself `` . Houston Chronicle . Retrieved 10 June 2016 . Jump up ^ LaGrou , Lisa ( February 9 , 2014 ) . `` Diablo Sandwich Recipe from CMT 's Reel Eats '' . Oakland County Moms . Jump up ^ `` Diablo Sandwich / `` Diablo & Doc '' From Smokey & the Bandit , Identified ! `` . Roadfood.com . Jump up ^ http://thebanditrun.com/ Jump up ^ `` Stewart plays off ' Smokey and the Bandit in Mobil 1 ad '' . Jump up ^ Salmons , Tim ( 2017 - 05 - 29 ) . `` Smokey and the Bandit : 40th Anniversary Edition '' . The Digital Bits . Retrieved 2017 - 11 - 12 . Jump up ^ Video on YouTube External links ( edit ) Wikiquote has quotations related to : Smokey and the Bandit Smokey and the Bandit on IMDb Smokey and the Bandit at AllMovie Smokey and the Bandit at the TCM Movie Database Smokey and the Bandit at the American Film Institute Catalog Smokey and the Bandit at Box Office Mojo Smokey and the Bandit at Rotten Tomatoes hide Films directed by Hal Needham Smokey and the Bandit ( 1977 ) Hooper ( 1978 ) The Villain ( 1979 ) Death Car on the Freeway ( 1979 ) Smokey and the Bandit II ( 1980 ) The Cannonball Run ( 1981 ) Megaforce ( 1982 ) Stroker Ace ( 1983 ) Cannonball Run II ( 1984 ) Rad ( 1986 ) Body Slam ( 1987 ) Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Smokey_and_the_Bandit&oldid=845600245 '' Categories : 1977 films English - language films Smokey and the Bandit 1970s action films 1970s comedy films 1970s road movies American films American action comedy films Country music films American road movies American chase films Directorial debut films Fictional smugglers Films about automobiles Films about beer Films directed by Hal Needham Films set in Alabama Films set in Arkansas Films set in Georgia ( U.S. state ) Films set in Mississippi Films set in Texas Films shot in Atlanta Films shot in California Films shot in Florida Films shot in Georgia ( U.S. state ) Films shot in Los Angeles Trucker films Screenplays by Charles Shyer Universal Pictures films Hidden categories : All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from February 2018 Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with dead external links from October 2011 Use mdy dates from October 2014 Articles with hAudio microformats Album infoboxes lacking a cover Music infoboxes with deprecated parameters Articles to be expanded from April 2013 All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Talk Contents About Wikipedia Wikiquote Dansk Deutsch Español Français Italiano Magyar 日本 語 Norsk Polski Português Русский Simple English Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska 中文 7 more Edit links This page was last edited on 12 June 2018 , at 21 : 28 . 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who was the member of the constituent assembly from bihar
Constituent Assembly of India - Wikipedia Constituent Assembly of India This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( March 2012 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Constituent Assembly of India Seal of the Constituent Assembly . Type Type Unicameral History Founded 6 December 1946 ( 1946 - 12 - 06 ) Disbanded 24 January 1950 ( 1950 - 01 - 24 ) Preceded by Imperial Legislative Council Succeeded by Parliament of India Leadership Temporary Chairman Sachchidananda Sinha , INC President Dr. Rajendra Prasad , INC Chairman of the drafting committee Dr. B.R. Ambedkar , SCF Vice Presidents Harendra Coomar Mookerjee V.T. Krishnamachari Structure Seats 389 ( Dec. 1946 - June 1947 ) 299 ( June 1947 - Jan. 1950 ) Political groups INC : 208 seats AIML : 73 seats Others : 15 seats Princely States : 93 seats Elections Voting system First past the post Meeting place House of Parliament , New Delhi The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India . Following India 's independence from Great Britain in 1947 , its members served as the nation 's first Parliament . An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M.N. Roy , a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy . It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935 , C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise , and was accepted by the British in August 1940 . On 8 August 1940 , a statement was made by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow about the expansion of the Governor - General 's Executive Council and the establishment of a War Advisory Council . This offer , known as the August Offer , included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution . Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946 , elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly . The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly , and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946 . The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single , transferable - vote system of proportional representation . The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389 : 292 were representatives of the states , 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces of Delhi , Ajmer - Merwara , Coorg ( Near Madikeri ) and British Baluchistan . The elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by August 1946 . Congress won 208 seats , and the Muslim League 73 . After this election , the Muslim League refused to cooperate with the Congress , and the political situation deteriorated . Hindu - Muslim riots began , and the Muslim League demanded a separate constituent assembly for Muslims in India . On 3 June 1947 Lord Mountbatten , the last British Governor - General of India , announced his intention to scrap the Cabinet Mission Plan ; this culminated in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and the separate nations of India and Pakistan . The Indian Independence Act was passed on 18 July 1947 and , although it was earlier declared that India would become independent in June 1948 , this event led to independence on 15 August 1947 . The Constituent Assembly ( elected for an undivided India ) met for the first time on 9 December 1946 , reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body and successor to the British parliament 's authority in India . As a result of the partition , under the Mountbatten plan a separate Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was established on 3 June 1947 . The representatives of the areas incorporated into Pakistan ceased to be members of the Constituent Assembly of India . New elections were held for the West Punjab and East Bengal ( which became part of Pakistan , although East Bengal later seceded to become Bangladesh ) ; the membership of the Constituent Assembly was 299 after the reorganization , and it met on 31 December 1947 . Contents 1 Description 2 Background and election 3 Constitution and elections 4 Organization 4.1 Timeline 5 Committees of the Constituent Assembly 6 Prominent members 7 Members ( by province / state ) 7.1 Members who later withdrew after partition 8 Gallery 9 References 10 Further reading Description ( edit ) The Constituent Assembly , consisting of indirectly elected representatives , was established to draft a constitution for India ( including the now - separate countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh ) . It existed for approximately three years , the first parliament of India after independence in 1947 . The Assembly was not elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage , and Muslims and Sikhs received special representation as minorities . The Muslim League boycotted the Assembly after failing to prevent its creation . Although a large part of the Constituent Assembly was drawn from the Congress Party in a one - party environment , the Congress Party included a wide diversity of opinions -- from conservative industrialists to radical Marxists , to Hindu revivalists . The Assembly met for the first time in New Delhi on 9 December 1946 , and its last session was held on 24 January 1950 . The hope of the Assembly was expressed by Jawaharlal Nehru : The first task of this Assembly is to free India through a new constitution , to feed the starving people , and to clothe the naked masses , and to give every Indian the fullest opportunity to develop himself according to his capacity . This is certainly a great task . Look at India today . We , are sitting here and there in despair in many places , and unrest in many cities . The atmosphere is surcharged with these quarrels and feuds which are called communal disturbances , and unfortunately we sometimes can not avoid them . But at present the greatest and most important question in India is how to solve the problem of the poor and the starving . Wherever we turn , we are confronted with this problem . If we can not solve this problem soon , all our paper constitutions will become useless and purposeless . Keeping this aspect in view , who could suggest to us to postpone and wait ? -- Jawaharlal Nehru , Constituent Assembly Debates ( Proceedings ) , Vol. II Background and election ( edit ) India was still under British rule when the Constituent Assembly was established following negotiations between Indian leaders and members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India from the United Kingdom . Provincial assembly elections were held early in 1946 . Constituent Assembly members were elected indirectly by members of the newly elected provincial assemblies , and initially included representatives for those provinces that formed part of Pakistan ( some of which are now in Bangladesh ) . The Constituent Assembly had 299 representatives , including nine women . The Interim Government of India was formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly . The Congress Party held a large majority in the Assembly ( 69 percent of the seats ) , and the Muslim League held nearly all the seats reserved in the Assembly for Muslims . There were also members of smaller parties , such as the Scheduled Caste Federation , the Communist Party of India and the Unionist Party . In June 1947 delegations from Sindh , East Bengal , Baluchistan , West Punjab and the North West Frontier Province withdrew to form the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan , meeting in Karachi . On 15 August 1947 the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan became independent nations , and members of the Constituent Assembly who had not withdrawn to Karachi became India 's Parliament . Twenty - eight members of the Muslim League joined the Indian Assembly , and 93 members were later nominated from the princely states ; the Congress Party secured a majority of 82 percent . Constitution and elections ( edit ) See also : Constitution of India At 11 am on 9 December 1946 the Assembly began its first session , with 208 members attending . By early 1947 , representatives of the Muslim League and princely states joined , and the Assembly approved the draft constitution on 26 November 1949 . On 26 January 1950 the constitution took effect ( commemorated as Republic Day ) , and the Constituent Assembly became the Provisional Parliament of India ( continuing until after the first elections under the new constitution in 1952 ) . Organization ( edit ) Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first chairman ( temporary ) of Constituent Assembly . Later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president and Its vice-president was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee , a Christian from Bengal and former vice-chancellor of Calcutta University . Also chairing the assembly 's Minorities Committee , Mookerjee was appointed governor of West Bengal after India became a republic . Jurist B.N. Rau was appointed constitutional adviser to the assembly ; Rau prepared the original draft of the constitution , and was later appointed a judge in the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague . The assembly 's work had five stages : Committees presented reports on issues . B.N. Rau prepared an initial draft based on the reports and his research into the constitutions of other nations . The drafting committee , chaired by B.R. Ambedkar , presented a detailed draft constitution which was published for public discussion . The draft constitution was discussed , and amendments proposed and enacted . The constitution was adopted , with a committee of experts led by the Congress Party ( known as the Congress Assembly Party ) played a pivotal role . Timeline ( edit ) 9 December 1946 : The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held in the constitution hall ( now the Central Hall of Parliament House ) . Demanding a separate state , the Muslim League boycotted the meeting . Sachchidananda Sinha was elected temporary president of the assembly , in accordance with French practice . 11 December 1946 : Rajendra Prasad was elected as president and H.C. Mukherjee was elected as vice-president of the constituent assembly . B.N. Rau was appointed as its constitutional adviser . 13 December 1946 : An ' Objective Resolution ' was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru in the assembly , laying down the underlying principles of the constitution . It finally became the Preamble of the constitution . 22 January 1947 : Objective resolution unanimously adopted . 22 July 1947 : National flag adopted . 15 August 1947 : Indian independence achieved as the Dominion of India . 29 August 1947 : Drafting Committee appointed with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as the Chairman . 16 July 1948 : Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee V.T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly . 26 November 1949 : Constitution passed and accepted by the assembly . 24 January 1950 : `` Jana Gana Mana '' adopted as the national anthem , with the first two verses of `` Vande Mataram '' the national song . Rajendra Prasad elected the first president of India . The assembly was chaired by Dr. Rajendra Prasad when it met as a constituent body , and by G.V. Mavlankar when it met as a legislative body . It completed the task of drafting a constitution in two years , eleven months and eighteen days , at a total expenditure of ₹ 6.4 million . Committees of the Constituent Assembly ( edit ) The Constituent Assembly appointed a total of 22 committees to deal with different tasks of constitution - making . Out of these , eight were major committees and the others were minor committees . Major Committees Drafting Committee -- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Union Powers Committee -- Jawaharlal Nehru Union Constitution Committee -- Jawaharlal Nehru Provincial Constitution Committee -- Sardar Patel Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights , Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas -- Sardar Patel . This committee had the following subcommittees : Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee -- J.B. Kripalani Minorities Sub-Committee -- Harendra Coomar Mookerjee , North - East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee -- Gopinath Bardoloi Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas ( Other than those in Assam ) Sub-Committee -- AV Thakkar Rules of Procedure Committee -- Dr. Rajendra Prasad States Committee ( Committee for Negotiating with States ) -- Jawaharlal Nehru Steering Committee -- Dr. Rajendra Prasad Prominent members ( edit ) B.R. Ambedkar , Minister for Law ; Chairman of Drafting Committee . B.N. Rau , Constitutional Advisor Jawaharlal Nehru , first Prime Minister of India Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister J.B. Kriplani , President of Indian National congress at the time of independence Maulana Abul Kalam Azad , Minister for Education Rajendra Prasad , President of Constituent Assembly C. Rajagopalachari , Governor - General of India Sarat Chandra Bose , Barrister and Indian independence activist Krishna Sinha , first Chief Minister , Bihar Binodanand Jha , Minister , Bihar Shyam Nandan Prasad Mishra Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Deputy Chief Minister and Finance Minister , Bihar Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Asaf Ali Syama Prasad Mookerjee , Industries Minister , President , Hindu Mahasabha Moturi Satyanarayana , Freedom Fighter Rajkumari Amrit Kaur , Health Minister Hansa Mehta , President , All India Women 's Conference N.G. Ranga Deep Narayan Singh , Minister , Bihar Gopinath Bordoloi , Prime Minister of Assam Sir Syed Muhammad Saadulla , Assam P. Subbarayan Kailashnath Katju N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar T.T. Krishnamachari Rameshwar Prasad Sinha Durgabai Deshmukh K.M. Munshi Krishana Ballabh Sahay Frank Anthony , Anglo - Indian representative Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan John Mathai , first railway minister of India Pratap Singh Kairon L. Krishnaswamy Bharati - Madras Province Chidambaram Subramaniam Jaipal Singh Munda , Former Indian Hockey captain , and Tribal leader Hargovind Pant Members ( by province / state ) ( edit ) Madras : Annie Mascarene , O.V. Alagesan , Mrs. Ammu Swaminathan , M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar , Moturi Satyanarayana , Mrs. Dakshayani Velayudhan , Mrs. G. Durgabai , Kala Venkatarao , N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar , D. Govinda Das , Revd . Jerome D'Souza , P. Kakkan , T.M. Kaliyannan Gounder , K. Kamaraj , V.C. Kesava Rao , T.T. Krishnamachari , Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer L. Krishnaswami Bharathi , P. Kunhiraman , Mosalikanti Thirumala Rao , V.I. Munuswamy Pillai , M.A. Muthiah Chettiar , V. Nadimuthu Pillai , S. Nagappa , P.L. Narasimha Raju , B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya , C. Perumalswamy Reddy , T. Prakasam , S.H. Prater , Raja Swetachalapati Ramakrishna Renga Roa of Bobbili , R.K. Shanmukham Chetty , T.A. Ramalingam Chettiar , Ramnath Goenka , O.P. Ramaswamy Reddiar , N.G. Ranga , Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy , Sheik Galib Sahib , K. Santhanam , B. Shiva Rao , Kallur Subba Rao , U. Srinivasa Mallya , P. Subbarayan , C. Subramaniam , V Subramaniam , M.C. Veerabahu Pillai , P.M. Velayudapani , A.K. Menon , T.J.M. Wilson , Mohamed Ismail Sahib , K.T.M. Ahmed Ibrahim , Mahboob Ali Baig Sahib Bahadur , B. Pocker Sahib Bahadur , pattam Tanupillai Bombay : Balchandra Maheshwar Gupte , Hansa Mehta , Hari Vinayak Pataskar , Dr. B.R. Ambedkar , Joseph Alban D'Souza , Kanayalal Nanabhai Desai , Keshavrao Marutirao Jedhe , Khandubhai Kasanji Desai , Bal Gangadhar Kher , M.R. Masani , K.M. Munshi , Narahar Vishnu Gadgil , S. Nijalingappa , S.K. Patil , Ramchandra Manohar Nalavade , R.R. Diwakar , Shankarrao Deo , G.V. Mavalankar , Vallabhbhai Patel , Abdul Kadar Mohammad Shaikh , A.A. Khan West Bengal : Monomohan Das , Arun Chandra Guha , Lakshmi Kanta Maitra , Mihir Lal Chattopadhyay , Satis Chandra Samanta , Suresh Chandra Majumdar , Upendranath Barman , Prabhudayal Himatsingka , Basanta Kumar Das , Renuka Ray , H.C. Mukherjee , Surendra Mohan Ghose , Syama Prasad Mookerjee , Ari Bahadur Gurung , R.E. Platel , K.C. Neogy , Raghib Ahsan , Somnath Lahiri , Jasimuddin Ahmad , Naziruddin Ahmad , Abdul Hamid , Abdul Halim Ghuznavi United Provinces : Ajit Prasad Jain , Algu Rai Shastri , Balkrishna Sharma , Banshi Dhar Misra , Bhagwan Din , Damodar Swarup Seth , Dayal Das Bhagat , Dharam Prakash , A. Dharam Dass , R.V. Dhulekar , Feroz Gandhi , Gopal Narain , Krishna Chandra Sharma , Govind Ballabh Pant , Govind Malviya , Har Govind Pant , Harihar Nath Shastri , Hriday Nath Kunzru , Jaspat Roy Kapoor , Jagannath Baksh Singh , Jawaharlal Nehru , Jogendra Singh , Jugal Kishore , Jwala Prasad Srivastava , B.V. Keskar , Kamala Chaudhry , Kamalapati Tripathi , J.B. Kripalani , Mahavir Tyagi , Khurshed Lal , Masurya Din , Mohan Lal Saksena , Padampat Singhania , Phool Singh , Paragi Lal , Purnima Banerjee , Purushottam Das Tandon , Hira Vallabha Tripathi , Ram Chandra Gupta , Shibban Lal Saxena , Satish Chandra , John Matthai , Sucheta Kripalani , Sunder Lall , Venkatesh Narayan Tiwari , Mohanlal Gautam , Vishwambhar Dayal Tripathi , Vishnu Sharan Dublish , Begum Aizaz Rasul , Hyder Hussain , Hasrat Mohani , Abul Kalam Azad , Muhammad Ismail Khan , Rafi Ahmad Kidwai , Mohd . Hifzur Rahman , ZH Lari East Punjab : Bakshi Tek Chand , Jairamdas Daulatram , Thakurdas Bhargava , Bikramlal Sondhi , Yashwant Rai , Ranbir Singh Hooda , Lala Achint Ram , Nand Lal , Baldev Singh , Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir , Sardar Hukam Singh , Sardar Bhopinder Singh Mann , Sardar Rattan Singh Lohgarh Chaudhry Suraj Mal Bihar : Nasif Arafat , Amiyo Kumar Ghosh , Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Banarsi Prasad Jhunjhunwala , Bhagwat Prasad , Boniface Lakra , Brajeshwar Prasad , Chandika Ram , K.T. Shah , Devendra Nath Samanta , Dip Narain Sinha , Guptanath Singh , Jadubans Sahay , Jagat Narain Lal , Jagjivan Ram , Jaipal Singh Munda , Kameshwar Singh of Darbhanga , Kamaleshwari Prasad Yadav , Mahesh Prasad Sinha , Krishna Ballabh Sahay , Raghunandan Prasad , Rajendra Prasad , Rameshwar Prasad Sinha , Ramnarayan Singh , Sachchidananda Sinha , Sarangdhar Sinha , Satyanarayan Sinha , Binodanand Jha , P.K. Sen , Sri Krishna Sinha , Sri Narayan Mahtha , Syamanandan Mishra , Hussain Imam , Syed Jafar Imam , Latifur Rahman , Mohammad Tahir , Tajamul Hussain , Choudhry Abid Hussain . Hargovind Mishra Central Provinces and Berar : Ambica Charan Shukla , Raghu Vira , Rajkumari Amrit Kaur , B.A. Mandloi , Brijlal Nandlal Biyani , Thakur Cheedilal , Seth Govind Das , Hari Singh Gour , Hari Vishnu Kamath , Hemchandra Jagobaji Khandekar , Ghanshyam Singh Gupta , Lakshman Shrawan Bhatkar , Panjabrao Shamrao Deshmukh , Ravi Shankar Shukla , R.K. Sidhva , Shankar Trimbak Dharmadhikari , Frank Anthony , Kazi Syed Karimuddin , Ganpatrao Dani Assam : Nibaran Chandra Laskar , Dharanidhar Basu - Matari , Gopinath Bardoloi , J.J.M. Nichols - Roy , Kuladhar Chaliha , Rohini Kumar Chaudhury , Muhammad Saadulla , Abdur Rouf Orissa : Biswanath Das , Krishna Chandra Gajapati Narayana Dev , Harekrushna Mahatab , Laxminarayan Sahu Lokanath Mishra , Nandkishore Das , Rajkrishna Bose , Santanu Kumar Das , Yudhishir Mishra Delhi : Deshbhandhu Gupta Ajmer - Merwara : Mukut Bihari Lal Bhargava Coorg : C.M. Poonacha Mysore : K.C. Reddy , T. Siddalingaiya , H.R. Guruv Reddy , S.V. Krishnamurthy Rao , K. Hanumanthaiya , H. Siddaveerappa , T. Channiah Jammu and Kashmir : Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah , Motiram Baigra , Mirza Mohammad Afzal Beg , Maulana Mohammad Sayeed Masoodi Travancore - Cochin : Pattom A. Thanu Pillai , R. Sankar , P.T. Chacko , Panampilly Govinda Menon , Annie Mascarene , P.S. Nataraja Pillai , K.A. Mohamed Madhya Bharat : Vinayak Sitaram Sarwate , Brijraj Narain , Gopikrishna Vijayavargiya , Ram Sahai , Kusum Kant Jain , Radhavallabh Vijayavargiya , Sitaram S. Jajoo Saurashtra : Balwant Rai Gopalji Mehta , Jaisukhlal Hathi , Amritlal Vithaldas Thakkar , Chimanlal Chakubhai Shah , Samaldas Laxmidas Gandhi Rajasthan : V.T. Krishnamachari , Hiralal Shastri , Sardar Singhjhi of Khetri , Jaswant Singhji , Raj Bhadur , Manikya Lal Varma , Gokul Lal Asava , Ramchandra Upadhyaya , Balwant Sinha Mehta , Dalel Singh , Jainarain Vyas Patiala and East Punjab States Union : Ranjit Singh , Sochet Singh , Bhagwant Roy Bombay States : Vinayakrao Balshankar Vaidya , B.N. Munavalli , Gokulbhai Daulatram Bhatt , Jivraj Narayan Mehta , Gopaldas A. Desai , Paranlal Thakurlal Munshi , B.H. Khardekar , Ratnappa Bharamappa Kumbhar B.N Datar Orissa States : Lal Mohan Pati , N. Madhava Rau , Raj Kunwar , Sarangadhar Das , Yudhishthir Mishra Central Provinces States : R.L. Malaviya , Kishorimohan Tripathi , Ramprasad Potai United Provinces States : B.H. Zaidi , Krishna Singh Madras States : V. Ramaiah , Ramakrishna Ranga Rao Vindhya Pradesh : Avdesh Pratap Singh , Shambu Nath Shukla , Ram Sahai Tiwari , Mannulalji Dwidedi Cooch Behar : Himmat Singh K. Maheshwari Tripura and Manipur : Girja Shankar Guha Bhopal : Lal Singh Kutch : Bhawani Arjun Khimji Himachal Pradesh : Yashwant Singh Parmar Members who later withdrew after partition ( edit ) East Bengal : Abdullah al Mahmood , Maulana Mohd Abdullah el Baqui , Abdul Hamid , Abdul Kasem Khan , Mohammad Akram Khan , A. Hamid , Azizuddin Ahmad , Muhammad Habibullah Bahar , Prem Hari Barma , Raj Kumar Chakraverty , Sris Chandra Chattopadhyaya , Abdul Matin Chaudhary , Murtaza Raza Choudhry , Hamidul Haq Chowdhury , Akhay Kumar Das , Dhirendra Nath Datta , Bhupendra Kumar Datta , Ebrahim Khan , Fazlul Huq , Fazlur Rahman , Ghayasuddin Pathan , Begum Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah , Liaquat Ali Khan , Mafizuddin Ahmad , Mahmud Hussain , Jnanendra Chandra Majumdar , A.M. Malik , Birat Chandra Mandal , Jogendra Nath Mandal , Mohammed Ali , Khwaja Nazimuddin , M.A.B.L. Nur Ahmed , Nurul Amin , Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi , Sri Dhananjoy M.A.B.L. Roy , Maudi Bhakesh Chanda , B.L. Serajul Islam , Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Osmani , Shahabudin Khwaja , H.S. Suhrawardy , Harendra Kumar Sur , Tamizuddin Khan , Kawivi Kerwar Datta , Ghulam Mohammed West Punjab : Mian Mumtaz Mohammad Khan Daultana , Ganga Saran , Zafarullah Khan , Iftikhar Hussain Khan , Mian Muhammad Iftikharuddin , Muhammad Ali Jinnah , Sheikh Karamat Ali , Nazir Ahmad Khan , Sardar Abdur Rab Nistar , Feroz Khan Noon , Omar Hayat Malik , Shah Nawaz Begum Jahan Ara , Sardar Shaukat Hyat Khan , Northwest Frontier Province : Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan , Khan Sardar Bahadur Khan , Sardar Asad Ullah Jan Khan Sindh : Abdus Sattar Abdur Rahman , Alhajj Muhammad Hashim Gazder , M.A. Khuhro Balochistan : S.B. Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai Gallery ( edit ) Jawaharlal Nehru and other members taking pledge during the midnight session of the Constituent Assembly of India held on 14 and 15 August 1947 . Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Chairman , Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution with other members on Aug. 29 , 1947 . Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar , chairman of the Drafting Committee , presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution to Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25 November , 1949 . B.R. Ambedkar in Constituent Assembly of India . Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the constituent assembly in 1946 . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ M. Lakshmikanth , Indian Polity for Civil Services Examinations , 3rd ed. , ( New Delhi : Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited , 2011 ) , p. 2.3 Jump up ^ `` Archived copy '' . Archived from the original on 11 May 2011 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 12 . CS1 maint : Archived copy as title ( link ) Jump up ^ Baruah , L.M. ( 1992 ) . Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi , an Architect of Modern India . Gyan Publishing House . ISBN 81 - 212 - 0404 - 6 . Retrieved 2013 - 11 - 17 . Further reading ( edit ) Austin , Granville . The Indian Constitution , Cornerstone of a Nation . New Delhi : OUP India , 1999 . ISBN 0 - 19 - 564959 - 1 . Bipan Chandra , Mridula Mukherjee and Aditya Mukherjee . India Since Independence : Revised Edition . New Delhi : Penguin Books India , 2008 . An Indian 10 - episode TV series made by Rajya sabha TV called `` SAMVIDHAN '' described in detail how the Indian Constitution was made . Indian Independence Movement History Colonisation Porto Grande de Bengala Dutch Bengal East India Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo - Mysore Wars First Second Third Fourth Anglo - Maratha Wars First Second Third Polygar Wars Vellore Mutiny First Anglo - Sikh War Second Anglo - Sikh War Sannyasi Rebellion Rebellion of 1857 Radcliffe Line more Philosophies and ideologies Ambedkarism Gandhism Hindu nationalism Indian nationalism Khilafat Movement Muslim nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi movement Swaraj Events and movements Partition of Bengal ( 1905 ) Partition of Bengal ( 1947 ) Revolutionaries Direct Action Day Delhi - Lahore Conspiracy The Indian Sociologist Singapore Mutiny Hindu -- German Conspiracy Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Rowlatt Committee Rowlatt Bills Jallianwala Bagh massacre Noakhali riots Non-Cooperation Movement Christmas Day Plot Coolie - Begar Movement Chauri Chaura incident , 1922 Kakori conspiracy Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre Flag Satyagraha Bardoli 1928 Protests Nehru Report Fourteen Points of Jinnah Purna Swaraj Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vedaranyam March Chittagong armoury raid Gandhi -- Irwin Pact Round table conferences Act of 1935 Aundh Experiment Indian Legion Cripps Mission Quit India Bombay Mutiny Coup d'état of Yanaon Provisional Government of India Independence Day Praja Mandala movement Organisations All India Kisan Sabha All - India Muslim League Anushilan Samiti Arya Samaj Azad Hind Berlin Committee Ghadar Party Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Indian National Congress India House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj Party more Social reformers A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B.R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J.B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E.V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda Independence activists Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A.K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M.N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit ‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja - ud - Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud - Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi VO Chidamabaram V.K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more British leaders Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings Independence Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference Legislatures of India British Raj Council of India Imperial Legislative Council Council of State Central Legislative Assembly Chamber of Princes Constituent Assembly of India Sansad Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Vidhan Sabha Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Puducherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Vidhan Parishad Andhra Pradesh Bihar Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Maharashtra Telangana Uttar Pradesh Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constituent_Assembly_of_India&oldid=866272290 '' Categories : Constitutional history of India Central Legislative Assembly of India Political history of India Constituent Assembly of India Hidden categories : CS1 maint : Archived copy as title Articles needing additional references from March 2012 All articles needing additional references Use Indian English from October 2013 All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English Use dmy dates from September 2013 All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Français हिन्दी Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ಕನ್ನಡ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ தமிழ் తెలుగు Edit links This page was last edited on 29 October 2018 , at 10 : 35 ( UTC ) . 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[ "Bihar : Nasif Arafat , Amiyo Kumar Ghosh , Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Banarsi Prasad Jhunjhunwala , Bhagwat Prasad , Boniface Lakra , Brajeshwar Prasad , Chandika Ram , K.T. Shah , Devendra Nath Samanta , Dip Narain Sinha , Guptanath Singh , Jadubans Sahay , Jagat Narain Lal , Jagjivan Ram , Jaipal Singh Munda , Kameshwar Singh of Darbhanga , Kamaleshwari Prasad Yadav , Mahesh Prasad Sinha , Krishna Ballabh Sahay , Raghunandan Prasad , Rajendra Prasad , Rameshwar Prasad Sinha , Ramnarayan Singh , Sachchidananda Sinha , Sarangdhar Sinha , Satyanarayan Sinha , Binodanand Jha , P.K. Sen , Sri Krishna Sinha , Sri Narayan Mahtha , Syamanandan Mishra , Hussain Imam , Syed Jafar Imam , Latifur Rahman , Mohammad Tahir , Tajamul Hussain , Choudhry Abid Hussain . Hargovind Mishra" ]
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who ordered the japanese attack on pearl harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor - wikipedia Attack on Pearl Harbor Coordinates : 21 ° 22 ′ N 157 ° 57 ′ W  /  21.367 ° N 157.950 ° W  / 21.367 ; - 157.950 Attack on Pearl Harbor Part of the Asia and the Pacific Theater of World War II Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack . The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia . Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen : one over USS Neosho and one over the Naval Yard . Date December 7 , 1941 ; 76 years ago ( 1941 - 12 - 07 ) Location Primarily Pearl Harbor , Hawaii Territory , U.S. Result Major Japanese tactical victory ; precipitated the entrance of the United States into World War II See consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor Belligerents United States Japan Commanders and leaders ADM Husband E. Kimmel LTG Walter Short VADM Chūichi Nagumo ADM Isoroku Yamamoto CDR Mitsuo Fuchida Strength 8 battleships 8 cruisers 30 destroyers 4 submarines 3 USCG Cutters 47 other ships ≈ 390 aircraft Mobile Unit : 6 aircraft carriers 2 battleships 2 heavy cruisers 1 light cruiser 9 destroyers 8 tankers 23 fleet submarines 5 midget submarines 414 aircraft Casualties and losses 4 battleships sunk 4 battleships damaged 1 ex-battleship sunk 1 harbor tug sunk 3 cruisers damaged 3 destroyers damaged 3 other ships damaged 188 aircraft destroyed 159 aircraft damaged 2,335 killed 1,143 wounded 4 midget submarines sunk 1 midget submarine grounded 29 aircraft destroyed 74 aircraft damaged 64 killed 1 sailor captured Civilian casualties 68 killed 35 wounded 3 aircraft shot down Hawaiian Islands Campaign Pearl Harbor Niihau 1st Midway Johnston and Palmyra 2nd Midway 3rd Midway Japanese offensives , 1940 -- 1942 French Indochina Thailand Malaya Borneo Pearl Harbor Hong Kong Philippines Guam Wake Dutch East Indies New Guinea Singapore Burma Australia Indian Ocean Solomons Coral Sea North America Pacific War Central Pacific Hawaii Marshalls - Gilberts raids Doolittle Raid Coral Sea Midway RY Solomons Gilberts & Marshalls Marianas & Palau Volcano & Ryukyu Truk Southeast Asia Indochina ( 1940 ) Indian Ocean ( 1940 -- 45 ) Philippines 1941 -- 42 Franco - Thai War Thailand Dutch East Indies Malaya Hong Kong Singapore Indochina ( 1945 ) Malacca Strait Jurist Tiderace Zipper Strategic bombing ( 1944 -- 45 ) Burma Burma ( 1941 -- 42 ) Burma ( 1942 -- 43 ) Burma ( 1944 ) Burma ( 1944 -- 45 ) Southwest Pacific Dutch East Indies 1941 -- 42 Portuguese Timor Australia New Guinea Philippines 1944 -- 45 Borneo 1945 North America Ellwood Aleutian Islands Estevan Point Lighthouse Fort Stevens Lookout Air Raids Fire balloon Project Hula PX Japan Air raids Mariana Islands Volcano & Ryukyu Is Tokyo Starvation Naval bombardments Yokosuka Sagami Bay Kure Downfall Hiroshima & Nagasaki Kurils Karafuto Japanese surrender Manchuria Kantokuen Manchuria ( 1945 ) Mutanchiang Sakhalin Island Kuril Islands Shumshu Second Sino - Japanese War The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii Territory , on the morning of December 7 , 1941 . The attack , also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor , led to the United States ' entry into World War II . The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI , and as Operation Z during its planning . Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom , the Netherlands , and the United States . Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U.S. - held Philippines , Guam and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya , Singapore , and Hong Kong . The attack commenced at 7 : 48 a.m. Hawaiian Time ( 18 : 18 GMT ) . The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft ( including fighters , level and dive bombers , and torpedo bombers ) in two waves , launched from six aircraft carriers . All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged , with four sunk . All but the USS Arizona were later raised , and six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war . The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers , three destroyers , an anti-aircraft training ship , and one minelayer . One hundred eighty - eight U.S. aircraft were destroyed ; 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded . Important base installations such as the power station , dry dock , shipyard , maintenance , and fuel and torpedo storage facilities , as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building ( also home of the intelligence section ) , were not attacked . Japanese losses were light : 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost , and 64 servicemen killed . One Japanese sailor , Kazuo Sakamaki , was captured . The surprise attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters . The following day , December 8 , the United States declared war on Japan , and several days later , on December 11 , Germany and Italy each declared war on the U.S. The U.S. responded with a declaration of war against Germany and Italy . Domestic support for non-interventionism , which had been fading since the Fall of France in 1940 , disappeared . There were numerous historical precedents for unannounced military action by Japan , but the lack of any formal warning , particularly while negotiations were still apparently ongoing , led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7 , 1941 , `` a date which will live in infamy '' . Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning , the attack on Pearl Harbor was later judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime . Contents 1 Background to conflict 1.1 Diplomatic background 1.2 Military planning 1.3 Objectives 2 Approach and attack 2.1 Submarines 2.2 Japanese declaration of war 2.3 First wave composition 2.4 Second wave composition 2.5 American casualties and damage 2.6 Japanese losses 2.7 Possible third wave 3 Ships lost or damaged 3.1 Battleships 3.2 Ex-battleship ( target / AA training ship ) 3.3 Cruisers 3.4 Destroyers 3.5 Auxiliaries 4 Salvage 5 Aftermath 5.1 Niihau Incident 5.2 Strategic implications 5.3 Retrospective debate on American intelligence 6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Background to conflict Main article : Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor Diplomatic background War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of , and planned for , since the 1920s . However , tensions did not seriously grow until Japan 's invasion of Manchuria in 1931 . Over the next decade , Japan expanded into China , leading to the Second Sino - Japanese War in 1937 . Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China , and endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland . The `` Southern Operation '' was designed to assist these efforts . Pearl Harbor on October 30 , 1941 , looking southwest Starting in December 1937 , events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay , the Allison incident , and the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion sharply against Japan . Fearing Japanese expansion , the United States , United Kingdom , and France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts . In 1940 , Japan invaded French Indochina , attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China . The United States halted shipments of airplanes , parts , machine tools , and aviation gasoline to Japan , which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act . The United States did not stop oil exports , however , partly because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington : given Japanese dependence on American oil , such an action was likely to be considered an extreme provocation . In mid-1940 , President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii . He also ordered a military buildup in the Philippines , taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East . Because the Japanese high command was ( mistakenly ) certain any attack on the United Kingdom 's Southeast Asian colonies , including Singapore , would bring the U.S. into the war , a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference . An invasion of the Philippines was also considered necessary by Japanese war planners . The U.S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men ; this option was never implemented due to opposition from Douglas MacArthur , who felt he would need a force ten times that size . By 1941 , U.S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war . Late that year , Admiral Thomas C. Hart , commander of the Asiatic Fleet , was given orders to that effect . The U.S. finally ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941 , following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France , in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption . Because of this decision , Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil - rich Dutch East Indies . On August 17 , Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if `` neighboring countries '' were attacked . The Japanese were faced with a dichotomy -- either withdraw from China and lose face , or seize new sources of raw materials in the resource - rich European colonies of Southeast Asia . Japan and the U.S. engaged in negotiations during 1941 , attempting to improve relations . In the course of these negotiations , Japan offered to withdraw from most of China and Indochina after making peace with the Nationalist government . It also proposed to adopt an independent interpretation of the Tripartite Pact and to refrain from trade discrimination , provided all other nations reciprocated . Washington rejected these proposals . Japanese Prime Minister Konoye then offered to meet with Roosevelt , but Roosevelt insisted on reaching an agreement before any meeting . The U.S. ambassador to Japan repeatedly urged Roosevelt to accept the meeting , warning that it was the only way to preserve the conciliatory Konoye government and peace in the Pacific . However , his recommendation was not acted upon . The Konoye government collapsed the following month , when the Japanese military rejected a withdrawal of all troops from China . Japan 's final proposal , delivered on November 20 , offered to withdraw from southern Indochina and to refrain from attacks in Southeast Asia , so long as the United States , United Kingdom , and Netherlands ceased aid to China and lifted their sanctions against Japan . The American counter-proposal of November 26 ( November 27 in Japan ) , the Hull note , required Japan completely evacuate China without conditions and conclude non-aggression pacts with Pacific powers . On November 26 in Japan , the day before the note 's delivery , the Japanese task force left port for Pearl Harbor . Military planning Preliminary planning for an attack on Pearl Harbor to protect the move into the `` Southern Resource Area '' ( the Japanese term for the Dutch East Indies and Southeast Asia generally ) had begun very early in 1941 under the auspices of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto , then commanding Japan 's Combined Fleet . He won assent to formal planning and training for an attack from the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff only after much contention with Naval Headquarters , including a threat to resign his command . Full - scale planning was underway by early spring 1941 , primarily by Rear Admiral Ryūnosuke Kusaka , with assistance from Captain Minoru Genda and Yamamoto 's Deputy Chief of Staff , Captain Kameto Kuroshima . The planners studied the 1940 British air attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto intensively . Over the next several months , pilots were trained , equipment was adapted , and intelligence was collected . Despite these preparations , Emperor Hirohito did not approve the attack plan until November 5 , after the third of four Imperial Conferences called to consider the matter . Final authorization was not given by the emperor until December 1 , after a majority of Japanese leaders advised him the `` Hull Note '' would `` destroy the fruits of the China incident , endanger Manchukuo and undermine Japanese control of Korea . '' By late 1941 , many observers believed that hostilities between the U.S. and Japan were imminent . A Gallup poll just before the attack on Pearl Harbor found that 52 % of Americans expected war with Japan , 27 % did not , and 21 % had no opinion . While U.S. Pacific bases and facilities had been placed on alert on many occasions , U.S. officials doubted Pearl Harbor would be the first target ; instead , they expected the Philippines would be attacked first . This presumption was due to the threat that the air bases throughout the country and the naval base at Manila posed to sea lanes , as well as to the shipment of supplies to Japan from territory to the south . They also incorrectly believed that Japan was not capable of mounting more than one major naval operation at a time . Objectives The Japanese attack had several major aims . First , it intended to destroy important American fleet units , thereby preventing the Pacific Fleet from interfering with Japanese conquest of the Dutch East Indies and Malaya and to enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference . Second , it was hoped to buy time for Japan to consolidate its position and increase its naval strength before shipbuilding authorized by the 1940 Vinson - Walsh Act erased any chance of victory . Third , to deliver a blow to America 's ability to mobilize its forces in the Pacific , battleships were chosen as the main targets , since they were the prestige ships of any navy at the time . Finally , it was hoped that the attack would undermine American morale such that the U.S. government would drop its demands contrary to Japanese interests , and would seek a compromise peace with Japan . Striking the Pacific Fleet at anchor in Pearl Harbor carried two distinct disadvantages : the targeted ships would be in very shallow water , so it would be relatively easy to salvage and possibly repair them ; and most of the crews would survive the attack , since many would be on shore leave or would be rescued from the harbor . A further important disadvantage -- this of timing , and known to the Japanese -- was the absence from Pearl Harbor of all three of the U.S. Pacific Fleet 's aircraft carriers ( Enterprise , Lexington , and Saratoga ) . IJN top command was attached to Admiral Mahan 's `` decisive battle '' doctrine , especially that of destroying the maximum number of battleships . Despite these concerns , Yamamoto decided to press ahead . Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short , victorious war also meant other targets in the harbor , especially the navy yard , oil tank farms , and submarine base , were ignored , since -- by their thinking -- the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt . Approach and attack See also : Order of battle of the Attack on Pearl Harbor Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back An Imperial Japanese Navy Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter on the aircraft carrier Akagi On November 26 , 1941 , a Japanese task force ( the Striking Force ) of six aircraft carriers -- Akagi , Kaga , Sōryū , Hiryū , Shōkaku , and Zuikaku -- departed Hittokapu Bay on Kasatka ( now Iterup ) Island in the Kurile Islands , en route to a position northwest of Hawaii , intending to launch its 408 aircraft to attack Pearl Harbor : 360 for the two attack waves and 48 on defensive combat air patrol ( CAP ) , including nine fighters from the first wave . The first wave was to be the primary attack , while the second wave was to attack carriers as its first objective and cruisers as its second , with battleships as the third target . The first wave carried most of the weapons to attack capital ships , mainly specially adapted Type 91 aerial torpedoes which were designed with an anti-roll mechanism and a rudder extension that let them operate in shallow water . The aircrews were ordered to select the highest value targets ( battleships and aircraft carriers ) or , if these were not present , any other high value ships ( cruisers and destroyers ) . First wave dive bombers were to attack ground targets . Fighters were ordered to strafe and destroy as many parked aircraft as possible to ensure they did not get into the air to intercept the bombers , especially in the first wave . When the fighters ' fuel got low they were to refuel at the aircraft carriers and return to combat . Fighters were to serve CAP duties where needed , especially over U.S. airfields . Before the attack commenced , two reconnaissance aircraft launched from cruisers Chikuma and Tone were sent to scout over Oahu and Maui and report on U.S. fleet composition and location . Reconnaissance aircraft flights risked alerting the U.S. , and were not necessary . U.S. fleet composition and preparedness information in Pearl Harbor was already known due to the reports of the Japanese spy Takeo Yoshikawa . A report of the absence of the U.S. fleet in Lahaina anchorage off Maui was received from the fleet submarine I - 72 . Another four scout planes patrolled the area between the Japanese carrier force ( the Kidō Butai ) and Niihau , to detect any counterattack . Submarines Fleet submarines I - 16 , I - 18 , I - 20 , I - 22 , and I - 24 each embarked a Type A midget submarine for transport to the waters off Oahu . The five I - boats left Kure Naval District on November 25 , 1941 . On December 6 , they came to within 10 nmi ( 19 km ; 12 mi ) of the mouth of Pearl Harbor and launched their midget subs at about 01 : 00 on December 7 . At 03 : 42 Hawaiian Time , the minesweeper Condor spotted a midget submarine periscope southwest of the Pearl Harbor entrance buoy and alerted the destroyer Ward . The midget may have entered Pearl Harbor . However , Ward sank another midget submarine at 06 : 37 in the first American shots in the Pacific Theater . A midget submarine on the north side of Ford Island missed the seaplane tender Curtiss with her first torpedo and missed the attacking destroyer Monaghan with her other one before being sunk by Monaghan at 08 : 43 . A third midget submarine , Ha - 19 , grounded twice , once outside the harbor entrance and again on the east side of Oahu , where it was captured on December 8 . Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki swam ashore and was captured by Hawaii National Guard Corporal David Akui , becoming the first Japanese prisoner of war . A fourth had been damaged by a depth charge attack and was abandoned by its crew before it could fire its torpedoes . Japanese forces received a radio message from a midget submarine at 00 : 41 on December 8 claiming damage to one or more large warships inside Pearl Harbor . In 1992 , 2000 , and 2001 , Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 's submersibles found the wreck of the fifth midget submarine lying in three parts outside Pearl Harbor . The wreck was in the debris field where much surplus U.S. equipment was dumped after the war , including vehicles and landing craft . Both of its torpedoes were missing . This correlates with reports of two torpedoes fired at the light cruiser St. Louis at 10 : 04 at the entrance of Pearl Harbor , and a possible torpedo fired at destroyer Helm at 08 : 21 . Japanese declaration of war See also : Japanese war crimes The attack took place before any formal declaration of war was made by Japan , but this was not Admiral Yamamoto 's intention . He originally stipulated that the attack should not commence until thirty minutes after Japan had informed the United States that peace negotiations were at an end . However , the attack began before the notice could be delivered . Tokyo transmitted the 5000 - word notification ( commonly called the `` 14 - Part Message '' ) in two blocks to the Japanese Embassy in Washington . Transcribing the message took too long for the Japanese ambassador to deliver it on schedule ; in the event , it was not presented until more than an hour after the attack began . ( In fact , U.S. code breakers had already deciphered and translated most of the message hours before he was scheduled to deliver it . ) The final part is sometimes described as a declaration of war . While it was viewed by a number of senior U.S government and military officials as a very strong indicator negotiations were likely to be terminated and that war might break out at any moment , it neither declared war nor severed diplomatic relations . A declaration of war was printed on the front page of Japan 's newspapers in the evening edition of December 8 , but not delivered to the U.S. government until the day after the attack . For decades , conventional wisdom held that Japan attacked without first formally breaking diplomatic relations only because of accidents and bumbling that delayed the delivery of a document hinting at war to Washington . In 1999 , however , Takeo Iguchi , a professor of law and international relations at International Christian University in Tokyo , discovered documents that pointed to a vigorous debate inside the government over how , and indeed whether , to notify Washington of Japan 's intention to break off negotiations and start a war , including a December 7 entry in the war diary saying , `` ( O ) ur deceptive diplomacy is steadily proceeding toward success . '' Of this , Iguchi said , `` The diary shows that the army and navy did not want to give any proper declaration of war , or indeed prior notice even of the termination of negotiations ... and they clearly prevailed . '' In any event , even if the Japanese had decoded and delivered the 14 - Part Message before the beginning of the attack , it would not have constituted either a formal break of diplomatic relations or a declaration of war . The final two paragraphs of the message read : Thus the earnest hope of the Japanese Government to adjust Japanese - American relations and to preserve and promote the peace of the Pacific through cooperation with the American Government has finally been lost . The Japanese Government regrets to have to notify hereby the American Government that in view of the attitude of the American Government it can not but consider that it is impossible to reach an agreement through further negotiations . First wave composition The Japanese attacked in two waves . The first wave was detected by U.S. Army radar at 136 nautical miles ( 252 km ) , but was misidentified as USAAF bombers arriving from the American mainland Top : A. Ford Island NAS B. Hickam Field C. Bellows Field D. Wheeler Field E. Kaneohe NAS F. Ewa MCAS R - 1 . Opana Radar Station R - 2 . Kawailoa RS R - 3 . Kaaawa RS G. Haleiwa H. Kahuku I. Wahiawa J. Kaneohe K. Honolulu 0 . B - 17s from mainland 1 . First strike group 1 - 1 . Level bombers 1 -- 2 . Torpedo bombers 1 -- 3 . Dive bombers 2 . Second strike group 2 - 1 . Level bombers 2 - 1F . Fighters 2 - 2 . Dive bombers Bottom : A. Wake Island B. Midway Islands C. Johnston Island D. Hawaii D - 1 . Oahu 1 . USS Lexington 2 . USS Enterprise 3 . First Air Fleet < 21 feet ( 6.4 m ) 22 -- 23 feet ( 6.7 -- 7.0 m ) 29 feet ( 8.8 m ) 30 -- 32 feet ( 9.1 -- 9.8 m ) 33 -- 34 feet ( 10.1 -- 10.4 m ) 34 -- 35 feet ( 10.4 -- 10.7 m ) 36 -- 37 feet ( 11.0 -- 11.3 m ) 38 -- 39 feet ( 11.6 -- 11.9 m ) 40 -- 41 feet ( 12.2 -- 12.5 m ) 42 -- 48 feet ( 12.8 -- 14.6 m ) > 49 feet ( 14.9 m ) City Army base Navy base Attacked targets : 1 : USS California 2 : USS Maryland 3 : USS Oklahoma 4 : USS Tennessee 5 : USS West Virginia 6 : USS Arizona 7 : USS Nevada 8 : USS Pennsylvania 9 : Ford Island NAS 10 : Hickam field Ignored infrastructure targets : A : Oil storage tanks B : CINCPAC headquarters building C : Submarine base D: Navy Yard The first attack wave of 183 planes was launched north of Oahu , led by Commander Mitsuo Fuchida . Six planes failed to launch due to technical difficulties . It included : 1st Group ( targets : battleships and aircraft carriers ) 49 Nakajima B5N Kate bombers armed with 800 kg ( 1760 lb ) armor - piercing bombs , organized in four sections ( 1 failed to launch ) 40 B5N bombers armed with Type 91 torpedoes , also in four sections 2nd Group -- ( targets : Ford Island and Wheeler Field ) 51 Aichi D3A Val dive bombers armed with 550 lb ( 249 kg ) general - purpose bombs ( 3 failed to launch ) 3rd Group -- ( targets : aircraft at Ford Island , Hickam Field , Wheeler Field , Barber 's Point , Kaneohe ) 43 Mitsubishi A6M `` Zero '' fighters for air control and strafing ( 2 failed to launch ) As the first wave approached Oahu , it was detected by the U.S. Army SCR - 270 radar at Opana Point near the island 's northern tip . This post had been in training mode for months , but was not yet operational . The operators , Privates George Elliot Jr. and Joseph Lockard , reported a target . But Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler , a newly assigned officer at the thinly manned Intercept Center , presumed it was the scheduled arrival of six B - 17 bombers from California . The Japanese planes were approaching from a direction very close ( only a few degrees difference ) to the bombers , and while the operators had never seen a formation as large on radar , they neglected to tell Tyler of its size . Tyler , for security reasons , could not tell the operators of the six B - 17s that were due ( even though it was widely known ) . As the first wave planes approached Oahu , they encountered and shot down several U.S. aircraft . At least one of these radioed a somewhat incoherent warning . Other warnings from ships off the harbor entrance were still being processed or awaiting confirmation when the attacking planes began bombing and strafing . Nevertheless , it is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even if they had been interpreted correctly and much more promptly . The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor , though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning that the Japanese had already attacked Pearl Harbor . The air portion of the attack began at 7 : 48 a.m. Hawaiian Time ( 3 : 18 a.m. December 8 Japanese Standard Time , as kept by ships of the Kido Butai ) , with the attack on Kaneohe . A total of 353 Japanese planes in two waves reached Oahu . Slow , vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave , exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present ( the battleships ) , while dive bombers attacked U.S. air bases across Oahu , starting with Hickam Field , the largest , and Wheeler Field , the main U.S. Army Air Forces fighter base . The 171 planes in the second wave attacked the Army Air Forces ' Bellows Field near Kaneohe on the windward side of the island , and Ford Island . The only aerial opposition came from a handful of P - 36 Hawks , P - 40 Warhawks , and some SBD Dauntless dive bombers from the carrier Enterprise . A destroyed Vindicator at Ewa field , the victim of one of the smaller attacks on the approach to Pearl Harbor In the first wave attack , about eight of the forty - nine 800 kg ( 1760 lb ) armor - piercing bombs dropped hit their intended battleship targets . At least two of those bombs broke up on impact , another detonated before penetrating an unarmored deck , and one was a dud . Thirteen of the forty torpedoes hit battleships , and four torpedoes hit other ships . Men aboard U.S. ships awoke to the sounds of alarms , bombs exploding , and gunfire , prompting bleary - eyed men to dress as they ran to General Quarters stations . ( The famous message , `` Air raid Pearl Harbor . This is not drill . '' , was sent from the headquarters of Patrol Wing Two , the first senior Hawaiian command to respond . ) The defenders were very unprepared . Ammunition lockers were locked , aircraft parked wingtip to wingtip in the open to prevent sabotage , guns unmanned ( none of the Navy 's 5 `` / 38s , only a quarter of its machine guns , and only four of 31 Army batteries got in action ) . Despite this low alert status , many American military personnel responded effectively during the attack . Ensign Joe Taussig Jr. , aboard Nevada , commanded the ship 's antiaircraft guns and was severely wounded , but continued to be on post . Lt. Commander F.J. Thomas commanded Nevada in the captain 's absence and got her under way until the ship was grounded at 9 : 10 a.m. One of the destroyers , Aylwin , got underway with only four officers aboard , all ensigns , none with more than a year 's sea duty ; she operated at sea for 36 hours before her commanding officer managed to get back aboard . Captain Mervyn Bennion , commanding West Virginia , led his men until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb which hit Tennessee , moored alongside . Second wave composition The second planned wave consisted of 171 planes : 54 B5Ns , 81 D3As , and 36 A6Ms , commanded by Lieutenant - Commander Shigekazu Shimazaki . Four planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties . This wave and its targets comprised : 1st Group -- 54 B5Ns armed with 550 lb ( 249 kg ) and 132 lb ( 60 kg ) general - purpose bombs 27 B5Ns -- aircraft and hangars on Kaneohe , Ford Island , and Barbers Point 27 B5Ns -- hangars and aircraft on Hickam Field 2nd Group ( targets : aircraft carriers and cruisers ) 78 D3As armed with 550 lb ( 249 kg ) general - purpose bombs , in four sections ( 3 aborted ) 3rd Group -- ( targets : aircraft at Ford Island , Hickam Field , Wheeler Field , Barber 's Point , Kaneohe ) 35 A6Ms for defense and strafing ( 1 aborted ) The second wave was divided into three groups . One was tasked to attack Kāne ʻohe , the rest Pearl Harbor proper . The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously from several directions . American casualties and damage Ninety minutes after it began , the attack was over . Two thousand and eight sailors were killed , and 710 others wounded ; 218 soldiers and airmen ( who were part of the Army until the independent U.S. Air Force was formed in 1947 ) were killed and 364 wounded ; 109 marines were killed and 69 wounded ; and 68 civilians were killed and 35 wounded . In total , 2,403 Americans died and 1,178 were wounded . Eighteen ships were sunk or run aground , including five battleships . All of the Americans killed or wounded during the attack were non-combatants , given the fact there was no state of war when the attack occurred . USS Arizona during the attack USS Nevada , on fire and down at the bow , attempting to leave the harbor before being deliberately beached Of the American fatalities , nearly half were due to the explosion of Arizona 's forward magazine after it was hit by a modified 16 - inch ( 410 mm ) shell . Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire amidships , Nevada attempted to exit the harbor . She was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got under way and sustained more hits from 250 lb ( 113 kg ) bombs , which started further fires . She was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance . USS West Virginia was sunk by six torpedoes and two bombs during the attack California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes . The crew might have kept her afloat , but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps . Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her , and probably made the situation look worse than it was . The disarmed target ship Utah was holed twice by torpedoes . West Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes , the seventh tearing away her rudder . Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes , the last two above her belt armor , which caused her to capsize . Maryland was hit by two of the converted 16 '' shells , but neither caused serious damage . Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships ( the largest vessels present ) , they did not ignore other targets . The light cruiser Helena was torpedoed , and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer Oglala . Two destroyers in dry dock , Cassin and Downes were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers . The leaking fuel caught fire ; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise , and both were burned out . Cassin slipped from her keel blocks and rolled against Downes . The light cruiser Raleigh was holed by a torpedo . The light cruiser Honolulu was damaged , but remained in service . The repair vessel Vestal , moored alongside Arizona , was heavily damaged and beached . The seaplane tender Curtiss was also damaged . The destroyer Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine . This message denotes the first U.S. ship , St. Louis to clear Pearl Harbor . ( National Archives and Records Administration ) ( Note that this is in answer to question `` Is channel clear ? '' and faint writing at bottom concerning the answer being held until St. Louis had successfully cleared . ) Of the 402 American aircraft in Hawaii , 188 were destroyed and 159 damaged , 155 of them on the ground . Almost none were actually ready to take off to defend the base . Eight Army Air Forces pilots managed to get airborne during the attack and six were credited with downing at least one Japanese aircraft during the attack : 1st Lt. Lewis M. Sanders , 2nd Lt. Philip M. Rasmussen , 2nd Lt. Kenneth M. Taylor , 2nd Lt. George S. Welch , 2nd Lt. Harry W. Brown , and 2nd Lt. Gordon H. Sterling Jr . Sterling was shot down by Lt. Fujita over Kaneohe Bay and is listed as Body Not Recovered ( not Missing In Action ) . Lt. John L. Dains was killed by friendly fire returning from a victory over Kaawa . Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii , 24 were destroyed , and six others damaged beyond repair . ( The three on patrol returned undamaged . ) Friendly fire brought down some U.S. planes on top of that , including five from an inbound flight from Enterprise . Japanese attacks on barracks killed additional personnel . At the time of the attack , nine civilian aircraft were flying in the vicinity of Pearl Harbor . Of these , three were shot down . Japanese losses Fifty - five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the attack , and one was captured . Of Japan 's 414 available planes , 29 were lost during the battle ( nine in the first attack wave , 20 in the second ) , with another 74 damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground . Possible third wave Several Japanese junior officers including Fuchida and Genda urged Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor 's fuel and torpedo storage , maintenance , and dry dock facilities as possible . Genda , who had unsuccessfully advocated for invading Hawaii after the air attack , believed that without an invasion , three strikes were necessary to disable the base as much as possible . The captains of the other five carriers in the task force reported they were willing and ready to carry out a third strike . Military historians have suggested the destruction of these shore facilities would have hampered the U.S. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than the loss of its battleships . If they had been wiped out , `` serious ( American ) operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year '' ; according to Admiral Chester W. Nimitz , later Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet , `` it would have prolonged the war another two years . '' Nagumo , however , decided to withdraw for several reasons : American anti-aircraft performance had improved considerably during the second strike , and two thirds of Japan 's losses were incurred during the second wave . Nagumo felt if he launched a third strike , he would be risking three quarters of the Combined Fleet 's strength to wipe out the remaining targets ( which included the facilities ) while suffering higher aircraft losses . The location of the American carriers remained unknown . In addition , the admiral was concerned his force was now within range of American land - based bombers . Nagumo was uncertain whether the U.S. had enough surviving planes remaining on Hawaii to launch an attack against his carriers . A third wave would have required substantial preparation and turnaround time , and would have meant returning planes would have had to land at night . At the time , only the Royal Navy had developed night carrier techniques , so this was a substantial risk . The task force 's fuel situation did not permit him to remain in waters north of Pearl Harbor much longer , since he was at the very limit of logistical support . To do so risked running unacceptably low on fuel , perhaps even having to abandon destroyers en route home . He believed the second strike had essentially satisfied the main objective of his mission -- the neutralization of the Pacific Fleet -- and did not wish to risk further losses . Moreover , it was Japanese Navy practice to prefer the conservation of strength over the total destruction of the enemy . At a conference aboard his flagship the following morning , Yamamoto supported Nagumo 's withdrawal without launching a third wave . In retrospect , sparing the vital dockyards , maintenance shops , and the oil tank farm meant the U.S. could respond relatively quickly to Japanese activities in the Pacific . Yamamoto later regretted Nagumo 's decision to withdraw and categorically stated it had been a great mistake not to order a third strike . Ships lost or damaged Twenty - one ships were damaged or lost in the attack , of which all but three were repaired and returned to service . Battleships Arizona ( RADM Kidd 's flagship of Battleship Division One ) : hit by four armor - piercing bombs , exploded ; total loss . 1,177 dead . Oklahoma : hit by five torpedoes , capsized ; total loss . 429 dead . West Virginia : hit by two bombs , seven torpedoes , sunk ; returned to service July 1944 . 106 dead . California : hit by two bombs , two torpedoes , sunk ; returned to service January 1944 . 100 dead . Nevada : hit by six bombs , one torpedo , beached ; returned to service October 1942 . 60 dead . Pennsylvania ( ADM Kimmel 's flagship of the United States Pacific Fleet ) : in drydock with Cassin and Downes , hit by one bomb and debris from USS Cassin ; remained in service . 9 dead . Tennessee : hit by two bombs ; returned to service February 1942 . 5 dead . Maryland : hit by two bombs ; returned to service February 1942 . 4 dead ( including floatplane pilot shot down ) . Ex-battleship ( target / aa training ship ) Utah : hit by two torpedoes , capsized ; total loss . 64 dead . Cruisers Helena : hit by one torpedo ; returned to service January 1942 . 20 dead . Raleigh : hit by one torpedo ; returned to service February 1942 . Honolulu : Near miss , light damage ; remained in service . Destroyers Cassin : in drydock with Downes and Pennsylvania , hit by one bomb , burned ; returned to service February 1944 . Downes : in drydock with Cassin and Pennsylvania , caught fire from Cassin , burned ; returned to service November 1943 . Helm : underway to West Loch , damaged by two near - miss bombs ; continued patrol ; dry - docked 15 January 1942 and sailed 20 January 1942 . Shaw : hit by three bombs ; returned to service June 1942 . Auxiliaries Oglala ( minelayer ) : Damaged by torpedo hit on Helena , capsized ; returned to service ( as engine - repair ship ) February 1944 . Vestal ( repair ship ) : hit by two bombs , blast and fire from Arizona , beached ; returned to service by August 1942 . Curtiss ( seaplane tender ) : hit by one bomb , one crashed Japanese aircraft ; returned to service January 1942 . 19 dead . Sotoyomo ( harbor tug ) : damaged by explosion and fires in Shaw ; sunk ; returned to service August 1942 . YFD - 2 ( yard floating dock ) : damaged by 250kg bombs ; sunk ; returned to service 25 January 1942 servicing Shaw . Salvage Captain Homer N. Wallin ( center ) supervises salvage operations aboard USS California , early 1942 After a systematic search for survivors , formal salvage operations began . Captain Homer N. Wallin , Material Officer for Commander , Battle Force , U.S. Pacific Fleet , was immediately ordered to lead salvage operations . `` Within a short time I was relieved of all other duties and ordered to full time work as Fleet Salvage Officer . '' Around Pearl Harbor , divers from the Navy ( shore and tenders ) , the Naval Shipyard , and civilian contractors ( Pacific Bridge and others ) began work on the ships that could be refloated . They patched holes , cleared debris , and pumped water out of ships . Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships . Within six months , five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl Harbor and on the mainland for extensive repair . Intensive salvage operations continued for another year , a total of some 20,000 man - hours under water . Oklahoma , while successfully raised , was never repaired , and capsized while under tow to the mainland in 1947 . Arizona and the target ship Utah were too heavily damaged for salvage , though much of their armament and equipment was removed and put to use aboard other vessels . Today , the two hulks remain where they were sunk , with Arizona becoming a war memorial . Aftermath Main article : Consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing declaration of war against Imperial Japan on December 8 , 1941 In the wake of the attack , 15 Medals of Honor , 51 Navy Crosses , 53 Silver Stars , four Navy and Marine Corps Medals , one Distinguished Flying Cross , four Distinguished Service Crosses , one Distinguished Service Medal , and three Bronze Star Medals were awarded to the American servicemen who distinguished themselves in combat at Pearl Harbor . Additionally , a special military award , the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal , was later authorized for all military veterans of the attack . The day after the attack , Roosevelt delivered his famous Infamy Speech to a Joint Session of Congress , calling for a formal declaration of war on the Empire of Japan . Congress obliged his request less than an hour later . On December 11 , Germany and Italy declared war on the United States , even though the Tripartite Pact did not require it . Congress issued a declaration of war against Germany and Italy later that same day . The UK actually declared war on Japan nine hours before the U.S. did , partially due to Japanese attacks on Malaya , Singapore and Hong Kong , and partially due to Winston Churchill 's promise to declare war `` within the hour '' of a Japanese attack on the United States . Pennsylvania , behind the wreckage of Downes and Cassin The attack was an initial shock to all the Allies in the Pacific Theater . Further losses compounded the alarming setback . Japan attacked the Philippines hours later ( because of the time difference , it was December 8 in the Philippines ) . Only three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor , the battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk off the coast of Malaya , causing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later to recollect `` In all the war I never received a more direct shock . As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me . There were no British or American capital ships in the Indian Ocean or the Pacific except the American survivors of Pearl Harbor who were hastening back to California . Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and naked '' . Remember December 7th ! , by Allen Saalburg , propaganda issued in 1942 Throughout the war , Pearl Harbor was frequently used in American propaganda . One further consequence of the attack on Pearl Harbor and its aftermath ( notably the Niihau incident ) was that Japanese American residents and citizens were relocated to nearby Japanese - American internment camps . Within hours of the attack , hundreds of Japanese American leaders were rounded up and brought to high - security camps such as Sand Island at the mouth of Honolulu harbor and Kilauea Military Camp on the island of Hawaii . Eventually , more than 110,000 Japanese Americans , nearly all who lived on the West Coast , were forced into interior camps , but in Hawaii , where the 150,000 - plus Japanese Americans composed over one - third of the population , only 1,200 to 1,800 were interned . The attack also had international consequences . The Canadian province of British Columbia , bordering the Pacific Ocean , had long had a large population of Japanese immigrants and their Japanese Canadian descendants . Pre-war tensions were exacerbated by the Pearl Harbor attack , leading to a reaction from the Government of Canada . On February 24 , 1942 , Order - in - Council P.C. no . 1486 was passed under the War Measures Act allowing for the forced removal of any and all Canadians of Japanese descent from British Columbia , as well as the prohibiting them from returning to the province . On 4 March , regulations under the Act were adopted to evacuate Japanese - Canadians . As a result , 12,000 were interned in interior camps , 2,000 were sent to road camps and another 2,000 were forced to work in the prairies at sugar beet farms . Petty Officer Shigenori Nishikaichi 's aircraft shown ten days after it crashed Niihau incident Main article : Niihau incident The Japanese planners had determined that some means was required for rescuing fliers whose aircraft were too badly damaged to return to the carriers . The island of Niihau , only 30 minutes flying time from Pearl Harbor , was designated as the rescue point . The Zero flown by Petty Officer Shigenori Nishikaichi of Hiryu was damaged in the attack on Wheeler , so he flew to the rescue point on Niihau . The aircraft was further damaged on landing . Nishikaichi was helped from the wreckage by one of the native Hawaiians , who , aware of the tension between the United States and Japan , took the pilot 's maps and other documents . The island 's residents had no telephones or radio and were completely unaware of the attack on Pearl Harbor . Nishikaichi enlisted the support of three Japanese - American residents in an attempt to recover the documents . During the ensuing struggles , Nishikaichi was killed and a Hawaiian civilian was wounded ; one collaborator committed suicide , and his wife and the third collaborator were sent to prison . The ease with which the local ethnic Japanese residents had apparently gone to the assistance of Nishikaichi was a source of concern for many , and tended to support those who believed that local Japanese could not be trusted . Strategic implications Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by saying , `` We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war . '' To a similar effect , see Isoroku Yamamoto 's alleged `` sleeping giant '' quote . While the attack accomplished its intended objective , it turned out to be largely unnecessary . Unbeknownst to Yamamoto , who conceived the original plan , the U.S. Navy had decided as far back as 1935 to abandon ' charging ' across the Pacific towards the Philippines in response to an outbreak of war ( in keeping with the evolution of Plan Orange ) . The U.S. instead adopted `` Plan Dog '' in 1940 , which emphasized keeping the IJN out of the eastern Pacific and away from the shipping lanes to Australia , while the U.S. concentrated on defeating Nazi Germany . Fortunately for the United States , the American aircraft carriers were untouched by the Japanese attack ; otherwise the Pacific Fleet 's ability to conduct offensive operations would have been crippled for a year or more ( given no diversions from the Atlantic Fleet ) . As it was , the elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but to rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines -- the very weapons with which the U.S. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance . While six of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service , their relatively low speed and high fuel consumption limited their deployment , and they served mainly in shore bombardment roles ( their only major action being the Battle of Surigao Strait in October 1944 ) . A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief that the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships , in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan . As a result , Yamamoto ( and his successors ) hoarded battleships for a `` decisive battle '' that never happened . The Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short , victorious war meant that they neglected Pearl Harbor 's navy repair yards , oil tank farms , submarine base , and old headquarters building . All of these targets were omitted from Genda 's list , yet they proved more important than any battleship to the American war efforts in the Pacific . The survival of the repair shops and fuel depots allowed Pearl Harbor to maintain logistical support to the U.S. Navy 's operations , such as the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway . It was submarines that immobilized the Imperial Japanese Navy 's heavy ships and brought Japan 's economy to a virtual standstill by crippling the transportation of oil and raw materials : by the end of 1942 , import of raw materials was cut to half of what it had been , `` to a disastrous ten million tons '' , while oil import `` was almost completely stopped '' . Lastly , the basement of the Old Administration Building was the home of the cryptanalytic unit which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and the Submarine Force 's success . Retrospective debate on American intelligence Arizona Memorial Main article : Pearl Harbor advance - knowledge conspiracy theory Ever since the Japanese attack , there has been debate as to how and why the United States had been caught unaware , and how much and when American officials knew of Japanese plans and related topics . Military officers including Gen. Billy Mitchell had pointed out the vulnerability of Pearl to air attack . At least two naval war games , one in 1932 and another in 1936 , proved that Pearl was vulnerable to such an attack . Admiral James Richardson was removed from command shortly after protesting President Roosevelt 's decision to move the bulk of the Pacific fleet to Pearl Harbor . The decisions of military and political leadership to ignore these warnings has contributed to conspiracy theories . Several writers , including journalist Robert Stinnett and former United States Rear Admiral Robert Alfred Theobald , have argued that various parties high in the U.S. and British governments knew of the attack in advance and may even have let it happen or encouraged it in order to force the U.S. into war via the so - called `` back door '' . However , this conspiracy theory is rejected by mainstream historians . In popular culture Main article : Attack on Pearl Harbor in popular culture See also Battle of Taranto Operation K Air warfare of World War II Attack on Howland Island List of United States Navy ships present at Pearl Harbor , December 7 , 1941 List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Attack on Pearl Harbor Nagai Kita Edwin T. Layton National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day Pearl Harbor Survivors Association Winds Code References Informational notes Jump up ^ USCGC Taney ( WHEC - 37 ) , USCGC Reliance ( WSC - 150 ) , USCGC Tiger ( WSC - 152 ) . Jump up ^ Unless otherwise stated , all vessels listed were salvageable . ^ Jump up to : In 1941 , Hawaii was a half - hour different from the majority of other time zones . See UTC − 10 : 30 . Jump up ^ USS Utah ( AG - 16 , formerly BB - 31 ) ; Utah was moored in the space intended to have been occupied by the aircraft carrier Enterprise which , returning with a task force , had been expected to enter the channel at 0730 on December 7 ; delayed by weather , the task force did not reach Pearl Harbor until dusk the following day . Jump up ^ After it was announced in September that iron and steel scrap export would also be prohibited , Japanese Ambassador Horinouchi protested to Secretary Hull on October 8 , 1940 , warning this might be considered an `` unfriendly act . '' Jump up ^ This was mainly a Japanese Navy preference ; the Japanese Army would have chosen to attack the Soviet Union . Jump up ^ `` The Dorn report did not state with certainty that Kimmel and Short knew about Taranto . There is , however , no doubt that they did know , as did the Japanese . Lt. Cdr . Takeshi Naito , the assistant naval attaché to Berlin , flew to Taranto to investigate the attack first hand , and Naito subsequently had a lengthy conversation with Cdr . Mitsuo Fuchida about his observations . Fuchida led the Japanese attack on December 7 , 1941 . '' Jump up ^ `` A torpedo bomber needed a long , level flight , and when released , its conventional torpedo would plunge nearly a hundred feet deep before swerving upward to strike a hull . Pearl Harbor deep averages 42 feet . But the Japanese borrowed an idea from the British carrier - based torpedo raid on the Italian naval base of Taranto . They fashioned auxiliary wooden tail fins to keep the torpedoes horizontal , so they would dive to only 35 feet , and they added a breakaway `` nosecone '' of soft wood to cushion the impact with the surface of the water . '' Jump up ^ She was located by a University of Hawaii research submersible on August 28 , 2002 in 400 m ( 1,300 ft ) of water , 6 nmi ( 11 km ) outside the harbor . Jump up ^ While the nine sailors who died in the attack were quickly lionized by the Japanese government as Kyūgunshin ( `` The Nine War Heroes '' ) , the news of Sakamaki 's capture , which had been publicized in U.S. news broadcasts , was kept secret . Even after the war , however , he received recriminating correspondence from those who despised him for not sacrificing his own life . Jump up ^ The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor , Planning and Execution . First wave : 189 planes , 50 Kates w / bombs , 40 Kates with torpedoes , 54 Vals , 45 Zekes Second wave : 171 planes , 54 Kates w / bombs , 81 Vals , 36 Zekes . The Combat Air Patrol over the carriers alternated 18 plane shifts every two hours , with 18 more ready for takeoff on the flight decks and an additional 18 ready on hangar decks . Jump up ^ In the twenty - five sorties flown , USAF Historical Study No. 85 credits six pilots with ten planes destroyed : 1st Lt Lewis M. Sanders ( P - 36 ) and 2nd Lts Philip M Rasmussen ( P - 36 ) , Gordon H. Sterling Jr . ( P - 36 , killed in action ) , Harry W. Brown ( P - 36 ) , Kenneth M. Taylor ( P - 40 , 2 ) , and George S. Welch ( P - 40 , 4 ) . Three of the P - 36 kills were not verified by the Japanese and may have been shot down by naval anti-aircraft fire . Jump up ^ Odd though it may sound , `` not '' is correct , in keeping with standard Navy telegraphic practice . This was confirmed by Beloite and Beloite after years of research and debate . Jump up ^ The gunners that did get in action scored most of the victories against Japanese aircraft that morning , including the first of the attack by Tautog , and Dorie Miller 's Navy Cross-worthy effort . Miller was an African - American cook aboard West Virginia who took over an unattended anti-aircraft gun on which he had no training . He was the first African - American sailor to be awarded the Navy Cross . Jump up ^ The wreck has become a memorial to those lost that day , most of whom remain within the ship . She continues to leak small amounts of fuel oil , over 70 years after the attack . Jump up ^ USAAF pilots of the 46th and 47th Pursuit Squadrons , 15th Pursuit Group , claim to have destroyed 10 . Jump up ^ In the event , loss of these might have been a net benefit to the U.S. Blair , passim . Jump up ^ Wallin had been assigned to go to Massawa in East Africa . The harbor there was blocked by scuttled Italian and German ships , which prevented British use of the port . Commander Edward Ellsberg was sent instead . Jump up ^ The pact had one of its objectives limiting U.S. intervention in conflicts involving the three nations . Liddell Hart , B.H. ( 1970 ) History of the Second World War London : Weidenfeld Nicolson . p. 206 Shirer , William L. ( 1960 ) The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich : A History of Nazi Germsny New York : Simon and Shuster . p. 873 Keegan , John ( 1990 ) The Second World War New York : Viking . p. 130 . ISBN 0670823597 Jump up ^ In less than eleven months , most of Japan 's elite naval aviators who had been at Pearl Harbor were lost in subsequent battles . Lack of fuel and an inflexible training policy meant that they could not be replaced . Jump up ^ Gordon Prange specifically addresses some revisionist works , including Charles A. Beard . President Roosevelt and the Coming War 1941 ; William Henry Chamberlin , America 's Second Crusade ; John T. Flynn , The Roosevelt Myth ; George Morgenstern , Pearl Harbor ; Frederic R. Sanborn , Design for War ; Robert Alfred Theobald , The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor ; Harry E. Barnes , ed. , Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace and The Court Historians versus Revisionism ; Husband E. Kimmel , Admiral Kimmel 's Story . '' Citations Jump up ^ `` The Long Blue Line : The attack on Pearl Harbor -- '' a date that will live in infamy `` '' . coastguard.dodlive.mil . Retrieved 8 December 2017 . These units included high - endurance cutter Taney and patrol cutters Tiger and Reliance Jump up ^ `` U.S. COAST GUARD UNITS IN HAWAII '' ( PDF ) . media.defense.gov . Retrieved 8 December 2017 . USCGC Tiger ( WSC - 152 ) ; Commanding Officer : CWO William J. Mazzoni , USCG ; 125 - foot cutter Jump up ^ `` Active Class , U.S. Coast Guard Cutters '' . pwencycl.kgbudge.com . Retrieved 8 December 2017 . Jump up ^ `` Ships and District Craft Present at Pearl Harbor , 0800 7 December 1941 U.S. Navy Historical Center '' . History.navy.mil . Archived from the original on July 10 , 2011 . Retrieved July 5 , 2015 . Jump up ^ CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from ibiblio.org/hyperwar . Jump up ^ `` Overview of The Pearl Harbor Attack , 7 December 1941 '' . Archived from the original on August 6 , 2010 . Retrieved October 5 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Gilbert 2009 , p. 272 . Jump up ^ Gailey 1995 Jump up ^ `` Pearl Harbor Casualty List '' . USSWestVirginia.org . Retrieved December 7 , 2012 . ^ Jump up to : Conn 2000 , p. 194 Jump up ^ Morison 2001 , pp. 101 , 120 , 250 Jump up ^ Prange , Gordon W. , Goldstein , Donald , & Dillon , Katherine . The Pearl Harbor Papers ( Brassey 's , 2000 ) , p. 17ff ; Google Books entry on Prange et al . Jump up ^ For the Japanese designator of Oahu . Wilford , Timothy . `` Decoding Pearl Harbor '' , in The Northern Mariner , XII , # 1 ( January 2002 ) , p. 32fn81 . Jump up ^ Fukudome , Shigeru , `` Hawaii Operation '' . United States Naval Institute , Proceedings , 81 ( December 1955 ) , pp. 1315 -- 1331 Jump up ^ Gill , G. Hermon ( 1957 ) . Royal Australian Navy 1939 -- 1942 . Australia in the War of 1939 -- 1945 . Series 2 -- Navy . 1 . Canberra : Australian War Memorial . p. 485 . LCCN 58037940 . Archived from the original on May 25 , 2009 . Retrieved June 16 , 2015 . ^ Jump up to : Prange et al. December 7 , 1941 , p. 174 . ^ Jump up to : Parillo 2006 , p. 288 Jump up ^ Thomas 2007 , pp. 57 -- 59 . Jump up ^ `` Pearl Harbor Facts '' . About . Retrieved October 5 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` United States declares war '' . Abilene Reporter - News . December 8 , 1941 . p. 1 . Retrieved August 12 , 2014 -- via Newspapers.com . ^ Jump up to : Bromwich , Jonah Engel ( 2016 - 12 - 07 ) . `` How Pearl Harbor Shaped the Modern World '' . The New York Times . ISSN 0362 - 4331 . Retrieved 2017 - 03 - 25 . Jump up ^ Braumoeller , Bear F. ( 2010 ) `` The Myth of American Isolationism . '' Foreign Policy Analysis 6 : 349 -- 371 . ^ Jump up to : Yuma Totani ( April 1 , 2009 ) . The Tokyo War Crimes Trial : The Pursuit of Justice in the Wake of World War II . Harvard University Asia Center . p. 57 . ^ Jump up to : Stephen C. McCaffrey ( September 22 , 2004 ) . Understanding International Law . AuthorHouse . pp. 210 -- 229 . Jump up ^ Barnhart 1987 . Jump up ^ Werner Gruhl ( 2007 ) . Imperial Japan 's World War Two , 1931 -- 1945 . Transaction Publishers . p. 39 . ISBN 978 - 0 - 7658 - 0352 - 8 Jump up ^ GPO 1943 , p. 96 Jump up ^ GPO 1943 , p. 94 Jump up ^ Toland , Japan 's War . Jump up ^ Shift Of Our Fleet To Atlantic Studied , New York Times , June 23 , 1940 , `` Except for the Atlantic Battle Squadron , the entire fleet is now in the Pacific , based at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii . '' Jump up ^ Harper , Tim ( 2009 - 09 - 07 ) . `` Japan 's gigantic second world war gamble '' . The Guardian . ISSN 0261 - 3077 . Retrieved 2016 - 12 - 07 . ^ Jump up to : Peattie 1997 Jump up ^ William Chalek ( 2002 ) , `` 8 . War Plan Orange '' , Guest of the Emperor , iUniverse , pp. 45 -- 52 , ISBN 978 - 0 - 595 - 23996 - 2 Jump up ^ Edward S. Miller ( 2007 ) , War Plan Orange : The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan , 1897 -- 1945 , Naval Institute Press , pp. 63 , ISBN 978 - 1 - 59114 - 500 - 4 Jump up ^ GPO 1943 , p. 125 ^ Jump up to : Peattie 1997 ; Coox , Kobun . Jump up ^ Chapter IV The Showdown With Japan August -- December 1941 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare , 1941 -- 1942 Jump up ^ Chapter IV : The Fatal Turn Morton , Louis . Strategy and Command : The First Two Years Jump up ^ Review of the Diplomatic Conversations REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK ( 1946 ) ^ Jump up to : Chapter V : The Decision for War Morton , Louis . Strategy and Command : The First Two Years Jump up ^ Gailey 1995 , p. 68 Jump up ^ Gailey 1995 , p. 70 Jump up ^ Lord , Walter ( 2012 ) . Day of Infamy . Open Road Media . p. 14 . ISBN 1 - 4532 - 3842 - 5 . Jump up ^ Borch & Martinez 2005 , pp. 53 -- 54 . Jump up ^ Hellions of the Deep : The Development of American Torpedoes in World War II . By Robert Gannon , Published by Penn State Press , 1996 , p. 49 . ISBN 0 - 271 - 01508 - X Jump up ^ Wetzler 1998 , p. 39 . Jump up ^ Bix 2000 , p. 417 , citing the Sugiyama memo Jump up ^ The Canadian Institute of Public Opinion ( December 8 , 1941 ) . `` Gallup Poll Found 52 p.c. of Americans Expected War '' . Ottawa Citizen . p. 1 . Retrieved November 28 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Noted by Arthur MacArthur in the 1890s . Manchester , William . American Caesar Jump up ^ Peattie & Evans , Kaigun ^ Jump up to : Willmott 1983 , p. 14 . Jump up ^ Fukudome , Shigeru . Shikan : Shinjuwan Kogeki ( Tokyo , 1955 ) , p. 150 . Jump up ^ Gordon W. Prange , Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon , At Dawn We Slept : The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor ( 1982 ) Jump up ^ Alan Zimm , The Attack on Pearl Harbor : Strategy , Combat , Myths , Deceptions ( 2011 ) Jump up ^ Kaigun ; Wilmott , Barrier and the Javelin ; Blair , Silent Victory ^ Jump up to : Willmott 1983 Jump up ^ Zimm 2011 , p. 132 Jump up ^ Peattie 2001 p. 145 . Jump up ^ Zimm 2011 , pp. 173 , 174 Jump up ^ Zimm 2011 , p. 153 ^ Jump up to : Tony DiGiulian . `` Order of Battle -- Pearl Harbor -- December 7 , 1941 '' . Navweaps.com . Archived from the original on June 30 , 2011 . Retrieved July 17 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Stewart , A.J. , Lieutenant Commander , USN . `` Those Mysterious Midgets '' , United States Naval Institute Proceedings , December 1974 , p. 56 Jump up ^ Stewart , p. 56 Jump up ^ Goldstein 2000 , p. 146 Jump up ^ Stewart , `` Those Mysterious Midgets '' , p. 57 Jump up ^ Smith 1999 , p. 36 ^ Jump up to : Stewart , `` Those Mysterious Midgets '' , p. 58 Jump up ^ `` Japanese Midget Submarine '' . Retrieved January 20 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Stewart , pp. 59 -- 61 Jump up ^ Stewart , Those Mysterious Midgets , pp. 61 -- 62 Jump up ^ Ofstie , R.A. , Rear Admiral , USN . The Campaigns of the Pacific War ( United States Government Printing Office , 1946 ) , p. 19 Jump up ^ Zimm 2011 , pp. 330 -- 341 Jump up ^ Toland , Infamy Jump up ^ Prange , Goldstein , and Dillon , At Dawn We Slept , pp. 424 and 475 Jump up ^ Prange , Goldstein , and Dillon , At Dawn We Slept , pp. 493 -- 494 Jump up ^ Declaration of War handout Retrieved August 9 , 2012 . Jump up ^ Howard W. French ( December 9 , 1999 ) . `` Pearl Harbor Truly a Sneak Attack , Papers Show '' . The New York Times . Jump up ^ Kawabata , Tai , `` Historian seeks to clear embassy of Pearl Harbor ' sneak attack ' infamy '' , Japan Times , December 10 , 2014 , p. 3 Jump up ^ `` Japanese ' Fourteen Part ' Message of December 7 , 1941 '' HyperWar Jump up ^ Shinsato , Douglas and Tadanori Urabe , For That One Day : The Memoirs of Mitsuo Fuchida , Commander of the Attack on Pearl Harbor , Chapters 19 and 20 , eXperience , inc. , Kamuela , Hawaii , 2011 . ISBN 978 - 0 - 9846745 - 0 - 3 ^ Jump up to : `` Aircraft Attack Organization '' . Ibiblio.org . Archived from the original on June 23 , 2011 . Retrieved July 17 , 2011 . ^ Jump up to : NavSource 2003 Jump up ^ Prange , Goldstein , Dillon . At Dawn We Slept . pages 730 -- 31 ' Short mishandled radar ... ' In his ( Short 's ) words ' ... more for training than any idea it would be real ' Jump up ^ Evans , Harold . The American Century London : Jonathan Cape , 1998 . p. 309 . Jump up ^ Prange 1988 , p. 98 ^ Jump up to : Prange et al. , At Dawn We Slept , p. 500 - 501 . Jump up ^ Symonds , Craig L. The Battle Of Midway , ( Oxford University Press , 2011 ) , p. 218 . Jump up ^ Hone , Thomas C. ( 1977 ) . `` The Destruction of the Battle Line at Pearl Harbor '' . Proceedings . United States Naval Institute . 103 ( 12 ) : 56&57 . ^ Jump up to : Parillo 2006 , p. 293 Jump up ^ Bonner , Kermit . Final Voyages p. 105 Jump up ^ Aylwin , Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . ^ Jump up to : Patrick Watson ( December 1 , 2007 ) . Watson 's Really Big WWII Almanac , Volume 2 : July to December . Xlibris Corporation . p. 592 . Jump up ^ GPO 1946 , pp. 64 -- 65 Jump up ^ Dennis W. Shepherd ( September 22 , 2004 ) . Returning Son : From Baghdad , Kentucky to Baghdad , Iraq ( and back ) . AuthorHouse . p. 57 . Jump up ^ USS Shaw ( DD - 373 ) Jump up ^ Dorr , Robert F. ; Fred L. Borch . `` Pyjama - clad pilot took on Japanese at Pearl Harbor '' . Army Times . United States Army . Retrieved October 12 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` HyperWar : 7 December 1941 : The Air Force Story ( Chapter 4 ) '' . Ibiblio.org . Retrieved July 10 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Potter , Lt Col Joseph V. ( Winter 1982 ) . `` A Handful of Pilots '' ( PDF ) . JOURNAL . American Aviation Historical Society . pp. 282 -- 285 . Retrieved October 12 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Ofstie 1946 , p. 18 Jump up ^ Gailey 1997 , p. 68 Jump up ^ Caravaggio , Angelo N. ( Winter 2014 ) . `` '' Winning '' the Pacific War `` . Naval War College Review . 67 ( 1 ) : 85 -- 118 . Archived from the original on July 14 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Horn , Steve . The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor : Operation K and Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II ( Annapolis : Naval Institute Press , 2005 ) , p. 16 Jump up ^ Willmott 1983 ; Blair , Silent Victory . Jump up ^ Gailey 1997 , pp. 97 -- 98 Jump up ^ Yergin , Daniel ( 1991 ) , The Prize : The Epic Quest for Oil , Money & Power , New York : Simon & Schuster , ISBN 0 - 671 - 79932 - 0 p. 327 ^ Jump up to : Hoyt 2000 , p. 190 Jump up ^ Hoyt 2000 , p. 191 Jump up ^ Stephen , Martin ; Grove , Eric ( Ed ) ( 1988 ) , Sea Battles in Close - up : World War 2 , Volume 1 , Shepperton , Surrey : Ian Allan , pp. 34 -- 38 , ISBN 0 - 7110 - 1596 - 1 CS1 maint : Extra text : authors list ( link ) Jump up ^ Prange 1988 ^ Jump up to : Gailey 1997 , p. 97 Jump up ^ Willmott 1983 , p. 16 . Jump up ^ Gailey 1997 , p. 98 Jump up ^ Prange , Goldstein , Dillon . At Dawn We Slept page 49 Jump up ^ Wallin , Homer N. ( 1968 ) . Pearl Harbor : Why , How , Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal ( PDF ) . Naval History Division . p. 198 . Jump up ^ Wallin , Homer N. ( 1968 ) . Pearl Harbor : Why , How , Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal ( PDF ) . Naval History Division . p. 205 . Jump up ^ Wallin , Homer . Pearl Harbor : Why , How Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal . Naval History Division , 1968 Jump up ^ Commander Edward Ellsberg , O.B.E. Under the Red Sea Sun Dodd , Mead , and Co. , 1946 . Jump up ^ Raymer , E.C. Descent Into Darkness . Presidio Press , 1996 . Jump up ^ `` Post-attack ship salvage 1942 -- 1944 '' . Geocities . October 27 , 2009 . Archived from the original on October 27 , 2009 . Retrieved July 17 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Smith 1999 , p. . Jump up ^ `` The U.S. At War , The Last Stage '' . Time . December 15 , 1941 . Jump up ^ Churchill , Winston ; Martin Gilbert ( 2001 ) , `` December 1941 '' , The Churchill War Papers : The Ever - Widening War , Volume 3 : 1941 , London , New York : W.W. Norton , pp. 1593 -- 1594 , ISBN 0 - 393 - 01959 - 4 Jump up ^ Anthony Rhodes , Propaganda : The art of persuasion : World War II , p. 257 1976 , Chelsea House Publishers , New York Jump up ^ `` World War II Internment in Hawai'i '' . Education through Cultural & Historical Organizations . Archived from the original on August 12 , 2011 . Retrieved November 13 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Levine , E. ( 1995 ) . A Fence Away from Freedom : Japanese Americans and World War II . New York : G.P. Putnam 's Sons . Jump up ^ `` Archived copy '' . Archived from the original on December 1 , 2011 . Retrieved 2011 - 11 - 13 . Pearl Harbor Oahu website , retrieved on November 12 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Daniels , R. ( 1972 ) . Concentration camps USA : Japanese Americans and World War II . New York : Holt , Rinehart and Winston , Inc . Jump up ^ `` New Mexico Office of the State Historian -- people '' . Jump up ^ Regulations made 4 March 1942 Jump up ^ War Measures Act Conference ( 1977 : McMaster University ) . ( 1978 ) . The Japanese Canadian experience : the October crisis ( proceedings ) . Wilfrid Laurier University Book Shelves : London , Ontario : P. Anas Pub . pp. 12 -- 14 . Jump up ^ Douglas Shinsato , Translator / Publisher of For That One Day : The Memoirs of Mitsuo Fuchida , Commander of the Attack on Pearl Harbor , 2011 , pp. 293 -- 294 Jump up ^ Haufler , Herve . Codebreaker 's Victory : How the Allied Cryptographers Won World War II ( New York : NAL , 2003 ) , quoted p. 127 . Jump up ^ Hakim 1995 Jump up ^ Willmott 1983 , War Plan Orange Jump up ^ `` Attack on Pearl Harbor Nihon Kaigun '' . Combinedfleet.com . Retrieved March 6 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` Pearl Harbor vet remembers Dec. 7 , 1941 , sneak attack '' . The Kalona News . April 17 , 2013 . Retrieved March 6 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Blair , pp. 360 , 816 Jump up ^ Rehearsals for Pearl Harbor Jump up ^ Wallin , Vice Admiral , Homer N. ( July 2 , 2017 ) . `` Pearl Harbor : Why , How , Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal '' . Hyperwar . Jump up ^ Prange , Gordon W. ; Donald M. Goldstein ; Katherinve V. Dillon ( 1991 ) . Pearl Harbor : The Verdict of History . Penguin Books . ISBN 978 - 0140159097 . 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Tora ! : Pearl Harbor 1941 ; Osprey Raid Series # 26 , Osprey Publishing , ISBN 978 - 1 - 84908 - 509 - 0 Thomas , Evan ( 2007 ) , Sea of Thunder : Four Commanders and the Last Great Naval Campaign 1941 -- 1945 , Simon and Schuster , ISBN 978 - 0 - 7432 - 5222 - 5 Willmott , H.P. ( 1983 ) , The barrier and the javelin : Japanese and Allied Pacific strategies , February to June 1942 , Naval Institute Press Zimm , Alan D. ( 2011 ) , Attack on Pearl Harbor : Strategy , Combat , Myths , Deceptions , Havertown , Pennsylvania : Casemate Publishers , ISBN 978 - 1 - 61200 - 010 - 7 U.S. government documents `` Document text '' , U.S. Navy Report of Japanese Raid on Pearl Harbor , United States National Archives , Modern Military Branch , 1942 , archived from the original on January 13 , 2008 , retrieved December 25 , 2007 `` Document text '' , Peace and War , United States Foreign Policy 1931 -- 1941 , Washington D.C. : United States Government Printing Office , 1943 , retrieved December 8 , 2007 `` Damage to United States Naval Forces and Installations as a Result of the Attack '' , Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack , Washington D.C. : United States Government Printing Office , 1946 , retrieved December 8 , 2007 Magazine articles Rodgaard , John ; Peter Hsu ; Carroll Lucas & Captain Andrew Biach ( December 1999 ) , `` Pearl Harbor -- Attack from Below '' , Naval History , United States Naval Institute , 13 ( 6 ) , archived from the original on September 30 , 2006 ( requires subscription ) Wetzler , Peter ( 1998 ) , Hirohito and war : imperial tradition and military decision making in prewar Japan , University of Hawaii Press , ISBN 978 - 0 - 8248 - 1925 - 5 Online sources Organization of the Japanese Air Attack Units December 7 , 1941 , NavSource Naval History , 2003 , archived from the original on December 13 , 2007 , retrieved December 8 , 2007 USS Shaw , destroyerhistory.org , archived from the original on June 17 , 2011 , retrieved January 5 , 2017 Homer N. Wallin , `` Pearl Harbor : Why , How , Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal '' , Hyperwar , ibiblio.org , retrieved October 10 , 2011 Further reading Edwin T. Layton , Roger Pineau , and John Costello ( 1985 ) , And I Was There : Pearl Harbor and Midway -- Breaking the Secrets , New York : Morrow . Layton , Kimmel 's Combat Intelligence Officer , says that Douglas MacArthur was the only field commander who had received any substantial amount of Purple intelligence . George Edward Morgenstern . Pearl Harbor : The Story of the Secret War . ( The Devin - Adair Company , 1947 ) ISBN 978 - 1 - 299 - 05736 - 4 . Conspiracy theory . James Dorsey . `` Literary Tropes , Rhetorical Looping , and the Nine Gods of War : ' Fascist Proclivities ' Made Real , '' in The Culture of Japanese Fascism , ed. by Alan Tansman ( Durham & London : Duke UP , 2009 ) , pp. 409 -- 431 . A study of Japanese wartime media representations of the submarine component of the attack on Pearl Harbor . McCollum memo A 1940 memo from a Naval headquarters staff officer to his superiors outlining possible provocations to Japan , which might lead to war ( declassified in 1994 ) . Gordon W. Prange , At Dawn We Slept ( McGraw - Hill , 1981 ) , Pearl Harbor : The Verdict of History ( McGraw - Hill , 1986 ) , and December 7 , 1941 : The Day the Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor ( McGraw - Hill , 1988 ) . This monumental trilogy , written with collaborators Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon , is considered the authoritative work on the subject . Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis , The Attack on Pearl Harbor : An Illustrated History ( NavPublishing , 2004 ) . Using maps , photos , unique illustrations , and an animated CD , this book provides a detailed overview of the surprise attack that brought the United States into World War II . Walter Lord , Day of Infamy ( Henry Holt , 1957 ) is a very readable , and entirely anecdotal , re-telling of the day 's events . W.J. Holmes , Double - Edged Secrets : U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II ( Naval Institute , 1979 ) contains some important material , such as Holmes ' argument that , had the U.S. Navy been warned of the attack and put to sea , it would have likely resulted in an even greater disaster . Michael V. Gannon , Pearl Harbor Betrayed ( Henry Holt , 2001 ) is a recent examination of the issues surrounding the surprise of the attack . Frederick D. Parker , Pearl Harbor Revisited : United States Navy Communications Intelligence 1924 -- 1941 ( Center for Cryptologic History , 1994 ) contains a detailed description of what the Navy knew from intercepted and decrypted Japan 's communications prior to Pearl . Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee , Pearl Harbor : Final Judgment , ( HarperCollins , 2001 ) , an account of the secret `` Clausen Inquiry '' undertaken late in the war by order of Congress to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson . Robert A. Theobald , Final Secret of Pearl Harbor ( Devin - Adair Pub , 1954 ) ISBN 0 - 8159 - 5503 - 0 ISBN 0 - 317 - 65928 - 6 Foreword by Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey , Jr . Albert C. Wedemeyer , Wedemeyer Reports ! ( Henry Holt Co , 1958 ) ISBN 0 - 89275 - 011 - 1 ISBN 0 - 8159 - 7216 - 4 Hamilton Fish III , Tragic Deception : FDR and America 's Involvement in World War II ( Devin - Adair Pub , 1983 ) ISBN 0 - 8159 - 6917 - 1 John Toland , Infamy : Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath ( Berkley Reissue edition , 1986 ISBN 0 - 425 - 09040 - X ) . Mary Ellen Condon - Rall , `` The U.S. Army Medical Department and the Attack on Pearl Harbor '' . ( The Journal of Medical History , January 1989 ) . PMID 11617401 . This article discusses the state of medical readiness prior to the attack , and the post-attack response by medical personnel . Robert Stinnett , Day of Deceit : The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor ( Free Press , 1999 ) A study of the Freedom of Information Act documents that led Congress to direct clearance of Kimmel and Short . ISBN 0 - 7432 - 0129 - 9 Edward L. Beach , Jr. , Scapegoats : A Defense of Kimmel and Short at Pearl Harbor ISBN 1 - 55750 - 059 - 2 Andrew Krepinevich . `` Lighting the Path Ahead : Field Exercises and Transformation ( 186 KB ) '' ( PDF ) . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on July 13 , 2007 . Retrieved January 5 , 2017 . ( Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments ) contains a passage regarding the Yarnell attack , as well as reference citations . Roberta Wohlstetter , Pearl Harbor : Warning and Decision , ( Stanford University Press : 1962 ) . The most cited scholarly work on the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor . Her introduction and analysis of the concept of `` noise '' persists in understanding intelligence failures . Roberta Wohlstetter , `` Cuba and Pearl Harbor : Hindsight and Foresight . '' Foreign Affairs 43.4 ( 1965 ) : 691 - 707 . online John Hughes - Wilson , Military Intelligence Blunders and Cover - Ups . Robinson , 1999 ( revised 2004 ) . Contains a brief but insightful chapter on the particular intelligence failures , and broader overview of what causes them . Douglas T. Shinsato and Tadanori Urabe , `` For That One Day : The Memoirs of Mitsuo Fuchida , Commander of the Attack on Pearl Harbor '' . ( eXperience : 2011 ) ISBN 978 - 0 - 9846745 - 0 - 3 Horn , Steve ( 2005 ) . The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor : Operation K And Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II . Naval Institute Press . ISBN 1 - 59114 - 388 - 8 . Seki , Eiji. ( 2006 ) . Mrs. Ferguson 's Tea - Set , Japan and the Second World War : The Global Consequences Following Germany 's Sinking of the SS Automedon in 1940 . London : Global Oriental . ISBN 1 - 905246 - 28 - 5 ; ISBN 978 - 1 - 905246 - 28 - 1 ( cloth ) Published by BRILL / Global Oriental , 2006 . Previously announced as Sinking of the SS Automedon and the Role of the Japanese Navy : A New Interpretation . Daniel Madsen , Resurrection - Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor . U.S. Naval Institute Press . 2003 . Highly readable and thoroughly researched account of the aftermath of the attack and the salvage efforts from December 8 , 1941 through early 1944 . Takeo , Iguchi , Demystifying Pearl Harbor : A New Perspective From Japan , I - House Press , 2010 , ASIN : B003RJ1AZA . Haynok , Robert J. ( 2009 ) . How the Japanese Did It . Naval History Magazine . 23 . United States Naval Institute . Melber , Takuma , Pearl Harbor . Japans Angriff und der Kriegseintritt der USA . C.H. Beck , München 2016 , ISBN 978 - 3 - 406 - 69818 - 7 . A concise introduction with a good focus oo what came before the attack and on the Japanese perspective . Moorhead , John J. 1942 `` Surgical Experience at Pearl Harbor '' , The Journal of the American Medical Association . An overview of different surgical procedures at the hospital at the scene of the event . External links Listen to this article ( 2 parts ) ( info ) Part 1 Part 2 This audio file was created from a revision of the article `` Attack on Pearl Harbor '' dated 2006 - 01 - 12 , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article . ( Audio help ) More spoken articles Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pearl Harbor attack . Library resources about Attack on Pearl Harbor Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries Navy History Heritage Command Official Overview History.com Account With Video About Education Account `` Remembering Pearl Harbor : The USS Arizona Memorial '' , a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places ( TwHP ) lesson plan Hawaii War Records Depository , Archives & Manuscripts Department , University of Hawaii at Manoa Library 7 December 1941 , The Air Force Story The `` Magic '' Background ( PDFs or readable online ) The Congressional investigation LTC Jeffrey J. Gudmens ; COL Timothy R. Reese ( 2009 ) . Staff Ride Handbook for the Attack on Pearl Harbor , 7 December 1941 : A Study of Defending America ( PDF ) ( Report ) . Combat Studies Institute . Accounts Guarding The United States And Its Outposts , in Guarding the United States and Its Outposts Official U.S. Army history of Pearl Harbor by the United States Army Center of Military History War comes to Hawaii Honolulu Star - Bulletin , Monday , September 13 , 1999 Media Video of first Newsreel from December 23 , 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor Bombing of Pearl Harbour -- 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor 1 , Nippon News , No. 82 . in the official website of NHK . Attack on Pearl Harbor 2 , Nippon News , No. 84 . in the official website of NHK . Historic footage of Pearl Harbor during and immediately following attack on December 7 , 1941 Historical documents WW2DB : U.S. Navy Report of Japanese Raid on Pearl Harbor Second World War -- USA Declaration of War on Japan . 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[ "Emperor Hirohito" ]
[ "Over the next several months , pilots were trained , equipment was adapted , and intelligence was collected . Despite these preparations , Emperor Hirohito did not approve the attack plan until November 5 , after the third of four Imperial Conferences called to consider the matter . Final authorization was not given by the emperor until December 1 , after a majority of Japanese leaders advised him the `` Hull Note '' would `` destroy the fruits of the China incident , endanger Manchukuo and undermine Japanese control of Korea . ''" ]
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who sings i'm going to hire a wino to decorate our home
I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home - Wikipedia I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home Jump to : navigation , search `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' Single by David Frizzell from the album The Family 's Fine , But This One 's All Mine B - side `` She 's Up to All Her Old Tricks Again '' Released April 1982 Genre Country Length 4 : 00 Label Warner Bros . Songwriter ( s ) Dewayne Blackwell Producer ( s ) Snuff Garrett , Steve Dorff David Frizzell singles chronology `` Another Honky - Tonk Night on Broadway '' ( 1982 ) `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' ( 1982 ) `` I Just Came Here to Dance '' ( 1982 ) `` Another Honky - Tonk Night on Broadway '' ( 1982 ) `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' ( 1982 ) `` I Just Came Here to Dance '' ( 1982 ) `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' is a song written by Dewayne Blackwell and recorded by American country music artist David Frizzell . It was released in April 1982 as the first single from the album The Family 's Fine , But This One 's All Mine . `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' was David Frizzell 's only number one on the country chart as a solo artist . The single went to number one for one week and spent a total of 14 weeks in country music 's top 40 . The song also became an unexpected mainstream pop hit in Canada , peaking at No. 20 on the RPM Top Singles chart ( in addition to peaking at No. 3 on the magazine 's Top Country Tracks chart ) . Contents ( hide ) 1 Content 2 Charts 3 References 4 External links Content ( edit ) The song talks of a wife who grows tired of her husband 's barhopping ( and spending his entire paycheck doing so ) . But instead of ending the marriage , she comes up with a unique plan -- she decides to redecorate their house into a bar , and play the part of bartender / waitress as an inducement to get her husband to stay at home ( and possibly bring his friends along with him , so they can spend their paychecks ) . While he recovers from his hangover the following morning , she will deposit the proceeds in their bank account . Charts ( edit ) Chart ( 1982 ) Peak position US Hot Country Songs ( Billboard ) Canadian RPM Country Tracks Canadian RPM Top Singles 20 References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Whitburn , Joel ( 2004 ) . The Billboard Book of Top 40 Country Hits : 1944 - 2006 , Second edition . Record Research . p. 128 . Jump up ^ `` David Frizzell -- Chart history '' Billboard Hot Country Songs for David Frizzell . External links ( edit ) Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Preceded by `` Honky Tonkin ' '' by Hank Williams , Jr . Billboard Hot Country Singles number - one single August 14 , 1982 Succeeded by `` Nobody '' by Sylvia ( hide ) David Frizzell Notable singles `` L.A. International Airport '' `` I Just Ca n't Help Believing '' `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' `` Lost My Baby Blues '' Singles with Shelly West `` You 're the Reason God Made Oklahoma '' `` A Texas State of Mind '' `` Husbands and Wives '' `` Another Honky - Tonk Night on Broadway '' `` I Just Came Here to Dance '' Related articles Warner Bros. Records RCA Records Lefty Frizzell This 1982 country song - related article is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it . Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=I%27m_Gonna_Hire_a_Wino_to_Decorate_Our_Home&oldid=760788896 '' Categories : 1982 singles David Frizzell songs Songs written by Dewayne Blackwell Song recordings produced by Snuff Garrett Billboard Hot Country Songs number - one singles Warner Bros. Records singles 1982 songs 1982 country song stubs Hidden categories : Articles with hAudio microformats Singlechart usages for Billboardcountrysongs Singlechart called without song All stub articles Talk Contents About Wikipedia Add links This page was last edited on 19 January 2017 , at 02 : 09 . About Wikipedia
[ "David Frizzell" ]
[ "`` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' is a song written by Dewayne Blackwell and recorded by American country music artist David Frizzell . It was released in April 1982 as the first single from the album The Family 's Fine , But This One 's All Mine . `` I 'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home '' was David Frizzell 's only number one on the country chart as a solo artist . The single went to number one for one week and spent a total of 14 weeks in country music 's top 40 ." ]
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who played bernie in the movie weekend at bernie's
Weekend at Bernie 's - wikipedia Weekend at Bernie 's This article is about the 1989 comedy film . For its 1993 sequel , see Weekend at Bernie 's II . For the 2006 album by The Queers , see Weekend at Bernie 's ( album ) . For the episode of How I Met Your Mother , see Weekend at Barney 's . Weekend at Bernie 's Video release poster Directed by Ted Kotcheff Produced by Victor Drai Written by Robert Klane Starring Andrew McCarthy Jonathan Silverman Catherine Mary Stewart Terry Kiser Music by Andy Summers Cinematography François Protat Edited by Joan E. Chapman Production company Gladden Entertainment Distributed by 20th Century Fox Release date July 5 , 1989 ( 1989 - 07 - 05 ) Running time 97 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $15 million Box office $30.2 million Weekend at Bernie 's is a 1989 American black comedy film , directed by Ted Kotcheff and written by Robert Klane . The film stars Andrew McCarthy and Jonathan Silverman as young insurance corporation employees who discover their boss , Bernie , dead . While attempting to convince people that Bernie is still alive , they discover that Bernie had ordered their deaths to cover up his embezzlement . It received mixed critical response but was a financial success , grossing over $30 million on a $15 million budget . The film 's success inspired a sequel , Weekend at Bernie 's II ( 1993 ) . Contents 1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Reception 4 Soundtrack 5 Lawsuit 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Plot ( edit ) Larry Wilson ( Andrew McCarthy ) and Richard Parker ( Jonathan Silverman ) are two low - level financial employees at an insurance corporation in New York City . While going over actuarial reports , Richard discovers a series of payments made for the same death . Richard and Larry take their findings to the CEO , Bernie Lomax ( Terry Kiser ) , who commends them for discovering insurance fraud and invites them to his Hamptons island beach house for the Labor Day weekend . Unbeknownst to Larry and Richard , Bernie is behind the fraud . Nervously meeting with his mob partner Vito ( Louis Giambalvo ) , Bernie asks to have Larry and Richard killed . However , after Bernie leaves , Vito decides Bernie has been attracting too much attention with his greed and his relationship with Vito 's girlfriend , Tina ( Catherine Parks ) , and orders that he be killed instead . Bernie arrives at the island before Larry and Richard and plans the murders with Paulie ( Don Calfa ) , the hitman , on the phone , unaware the conversation is being recorded on his answering machine . Bernie then plants cash and a fake confession note implicating Larry and Richard in the insurance fraud . Paulie arrives , killing Bernie with a drug overdose . When Larry and Richard arrive at Bernie 's house , they find Bernie 's body . Before they can call the police , guests arrive for a party that Bernie used to host every weekend . To Larry and Richard 's amazement , the guests are too engrossed in their partying to notice he is dead , with the dopey grin from the fatal injection and his sunglasses concealing his lifeless state . Fearing implication in Bernie 's death , and wanting to enjoy the luxury of the house for the weekend , Larry proposes he and Richard maintain the illusion that Bernie is still alive , a notion that Richard finds absurd . Only the arrival of Richard 's office crush , Gwen Saunders ( Catherine Mary Stewart ) , a summer intern for the company , convinces him to go along with Larry 's plan . Later that night , Tina arrives at the house , and has Larry and Richard direct her to Bernie . There , she also fails to realize he is dead . At that moment , Marty , one of Vito 's mobsters witnesses the two of them apparently making love . Fooled into thinking Bernie 's assassination failed , he notifies Vito . The next morning , Richard is appalled to discover Larry furthering the illusion of Bernie being alive by manipulating his body 's limbs . Richard attempts to call the police but instead activates the phone message detailing Bernie 's plot against them . Unaware of the circumstances of Bernie 's death , they mistakenly believe they are still the targets of a mob hit and decide to use Bernie 's corpse as a prop for protection . Richard and Larry make various attempts to leave the island . All attempts are thwarted , as they repeatedly misplace and recover Bernie 's body . Finally , Larry and Richard are forced to return to Bernie 's home . Meanwhile , Paulie , unhinged at his apparent failure to kill Bernie , returns to the island . At the house , Gwen confronts Larry and Richard , who confess that Bernie has been dead since their arrival . Paulie then appears and opens fire at Bernie , then turns his attention to Larry , Richard , and Gwen . Chasing after the trio , Paulie corners Larry , who clumsily manages to subdue him with a phone cord and a punch . The police eventually arrive and place Paulie under arrest , taking him away in a straitjacket as he continues to insist Bernie is still alive . Bernie is loaded into an ambulance , however , his gurney rolls away and topples off the boardwalk , dumping him onto the beach right behind Richard , Larry , and Gwen , who run away after noticing him . Eventually , a young boy comes along and starts to `` play '' with Bernie , scooping buckets of sand over his body . Cast ( edit ) Andrew McCarthy as Lawrence `` Larry '' Wilson Jonathan Silverman as Richard Parker Terry Kiser as Bernie Lomax Catherine Mary Stewart as Gwen Saunders Don Calfa as Paulie Catherine Parks as Tina Eloise Broady as Tawny Gregory Salata as Marty Louis Giambalvo as Vito Ted Kotcheff as Mr. Parker Margaret Hall as Lomax 's secretary Jason Woliner as Bratty kid Reception ( edit ) The film received mixed reviews from critics , holding a 54 % rating on Rotten Tomatoes . Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called the film `` tasteless '' and `` crude '' and felt that in the end it was impossible to `` drag one tired joke around for nearly two hours . Like Bernie , the movie ends up dead on its feet . '' Roger Ebert echoed this sentiment , arguing that movies centered on dead bodies are rarely funny . Ebert gave the film 1 out of 4 stars overall . Nevertheless , the film was a financial success , grossing US $30 million at the box office , and was profitable on home video . Soundtrack ( edit ) The film 's closing credits feature the song `` Hot and Cold '' , performed by American singer Jermaine Stewart . It was written by Andy Summers and Winston ' Pipe ' Matthews , and produced by Richard Rudolph and Michael Sembello . The song was released as a single by Arista in the United States during June 1989 to promote the film . Lawsuit ( edit ) On January 24 , 2014 , director Ted Kotcheff and screenwriter Robert Klane filed a lawsuit against Metro - Goldwyn - Mayer and 20th Century Fox for breach of contract for profits they claimed were due from the film . See also ( edit ) The Two Deaths of Quincas Wateryell References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Box Office Information for Weekend at Bernie 's . The Wrap . Retrieved April 4 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Weekend at Bernie 's at Rotten Tomatoes Jump up ^ `` Weekend at Bernie 's '' . Rolling Stone . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 26 . Jump up ^ Ebert , Roger . `` Weekend at Bernie 's Movie Review ( 1989 ) Roger Ebert '' . www.rogerebert.com . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 26 . Jump up ^ Johnson , Steve ( Jul 13 , 1993 ) . `` Resurrection ' Weekend at Bernie 's II ' Feels More Like a Month '' . Chicago Tribune . Retrieved 2014 - 10 - 29 . Jump up ^ `` Familiarity Breeds Film Hits '' . Daily News of Los Angeles . Jul 13 , 1993 . Retrieved 2009 - 09 - 01 . Jump up ^ Hot and Cold ( Media notes ) . Jermaine Stewart . Arista Records . 1989 . AS1 - 9848 . Retrieved 24 May 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Jermaine Stewart - Hot And Cold / Search For Love - Arista - USA - AS1 - 9848 '' . 45cat. 2016 - 01 - 11 . Retrieved 2018 - 05 - 24 . Jump up ^ `` The Motion Picture Guide 1990 Annual : The Films of 1989 - Google Books '' . Books.google.co.uk. 2008 - 07 - 31 . Retrieved 2018 - 05 - 24 . Jump up ^ Patten , Dominic ( 24 January 2014 ) . `` Fox & MGM Sued In Multimillion - Dollar ' Weekend At Bernie 's ' Profits Suit '' . Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved 30 March 2015 . Jump up ^ McNary , Dave ( 24 January 2014 ) . `` ' Weekend at Bernie 's ' Filmmakers Sue Fox , MGM Over Profits '' . Variety . Retrieved 2 April 2015 . Jump up ^ Lowrey , Brandon ( 15 October 2014 ) . `` MGM Tries To Kill ' Weekend At Bernie 's ' Contract Claims '' . Retrieved 2 April 2015 . External links ( edit ) Weekend at Bernie 's on IMDb Weekend at Bernie 's at the TCM Movie Database Weekend at Bernie 's at AllMovie Weekend at Bernie 's at the American Film Institute Catalog Weekend at Bernie 's at Box Office Mojo Weekend at Bernie 's at Rotten Tomatoes Films directed by Ted Kotcheff Tiara Tahiti ( 1962 ) Life at the Top ( 1965 ) The Desperate Hours ( 1967 ) Of Mice and Men ( 1968 ) ( TV ) Two Gentlemen Sharing ( 1969 ) Wake in Fright ( 1971 ) Billy Two Hats ( 1974 ) The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz ( 1974 ) Fun with Dick and Jane ( 1977 ) Who Is Killing the Great Chefs of Europe ? ( 1978 ) North Dallas Forty ( 1979 ) Split Image ( 1982 ) First Blood ( 1982 ) Uncommon Valor ( 1983 ) Joshua Then and Now ( 1985 ) Switching Channels ( 1988 ) Winter People ( 1989 ) Weekend at Bernie 's ( 1989 ) Folks ! ( 1992 ) The Shooter ( 1995 ) Family of Cops ( 1995 ) Borrowed Hearts ( 1997 ) Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Weekend_at_Bernie%27s&oldid=859107809 '' Categories : 1989 films English - language films 1980s black comedy films 1980s buddy films 1980s criminal comedy films 20th Century Fox films American black comedy films American buddy films American criminal comedy films American films Films about contract killing Films directed by Ted Kotcheff Films set in Long Island Films set in New York City Films set on beaches Films shot in New York City Films shot in North Carolina Mafia comedy films Necrophilia in fiction Slapstick films Talk Contents About Wikipedia Català Deutsch Español Euskara Français Italiano עברית Latina Nederlands 日本 語 Polski Português Русский Suomi Svenska 6 more Edit links This page was last edited on 11 September 2018 , at 19 : 27 ( UTC ) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia ® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation , Inc. , a non-profit organization . About Wikipedia
[ "Terry Kiser" ]
[ "Larry Wilson ( Andrew McCarthy ) and Richard Parker ( Jonathan Silverman ) are two low - level financial employees at an insurance corporation in New York City . While going over actuarial reports , Richard discovers a series of payments made for the same death . Richard and Larry take their findings to the CEO , Bernie Lomax ( Terry Kiser ) , who commends them for discovering insurance fraud and invites them to his Hamptons island beach house for the Labor Day weekend . Unbeknownst to Larry and Richard , Bernie is behind the fraud . Nervously meeting with his mob partner Vito ( Louis Giambalvo ) , Bernie asks to have Larry and Richard killed . However , after Bernie leaves , Vito decides Bernie has been attracting too much attention with his greed and his relationship with Vito 's girlfriend , Tina ( Catherine Parks ) , and orders that he be killed instead ." ]
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what port was assigned for the irc service by iana
List of TCP and UDP port numbers - Wikipedia List of TCP and UDP port numbers Jump to : navigation , search This article contains one or more incomplete lists which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness . You can help by expanding it / them with entries that are reliably sourced . This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( June 2015 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) This is a list of TCP and UDP port numbers used by protocols of the transport layer of the Internet protocol suite for the establishment of host - to - host connectivity . Originally , port numbers were used by the Network Control Program ( NCP ) in the ARPANET for which two ports were required for half - duplex transmission . Later , the Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) and the User Datagram Protocol ( UDP ) needed only one port for full - duplex , bidirectional traffic . The even - numbered ports were not used , and this resulted in some even numbers in the well - known port number range being unassigned . The Stream Control Transmission Protocol ( SCTP ) and the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol ( DCCP ) also use port numbers . They usually use port numbers that match the services of the corresponding TCP or UDP implementation , if they exist . The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ) is responsible for maintaining the official assignments of port numbers for specific uses . However , many unofficial uses of both well - known and registered port numbers occur in practice . Similarly many of the official assignments refer to protocols that were never or are no longer in common use . This article lists port numbers and their associated protocols that have experienced significant uptake . Contents ( hide ) 1 Table legend 2 Well - known ports 3 Registered ports 4 Dynamic , private or ephemeral ports 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Table legend ( edit ) Official : Port is registered with IANA for the application . Unofficial : Port is not registered with IANA for the application . Multiple use : Multiple applications are known to use this port . Well - known ports ( edit ) This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness . You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries . This section gives self - sourcing examples without describing their significance in the context of the article . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources that describe the examples ' significance , and by removing less pertinent examples . Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged or removed . ( October 2016 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The port numbers in the range from 0 to 1023 are the well - known ports or system ports . They are used by system processes that provide widely used types of network services . On Unix - like operating systems , a process must execute with superuser privileges to be able to bind a network socket to an IP address using one of the well - known ports . Well - known ports ( hide ) Port TCP UDP Description IANA status 0 N / A N / A In programming APIs ( not in communication between hosts ) , requests a system - allocated ( dynamic ) port N / A 0 Reserved Reserved Reserved Official TCP Assigned TCP Port Service Multiplexer ( TCPMUX ) . Historic . Both TCP and UDP have been assigned to TCPMUX by IANA , but by design only TCP is specified . Official Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 5 TCP UDP Remote job entry Official 6 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 7 TCP UDP Echo Protocol Official 8 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 9 TCP SCTP UDP Discard Protocol Official 9 UDP Wake - on - LAN Unofficial 10 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 11 TCP UDP Active Users ( systat service ) Official 12 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 13 TCP UDP Daytime Protocol Official 14 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 15 TCP UDP Previously netstat service Unofficial 16 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 17 TCP UDP Quote of the Day ( QOTD ) Official 18 TCP UDP Message Send Protocol Official 19 TCP UDP Character Generator Protocol ( CHARGEN ) Official 20 TCP SCTP Assigned File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ) data transfer Official 21 TCP SCTP Assigned File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ) control ( command ) Official 22 TCP SCTP UDP Secure Shell ( SSH ) , secure logins , file transfers ( scp , sftp ) and port forwarding Official 23 TCP Assigned Telnet protocol -- unencrypted text communications Official 25 TCP Assigned Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) , used for email routing between mail servers Official 26 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 37 TCP UDP Time Protocol Official 38 TCP UDP Route Access Protocol ( RAP ) Official 39 TCP UDP Resource Location Protocol ( RLP ) -- used for determining the location of higher level services from hosts on a network Official 40 Reserved Reserved Unassigned Official 42 TCP UDP Host Name Server Protocol Official 43 TCP UDP WHOIS protocol Official 49 TCP UDP TACACS+ Login Host protocol Official 50 TCP UDP Remote Mail Checking Protocol Official 51 Reserved Official 51 TCP UDP Previously Interface Message Processor logical address management Unofficial 52 TCP UDP Xerox Network Systems ( XNS ) Time Protocol Official 53 TCP UDP Domain Name System ( DNS ) Official 54 TCP UDP Xerox Network Systems ( XNS ) clearinghouse Official 56 TCP UDP Xerox Network Systems ( XNS ) authentication Official 57 TCP UDP Any private terminal access Official 58 TCP UDP Xerox Network Systems ( XNS ) Mail Official 67 Assigned UDP Bootstrap Protocol ( BOOTP ) server ; also used by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( DHCP ) Official 68 Assigned UDP Bootstrap Protocol ( BOOTP ) client ; also used by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( DHCP ) Official 69 Assigned UDP Trivial File Transfer Protocol ( TFTP ) Official 70 TCP UDP Gopher protocol Official 71 -- 74 TCP UDP NETRJS protocol Official 75 TCP UDP Any private dial out service Official 77 TCP UDP Any private Remote job entry Official 79 TCP Assigned Finger protocol Official 80 TCP SCTP UDP Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ) Official 80 UDP QUIC ( from Chromium ) for HTTP Unofficial 81 N / A N / A Unassigned Official 81 TCP TorPark onion routing Unofficial 82 UDP TorPark control Unofficial 87 Any private terminal link Official 88 TCP Assigned Kerberos authentication system Official 90 TCP UDP dnsix ( DoD Network Security for Information Exchange ) Securit ( sic ? ) Attribute Token Map Official 90 TCP UDP PointCast ( dotcom ) Unofficial 99 TCP WIP message protocol Unofficial 100 N / A N / A Unassigned ( with known unauthorized use ) Official 101 TCP UDP NIC host name Official 102 TCP UDP ISO Transport Service Access Point ( TSAP ) Class 0 protocol ; Official 104 TCP UDP Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine ( DICOM ; also port 11112 ) Official 105 TCP UDP CCSO Nameserver Official 107 TCP UDP Remote User Telnet Service ( RTelnet ) Official 108 TCP UDP IBM Systems Network Architecture ( SNA ) gateway access server Official 109 TCP UDP Post Office Protocol , version 2 ( POP2 ) Official 110 TCP Assigned Post Office Protocol , version 3 ( POP3 ) Official 111 TCP UDP Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call ( ONC RPC , sometimes referred to as Sun RPC ) Official 113 TCP Ident , authentication service / identification protocol , used by IRC servers to identify users Official 113 TCP Assigned Authentication Service ( auth ) , the predecessor to identification protocol . Used to determine a user 's identity of a particular TCP connection . Official 114 N / A N / A Unassigned ( deprecated since June 2004 ) Official 115 TCP UDP Simple File Transfer Protocol Official 117 TCP UDP UUCP Mapping Project ( path service ) Official 118 TCP UDP Structured Query Language ( SQL ) Services Official 119 TCP Assigned Network News Transfer Protocol ( NNTP ) , retrieval of newsgroup messages Official 123 Assigned UDP Network Time Protocol ( NTP ) , used for time synchronization Official 126 TCP UDP Formerly Unisys Unitary Login , renamed by Unisys to NXEdit . Used by Unisys Programmer 's Workbench for Clearpath MCP , an IDE for Unisys MCP software development Official 135 TCP UDP DCE endpoint resolution Official 135 TCP UDP Microsoft EPMAP ( End Point Mapper ) , also known as DCE / RPC Locator service , used to remotely manage services including DHCP server , DNS server and WINS . Also used by DCOM Official 137 Assigned UDP NetBIOS Name Service , used for name registration and resolution Official 138 TCP UDP NetBIOS Datagram Service Official 139 TCP Assigned NetBIOS Session Service Official 143 TCP Assigned Internet Message Access Protocol ( IMAP ) , management of electronic mail messages on a server Official 152 TCP UDP Background File Transfer Program ( BFTP ) Official 153 TCP UDP Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol ( SGMP ) , a protocol for remote inspection and alteration of gateway management information Official 156 TCP UDP Structured Query Language ( SQL ) Service Official 158 TCP UDP Distributed Mail System Protocol ( DMSP , sometimes referred to as Pcmail ) Official 161 Assigned UDP Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) Official 162 TCP UDP Simple Network Management Protocol Trap ( SNMPTRAP ) Official 170 TCP UDP Print server Official 177 TCP UDP X Display Manager Control Protocol ( XDMCP ) , used for remote logins to an X Display Manager server Official 179 TCP SCTP UDP Border Gateway Protocol ( BGP ) , used to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems ( AS ) on the Internet Official 194 TCP UDP Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ) Official 199 TCP UDP SNMP multiplexing protocol ( SMUX ) Official 201 TCP UDP AppleTalk Routing Maintenance Official 209 TCP UDP Quick Mail Transfer Protocol Official 210 TCP UDP ANSI Z39. 50 Official 213 TCP UDP Internetwork Packet Exchange ( IPX ) Official 218 TCP UDP Message posting protocol ( MPP ) Official 220 TCP UDP Internet Message Access Protocol ( IMAP ) , version 3 Official 259 TCP UDP Efficient Short Remote Operations ( ESRO ) Official 262 TCP UDP Arcisdms Official 264 TCP UDP Border Gateway Multicast Protocol ( BGMP ) Official 280 TCP UDP http - mgmt Official 300 TCP ThinLinc Web Access Unofficial 308 TCP Novastor Online Backup Official 311 TCP Mac OS X Server Admin ( officially AppleShare IP Web administration ) Official 318 TCP UDP PKIX Time Stamp Protocol ( TSP ) Official 319 UDP Precision Time Protocol ( PTP ) event messages Official 320 UDP Precision Time Protocol ( PTP ) general messages Official 350 TCP UDP Mapping of Airline Traffic over Internet Protocol ( MATIP ) type A Official 351 TCP UDP MATIP type B Official 356 TCP UDP cloanto - net - 1 ( used by Cloanto Amiga Explorer and VMs ) Official 366 TCP UDP On - Demand Mail Relay ( ODMR ) Official 369 TCP UDP Rpc2portmap Official 370 TCP codaauth2 , Coda authentication server Official 370 UDP codaauth2 , Coda authentication server Official 370 UDP securecast1 , outgoing packets to NAI 's SecureCast servers As of 2000 Official 371 TCP UDP ClearCase albd Official 383 TCP UDP HP data alarm manager Official 384 TCP UDP A Remote Network Server System Official 387 TCP UDP AURP ( AppleTalk Update - based Routing Protocol ) Official 389 TCP Assigned Lightweight Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ) Official 399 TCP UDP Digital Equipment Corporation DECnet ( Phase V+ ) over TCP / IP Official 401 TCP UDP Uninterruptible power supply ( UPS ) Official 427 TCP UDP Service Location Protocol ( SLP ) Official 433 TCP UDP NNSP , part of Network News Transfer Protocol Official 434 TCP UDP Mobile IP Agent ( RFC 5944 ) Official 443 TCP SCTP Assigned Hypertext Transfer Protocol over TLS / SSL ( HTTPS ) Official 443 UDP QUIC ( from Chromium ) for HTTPS Unofficial 444 TCP UDP Simple Network Paging Protocol ( SNPP ) , RFC 1568 Official 444 TCP Well known Slither.io port Unofficial 445 TCP UDP Microsoft - DS Active Directory , Windows shares Official 445 TCP Assigned Microsoft - DS SMB file sharing Official 464 TCP UDP Kerberos Change / Set password Official 465 TCP URL Rendezvous Directory for SSM ( Cisco protocol ) Official 465 TCP Authenticated SMTP over TLS / SSL ( SMTPS ) Unofficial 475 TCP UDP tcpnethaspsrv , Aladdin Knowledge Systems Hasp services Official 491 TCP GO - Global remote access and application publishing software Unofficial 497 TCP UDP Retrospect Official 500 Assigned UDP Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol ( ISAKMP ) / Internet Key Exchange ( IKE ) Official 502 TCP UDP Modbus Protocol Official 504 TCP UDP Citadel , multiservice protocol for dedicated clients for the Citadel groupware system Official 510 TCP UDP FirstClass Protocol ( FCP ) , used by FirstClass client / server groupware system Official 512 TCP Rexec , Remote Process Execution Official 512 UDP comsat , together with biff Official 513 TCP rlogin Official 513 UDP Who Official 514 TCP Remote Shell , used to execute non-interactive commands on a remote system ( Remote Shell , rsh , remsh ) Official 514 UDP Syslog , used for system logging Official 515 TCP Assigned Line Printer Daemon ( LPD ) , print service Official 517 UDP Talk Official 518 UDP NTalk Official 520 TCP efs , extended file name server Official 520 UDP Routing Information Protocol ( RIP ) Official 521 UDP Routing Information Protocol Next Generation ( RIPng ) Official 524 TCP UDP NetWare Core Protocol ( NCP ) is used for a variety things such as access to primary NetWare server resources , Time Synchronization , etc . Official 525 UDP Timed , Timeserver Official 530 TCP UDP Remote procedure call ( RPC ) Official 531 TCP UDP AOL Instant Messenger Unofficial 532 TCP Assigned netnews Official 533 UDP netwall , For Emergency Broadcasts Official 540 TCP Unix - to - Unix Copy Protocol ( UUCP ) Official 542 TCP UDP commerce ( Commerce Applications ) Official 543 TCP klogin , Kerberos login Official 544 TCP kshell , Kerberos Remote shell Official 546 TCP UDP DHCPv6 client Official 547 TCP UDP DHCPv6 server Official 548 TCP Assigned Apple Filing Protocol ( AFP ) over TCP Official 550 TCP UDP new - rwho , new - who Official 554 TCP UDP Real Time Streaming Protocol ( RTSP ) Official 556 TCP Remotefs , RFS , rfs_server Official 560 UDP rmonitor , Remote Monitor Official 561 UDP monitor Official 563 TCP UDP NNTP over TLS / SSL ( NNTPS ) Official 564 TCP 9P ( Plan 9 ) Unofficial 585 N / A N / A De-registered since April 2006 ( with recommendation to use port 993 instead ) Official 585 TCP ? Legacy use of Internet Message Access Protocol over TLS / SSL ( IMAPS ) Unofficial 587 TCP Assigned email message submission ( SMTP ) Official 591 TCP FileMaker 6.0 ( and later ) Web Sharing ( HTTP Alternate , also see port 80 ) Official 593 TCP UDP HTTP RPC Ep Map , Remote procedure call over Hypertext Transfer Protocol , often used by Distributed Component Object Model services and Microsoft Exchange Server Official 601 TCP Reliable Syslog Service -- used for system logging Official 604 TCP TUNNEL profile , a protocol for BEEP peers to form an application layer tunnel Official 623 UDP ASF Remote Management and Control Protocol ( ASF - RMCP ) & IPMI Remote Management Protocol Official 625 TCP Open Directory Proxy ( ODProxy ) Unofficial 631 TCP UDP Internet Printing Protocol ( IPP ) Official 631 TCP UDP Common Unix Printing System ( CUPS ) administration console ( extension to IPP ) Unofficial 635 TCP UDP RLZ DBase Official 636 TCP UDP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol over TLS / SSL ( LDAPS ) Official 639 TCP UDP MSDP , Multicast Source Discovery Protocol Official 641 TCP UDP SupportSoft Nexus Remote Command ( control / listening ) , a proxy gateway connecting remote control traffic Official 643 TCP UDP SANity Official 646 TCP UDP Label Distribution Protocol ( LDP ) , a routing protocol used in MPLS networks Official 647 TCP DHCP Failover protocol Official 648 TCP Registry Registrar Protocol ( RRP ) Official 651 TCP UDP IEEE - MMS Official 653 TCP UDP SupportSoft Nexus Remote Command ( data ) , a proxy gateway connecting remote control traffic Official 654 TCP Media Management System ( MMS ) Media Management Protocol ( MMP ) Official 655 TCP UDP Tinc VPN daemon Official 657 TCP UDP IBM RMC ( Remote monitoring and Control ) protocol , used by System p5 AIX Integrated Virtualization Manager ( IVM ) and Hardware Management Console to connect managed logical partitions ( LPAR ) to enable dynamic partition reconfiguration Official 660 TCP Assigned Mac OS X Server administration , version 10.4 and earlier Official 666 TCP UDP Doom , first online first - person shooter Official 666 TCP airserv - ng , aircrack - ng 's server for remote - controlling wireless devices Unofficial 674 TCP Application Configuration Access Protocol ( ACAP ) Official 688 TCP UDP REALM - RUSD ( ApplianceWare Server Appliance Management Protocol ) Official 690 TCP UDP Velneo Application Transfer Protocol ( VATP ) Official 691 TCP MS Exchange Routing Official 694 TCP UDP Linux - HA high - availability heartbeat Official 695 TCP IEEE Media Management System over SSL ( IEEE - MMS - SSL ) Official 698 UDP Optimized Link State Routing ( OLSR ) Official 700 TCP Extensible Provisioning Protocol ( EPP ) , a protocol for communication between domain name registries and registrars ( RFC 5734 ) Official 701 TCP Link Management Protocol ( LMP ) , a protocol that runs between a pair of nodes and is used to manage traffic engineering ( TE ) links Official 702 TCP IRIS ( Internet Registry Information Service ) over BEEP ( Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol ) ( RFC 3983 ) Official 706 TCP Secure Internet Live Conferencing ( SILC ) Official 711 TCP Cisco Tag Distribution Protocol -- being replaced by the MPLS Label Distribution Protocol Official 712 TCP Topology Broadcast based on Reverse - Path Forwarding routing protocol ( TBRPF ; RFC 3684 ) Official 749 TCP UDP Kerberos ( protocol ) administration Official 750 UDP kerberos - iv , Kerberos version IV Official 751 TCP UDP kerberos_master , Kerberos authentication Unofficial 752 UDP passwd_server , Kerberos password ( kpasswd ) server Unofficial 753 TCP Reverse Routing Header ( RRH ) Official 753 UDP Reverse Routing Header ( RRH ) Official 753 UDP userreg_server , Kerberos userreg server Unofficial 754 TCP tell send Official 754 TCP krb5_prop , Kerberos v5 slave propagation Unofficial 754 UDP tell send Official 760 TCP UDP krbupdate ( kreg ) , Kerberos registration Unofficial 782 TCP Conserver serial - console management server Unofficial 783 TCP SpamAssassin spamd daemon Unofficial 800 TCP UDP mdbs - daemon Official 808 TCP Microsoft Net. TCP Port Sharing Service Unofficial 829 Yes Assigned Certificate Management Protocol Official 830 TCP UDP NETCONF over SSH Official 831 TCP UDP NETCONF over BEEP Official 832 TCP UDP NETCONF for SOAP over HTTPS Official 833 TCP UDP NETCONF for SOAP over BEEP Official 843 TCP Adobe Flash Unofficial 847 TCP DHCP Failover protocol Official 848 TCP UDP Group Domain Of Interpretation ( GDOI ) protocol Official 853 TCP UDP DNS over TLS ( RFC 7858 ) Official 860 TCP iSCSI ( RFC 3720 ) Official 861 TCP UDP OWAMP control ( RFC 4656 ) Official 862 TCP UDP TWAMP control ( RFC 5357 ) Official 873 TCP rsync file synchronization protocol Official 888 TCP cddbp , CD DataBase ( CDDB ) protocol ( CDDBP ) Unofficial 888 TCP IBM Endpoint Manager Remote Control Unofficial 897 TCP UDP Brocade SMI - S RPC Unofficial 898 TCP UDP Brocade SMI - S RPC SSL Unofficial 902 TCP UDP VMware ESXi Unofficial 903 TCP VMware ESXi Unofficial 953 TCP BIND remote name daemon control ( RNDC ) Official 954 -- 988 N / A N / A Unassigned Official 981 TCP Remote HTTPS management for firewall devices running embedded Check Point VPN - 1 software Unofficial 987 TCP Microsoft Remote Web Workplace , a feature of Windows Small Business Server Unofficial 989 TCP UDP FTPS Protocol ( data ) , FTP over TLS / SSL Official 990 TCP UDP FTPS Protocol ( control ) , FTP over TLS / SSL Official 991 TCP UDP Netnews Administration System ( NAS ) Official 992 TCP UDP Telnet protocol over TLS / SSL Official 993 TCP Assigned Internet Message Access Protocol over TLS / SSL ( IMAPS ) Official 994 Reserved Reserved Reserved Official 994 TCP UDP Internet Relay Chat over TLS / SSL ( IRCS ) Unofficial 995 TCP UDP Post Office Protocol 3 over TLS / SSL ( POP3S ) Official < / ref > Unofficial 1010 TCP ThinLinc web - based administration interface Unofficial 1023 Reserved Reserved Reserved Official Registered ports ( edit ) This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness . You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries . This section gives self - sourcing examples without describing their significance in the context of the article . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources that describe the examples ' significance , and by removing less pertinent examples . Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged or removed . ( August 2016 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The range of port numbers from 1024 to 49151 are the registered ports . They are assigned by IANA for specific service upon application by a requesting entity . On most systems , registered ports can be used without superuser privileges . Registered ports ( hide ) Port TCP UDP Description IANA status 1024 Reserved Reserved Reserved Official 1027 Reserved Reserved Official 1027 UDP Native IPv6 behind IPv4 - to - IPv4 NAT Customer Premises Equipment ( 6a44 ) Official 1028 Deprecated Official 1029 Microsoft DCOM services Official 1058 TCP UDP nim , IBM AIX Network Installation Manager ( NIM ) Official 1059 TCP UDP nimreg , IBM AIX Network Installation Manager ( NIM ) Official 1080 TCP UDP SOCKS proxy Official 1085 TCP UDP WebObjects Official 1098 TCP UDP rmiactivation , Java remote method invocation ( RMI ) activation Official 1099 TCP Assigned rmiregistry , Java remote method invocation ( RMI ) registry Official 1109 Reserved -- IANA Official 1109 TCP Kerberos Post Office Protocol ( KPOP ) Unofficial 1119 TCP UDP Battle.net chat / game protocol , used by Blizzard 's games Official 1167 TCP SCTP UDP Cisco IP SLA ( Service Assurance Agent ) Official 1194 TCP UDP OpenVPN Official 1198 TCP UDP The cajo project Free dynamic transparent distributed computing in Java Official 1214 TCP UDP Kazaa Official 1220 TCP Assigned QuickTime Streaming Server administration Official 1234 TCP UDP Infoseek search agent Official 1234 UDP VLC media player default port for UDP / RTP stream Unofficial 1241 TCP UDP Nessus Security Scanner Official 1270 TCP UDP Microsoft System Center Operations Manager ( SCOM ) ( formerly Microsoft Operations Manager ( MOM ) ) agent Official 1293 TCP UDP Internet Protocol Security ( IPSec ) Official 1311 TCP UDP Windows RxMon. exe Official 1311 TCP Dell OpenManage HTTPS Unofficial 1314 ? ? Festival Speech Synthesis System server Unofficial 1337 TCP neo4j - shell Unofficial 1337 TCP WASTE Encrypted File Sharing Program Unofficial 1341 TCP UDP Qubes ( Manufacturing Execution System ) Official 1344 TCP UDP Internet Content Adaptation Protocol Official 1352 TCP UDP IBM Lotus Notes / Domino ( RPC ) protocol Official 1360 TCP UDP Mimer SQL Official 1414 TCP UDP IBM WebSphere MQ ( formerly known as MQSeries ) Official 1417 TCP UDP Timbuktu Service 1 Port Official 1418 TCP UDP Timbuktu Service 2 Port Official 1419 TCP UDP Timbuktu Service 3 Port Official 1420 TCP UDP Timbuktu Service 4 Port Official 1431 TCP Reverse Gossip Transport Protocol ( RGTP ) , used to access a General - purpose Reverse - Ordered Gossip Gathering System ( GROGGS ) bulletin board , such as that implemented on the Cambridge University 's Phoenix system Official 1433 TCP UDP Microsoft SQL Server database management system ( MSSQL ) server Official 1434 TCP UDP Microsoft SQL Server database management system ( MSSQL ) monitor Official 1492 TCP Sid Meier 's CivNet , a multiplayer remake of the original Sid Meier 's Civilization game Unofficial 1494 TCP UDP Citrix Independent Computing Architecture ( ICA ) Unofficial 1500 TCP IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server Unofficial 1501 TCP IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client scheduler Unofficial 1503 TCP UDP Windows Live Messenger ( Whiteboard and Application Sharing ) Unofficial 1512 TCP UDP Microsoft 's Windows Internet Name Service ( WINS ) Official 1513 TCP UDP Garena game client Unofficial 1521 TCP UDP nCUBE License Manager Official 1521 TCP Oracle database default listener , in future releases official port 2483 ( TCP / IP ) and 2484 ( TCP / IP with SSL ) Unofficial 1524 TCP UDP ingreslock , ingres Official 1527 TCP UDP Oracle Net Services , formerly known as SQL * Net Official 1527 TCP Apache Derby Network Server Unofficial 1533 TCP UDP IBM Sametime Virtual Places Chat Official 1534 UDP Eclipse Target Communication Framework ( TCF ) agent discovery Unofficial 1547 TCP UDP Laplink Official 1550 TCP Gadu - Gadu ( direct client - to - client ) Unofficial 1581 TCP UDP MIL STD 2045 - 47001 VMF Official 1581 TCP IBM Tivoli Storage Manager web client Unofficial 1582 -- 1583 TCP IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server web interface Unofficial 1583 ? ? Pervasive PSQL Unofficial 1589 TCP UDP Cisco VLAN Query Protocol ( VQP ) Official 1604 TCP UDP DarkComet remote administration tool ( RAT ) Unofficial 1626 TCP iSketch Unofficial 1627 TCP iSketch Unofficial 1628 TCP UDP LonTalk normal Official 1629 TCP UDP LonTalk urgent Official 1645 UDP Early deployment of RADIUS before RFC standardization was done using UDP port number 1645 . Enabled for compatibility reasons by default on Cisco and Juniper Networks RADIUS servers . Official port is 1812 . TCP port 1645 must not be used . Unofficial 1646 UDP Old radacct port , RADIUS accounting protocol . Enabled for compatibility reasons by default on Cisco and Juniper Networks RADIUS servers . Official port is 1813 . TCP port 1646 must not be used . Unofficial 1666 TCP Perforce Unofficial 1677 TCP UDP Novell GroupWise clients in client / server access mode Official 1688 TCP Microsoft Key Management Service ( KMS ) for Windows Activation Unofficial 1701 TCP UDP Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol ( L2F ) Official 1701 Assigned UDP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol ( L2TP ) Official 1707 TCP UDP Windward Studios games ( vdmplay ) Official 1707 UDP L2TP / IPsec , for establish an initial connection Unofficial 1716 UDP America 's Army , a massively multiplayer online game ( MMO ) Unofficial 1719 TCP UDP H. 323 registration and alternate communication Official 1720 TCP UDP H. 323 call signaling Official 1723 TCP Assigned Point - to - Point Tunneling Protocol ( PPTP ) Official 1755 TCP UDP Microsoft Media Services ( MMS , ms - streaming ) Official 1761 TCP UDP Novell ZENworks Unofficial 1783 Decomissioned ( sic ) Port 04 / 14 / 00 , ms Official 1801 TCP UDP Microsoft Message Queuing Official 1812 TCP UDP RADIUS authentication protocol , radius Official 1813 TCP UDP RADIUS accounting protocol , radius - acct Official 1863 TCP UDP Microsoft Notification Protocol ( MSNP ) , used by the Microsoft Messenger service and a number of instant messaging Messenger clients Official 1880 ? ? Node - RED Unofficial 1883 TCP UDP MQTT ( formerly MQ Telemetry Transport ) Official 1900 Assigned UDP Simple Service Discovery Protocol ( SSDP ) , discovery of UPnP devices Official 1935 TCP UDP Macromedia Flash Communications Server MX , the precursor to Adobe Flash Media Server before Macromedia 's acquisition by Adobe on December 3 , 2005 Official 1935 TCP UDP Real Time Messaging Protocol ( RTMP ) , primarily used in Adobe Flash Unofficial 1967 UDP Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreements ( IP SLAs ) Control Protocol Unofficial 1970 TCP UDP Netop Remote Control Official 1972 TCP UDP InterSystems Caché Official 1984 TCP UDP Big Brother Official 1985 TCP UDP Cisco Hot Standby Router Protocol ( HSRP ) Official 1998 TCP UDP Cisco X. 25 over TCP ( XOT ) service Official 2000 TCP UDP Cisco Skinny Client Control Protocol ( SCCP ) Official ? ? Artemis : Spaceship Bridge Simulator Unofficial 2033 TCP UDP Civilization IV multiplayer Unofficial 2049 TCP SCTP UDP Network File System ( NFS ) Official 2056 TCP UDP Civilization IV multiplayer Unofficial 2080 TCP UDP Autodesk NLM ( FLEXlm ) Official 2082 TCP cPanel default Unofficial 2083 TCP UDP Secure RADIUS Service ( radsec ) Official 2083 TCP cPanel default SSL Unofficial 2086 TCP UDP GNUnet Official 2086 TCP WebHost Manager default Unofficial 2087 TCP WebHost Manager default SSL Unofficial 2095 TCP cPanel default web mail Official 2096 TCP cPanel default SSL web mail Unofficial 2100 TCP Warzone 2100 multiplayer Unofficial 2101 TCP Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol ( NTRIP ) Unofficial 2102 TCP UDP Zephyr Notification Service server Official 2103 TCP UDP Zephyr Notification Service serv - hm connection Official 2104 TCP UDP Zephyr Notification Service hostmanager Official 2123 TCP UDP GTP control messages ( GTP - C ) Official 2142 TCP UDP TDMoIP ( TDM over IP ) Official 2152 TCP UDP GTP user data messages ( GTP - U ) Official 2159 TCP UDP GDB remote debug port Official 2181 TCP UDP EForward - document transport system Official 2181 TCP Apache ZooKeeper default client port Unofficial 2195 TCP Apple Push Notification Service Unofficial 2196 TCP Apple Push Notification Service , feedback service Unofficial 2210 TCP UDP NOAAPORT Broadcast Network Official 2211 TCP UDP EMWIN Official 2221 TCP ESET anti-virus updates Unofficial 2222 TCP UDP EtherNet / IP implicit messaging for IO data Official 2222 ? ? DirectAdmin Access Unofficial 2222 -- 2226 TCP ESET Remote administrator Official 2261 TCP UDP CoMotion master Official 2262 TCP UDP CoMotion backup Official 2266 TCP UDP M - Files Official 2302 UDP ArmA multiplayer Unofficial UDP Halo : Combat Evolved multiplayer host Unofficial 2303 UDP ArmA multiplayer ( default port for game + 1 ) Unofficial UDP Halo : Combat Evolved multiplayer listener Unofficial 2305 UDP ArmA multiplayer ( default port for game + 3 ) Unofficial 2351 TCP AIM game LAN network port Unofficial 2368 TCP Ghost ( blogging platform ) Unofficial 2369 TCP Default for BMC Control - M / Server Configuration Agent Unofficial 2370 TCP Default for BMC Control - M / Server , to allow the Control - M / Enterprise Manager to connect to the Control - M / Server Unofficial 2375 TCP Reserved Docker REST API ( plain ) Official 2376 TCP Reserved Docker REST API ( SSL ) Official 2379 TCP Reserved CoreOS etcd client communication Official 2379 TCP KGS Go Server Unofficial 2380 TCP Reserved CoreOS etcd server communication Official 2399 TCP UDP FileMaker Data Access Layer ( ODBC / JDBC ) Official 2401 TCP UDP CVS version control system password - based server Official 2404 TCP UDP IEC 60870 - 5 - 104 , used to send electric power telecontrol messages between two systems via directly connected data circuits Official 2424 TCP OrientDB database listening for binary client connections Unofficial 2427 TCP UDP Media Gateway Control Protocol ( MGCP ) media gateway Official 2447 TCP UDP ovwdb -- OpenView Network Node Manager ( NNM ) daemon Official 2480 TCP OrientDB database listening for HTTP client connections Unofficial 2483 TCP UDP Oracle database listening for insecure client connections to the listener , replaces port 1521 Official 2484 TCP UDP Oracle database listening for SSL client connections to the listener Official 2535 TCP UDP Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol ( MADCAP ) . All standard messages are UDP datagrams . Official 2541 TCP UDP LonTalk / IP Official 2546 -- 2548 TCP UDP EVault data protection services Official 2593 TCP UDP Ultima Online servers Unofficial 2598 TCP Citrix Independent Computing Architecture ( ICA ) with Session Reliability ; port 1494 without session reliability Unofficial 2599 TCP UDP Ultima Online servers Unofficial 2638 TCP UDP SQL Anywhere database server Official 2710 TCP UDP XBT Tracker . UDP tracker extension is considered experimental . Unofficial 2727 TCP UDP Media Gateway Control Protocol ( MGCP ) media gateway controller ( call agent ) Official 2809 TCP UDP corbaloc : iiop URL , per the CORBA 3.0. 3 specification Official 2811 TCP UDP gsi ftp , per the GridFTP specification Official 2827 TCP I2P BOB Bridge Unofficial 2944 TCP UDP Megaco text H. 248 Official 2945 TCP UDP Megaco binary ( ASN. 1 ) H. 248 Official 2947 TCP UDP gpsd , GPS daemon Official 2948 TCP UDP WAP push Multimedia Messaging Service ( MMS ) Official 2949 TCP UDP WAP push secure ( MMS ) Official 2967 TCP UDP Symantec System Center agent ( SSC - AGENT ) Official 3000 TCP Cloud9 IDE server Unofficial 3000 TCP Ruby on Rails development default Unofficial 3000 TCP Meteor development default Unofficial 3000 TCP UDP Resilio Sync , spun from BitTorrent Sync . Unofficial 3000 UDP Distributed Interactive Simulation ( DIS ) Unofficial 3004 TCP iSync Unofficial 3020 TCP UDP Common Internet File System ( CIFS ) . See also port 445 for Server Message Block ( SMB ) , a dialect of CIFS . Official 3050 TCP UDP gds - db ( Interbase / Firebird databases ) Official 3052 TCP UDP APC PowerChute Network Official 3074 TCP UDP Xbox LIVE and Games for Windows -- Live Official 3101 TCP BlackBerry Enterprise Server communication protocol Unofficial 3128 TCP ? Squid caching web proxy Unofficial 3225 TCP UDP Fibre Channel over IP ( FCIP ) Official 3233 TCP UDP WhiskerControl research control protocol Official 3260 TCP UDP iSCSI Official 3268 TCP UDP msft - gc , Microsoft Global Catalog ( LDAP service which contains data from Active Directory forests ) Official 3269 TCP UDP msft - gc - ssl , Microsoft Global Catalog over SSL ( similar to port 3268 , LDAP over SSL ) Official 3283 TCP UDP Net Assistant , a predecessor to Apple Remote Desktop Official 3283 TCP UDP Apple Remote Desktop 2.0 or later Unofficial 3290 UDP Virtual Air Traffic Simulation ( VATSIM ) network voice communication Unofficial 3305 TCP UDP Odette File Transfer Protocol ( OFTP ) Official 3306 TCP Assigned MySQL database system Official 3313 TCP Verisys file integrity monitoring software Unofficial 3316 TCP AzimuthVMS database port for the CCTV recording software AzimuthVMS Unofficial 3323 TCP UDP DECE GEODI Server Unofficial 3332 UDP Thundercloud DataPath Overlay Control Unofficial 3333 TCP Eggdrop , an IRC bot default port Unofficial 3333 TCP Network Caller ID server Unofficial 3333 TCP CruiseControl. rb Unofficial 3351 ? ? Pervasive PSQL Unofficial 3386 TCP UDP GTP ' 3GPP GSM / UMTS CDR logging protocol Official 3389 TCP UDP Microsoft Terminal Server ( RDP ) officially registered as Windows Based Terminal ( WBT ) Official 3396 TCP UDP Novell NDPS Printer Agent Official 3412 TCP UDP xmlBlaster Official 3455 TCP UDP Resource Reservation Protocol ( RSVP ) Official 3423 TCP Xware xTrm Communication Protocol Official 3424 TCP Xware xTrm Communication Protocol over SSL Official 3478 TCP UDP STUN , a protocol for NAT traversal Official 3478 TCP UDP TURN , a protocol for NAT traversal ( extension to STUN ) Official 3478 TCP UDP STUN Behavior Discovery . See also port 5349 . Official 3479 TCP UDP PlayStation Network Unofficial 3480 TCP UDP PlayStation Network Unofficial 3483 UDP Slim Devices discovery protocol Official 3483 TCP Slim Devices SlimProto protocol Official 3493 TCP UDP Network UPS Tools ( NUT ) Official 3516 TCP UDP Smartcard Port Official 3527 UDP Microsoft Message Queuing Official 3535 TCP SMTP alternate Unofficial 3544 UDP Teredo tunneling Official 3605 UDP ComCam IO Port Official 3606 TCP UDP Splitlock Server Official 3632 TCP Assigned Distcc , distributed compiler Official 3644 TCP Evidian , ssowatch Official 3645 TCP UDP Cyc Official 3659 TCP UDP Apple SASL , used by Mac OS X Server Password Server Official 3659 UDP Battlefield 4 Unofficial 3667 TCP UDP Information Exchange Official 3689 TCP Assigned Digital Audio Access Protocol ( DAAP ) , used by Apple 's iTunes and AirPlay Official 3690 TCP UDP Subversion ( SVN ) version control system Official 3702 TCP UDP Web Services Dynamic Discovery ( WS - Discovery ) , used by various components of Windows Vista and later Official 3724 TCP UDP Some Blizzard games Official 3724 TCP Club Penguin Disney online game for kids Unofficial 3725 TCP UDP Netia NA - ER Port Official 3768 TCP UDP RBLcheckd server daemon Official 3784 UDP Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ( BFD ) for IPv4 and IPv6 ( Single Hop ) ( RFC 5881 ) Official 3785 UDP VoIP program used by Ventrilo Unofficial 3799 UDP RADIUS change of authorization Official 3804 TCP UDP Harman Professional HiQnet protocol Official 3825 TCP RedSeal Networks client / server connection Unofficial 3826 TCP UDP WarMUX game server Official 3826 TCP RedSeal Networks client / server connection Unofficial 3835 TCP RedSeal Networks client / server connection Unofficial 3830 TCP UDP System Management Agent , developed and used by Cerner to monitor and manage solutions Official 3856 TCP UDP ERP Server Application used by F10 Software Unofficial 3880 TCP UDP IGRS Official 3868 TCP SCTP Diameter base protocol ( RFC 3588 ) Official 3872 TCP Oracle Enterprise Manager Remote Agent Official 3900 TCP udt_os , IBM UniData UDT OS Official 3960 UDP Warframe online interaction Unofficial 3962 UDP Warframe online interaction Unofficial 3978 TCP UDP OpenTTD game ( masterserver and content service ) Unofficial 3979 TCP UDP OpenTTD game Unofficial 3999 TCP UDP Norman distributed scanning service Official 4000 TCP UDP Diablo II game Unofficial 4001 TCP Microsoft Ants game Unofficial 4001 TCP CoreOS etcd client communication Unofficial 4018 TCP UDP Protocol information and warnings Official 4035 TCP IBM Rational Developer for System z Remote System Explorer Daemon Unofficial 4045 TCP UDP Solaris lockd NFS lock daemon / manager Unofficial 4050 TCP Mud Master Chat protocol ( MMCP ) - Peer - to - peer communications between MUD clients . Unofficial 4069 UDP Minger Email Address Verification Protocol Official 4089 TCP UDP OpenCORE Remote Control Service Official 4090 TCP UDP Kerio Official 4093 TCP UDP PxPlus Client server interface ProvideX Official 4096 TCP UDP Ascom Timeplex Bridge Relay Element ( BRE ) Official 4105 TCP UDP Shofar ( ShofarNexus ) Official 4111 TCP Assigned Xgrid Official 4116 TCP UDP Smartcard - TLS Official 4117 TCP WatchGuard System Manager Unofficial 4125 TCP Microsoft Remote Web Workplace administration Unofficial 4172 TCP UDP Teradici PCoIP Official 4190 TCP ManageSieve Official 4198 TCP UDP Couch Potato Android app Unofficial 4201 TCP TinyMUD and various derivatives Unofficial 4222 TCP NATS server default port Unofficial 4226 TCP UDP Aleph One , a computer game Unofficial 4242 TCP Orthanc -- DICOM server Unofficial 4242 TCP Quassel distributed IRC client Unofficial 4243 TCP Docker implementations , redistributions , and setups default Unofficial 4243 TCP CrashPlan Unofficial 4244 TCP UDP Viber Unofficial 4303 TCP UDP Simple Railroad Command Protocol ( SRCP ) Official 4307 TCP TrueConf Client - TrueConf Server media data exchange Official 4321 TCP Referral Whois ( RWhois ) Protocol Official 4352 TCP PJLink , by JBMIA for controlling projectors via LAN connections Official 4444 TCP UDP Oracle WebCenter Content : Content Server -- Intradoc Socket port . ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Content Management ) . Unofficial 4444 ? ? Metasploit 's default listener port Unofficial 4444 TCP UDP Xvfb X server virtual frame buffer service Unofficial 4444 -- 4445 TCP I2P HTTP / S proxy Unofficial 4486 TCP UDP Integrated Client Message Service ( ICMS ) Official 4488 TCP Assigned Apple Wide Area Connectivity Service , used by Back to My Mac Official 4500 Assigned UDP IPSec NAT Traversal ( RFC 3947 , RFC 4306 ) Official 4502 -- 4534 TCP Microsoft Silverlight connectable ports under non-elevated trust Official 4505 -- 4506 TCP Salt master Unofficial 4534 UDP Armagetron Advanced server default Unofficial 4560 TCP default Log4j socketappender port Unofficial 4567 TCP Sinatra default server port in development mode ( HTTP ) Unofficial 4569 UDP Inter-Asterisk eXchange ( IAX2 ) Official 4604 TCP Identity Registration Protocol Official 4605 TCP Direct End to End Secure Chat Protocol Official 4610 -- 4640 TCP QualiSystems TestShell Suite Services Unofficial 4662 TCP UDP OrbitNet Message Service Official 4662 TCP Default for older versions of eMule Unofficial 4664 TCP Google Desktop Search Unofficial 4672 UDP Default for older versions of eMule Unofficial 4711 TCP eMule optional web interface Unofficial 4713 TCP PulseAudio sound server Unofficial 4728 TCP Computer Associates Desktop and Server Management ( DMP ) / Port Multiplexer Official 4730 TCP UDP Gearman 's job server Official 4739 TCP UDP IP Flow Information Export Official 4747 TCP Apprentice Unofficial 4750 TCP BladeLogic Agent Unofficial 4753 TCP UDP SIMON ( service and discovery ) Official 4789 UDP Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network ( VXLAN ) Official 4840 TCP UDP OPC UA TCP Protocol for OPC Unified Architecture from OPC Foundation Official 4843 TCP UDP OPC UA TCP Protocol over TLS / SSL for OPC Unified Architecture from OPC Foundation Official 4847 TCP UDP Web Fresh Communication , Quadrion Software & Odorless Entertainment Official 4848 TCP Java , Glassfish Application Server administration default Unofficial 4894 TCP UDP LysKOM Protocol A Official 4949 TCP Munin Resource Monitoring Tool Official 4950 TCP UDP Cylon Controls UC32 Communications Port Official 5000 TCP UPnP -- Windows network device interoperability Unofficial 5000 TCP UDP VTun , VPN Software Unofficial 5000 UDP FlightGear multiplayer Unofficial 5000 TCP Synology Inc . Management Console , File Station , Audio Station Unofficial 5000 TCP Flask Development Webserver Unofficial 5000 TCP Heroku console access Official 5000 TCP AT&T U-verse public , educational , and government access ( PEG ) streaming over HTTP Unofficial 5000 -- 5500 No Yes League of Legends , a multiplayer online battle arena video game Unofficial 5001 TCP Slingbox and Slingplayer Unofficial 5001 TCP UDP Iperf ( Tool for measuring TCP and UDP bandwidth performance ) Unofficial 5001 TCP Synology Inc . Secured Management Console , File Station , Audio Station Unofficial 5002 TCP ASSA ARX access control system Unofficial 5003 TCP Assigned FileMaker -- name binding and transport Official 5004 TCP DCCP UDP Real - time Transport Protocol media data ( RTP ) ( RFC 3551 , RFC 4571 ) Official 5005 TCP DCCP UDP Real - time Transport Protocol control protocol ( RTCP ) ( RFC 3551 , RFC 4571 ) Official 5010 TCP UDP Registered to : TelePath ( the IBM FlowMark workflow - management system messaging platform ) The TCP port is now used for : IBM WebSphere MQ Workflow Official 5011 TCP UDP TelePath ( the IBM FlowMark workflow - management system messaging platform ) Official 5031 TCP UDP AVM CAPI - over-TCP ( ISDN over Ethernet tunneling ) Unofficial 5037 TCP Android ADB server Unofficial 5048 TCP Texai Message Service Official 5050 TCP Yahoo ! Messenger Unofficial 5051 TCP ita - agent Symantec Intruder Alert Official 5060 TCP UDP Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP ) Official 5061 TCP Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP ) over TLS Official 5062 TCP UDP Localisation access Official 5064 Yes Yes EPICS Channel Access server Official 5065 Assigned Yes EPICS Channel Access repeater beacon Official 5070 Yes No Binary Floor Control Protocol ( BFCP ) Unofficial 5082 TCP UDP Qpur Communication Protocol Official 5083 TCP UDP Qpur File Protocol Official 5084 TCP UDP EPCglobal Low Level Reader Protocol ( LLRP ) Official 5085 TCP UDP EPCglobal Low Level Reader Protocol ( LLRP ) over TLS Official 5093 UDP SafeNet , Inc Sentinel LM , Sentinel RMS , License Manager , client - to - server Official 5099 TCP UDP SafeNet , Inc Sentinel LM , Sentinel RMS , License Manager , server - to - server Official 5104 TCP IBM Tivoli Framework NetCOOL / Impact HTTP Service Unofficial 5121 TCP Neverwinter Nights Unofficial 5124 TCP UDP TorgaNET ( Micronational Darknet ) Unofficial 5125 TCP UDP TorgaNET ( Micronational Intelligence Darknet ) Unofficial 5150 TCP UDP ATMP Ascend Tunnel Management Protocol Official 5151 TCP ESRI SDE Instance Official 5151 UDP ESRI SDE Remote Start Official 5154 TCP UDP BZFlag Official 5172 TCP PC over IP Endpoint Management Official 5190 TCP AOL Instant Messenger protocol Official 5198 UDP EchoLink VoIP Amateur Radio Software ( Voice ) Unofficial 5199 UDP EchoLink VoIP Amateur Radio Software ( Voice ) Unofficial 5200 TCP EchoLink VoIP Amateur Radio Software ( Information ) Unofficial 5201 TCP UDP Iperf3 ( Tool for measuring TCP and UDP bandwidth performance ) Unofficial 5222 TCP Reserved Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) client connection Official 5223 TCP Apple Push Notification Service Unofficial 5223 TCP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) client connection over SSL Unofficial 5228 TCP HP Virtual Room Service Official 5228 TCP Google Play , Android Cloud to Device Messaging Service , Google Cloud Messaging Unofficial 5242 TCP UDP Viber Unofficial 5243 TCP UDP Viber Unofficial 5246 UDP Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points ( CAPWAP ) CAPWAP control Official 5247 UDP Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points ( CAPWAP ) CAPWAP data Official 5269 TCP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) server - to - server connection Official 5280 TCP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) Official 5281 TCP Undo License Manager Official 5281 TCP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) Unofficial 5298 TCP UDP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) Official 5310 TCP UDP Outlaws ( 1997 video game ) . Both UDP and TCP are reserved , but only UDP is used Official 5349 Yes / No Yes / No STUN over TLS / DTLS , a protocol for NAT traversal Official 5349 Yes / No Yes / No TURN over TLS / DTLS , a protocol for NAT traversal Official 5349 TCP Reserved STUN Behavior Discovery over TLS . See also port 3478 . Official 5351 Reserved UDP NAT Port Mapping Protocol and Port Control Protocol -- client - requested configuration for connections through network address translators and firewalls Official 5353 Assigned UDP Multicast DNS ( mDNS ) Official 5355 TCP UDP Link - Local Multicast Name Resolution ( LLMNR ) , allows hosts to perform name resolution for hosts on the same local link ( only provided by Windows Vista and Server 2008 ) Official 5357 TCP UDP Web Services for Devices ( WSDAPI ) ( only provided by Windows Vista , Windows 7 and Server 2008 ) Unofficial 5358 TCP UDP WSDAPI Applications to Use a Secure Channel ( only provided by Windows Vista , Windows 7 and Server 2008 ) Unofficial 5394 UDP Kega Fusion , a Sega multi-console emulator Unofficial 5402 TCP UDP Multicast File Transfer Protocol ( MFTP ) Official 5405 TCP UDP NetSupport Manager Official 5412 TCP UDP IBM Rational Synergy ( Telelogic Synergy ) ( Continuus CM ) Message Router Official 5413 TCP UDP Wonderware SuiteLink service Official 5417 TCP UDP SNS Agent Official 5421 TCP UDP NetSupport Manager Official 5432 TCP Assigned PostgreSQL database system Official 5433 TCP Bouwsoft file / webserver Unofficial 5445 UDP Cisco Unified Video Advantage Unofficial 5480 TCP VMware VAMI ( Virtual Appliance Management Infrastructure ) -- used for initial setup of various administration settings on Virtual Appliances designed using the VAMI architecture . Unofficial 5481 TCP Schneider Electric 's ClearSCADA ( SCADA implementation for Windows ) -- used for client - to - server communication . Unofficial 5495 TCP IBM Cognos TM1 Admin server Unofficial 5498 TCP Hotline tracker server connection Unofficial 5499 UDP Hotline tracker server discovery Unofficial 5500 TCP Hotline control connection Unofficial 5500 TCP VNC Remote Frame Buffer RFB protocol -- for incoming listening viewer Unofficial 5501 TCP Hotline file transfer connection Unofficial 5517 TCP Setiqueue Proxy server client for SETI@Home project Unofficial 5550 TCP Hewlett - Packard Data Protector Unofficial 5554 TCP UDP Fastboot default wireless port Unofficial 5555 TCP UDP Oracle WebCenter Content : Inbound Refinery -- Intradoc Socket port . ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Content Management ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 5555 TCP Freeciv versions up to 2.0 , Hewlett - Packard Data Protector , McAfee EndPoint Encryption Database Server , SAP , Default for Microsoft Dynamics CRM 4.0 , Softether VPN default port Unofficial 5556 TCP UDP Freeciv , Oracle WebLogic Server Node Manager Official 5568 TCP UDP Session Data Transport ( SDT ) , a part of Architecture for Control Networks ( ACN ) Official 5631 TCP pcANYWHEREdata , Symantec pcAnywhere ( version 7.52 and later ) data Official 5632 UDP pcANYWHEREstat , Symantec pcAnywhere ( version 7.52 and later ) status Official 5656 TCP IBM Lotus Sametime p2p file transfer Unofficial 5666 TCP NRPE ( Nagios ) Unofficial 5667 TCP NSCA ( Nagios ) Unofficial 5670 TCP FILEMQ ZeroMQ File Message Queuing Protocol Official 5670 UDP ZRE - DISC ZeroMQ Realtime Exchange Protocol ( Discovery ) Official 5672 TCP AMQP Official 5678 UDP Mikrotik RouterOS Neighbor Discovery Protocol ( MNDP ) Unofficial 5683 UDP Constrained Application Protocol ( CoAP ) Official 5701 TCP Hazelcast default communication port Unofficial 5722 TCP UDP Microsoft RPC , DFSR ( SYSVOL ) Replication Service Official 5718 TCP Microsoft DPM Data Channel ( with the agent coordinator ) Unofficial 5719 TCP Microsoft DPM Data Channel ( with the protection agent ) Unofficial 5723 TCP System Center Operations Manager Unofficial 5724 TCP Operations Manager Console Unofficial 5741 TCP UDP IDA Discover Port 1 Official 5742 TCP UDP IDA Discover Port 2 Official 5800 TCP VNC Remote Frame Buffer RFB protocol over HTTP Unofficial 5800 TCP ProjectWise Server Unofficial 5900 TCP UDP Remote Frame Buffer protocol ( RFB ) Official 5900 TCP Virtual Network Computing ( VNC ) Remote Frame Buffer RFB protocol Unofficial 5931 TCP UDP AMMYY admin Remote Control Official 5938 TCP UDP TeamViewer remote desktop protocol Unofficial 5984 TCP UDP CouchDB database server Official 5985 TCP Windows PowerShell Default psSession Port Official 5986 TCP Windows PowerShell Default psSession Port Official 5988 -- 5989 TCP CIM - XML ( DMTF Protocol ) Official 6000 - 6063 TCP UDP X11 -- used between an X client and server over the network Official 6005 TCP Default for BMC Software Control - M / Server -- Socket used for communication between Control - M processes -- though often changed during installation Unofficial 6005 TCP Default for Camfrog chat & cam client Unofficial 6009 TCP JD Edwards EnterpriseOne ERP system JDENet messaging client listener Unofficial 6050 TCP Arcserve backup Unofficial 6051 TCP Arcserve backup Unofficial 6086 TCP Peer Distributed Transfer Protocol ( PDTP ) , FTP like file server in a P2P network Official 6100 TCP Vizrt System Unofficial 6100 TCP Ventrilo authentication for version 3 Unofficial 6101 TCP Backup Exec Agent Browser Unofficial 6110 TCP UDP softcm , HP Softbench CM Official 6111 TCP UDP spc , HP Softbench Sub-Process Control Official 6112 TCP UDP dtspcd , execute commands and launch applications remotely Official 6112 TCP UDP Blizzard 's Battle.net gaming service and some games , ArenaNet gaming service , Relic gaming service Unofficial 6112 TCP Club Penguin Disney online game for kids Unofficial 6113 TCP Club Penguin Disney online game for kids , Used by some Blizzard games Unofficial 6136 TCP ObjectDB database server Unofficial 6159 TCP ARINC 840 EFB Application Control Interface Official 6200 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Content Server ( With Native UI ) and Inbound Refinery Unofficial 6201 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Admin Unofficial 6225 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Content Server Web UI Unofficial 6227 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : JavaDB Unofficial 6240 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Capture Unofficial 6244 TCP UDP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Content Server -- Intradoc Socket port Unofficial 6255 TCP UDP Oracle WebCenter Content Portable : Inbound Refinery -- Intradoc Socket port Unofficial 6257 UDP WinMX ( see also 6699 ) Unofficial 6260 TCP UDP planet M.U.L.E. Unofficial 6262 TCP Sybase Advantage Database Server Unofficial 6343 UDP SFlow , sFlow traffic monitoring Official 6346 TCP UDP gnutella - svc , gnutella ( FrostWire , Limewire , Shareaza , etc . ) Official 6347 TCP UDP gnutella - rtr , Gnutella alternate Official 6350 TCP UDP App Discovery and Access Protocol Official 6379 TCP Redis key - value data store Official 6389 TCP EMC CLARiiON Unofficial 6432 TCP PgBouncer -- A connection pooler for PostgreSQL Official 6436 TCP Leap Motion Websocket Server TLS Unofficial 6437 TCP Leap Motion Websocket Server Unofficial 6444 TCP UDP Sun Grid Engine Qmaster Service Official 6445 TCP UDP Sun Grid Engine Execution Service Official 6502 TCP UDP Netop Remote Control Unofficial 6513 TCP NETCONF over TLS Official 6514 TCP Syslog over TLS Official 6515 TCP UDP Elipse RPC Protocol ( REC ) Official 6522 TCP Gobby ( and other libobby - based software ) Unofficial 6523 TCP Gobby 0.5 ( and other libinfinity - based software ) Unofficial 6543 TCP Pylons project # Pyramid Default Pylons Pyramid web service port Unofficial 6556 TCP Check MK Agent Unofficial 6566 TCP SANE ( Scanner Access Now Easy ) -- SANE network scanner daemon Official 6560 -- 6561 TCP Speech - Dispatcher daemon Unofficial 6571 Windows Live FolderShare client Unofficial 6600 TCP Microsoft Hyper - V Live Official 6600 TCP Music Player Daemon ( MPD ) Unofficial 6601 TCP Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway Official 6602 TCP Microsoft Windows WSS Communication Official 6619 TCP UDP odette - ftps , Odette File Transfer Protocol ( OFTP ) over TLS / SSL Official 6622 TCP UDP Multicast FTP Official 6653 TCP Assigned OpenFlow Official 6660 -- 6664 TCP Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ) Unofficial 6665 -- 6669 TCP Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ) Official 6679 TCP UDP Osorno Automation Protocol ( OSAUT ) Official 6679 TCP IRC SSL ( Secure Internet Relay Chat ) -- often used Unofficial 6690 TCP Synology Cloud station Unofficial 6697 TCP IRC SSL ( Secure Internet Relay Chat ) -- often used Official 6699 TCP WinMX ( see also 6257 ) Unofficial 6715 TCP AberMUD and derivatives default port Unofficial 6783 -- 6785 TCP Splashtop Remote server broadcast Unofficial 6789 TCP Campbell Scientific Loggernet Software Unofficial 6789 TCP Bucky 's Instant Messaging Program Unofficial 6869 TCP Derandom default server Unofficial 6881 -- 6887 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6888 TCP UDP MUSE Official 6888 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6889 -- 6890 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6891 -- 6900 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6891 -- 6900 TCP UDP Windows Live Messenger ( File transfer ) Unofficial 6901 TCP UDP Windows Live Messenger ( Voice ) Unofficial 6901 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6902 -- 6968 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6969 TCP UDP acmsoda Official 6969 TCP BitTorrent tracker Unofficial 6970 -- 6999 TCP UDP BitTorrent part of full range of ports used most often Unofficial 6970 -- 9999 UDP QuickTime Streaming Server Unofficial 7000 TCP Default for Vuze 's built in HTTPS Bittorrent Tracker Unofficial 7000 TCP Avira Server Management Console Unofficial 7001 TCP Avira Server Management Console Unofficial 7001 TCP Default for BEA WebLogic Server 's HTTP server , though often changed during installation Unofficial 7002 TCP Default for BEA WebLogic Server 's HTTPS server , though often changed during installation Unofficial 7005 TCP Default for BMC Software Control - M / Server and Control - M / Agent for Agent - to - Server , though often changed during installation Unofficial 7006 TCP Default for BMC Software Control - M / Server and Control - M / Agent for Server - to - Agent , though often changed during installation Unofficial 7010 TCP Default for Cisco AON AMC ( AON Management Console ) Unofficial 7022 TCP Database mirroring endpoints Unofficial 7023 UDP Bryan Wilcutt T2 - NMCS Protocol for SatCom Modems Official 7025 TCP Zimbra LMTP ( mailbox ) -- local mail delivery Unofficial 7047 TCP Zimbra conversion server Unofficial 7070 Yes Maybe Real Time Streaming Protocol ( RTSP ) , used by QuickTime Streaming Server . TCP is used by default , UDP is used as an alternate . Unofficial 7133 TCP Enemy Territory : Quake Wars Unofficial 7144 TCP Peercast Unofficial 7145 TCP Peercast Unofficial 7171 TCP Tibia Unofficial 7262 TCP UDP CNAP ( Calypso Network Access Protocol ) Official 7272 TCP UDP WatchMe - WatchMe Monitoring Official 7306 TCP Zimbra mysql ( mailbox ) Unofficial 7307 TCP Zimbra mysql ( logger ) Unofficial 7312 UDP Sibelius License Server Unofficial 7396 TCP Web control interface for Folding@home v7. 3.6 and later Unofficial 7400 TCP UDP RTPS ( Real Time Publish Subscribe ) DDS Discovery Official 7401 TCP UDP RTPS ( Real Time Publish Subscribe ) DDS User - Traffic Official 7402 TCP UDP RTPS ( Real Time Publish Subscribe ) DDS Meta - Traffic Official 7471 TCP Stateless Transport Tunneling ( STT ) Unofficial 7473 TCP Rise : The Vieneo Province Official 7474 TCP Neo4J Server webadmin Official 7478 TCP Default port used by Open iT Server . Official 7542 TCP UDP Saratoga file transfer protocol Official 7547 TCP UDP CPE WAN Management Protocol ( CWMP ) Technical Report 069 Official 7575 UDP Populous : The Beginning server Unofficial 7624 TCP UDP Instrument Neutral Distributed Interface Official 7631 TCP ERLPhase Official 7634 TCP hddtemp -- Utility to monitor hard drive temperature Unofficial 7652 -- 7654 TCP I2P anonymizing overlay network Unofficial 7655 UDP I2P SAM Bridge Socket API Unofficial 7656 -- 7660 TCP I2P anonymizing overlay network Unofficial 7670 TCP BrettspielWelt BSW Boardgame Portal Unofficial 7687 TCP Bolt database connection Official 7707 -- 7708 UDP Killing Floor Unofficial 7717 UDP Killing Floor Unofficial 7777 TCP iChat server file transfer proxy Unofficial 7777 TCP Oracle Cluster File System 2 Unofficial 7777 TCP Windows backdoor program tini. exe default Unofficial 7777 TCP Just Cause 2 : Multiplayer Mod Server Unofficial 7777 TCP Terraria default server Unofficial 7777 UDP San Andreas Multiplayer ( SA - MP ) default port server Unofficial 7777 -- 7788 TCP UDP Unreal Tournament series default server Unofficial 7831 TCP Default used by Smartlaunch Internet Cafe Administration software Unofficial 7880 TCP UDP PowerSchool Gradebook Server Unofficial 7890 TCP Default that will be used by the iControl Internet Cafe Suite Administration software Unofficial 7915 TCP Default for YSFlight server Unofficial 7935 TCP Fixed port used for Adobe Flash Debug Player to communicate with a debugger ( Flash IDE , Flex Builder or fdb ) . Unofficial 7990 TCP Atlassian Bitbucket ( default port ) Unofficial 8000 TCP Commonly used for Internet radio streams such as SHOUTcast , Icecast and iTunes Radio Unofficial 8000 ? ? DynamoDB Local Unofficial 8000 ? ? Django Development Webserver Unofficial 8005 TCP Tomcat remote shutdown Unofficial 8006 TCP Quest AppAssure 5 API Unofficial 8007 TCP Quest AppAssure 5 Engine Unofficial 8008 TCP UDP Alternative port for HTTP . See also ports 80 and 8080 . Official 8008 TCP IBM HTTP Server administration default Unofficial 8008 TCP iCal , a calendar application by Apple Unofficial 8009 TCP Apache JServ Protocol ( ajp13 ) Unofficial 8042 ? ? Orthanc -- REST API over HTTP Unofficial 8069 TCP OpenERP 5.0 XML - RPC protocol Unofficial 8070 TCP OpenERP 5.0 NET - RPC protocol Unofficial 8074 TCP UDP Gadu - Gadu Official 8075 TCP Killing Floor web administration interface Unofficial 8080 TCP UDP Alternative port for HTTP . See also ports 80 and 8008 . Official 8080 TCP Apache Tomcat Unofficial 8080 TCP Atlassian JIRA applications Unofficial 8088 TCP Asterisk management access via HTTP Unofficial 8089 Yes No Splunk daemon management Unofficial 8089 TCP Fritz ! Box automatic TR - 069 configuration Unofficial 8090 ? ? Atlassian Confluence Unofficial 8090 TCP Coral Content Distribution Network ( legacy ; 80 and 8080 now supported ) Unofficial 8091 ? ? CouchBase web administration Unofficial 8092 ? ? CouchBase API Unofficial 8111 TCP JOSM Remote Control Unofficial 8112 TCP PAC Pacifica Coin Unofficial 8116 UDP Check Point Cluster Control Protocol Unofficial 8118 TCP Privoxy -- advertisement - filtering Web proxy Official 8123 TCP Polipo Web proxy Official 8139 TCP Puppet ( software ) Client agent Unofficial 8140 TCP Puppet ( software ) Master server Official 8172 TCP Microsoft Remote Administration for IIS Manager Unofficial 8184 TCP NCSA Brown Dog Data Access Proxy Unofficial 8194 TCP Bloomberg Application Official 8195 TCP Bloomberg Application Unofficial 8200 TCP GoToMyPC Unofficial 8200 TCP MiniDLNA media server Web Interface 8222 ? ? VMware VI Web Access via HTTP Unofficial 8243 TCP UDP HTTPS listener for Apache Synapse Official 8245 TCP Dynamic DNS for at least No - IP and DyDNS Unofficial 8280 TCP UDP HTTP listener for Apache Synapse Official 8281 TCP HTTP Listener for Gatecraft Plugin Unofficial 8291 TCP Winbox -- Default on a MikroTik RouterOS for a Windows application used to administer MikroTik RouterOS Unofficial 8303 UDP Teeworlds Server Unofficial 8332 TCP Bitcoin JSON - RPC server Unofficial 8333 TCP Bitcoin Unofficial 8333 ? ? VMware VI Web Access via HTTPS Unofficial 8337 TCP VisualSVN Distributed File System Service ( VDFS ) Unofficial 8384 TCP Syncthing web GUI Unofficial 8388 TCP Shadowsocks proxy server Unofficial 8443 TCP SW Soft Plesk Control Panel Unofficial 8443 TCP Apache Tomcat SSL Unofficial 8443 TCP Promise WebPAM SSL Unofficial 8443 TCP iCal over SSL Unofficial 8444 TCP Bitmessage Unofficial 8484 TCP MapleStory Login Server Unofficial 8500 TCP Adobe ColdFusion built - in web server Unofficial 8530 ? ? Windows Server Update Services over HTTP Unofficial 8531 ? ? Windows Server Update Services over HTTPS Unofficial 8580 ? ? Freegate , an Internet anonymizer and proxy tool Unofficial 8629 TCP Tibero database Unofficial 8642 TCP Lotus Notes Traveler auto synchronization for Windows Mobile and Nokia devices Unofficial 8691 TCP Ultra Fractal , a fractal generation and rendering software application -- distributed calculations over networked computers Unofficial 8767 UDP Voice channel of TeamSpeak 2 , a proprietary Voice over IP protocol targeted at gamers Unofficial 8834 ? ? Nessus , a vulnerability scanner -- remote XML - RPC web server Unofficial 8840 ? ? Opera Unite , an extensible framework for web applications Unofficial 8880 TCP Alternate port of CDDB ( Compact Disc Database ) protocol , used to look up audio CD ( compact disc ) information over the Internet . See also port 888 . Official 8880 ? ? IBM WebSphere Application Server SOAP connector Unofficial 8883 TCP UDP Secure MQTT ( MQTT over TLS ) Official 8887 ? ? HyperVM over HTTP Unofficial 8888 ? ? HyperVM over HTTPS Unofficial 8888 ? UDP Freenet web UI ( localhost only ) Unofficial 8888 ? ? Default for IPython / Jupyter notebook dashboards Unofficial 8888 ? ? MAMP web server Unofficial 8889 ? ? MAMP MySQL database server Unofficial 8983 ? ? Apache Solr Unofficial 8997 ? ? Alternate port for I2P Monotone Proxy Unofficial 8998 ? ? I2P Monotone Proxy Unofficial 8999 ? ? Alternate port for I2P Monotone Proxy Unofficial 9000 TCP SonarQube Web Server Unofficial 9000 TCP DBGp Unofficial 9000 TCP SqueezeCenter web server & streaming Unofficial 9000 UDP UDPCast Unofficial 9000 TCP Play ! Framework web server Unofficial 9000 TCP Hadoop NameNode default port Unofficial 9000 TCP PHP - FPM default port Unofficial 9000 TCP QBittorrent 's embedded torrent tracker default port Unofficial 9001 TCP UDP ETL Service Manager Official 9001 Microsoft SharePoint authoring environment Unofficial 9001 cisco - xremote router configuration Unofficial 9001 Tor network default Unofficial 9001 TCP DBGp Proxy Unofficial 9001 TCP HSQLDB default port Unofficial 9002 Newforma Server comms Unofficial 9006 De-Commissioned Port Official 9006 TCP Tomcat in standalone mode Unofficial 9030 TCP Tor often used Unofficial 9042 TCP Apache Cassandra native protocol clients Unofficial 9043 TCP WebSphere Application Server Administration Console secure Unofficial 9050 -- 9051 TCP Tor Unofficial 9060 TCP WebSphere Application Server Administration Console Unofficial 9080 TCP UDP glrpc , Groove Collaboration software GLRPC Official 9080 TCP WebSphere Application Server HTTP Transport ( port 1 ) default Unofficial 9080 TCP Remote Potato by FatAttitude , Windows Media Center addon Unofficial 9080 TCP ServerWMC , Windows Media Center addon Unofficial 9090 TCP Openfire Administration Console Unofficial 9090 TCP SqueezeCenter control ( CLI ) Unofficial 9090 TCP Cherokee Admin Panel Unofficial 9091 TCP Openfire Administration Console ( SSL Secured ) Unofficial 9091 TCP Transmission ( BitTorrent client ) Web Interface Unofficial 9092 TCP H2 ( DBMS ) Database Server Unofficial 9092 TCP Apache Kafka A Distributed Streaming Platform Unofficial 9100 TCP Assigned PDL Data Stream , used for printing to certain network printers Official 9101 TCP UDP Bacula Director Official 9102 TCP UDP Bacula File Daemon Official 9103 TCP UDP Bacula Storage Daemon Official 9119 TCP UDP MXit Instant Messenger Official 9150 TCP Tor Unofficial 9191 TCP Sierra Wireless Airlink Unofficial 9199 TCP Avtex LLC -- qStats Unofficial 9200 TCP Elasticsearch -- default Elasticsearch port Unofficial 9217 TCP iPass Platform Service Unofficial 9293 TCP Sony PlayStation RemotePlay Unofficial 9300 TCP IBM Cognos BI Unofficial 9303 UDP D - Link Shareport Share storage and MFP printers Unofficial 9306 TCP Sphinx Native API Official 9309 TCP UDP Sony PlayStation Vita Host Collaboration WiFi Data Transfer Unofficial 9312 TCP Sphinx SphinxQL Official 9332 TCP Litecoin JSON - RPC server Unofficial 9333 TCP Litecoin Unofficial 9339 TCP Clash of Clans , a mobile freemium strategy video game Unofficial 9389 TCP UDP adws , Microsoft AD DS Web Services , Powershell uses this port Official 9418 TCP UDP git , Git pack transfer service Official 9419 TCP MooseFS distributed file system -- master control port Unofficial 9420 TCP MooseFS distributed file system -- master command port Unofficial 9421 TCP MooseFS distributed file system -- master client port Unofficial 9422 TCP MooseFS distributed file system -- Chunkservers Unofficial 9425 TCP MooseFS distributed file system -- CGI server Unofficial 9443 TCP VMware Websense Triton console ( HTTPS port used for accessing and administrating a vCenter Server via the Web Management Interface ) Unofficial 9443 TCP NCSA Brown Dog Data Tilling Service Unofficial 9535 TCP UDP mngsuite , LANDesk Management Suite Remote Control Official 9536 TCP UDP laes - bf , IP Fabrics Surveillance buffering function Official 9600 No Yes Factory Interface Network Service ( FINS ) , a network protocol used by Omron programmable logic controllers Unofficial 9675 TCP UDP Spiceworks Desktop , IT Helpdesk Software Unofficial 9676 TCP UDP Spiceworks Desktop , IT Helpdesk Software Unofficial 9695 Assigned UDP Content centric networking ( CCN , CCNx ) Official 9785 TCP UDP Viber Unofficial 9800 TCP UDP WebDAV Source Official 9800 WebCT e-learning portal Unofficial 9875 TCP Club Penguin Disney online game for kids Unofficial 9898 TCP Tripwire -- File Integrity Monitoring Software Unofficial 9899 UDP SCTP tunneling ( port number used in SCTP packets encapsulated in UDP , RFC 6951 ) Official 9981 TCP TVHeadend HTTP server ( web interface ) Unofficial 9982 TCP TVHeadend HTSP server ( Streaming protocol ) Unofficial 9987 UDP TeamSpeak 3 server default ( voice ) port ( for the conflicting service see the IANA list ) Unofficial 9993 UDP ZeroTier Default port for ZeroTier Unofficial 9997 TCP Splunk port for communication between the forwarders and indexers Unofficial 9999 Urchin Web Analytics Unofficial 10000 TCP UDP Network Data Management Protocol Official 10000 BackupExec Unofficial 10000 Webmin , Web - based Unix / Linux system administration tool ( default port ) Unofficial 10000 -- 20000 No Yes Used on VoIP networks for receiving and transmitting voice telephony traffic which includes Google Voice via the OBiTalk ATA devices as well as on the MagicJack and Vonage ATA network devices . Unofficial 10001 UDP Ubiquiti UniFi access points broadcast to 255.255. 255.255 : 10001 ( UDP ) to locate the controller ( s ) Unofficial 10009 TCP UDP CrossFire , a multiplayer online First Person Shooter Unofficial 10010 TCP Open Object Rexx ( ooRexx ) rxapi daemon Official 10024 TCP Zimbra smtp ( mta ) -- to amavis from postfix Unofficial 10025 TCP Zimbra smtp ( mta ) -- back to postfix from amavis Unofficial 10042 TCP Mathoid server Unofficial 10050 TCP UDP Zabbix agent Official 10051 TCP UDP Zabbix trapper Official 10080 TCP Touhou fight games ( Immaterial and Missing Power , Scarlet Weather Rhapsody , Hisoutensoku , Hopeless Masquerade and Urban Legend in Limbo ) Unofficial 10110 TCP UDP NMEA 0183 Navigational Data . Transport of NMEA 0183 sentences over TCP or UDP Official 10172 TCP Intuit Quickbooks client Unofficial 10200 TCP FRISK Software International 's fpscand virus scanning daemon for Unix platforms Unofficial 10200 TCP FRISK Software International 's f - protd virus scanning daemon for Unix platforms Unofficial 10201 -- 10204 TCP FRISK Software International 's f - protd virus scanning daemon for Unix platforms Unofficial 10212 TCP GE Intelligent Platforms Proficy HMI / SCADA -- CIMPLICITY WebView Official 10308 ? ? Lock On : Modern Air Combat Unofficial 10480 ? ? SWAT 4 Dedicated Server Unofficial 10505 UDP BlueStacks ( android simulator ) broadcast Unofficial 10514 TCP UDP TLS - enabled Rsyslog ( default by convention ) Unofficial 10823 UDP Farming Simulator 2011 Unofficial 10891 TCP Jungle Disk ( this port is opened by the Jungle Disk Monitor service on the localhost ) Unofficial 10933 TCP Listen port used by the Octopus Deploy Tentacle deployment agent Official 11001 TCP UDP metasys ( Johnson Controls Metasys java AC control environment ) Official 11111 TCP RiCcI , Remote Configuration Interface ( Redhat Linux ) Unofficial 11112 TCP UDP ACR / NEMA Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine ( DICOM ) Official 11211 TCP UDP memcached Unofficial 11214 TCP UDP memcached incoming SSL proxy Unofficial 11215 TCP UDP memcached internal outgoing SSL proxy Unofficial 11235 Savage : Battle for Newerth Unofficial 11311 TCP UDP Robot Operating System master Unofficial 11371 TCP UDP OpenPGP HTTP key server Official 11753 TCP OpenRCT2 multiplayer Unofficial 12012 UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , Korea Server -- Status / Version Check Unofficial 12013 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , Korea Server Unofficial 12035 UDP Second Life , used for server UDP in - bound Unofficial 12043 TCP Second Life , used for LSL HTTPS in - bound Unofficial 12046 TCP Second Life , used for LSL HTTP in - bound Unofficial 12201 Yes Yes Graylog Extended Log Format ( GELF ) Unofficial 12222 UDP Light Weight Access Point Protocol ( LWAPP ) LWAPP data ( RFC 5412 ) Official 12223 UDP Light Weight Access Point Protocol ( LWAPP ) LWAPP control ( RFC 5412 ) Official 12345 TCP UDP Cube World Unofficial 12345 TCP Little Fighter 2 Unofficial 12345 NetBus remote administration tool ( often Trojan horse ) . Unofficial 12443 TCP IBM HMC web browser management access over HTTPS instead of default port 443 Unofficial 12489 TCP NSClient / NSClient++ / NC_Net ( Nagios ) Unofficial 12975 TCP LogMeIn Hamachi ( VPN tunnel software ; also port 32976 ) -- used to connect to Mediation Server ( bibi.hamachi.cc ) ; will attempt to use SSL ( TCP port 443 ) if both 12975 & 32976 fail to connect Unofficial 13000 -- 13050 UDP Second Life , used for server UDP in - bound Unofficial 13008 TCP UDP CrossFire , a multiplayer online First Person Shooter Unofficial 13075 TCP Default for BMC Software Control - M / Enterprise Manager Corba communication , though often changed during installation Official 13720 TCP UDP Symantec NetBackup -- bprd ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13721 TCP UDP Symantec NetBackup -- bpdbm ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13724 TCP UDP Symantec Network Utility -- vnetd ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13782 TCP UDP Symantec NetBackup -- bpcd ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13783 TCP UDP Symantec VOPIED protocol ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13785 TCP UDP Symantec NetBackup Database -- nbdb ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 13786 TCP UDP Symantec nomdb ( formerly VERITAS ) Official 14550 UDP MAVLink Unofficial 14567 UDP Battlefield 1942 and mods Unofficial 15000 TCP psyBNC Unofficial 15000 TCP Wesnoth Unofficial 15000 TCP Kaspersky Network Agent Unofficial 15441 ? ? ZeroNet fileserver Unofficial 15567 UDP Battlefield Vietnam and mods Unofficial 15345 TCP UDP XPilot Contact Official 15672 Yes No RabbitMQ management plugin Unofficial 16000 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Imaging ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Content Management ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16000 TCP shroudBNC Unofficial 16080 TCP Mac OS X Server Web ( HTTP ) service with performance cache Unofficial 16200 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Content Server ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Content Management ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16225 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Content Server Web UI. Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16250 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Inbound Refinery ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Content Management ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16261 TCP UDP Project Zomboid multiplayer . Additional sequential ports used for each player connecting to server . Unofficial 16300 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Records Management ( formerly known as Oracle Universal Records Management ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16384 UDP CISCO Default RTP MIN Unofficial 16384 - 16387 UDP Real - time Transport Protocol ( RTP ) , RTP Control Protocol ( RTCP ) , used by Apple 's iChat for audio and video Unofficial 16384 - 16387 UDP Real - time Transport Protocol ( RTP ) , RTP Control Protocol ( RTCP ) , used by Apple 's FaceTime and Game Center Unofficial 16393 - 16402 UDP Real - time Transport Protocol ( RTP ) , RTP Control Protocol ( RTCP ) , used by Apple 's FaceTime and Game Center Unofficial 16403 - 16472 UDP Real - time Transport Protocol ( RTP ) , RTP Control Protocol ( RTCP ) , used by Apple 's Game Center Unofficial 16400 TCP Oracle WebCenter Content : Capture ( formerly known as Oracle Document Capture ) . Port though often changed during installation Unofficial 16482 CISCO Default RTP MAX Official 16567 UDP Battlefield 2 and mods Unofficial 17011 TCP Worms multiplayer Unofficial 17500 TCP UDP Dropbox LanSync Protocol ( db - lsp ) ; used to synchronize file catalogs between Dropbox clients on a local network . Official 18091 TCP UDP memcached Internal REST HTTPS for SSL Unofficial 18092 TCP UDP memcached Internal CAPI HTTPS for SSL Unofficial 18104 TCP RAD PDF Service Official 18200 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft Thailand Server status / version check Unofficial 18201 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft Thailand Server Unofficial 18206 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft Thailand Server FAM database Unofficial 18300 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft SEA Server status / version check Unofficial 18301 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft SEA Server Unofficial 18306 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , AsiaSoft SEA Server FAM database Unofficial 18333 TCP Bitcoin testnet Unofficial 18400 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , KAIZEN Brazil Server status / version check Unofficial 18401 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , KAIZEN Brazil Server Unofficial 18505 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle R4p3 Server , Nexon Server status / version check Unofficial 18506 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , Nexon Server Unofficial 18605 TCP UDP X-BEAT status / version check Unofficial 18606 TCP UDP X-BEAT Unofficial 19000 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , G10 / alaplaya Server status / version check Unofficial 19000 UDP JACK sound server Unofficial 19001 TCP UDP Audition Online Dance Battle , G10 / alaplaya Server Unofficial 19132 UDP Minecraft : Pocket Edition multiplayer server Unofficial 19150 TCP UDP Gkrellm Server Unofficial 19226 TCP Panda Software AdminSecure Communication Agent Unofficial 19283 TCP UDP K2 -- KeyAuditor & KeyServer , Sassafras Software Inc . Software Asset Management tools Official 19294 TCP Google Talk Voice and Video connections Unofficial 19295 UDP Google Talk Voice and Video connections Unofficial 19302 UDP Google Talk Voice and Video connections Unofficial 19315 TCP UDP KeyShadow for K2 -- KeyAuditor & KeyServer , Sassafras Software Inc . Software Asset Management tools Official 19812 Yes No 4D database SQL Communication Official 19813 TCP UDP 4D database Client Server Communication Official 19814 TCP 4D database DB4D Communication Official 19999 Distributed Network Protocol -- Secure ( DNP -- Secure ) , a secure version of the protocol used in SCADA systems between communicating RTU 's and IED 's Official 20000 Distributed Network Protocol ( DNP ) , a protocol used in SCADA systems between communicating RTU 's and IED 's Official 20000 Usermin , Web - based Unix / Linux user administration tool ( default port ) Unofficial 20000 UDP Used on VoIP networks for receiving and transmitting voice telephony traffic which includes Google Voice via the OBiTalk ATA devices as well as on the MagicJack and Vonage ATA network devices . Unofficial 20560 TCP UDP Killing Floor Unofficial 20595 UDP 0 A.D. Empires Ascendant Unofficial 20808 UDP Ableton Link Unofficial 21025 TCP Starbound Server ( default ) , Starbound Unofficial 22000 TCP Syncthing ( default ) Unofficial 22136 TCP FLIR Systems Camera Resource Protocol Unofficial 22222 TCP Davis Instruments , WeatherLink IP Unofficial 23073 Soldat Dedicated Server Unofficial 23399 Skype default protocol Unofficial 23513 ? ? Duke Nukem 3D source ports Unofficial 24441 TCP UDP Pyzor spam detection network Unofficial 24444 NetBeans integrated development environment Unofficial 24465 TCP UDP Tonido Directory Server for Tonido which is a Personal Web App and P2P platform Official 24554 TCP UDP BINKP , Fidonet mail transfers over TCP / IP Official 24800 Synergy : keyboard / mouse sharing software Unofficial 24842 StepMania : Online : Dance Dance Revolution Simulator Unofficial 25565 TCP Minecraft multiplayer server Unofficial 25565 UDP Minecraft multiplayer server query Unofficial 25575 UDP Minecraft multiplayer server RCON Unofficial 25826 UDP collectd default port Unofficial 26000 TCP UDP id Software 's Quake server Official 26000 TCP EVE Online Unofficial 26000 UDP Xonotic , an open source arena shooter Unofficial 26900 -- 26901 TCP EVE Online Unofficial 27000 -- 27030 UDP Steam , client Unofficial 27000 -- 27006 UDP id Software 's QuakeWorld master server Unofficial 27000 TCP PowerBuilder SySAM license server Unofficial 27000 -- 27009 TCP UDP FlexNet Publisher 's License server ( from the range of default ports ) Official 27014 -- 27050 TCP Steam , file downloads Unofficial 27015 UDP GoldSrc and Source engine dedicated server port Unofficial 27015 UDP Unturned , multiplayer survival video game Unofficial 27016 Magicka server port Unofficial 27017 Yes No MongoDB daemon process ( mongod ) and routing service ( mongos ) Unofficial 27031 -- 27036 UDP Steam , In - Home Streaming ( LAN only ) Unofficial 27374 Sub7 default . Unofficial 27500 -- 27900 UDP id Software 's QuakeWorld Unofficial 27888 UDP Kaillera server Unofficial 27901 -- 27910 UDP id Software 's Quake II master server Unofficial 27950 UDP OpenArena outgoing Unofficial 27960 -- 27969 UDP Activision 's Enemy Territory and id Software 's Quake III Arena , Quake III and Quake Live and some ioquake3 derived games , such as Urban Terror ( OpenArena incoming ) Unofficial 28001 Starsiege : Tribes Unofficial 28015 UDP Rust ( video game ) Unofficial 28770 -- 28771 UDP AssaultCube Reloaded , a video game based upon a modification of AssaultCube Unofficial 28785 -- 28786 UDP Cube 2 : Sauerbraten Unofficial 28852 TCP UDP Killing Floor Unofficial 28910 TCP UDP Nintendo Wi - Fi Connection Unofficial 28960 TCP UDP Call of Duty ; Call of Duty : United Offensive ; Call of Duty 2 ; Call of Duty 4 : Modern Warfare ; Call of Duty : World at War ( PC platform ) Unofficial 29000 ? ? Perfect World , an adventure and fantasy MMORPG Unofficial 29070 TCP UDP Jedi Knight : Jedi Academy by Ravensoft Unofficial 29900 -- 29901 TCP UDP Nintendo Wi - Fi Connection Unofficial 29920 TCP UDP Nintendo Wi - Fi Connection Unofficial 30564 TCP Multiplicity : keyboard / mouse / clipboard sharing software Unofficial 31337 TCP Back Orifice remote administration tool Unofficial 31416 ? ? BOINC RPC Unofficial 31438 TCP Rocket U2 Unofficial 31457 TCP TetriNET Official 32137 TCP UDP Immunet Protect ( UDP in version 2.0 , TCP since version 3.0 ) Unofficial 32400 TCP Plex Media Server Official 32764 TCP A backdoor found on certain Linksys , Netgear and other wireless DSL modems / combination routers Unofficial 32887 TCP Ace of Spades , a multiplayer FPS video game Unofficial 32976 TCP LogMeIn Hamachi , a VPN application ; also TCP port 12975 and SSL ( TCP 443 ) . Unofficial 33434 TCP UDP traceroute Official 33848 UDP Jenkins , a continuous integration ( CI ) tool Unofficial 34000 UDP Infestation : Survivor Stories ( formerly known as The War Z ) , a multiplayer zombie video game Unofficial 34197 No Yes Factorio , a multiplayer survival and factory - building game Unofficial 35357 TCP OpenStack Identity ( Keystone ) administration Official 37008 UDP TZSP intrusion detection Unofficial 40000 TCP UDP SafetyNET p -- a real - time Industrial Ethernet protocol Official 43110 TCP ZeroNet web UI default port Unofficial 43594 -- 43595 ? ? RuneScape Unofficial 44405 TCP Mu Online Connect Server Unofficial 44818 TCP UDP EtherNet / IP explicit messaging Official 47001 TCP Windows Remote Management Service ( WinRM ) Official 47808 TCP UDP BACnet Building Automation and Control Networks ( 47808 = BAC0 ) Official 49151 TCP UDP Reserved Official Dynamic , private or ephemeral ports ( edit ) See also : Ephemeral port The range 49152 -- 65535 ( 2 + 2 to 2 − 1 ) contains dynamic or private ports that can not be registered with IANA . This range is used for private or customized services , for temporary purposes , and for automatic allocation of ephemeral ports . Dynamic , private or ephemeral ports ( hide ) Port TCP UDP Description 49152 -- 65535 Yes No Certificate Management over CMS 60000 -- 61000 Port 22 Yes Range from which Mosh -- a remote - terminal application similar to SSH -- typically assigns ports for ongoing sessions between Mosh servers and Mosh clients . See also ( edit ) Internet Protocol Suite Computer networking portal Computer science portal Internet portal References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ) . Jump up ^ Michelle Cotton ; Lars Eggert et al. ( August 2011 ) . Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ) Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC6335 . BCP 165 . RFC 6335 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6335 . Retrieved 2014 - 04 - 01 . Jump up ^ services ( 5 ) -- Linux File Formats Manual Jump up ^ `` Linux / net / ipv4 / inet_connection_sock. c '' . LXR . Retrieved 2015 - 01 - 17 . Jump up ^ Lottor , M. ( November 1988 ) . TCP Port Service Multiplexer ( TCPMUX ) . IETF . pp. 1 -- 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1078 . RFC 1078 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1078 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Daytime Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0862 . STD 20 . RFC 862 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc862#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . ^ Jump up to : `` TCP and UDP ports used by Apple software products '' . Support . Apple ( published 2016 - 02 - 05 ) . 2014 - 11 - 08 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 09 - 13 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 13 . ^ Jump up to : Stewart , Randall R. , ed. ( September 2007 ) . Stream Control Transmission Protocol . IETF . pp. 135 -- 136 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC4960 . RFC 4960 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4960 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Discard Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0863 . STD 21 . RFC 863 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc863#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 07 . Jump up ^ `` How to Configure the Ports Used for Wake On LAN '' . Microsoft TechNet . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 09 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 ... The default port for the wake - up transmission is UDP port 9 ... ^ Jump up to : `` systat and netstat '' . eTutorials ... The ps - ef and netstat - a commands are bound to TCP ports 11 and 15 , respectively ... Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Active Users . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0866 . STD 24 . RFC 866 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc866 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Daytime Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0867 . STD 25 . RFC 867 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc867#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Quote of the Day Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0865 . STD 23 . RFC 865 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc865#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Nelson , Russell ( June 1990 ) . Message Send Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1159 . RFC 1159 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1159#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Nelson , Russell ; Arnold , Geoff ( April 1992 ) . Message Send Protocol 2 . IETF . pp. 3 -- 4 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1312 . RFC 1312 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1312 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( May 1983 ) . Character Generator Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0864 . STD 22 . RFC 864 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc864#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( June 1980 ) . File Transfer Protocol specification . IETF . p. 57 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0765 . RFC 765 . IEN 149 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc765#page-57 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ; Reynolds , J. ( October 1985 ) . File Transfer Protocol . IETF . p. 59 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0959 . STD 9 . RFC 959 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc959#page-59 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ; Reynolds , J. ( May 1983 ) . Telnet Protocol Specification . IETF . p. 15 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0854 . STD 8 . RFC 854 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc854#page-15 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Postel , Jonathan B. ( August 1982 ) . Simple Mail Transfer Protocol . IETF . p. 44 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0821 . STD 10 . RFC 821 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc821#page-44 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Postel , J. ; Harrenstien , K. ( May 1983 ) . Time Protocol . IETF . pp. 1 -- 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0868 . STD 26 . RFC 868 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc868 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Ullmann , Robert ( June 1993 ) . `` RAP Protocol '' . RAP : Internet Route Access Protocol . IETF . p. 4 . sec. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1476 . RFC 1476 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1476#section-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... The RAP protocol operates on TCP port 38 , with peers opening a symmetric TCP connection between the RAP ports on each system ... RAP is also used on UDP port 38 , as a peer discovery method ... '' Jump up ^ Accetta , M. ( December 1983 ) . Resource Location Protocol . IETF . p. 15 . sec . A . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0887 . RFC 887 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc887#appendix-A . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . `` ... The `` well - known '' UDP port number for the Resource Location Protocol is 39 ( 47 octal ) ... `` Jump up ^ Postel , J. ( August 1979 ) . Internet Name Server . IETF . IEN 116 . https://tools.ietf.org/rfcmarkup?url=https://www.ietf.org/rfc/ien/ien116.txt . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Harrenstien , Ken ; White , Vic ( 1982 - 03 - 01 ) . NICNAME / WHOIS . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0812 . RFC 812 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc812#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Harrenstien , K. ; Stahl , M. ; Feinler , E. ( October 1985 ) . NICNAME / WHOIS . IETF . p. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0954 . RFC 954 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc954#page-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Daigle , Leslie ( September 2004 ) . WHOIS Protocol Specification . Ran Atkinson , Ken Harrenstien , Mary Stahl , Elizabeth Feinler . IETF . p. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC3912 . RFC 3912 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3912#page-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Finseth , Craig A. ( July 1993 ) . An Access Control Protocol , Sometimes Called TACACS . IETF . p. 7 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1492 . RFC 1492 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1492#page-7 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Dorner , Steve ; Resnick , Pete ( June 1992 ) . Remote Mail Checking Protocol . IETF . pp. 1 -- 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1339 . RFC 1339 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1339 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 . Jump up ^ Sollins , Karen R. ( 1980 - 01 - 29 ) . The TFTP Protocol . IETF . p. 6 . IEN 133 . https://tools.ietf.org/rfcmarkup?url=https://www.ietf.org/rfc/ien/ien133.txt#page-6 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Sollins , K.R. ( June 1981 ) . TFTP Protocol ( revision 2 ) . Noel Chiappa , Bob Baldwin , Dave Clark , Steve Szymanski , Larry Allen , Geoff Cooper , Mike Greenwald , Liza Martin , David Reed . IETF . pp. 6 , 14 , 16 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0783 . RFC 783 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc783 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Sollins , Karen R. ( July 1992 ) . The TFTP Protocol ( Revision 2 ) . IETF . pp. 4 -- 5 , 9 , 10 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1350 . STD 33 . RFC 1350 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1350 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Anklesaria ( sic ? ) , Farhad ; McCahill , M. ; Lindner , Paul ; Johnson , David ; Torrey , Daniel ; Alberti , Bob ( March 1993 ) . The Internet Gopher Protocol ( a distributed document search and retrieval protocol ) . IETF . pp. 1 , 4 -- 5 , 7 , 11 -- 13 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1436 . RFC 1436 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1436 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... This protocol assumes a reliable data stream ; TCP is assumed . Gopher servers should listen on port 70 ( port 70 is assigned to Internet Gopher by IANA ) ... '' Jump up ^ Braden , R. ( 1971 - 01 - 13 ) . NETRJS : A third level protocol for Remote Job Entry . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0088 . RFC 88 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc88 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Braden , R. ( 1977 - 11 - 22 ) . NETRJS Protocol . IETF . p. 3 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0740 . RFC 740 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc740#page-3 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Postel , Jon ; Vernon , J. ( January 1983 ) . Assigned Numbers . IETF . p. 10 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0820 . RFC 820 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc820#page-10 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Karrenstien , K. ( 1977 - 12 - 30 ) . NAME / FINGER Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0742 . RFC 742 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc742#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Zimmerman , David Paul ( December 1991 ) . `` Flow of events '' . The Finger User Information Protocol . IETF . p. 4 . sec . 2.1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1288 . RFC 1288 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1288#section-2.1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... Finger is based on the Transmission Control Protocol , using TCP port 79 decimal ... '' Jump up ^ `` Does HTTP use UDP '' . Stack Overflow ( published 2016 - 05 - 06 ) . 2008 - 11 - 27 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 16 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Fielding , Roy T. ; Gettys , James ; Mogul , Jeffrey C. ; Nielsen , Henrik Frystyk ; Masinter , Larry ; Leach , Paul J. ; Berners - Lee , Tim ( June 1999 ) . Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP / 1.1 . IETF . pp. 13 , 19 -- 20 , 37 , 129 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC2616 . RFC 2616 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP / IP connections . The default port is TCP 80 ... '' Jump up ^ Fielding , Roy T. ; Reschke , Julian F. , eds . ( June 2014 ) . Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP / 1.1 ) : Message Syntax and Routing . IETF . pp. 11 , 17 , 19 , 42 -- 43 , 50 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC7230 . RFC 7230 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7230 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . Jump up ^ Belshe , Mike ; Peon , Roberto ( May 2015 ) . `` Starting HTTP / 2 '' . In Thomson , Martin . Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 2 ( HTTP / 2 ) . IETF . p. 7 . sec. 3 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC7540 . RFC 7540 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7540#section-3 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... HTTP / 2 uses the same `` http '' and `` https '' URI schemes used by HTTP / 1.1 . HTTP / 2 shares the same default port numbers : 80 for `` http '' URIs and 443 for `` https '' URIs ... `` Jump up ^ Kohl , John ; Neuman , B. Clifford ( September 1993 ) . `` IP transport '' . The Kerberos Network Authentication Service ( V5 ) . IETF . pp. 81 -- 82 . sec. 8.2. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1510 . RFC 1510 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1510#section-8.2.1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... When contacting a Kerberos server ( KDC ) ... the client shall send a UDP datagram containing only an encoding of the request to port 88 ( decimal ) at the KDC 's IP address ... '' Jump up ^ Neuman , Clifford ; Yu , Tom ; Hartman , Sam ; Raeburn , Kenneth ( July 2005 ) . The Kerberos Network Authentication Service ( V5 ) . Acknowledgements to John Kohl et al. in section 11 `` Acknowledgements '' , pages 121 -- 122 . IETF . pp. 102 -- 103 , 105 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC4120 . RFC 4120 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4120 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 16 . `` ... Kerberos servers ( KDCs ) supporting IP transports MUST accept TCP ... UDP requests and SHOULD listen for them on port 88 ( decimal ) ... '' Jump up ^ Cass , D.E. ; Rose , M.T. ( April 1986 ) . ISO Transport Services on Top of the TCP . IETF . pp. 5 , 8 , 12 -- 13 , 23 -- 24 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0983 . RFC 983 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc983 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... A TSAP server begins by LISTENing on TCP port 102 ... '' Jump up ^ Rose , Marshall T. ; Cass , Dwight E. ( May 1987 ) . ISO Transport Service on top of the TCP Version : 3 . IETF . pp. 1 , 13 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1006 . STD 35 . RFC 1006 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1006 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... TCP port 102 is reserved for hosts which implement this standard ... '' Jump up ^ Hedberg , Roland ; Pomes , Paul ( September 1998 ) . `` Basic Operation '' . The CCSO Nameserver ( Ph ) Architecture . IETF . p. 4 . sec. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC2378 . RFC 2378 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2378#section-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... Initially , the server host starts the Ph service by listening on TCP port 105 ... '' Jump up ^ Postel , Jon ( November 1982 ) . The Remote User Telnet Service . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0818 . RFC 818 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc818#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... the specific service of User Telnet may be accessed ( on hosts that choose to provide it ) by opening a connection to port 107 ( 153 octal ) ... '' Jump up ^ Butler , M. ; Postel , J. ; Chase , D. ; Goldberger , J. ; Reynolds , J.K. ( February 1985 ) . Post Office Protocol : Version 2 . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0937 . RFC 937 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc937#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... This protocol assumes a reliable data stream such as provided by TCP or any similar protocol . When TCP is used , the POP2 server listens on port 109 ... '' Jump up ^ Rose , Marshall ( November 1988 ) . Post Office Protocol : Version 3 . IETF . pp. 2 , 13 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1081 . RFC 1081 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1081 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... the server host starts the POP3 service by listening on TCP port 110 ... '' Jump up ^ Myers , John G. ; Rose , Marshall T. ( May 1996 ) . Post Office Protocol - Version 3 . IETF . pp. 3 , 19 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1939 . STD 53 . RFC 1939 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1939 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... the server host starts the POP3 service by listening on TCP port 110 ... '' Jump up ^ St. Johns , Michael C. ( February 1993 ) . `` Overview '' . Identification Protocol . Acknowledgement is given to Dan Bernstein in section 7 , `` Acknowledgements '' , page 8 . IETF . p. 113 . sec. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1413 . RFC 1413 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1413#section-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... The Identification Protocol ( a.k.a. , `` ident '' , a.k.a. , `` the Ident Protocol '' ) ... listens for TCP connections on TCP port 113 ( decimal ) ... `` Jump up ^ St. Johns , Michael C. ( January 1985 ) . Authentication Server . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0931 . RFC 931 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc931#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... The Authentication Server Protocol provides a means to determine the identity of a user of a particular TCP connection ... A server listens for TCP connections on TCP port 113 ( decimal ) ... '' Jump up ^ Lottor , Mark K. ( September 1984 ) . Postel , Jon . ed . Simple File Transfer Protocol . IETF . p. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0931 . RFC 913 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc913#page-1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... SFTP is used by opening a TCP connection to the remote hosts ' SFTP port ( 115 decimal ) ... '' Jump up ^ Kantor , Brian ; Lapsley , Phil ( February 1986 ) . Network News Transfer Protocol . IETF . pp. 5 , 20 -- 23 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC0977 . RFC 977 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc977 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... NNTP specifies a protocol for the distribution , inquiry , retrieval , and posting of news articles ... When used via Internet TCP , the contact port assigned for this service is 119 ... '' Jump up ^ Feather , Clive D.W. ( October 2006 ) . `` Reading and Transit Servers '' . Network News Transfer Protocol ( NNTP ) . Acknowledgements to NNTP Working Group ( Russ Allbery , Ned Freed ) , Brian Kantor , Phil Lapsley et al . ) in section 13 , `` Acknowledgements '' , pages 107 -- 109 . IETF . p. 21 . sec. 3.4. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC3977 . RFC 3977 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3977#section-3.4.1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... Network News Transfer Protocol ( NNTP ) ... is used for the distribution , inquiry , retrieval , and posting of Netnews articles using a reliable stream - based mechanism ... The official TCP port for the NNTP service is 119 ... '' Jump up ^ `` COM Fundamentals - Guide - COM Clients and Servers - Inter-Object Communications - Microsoft RPC '' . microsoft.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : NetBIOS Working Group ( March 1987 ) . Protocol standard for a NetBIOS service on a TCP / UDP transport : Concepts and methods . Acknowledgements to Internet Activities Board 's End - to - End Services Task Force et al. in section 2 , `` Acknowledgements '' , page 6 ... IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1001 . STD 19 . RFC 1001 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1001 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . ^ Jump up to : NetBIOS Working Group ( March 1987 ) . Protocol standard for a NetBIOS service on a TCP / UDP transport : Detailed specifications . Acknowledgements to Internet Activities Board in section 2 , `` Acknowledgements '' , page 4 . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1002 . STD 19 . RFC 1002 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1002 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . Jump up ^ Crispin , Mark R. ( March 2003 ) . INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL - VERSION 4rev1 . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC3501 . RFC 3501 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3501 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... The Internet Message Access Protocol ... allows a client to access and manipulate electronic mail messages on a server ... The IMAP4rev1 protocol assumes a reliable data stream such as that provided by TCP . When TCP is used , an IMAP4rev1 server listens on port 143 ... '' Jump up ^ DeSchon , A. ; Braden , R. ( August 1988 ) . Background File Transfer Program ( BFTP ) . IETF . pp. 4 , 14 , 20 , 24 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1068 . RFC 1068 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1068 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... The BFTP program ... can be executed as a remotely - accessible service that can be reached via a Telnet connection to the BFTP well - known port ( 152 ) ... '' Jump up ^ Davin , J. ; Case , J. ; Fedor , M. ; Schoffstall , M. ( November 1987 ) . `` The Authentication Protocol '' . Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol . IETF . p. 10 . sec. 4 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1028 . RFC 1028 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1028#section-4 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... This memo defines a simple application - layer protocol by which management information for a gateway may be inspected or altered by logically remote users ... An authentication protocol entity responds to protocol messages received at UDP port 153 on the host with which it is associated ... '' Jump up ^ Lambert , M. ( June 1988 ) . PCMAIL : A distributed mail system for personal computers . IETF . p. 8 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1056 . RFC 1056 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1056#page-8 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... Pcmail is a distributed mail system providing mail service to an arbitrary number of users ... The TCP contact port for DMSP has been designated 158 ... '' ^ Jump up to : Case , J. ; Fedor , M. ; Schoffstall , M. ; Davin , C. ( May 1990 ) . `` Protocol Specification '' . Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) . Acknowledgements to IETF SNMP Extensions working group in section 6 , `` Acknowledgements '' , page 33 . IETF . p. 15 . sec. 4 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1157 . RFC 1157 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1157#section-4 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... A protocol entity receives messages at UDP port 161 on the host ... Messages which report traps should be received on UDP port 162 for further processing ... '' Jump up ^ `` Understanding Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) Traps '' . Support . Cisco ( published 2006 - 10 - 10 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 17 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . Jump up ^ Packard , Keith ( 2004 ) . X Display Manager Control Protocol ( Version 1.1 ed . ) . The Open Group . Archived from the original on 2016 - 01 - 09 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 ... The purpose of the X Display Manager Control Protocol ( XDMCP ) is to provide a uniform mechanism for an autonomous display to request login service from a remote host ... When XDMCP is implemented on top of the Internet User Datagram Protocol ( UDP ) , port number 177 is to be used ... Jump up ^ Rekhter , Yakov ; Li , Tony ; Hares , Susan , eds . ( January 2006 ) . A Border Gateway Protocol 4 ( BGP - 4 ) . Acknowledgements to Kirk Lougheed et al. in section 2 , `` Acknowledgements '' , pages 6 -- 7 . IETF . pp. 8 , 47 -- 48 , 51 -- 52 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC4271 . RFC 4271 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4271 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 17 . `` ... BGP listens on TCP port 179 ... '' ^ Jump up to : Hartmann , Hartmann ( August 2014 ) . Default Port for Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ) via TLS / SSL . IETF . p. 2 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC7194 . RFC 7194 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7194#page-2 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 . `` Although system port assignments exist for IRC traffic that is plain text ( TCP / UDP port 194 ) or TLS / SSL encrypted ( TCP / UDP port 994 ) ... '' Jump up ^ Rose , Marshall T. ( May 1991 ) . `` Mapping onto the TCP '' . SNMP MUX Protocol and MIB . Acknowledgements to Jeffrey S. Case et al. in section 5 `` Acknowledgements '' , page 12 . IETF . p. 8 . sec. 3.3. 1 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC1227 . RFC 1227 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1227#section-3.3.1 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 27 . `` ... When using the TCP to provide the transport - backing for the SMUX protocol , the SNMP agent listens on TCP port 199 ... '' Jump up ^ `` README. smux '' . Net - SNMP ( published 2011 - 05 - 26 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 27 ... SMUX is the snmp multiplexing protocol ( RFC 1227 ) . It can be used by an snmp agent to query variables maintained by another user - level process ... Jump up ^ `` Virus Alerts -- SecureCastFAQ '' . nai.com . Santa Clara , CA , USA : Network Associates , Inc. , now McAfee. 2000 . Archived from the original on 2000 - 03 - 03 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 1504 - Appletalk Update - Based Routing Protocol : Enhanced App '' . faqs.org . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Active Directory and Active Directory Domain Services Port Requirements '' . Microsoft TechNet ( published 2014 - 03 - 28 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 08 - 02 . Retrieved 2017 - 08 - 02 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 1340 , Assigned Numbers '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ Zwicky , Elizabeth D. ; Cooper , Simon ; Chapman , D. Brent ( June 2000 ) ( 1st pub. 1995 ) . `` Internet Message Access Protocol ( IMAP ) '' . Building Internet Firewalls ( Second ed . ) . O'Reilly . 16.7 . ISBN 1 - 56592 - 871 - 7 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 27 ... IMAP over SSL currently uses port 993 , but an earlier convention uses port 585 ... Jump up ^ `` RFC 4409 , ' ' Message Submission for Mail ' ' '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 3620 , The TUNNEL Profile '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ INTERNET DRAFT , DHCP Failover Protocol ( expired : September 2003 ) Jump up ^ `` RFC 3632 , VeriSign Registry Registrar Protocol ( RRP ) Version 2.0. 0 '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` IEEE Standard ( 1244.3 - 2000 ) for Media Management System ( MMS ) Media Management Protocol ( MMP ) '' . IEEE. 2001 - 04 - 26 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Integrated Virtualization Manager on IBM System p5 '' ( PDF ) . IBM . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` IEEE Standard ( 1244.2 - 2000 ) for Media Management Systems ( MMS ) Session Security , Authentication , Initialization Protocol ( SSAIP ) '' . IEEE. 2000 - 12 - 07 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 4204 , Link Management Protocol '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 3981 , IRIS : The Internet Registry Information Service ( IRIS ) Core Protocol '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ Internet Registry Information Service ( IRIS ) Archived February 1 , 2009 , at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ `` Internet - Draft , Using the Internet Registry Information Service ( IRIS ) over the Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol ( BEEP ) '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Tag Distribution Protocol Internet - Draft '' . IETF. 1997 - 05 - 27 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` United States Patent 7286529 , Discovery and tag space identifiers in a tag distribution protocol ( TDP ) '' . Patentstorm.us . Archived from the original on 2012 - 09 - 19 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ Cisco IOS Software Release 11.1 CT New Features Archived January 18 , 2012 , at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ Cisco IOS Software Releases 12.0 S , MPLS Label Distribution Protocol ( LDP ) Jump up ^ `` ARRANGEMENT IN A ROUTER OF A MOBILE NETWORK FOR OPTIMIZING USE OF MESSAGES CARRYING REVERSE ROUTING HEADERS '' . WIPO ( published 2004 - 07 - 01 ) . 2003 - 12 - 11 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 05 - 19 . Retrieved 2017 - 05 - 19 . Jump up ^ Adams , Carlisle ; Farrell , Stephen ; Kause , Tomi ; Mononen , Tero ( September 2005 ) . Internet X. 509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate Management Protocol ( CMP ) . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC4210 . RFC 4210 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4210 . Retrieved 2017 - 11 - 10 . Jump up ^ `` Setting up a socket policy file server '' . Adobe.com. 2008 - 04 - 14 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` vCenter Server 4.1 network port requirements '' . VMware Knowledge Base . 2014 - 07 - 29 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 06 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 . ^ Jump up to : `` Required ports for configuring an external firewall to allow ESX / ESXi and vCenter Server traffic '' . VMware Knowledge Base . 2014 - 08 - 01 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 06 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 . Jump up ^ `` Using rndc '' . Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide ( 5.0. 0 - 19 ed . ) . Red Hat ( published 2007 - 01 - 23 ) . 2006 . 16.4 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 06 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 ... default TCP port 953 ... allow rndc commands ... Jump up ^ rndc ( 8 ) -- Linux Administration and Privileged Commands Manual ... TCP port ... BIND 9 's default control channel port , 953 ... Jump up ^ `` NG FAQ - Ports used by Check Point VPN - 1 / FireWall - 1 Next Generation '' . FW-1.de ( published 2007 - 01 - 02 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 06 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 ... 981 / tcp ... remote administration from external using HTTPS ... Jump up ^ `` Managing Windows Small Business Server 2008 Remote Web Workplace '' . Microsoft TechNet ( published 2009 - 10 - 08 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 07 - 05 . Retrieved 2017 - 07 - 05 ... Windows SBS 2008 must allow connections through TCP ports 80 , 443 , 987 , and 3389 . The computer used to connect to Remote Web Workplace must allow connections through TCP ports 80 , 443 , 987 , and 3389 . Routers on Windows SBS 2008 must be configured to forward Internet traffic to TCP ports 80 , 443 , 987 , and 3389 . ... Jump up ^ RFC 4707 Jump up ^ `` Appendix A. TCP Ports Used by ThinLinc '' . ThinLinc Administrator 's Guide for ThinLinc 4.6. 0 . Cendio AB ( published 2016 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 06 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 06 ... By default , ThinLinc 's web - based administration interface is available on TCP port 1010 ... Jump up ^ Carpenter , Brian ; Dan , Wing ; Jiang , Sheng Jiang ( October 2012 ) . Despres , Remi . ed . Native IPv6 behind IPv4 - to - IPv4 NAT Customer Premises Equipment ( 6a44 ) . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC6751 . ISSN 2070 - 1721 . RFC 6751 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6751 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 . ^ Jump up to : `` Firewall , Proxy , Router and Port Configuration for Blizzard Games '' . Blizzard Entertainment . 2012 - 12 - 07 . Archived from the original on 2012 - 08 - 08 . Retrieved 2013 - 04 - 02 . Jump up ^ `` Dell OpenManage Version 8.0. 1 Port Information Guide '' ( PDF ) . Dell . 2014 . p. 15 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Basic command line options '' . The Festival Speech Synthesis System -- System documentation . The Centre for Speech Technology Research ( 1.4 ed . ) . University of Edinburgh ( published 1999 - 06 - 19 ) . 1999 - 06 - 17 . 7.1 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 27 ... Festival waits for clients on a known port ( the value of server_port , default is 1314 ) ... ^ Jump up to : Muir , Jeff . `` Two Port ICA '' . p. 1 . Archived from the original on 15 June 2012 . Retrieved 2008 - 03 - 14 . ^ Jump up to : `` Open communication ports required by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Virtual Environments 6.4 '' . Support . IBM . IBM . 2016 - 05 - 09 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Network ports and URLs that are used by Windows Live Messenger '' . Support . Microsoft . Jump up ^ `` Recommended Port Numbers '' . Oracle . Retrieved 2015 - 11 - 27 . Jump up ^ Hilker , Steve ( 2013 - 03 - 13 ) . `` Oracle Default Port Numbers '' . Oracle Wiki . Toad World . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Start Network Server '' . The Apache DB Project . Derby Tutorial . Apache Software Foundation ( published 2016 - 03 - 23 ) . 2008 - 04 - 30 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Start the Network server by executing the startNetworkServer. bat ( Windows ) or startNetworkServer ( UNIX ) script . This will start the Network Server up on port 1527 ... Jump up ^ `` Discovery / Autoconf '' . Eclipse . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . ^ Jump up to : `` Pervasive PSQL Vx Server 11 SP3 Release Notes '' . Pervasive PSQL. 2013 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... Pervasive PSQL Vx Server 11 SP3 communicates via the following ones : 3351 for the transactional interface , 1583 for the relational interface , and 139 for named pipes ... ^ Jump up to : `` FAQ : Frequently Asked Questions '' . iSketch . n.d. Connection problems . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... allow TCP / IP connections on port 1626 & 1627 ( 1627 only needed for sending sketches . ) ^ Jump up to : `` RADIUS Overview '' . juniper.net . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . ^ Jump up to : DeKok , Alan ( May 2012 ) . `` Assigned Ports for RADIUS / TCP '' . RADIUS over TCP . IETF . p. 7 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC6613 . ISSN 2070 - 1721 . RFC 6613 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6613#page-7 . Jump up ^ `` P4PORT '' . Perforce. 2012 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... Valid communications protocols are tcp ( plaintext over TCP / IP ) or ssl ( SSL over TCP / IP ) . Jump up ^ `` How to troubleshoot the Key Management Service ( KMS ) '' . TechNet . Microsoft . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 03 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... 1688 is the default TCP port used by the clients to connect to the KMS host ... Jump up ^ Patel , Baiju V. ; Aboda , Bernard ; Dixon , William ; Zorn , Glen ; Booth , Skip ( November 2001 ) . Securing L2TP using IPsec . Thanks to Gurdeep Singh Pall , David Eitelbach , Peter Ford , Sanjay Anand , John Richardson , Rob Adams . IETF . pp. 8 -- 14 , 23 -- 26 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC3193 . RFC 3193 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3193 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 . Jump up ^ Jleeke ; Tickner , Patrick ( 2006 - 10 - 04 ) . `` Linux Server '' . AAManual ( America 's Army Game Manual ) . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... The port the server will listen on . The default port is 1716 . Jump up ^ `` Ports used by some ZENworks products '' . Novell Support Knowledgebase . Micro Focus ( published 2007 - 04 - 18 ) . 2012 - 04 - 30 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` TCP and UDP Ports Used by ZENworks Primary Servers '' . ZENworks 11 SP4 Primary Server and Satellite Reference . Novell ( published 2016 - 05 - 31 ) . 2016 - 06 - 16 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 07 . Jump up ^ `` Configuration '' . Node - RED Documentation . IBM Emerging Technologies . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 09 - 09 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 09 . Jump up ^ `` Ports and firewalls '' . Support . Adobe ( published 2015 - 12 - 14 ) . 2015 - 02 - 10 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 ... Flash Media Server listens for RTMP / E requests on port 1935 / TCP ... Flash Media Server listens for RTMFP requests on port 1935 / UDP ... Jump up ^ Doyle , Michael ; Substelny , Mike . Artemis Spaceship Bridge Simulator -- Terran Star Naval Academy Tactical Manual 1.70 ( PDF ) ( Windows ed . ) . p. 8 . Archived ( PDF ) from the original on 2017 - 06 - 30 . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 30 ... This screen allows the Bridge Crew to connect to the Artemis Simulator ... The network must also be configured to forward port 2010 to the server machine 's local address ... ^ Jump up to : `` Which ports are required to play Civilization 4 online ? '' . Support . 2K. 2016 - 07 - 17 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` How to Log in to Your Server or Account '' . cPanel Knowledge Base ( published 2016 - 08 - 22 ) . 2014 - 06 - 24 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` If you 're not getting Apple push notifications '' . Support . Apple ( published 2016 - 04 - 15 ) . 2014 - 11 - 08 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` Installation manual and user guide Remote administrator 5 '' ( PDF ) . ESET , spol . s r.o . Retrieved 29 January 2015 . Jump up ^ `` What ports do I need to open in my firewall ? '' . DirectAdmin Knowledge Base . JBMC Software ( published 2011 - 05 - 29 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` Known multiplayer issues in Halo : Combat Evolved '' . Support . Microsoft . Jump up ^ Balderston , David ; Boutté , Andy ( 2016 - 02 - 03 ) . `` Ghost config. js - Broken Down '' . Ghost for Beginners . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... This is the port that Ghost is listening on . By default 2368 is used ... Jump up ^ `` KGS : Set Preferences '' . KGS Go Server . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . The TCP / IP port of the KGS server . The default is 2379 ... ^ Jump up to : Garulli , Luca ; Dyer , Kenneth P.J. ; Franchini , Roberto ( 2015 - 05 - 13 ) . `` OrientDB Server '' . OrientDB Manual -- version 2.1. x ( published 2016 - 05 - 18 ) . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... Upon startup , the server runs on port 2424 for the binary protocol and 2480 for the http one . If a port is busy the next free one will be used . The default range is 2424 - 2430 ( binary ) and 2480 - 2490 ( http ) ... Jump up ^ Hanna , Stephen R. ; Patel , Baiju V. ; Shah , Munil ( December 1999 ) . `` Protocol Description '' . Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol . Thanks to Rajeev Byrisetty , Steve Deering , Peter Ford , Mark Handley , Van Jacobson , David Oran , Thomas Pfenning , Dave Thaler , Ramesh Vyaghrapuri and the participants of the IETF . IETF . p. 6 . sec . 2.0 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC2730 . RFC 2730 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2730#section-2.0 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 . `` ... A reserved port number dedicated for MADCAP is used on the server ( port number 2535 , as assigned by IANA ) . Any port number may be used on client machines ... '' Jump up ^ Hanna , Stephen R. ; Patel , Baiju V. ; Shah , Munil ( December 1999 ) . `` Protocol Overview '' . Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol . Thanks to Rajeev Byrisetty , Steve Deering , Peter Ford , Mark Handley , Van Jacobson , David Oran , Thomas Pfenning , Dave Thaler , Ramesh Vyaghrapuri and the participants of the IETF . IETF . p. 3 . sec . 1.5 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC2730 . RFC 2730 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2730#section-1.5 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 . `` ... All messages are UDP datagrams ... '' Jump up ^ `` DocCommentXchange '' . sybase.com . Retrieved 27 February 2017 . Jump up ^ `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . Iana.org . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ `` Overview '' . XBT Tracker . SourceForge . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... XBT Tracker listens on port 2710 ... Jump up ^ `` Overview '' . XBT Tracker . SourceForge . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... An experimental UDP tracker extension is also supported via announce URL udp://...:2710 ... ^ Jump up to : `` Ports Used by I2P '' . I2P . December 2015 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 . Jump up ^ `` Getting Started with Rails '' . Ruby on Rails. 2012 - 03 - 21 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Documentation - Meteor '' . meteor.com . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . Jump up ^ `` What Ports And Protocols Are Used By Sync ? '' . Sync Help Center . Resilio. 2016 - 08 - 28 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... Connecting to the tracker server for automatic peer discovery : TCP and UDP , port 3000 ... Jump up ^ `` Firewall and connection requirements for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server , BlackBerry Device Service , and Universal Device Service '' . Blackberry Knowledge Base ( published 2016 - 05 - 19 ) . 2015 - 08 - 15 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... On the firewall , verify that port 3101 is open for outbound initiated , bi-directional Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) traffic ... Jump up ^ `` Squid configuration directive http_port '' . Squid Documentation ( published 2013 - 05 - 09 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 28 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 28 ... Squid normally listens to port 3128 ... Jump up ^ `` Eggdrop. conf '' . Eggdrop Wiki . Retrieved 2014 - 02 - 20 . Jump up ^ `` CruiseControl. rb -- Getting Started '' . thoughtworks.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` How to change the listening port for Remote Desktop '' . Microsoft . 2011 - 05 - 04 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 5389 : Session Traversal Utilities for NAT ( STUN ) '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 5766 - Traversal Using Relays around NAT ( TURN ) : Relay Extensions to Session Traversal Utilities for NAT ( STUN ) '' . ietf.org . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . ^ Jump up to : MacDonald , Derek C. ; Lowekamp , Bruce B. ( May 2010 ) . `` Port Numbers and SRV Registry '' . NAT Behavior Discovery Using Session Traversal Utilities for NAT ( STUN ) . Thanks to Dan Wing , Cullen Jennings , and Magnus Westerlund for detailed comments ... IETF . p. 25 . sec . 9.2 . RFC 5780 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5780#section-9.2 . Retrieved 2017 - 07 - 28 . `` ... By default , the STUN NAT Behavior Discovery usage runs on the same ports as STUN : 3478 over UDP and TCP , and 5349 for TCP over TLS ... '' ^ Jump up to : `` Test Internet Connection '' . PlayStation ® 4 User 's Guide . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 04 - 09 . Retrieved 2017 - 04 - 09 ... refer to the port numbers listed below , which are used when you connect your PS4 TM system to a PlayStation TM Network server . TCP : 80 , 443 , 3478 , 3479 , 3480 UDP : 3478 , 3479 ... Jump up ^ 3 min expected wait time ( 2013 - 09 - 18 ) . `` Using Microsoft Outlook Express with Your Email Go Daddy Help Go Daddy Support '' . Help.godaddy.com . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` IBM U2 product family '' . IBM . 2009 - 10 - 01 . Archived from the original on June 12 , 2008 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` TinTin++ Mud Client Manual - Chat Protocol '' . Jump up ^ `` IETF Draft of the Minger Email Address Verification Protocol '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . Iana.org . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` Couch - Potato - Server / Network. java at master rarcher / Couch - Potato - Server '' . Jump up ^ `` Install and Run NATS Server '' . ^ Jump up to : `` Configuration of Orthanc '' . Orthanc Book . 2017 ( First published 2015 ) . Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 ... The default configuration file would : Create a DICOM server with the DICOM AET ( Application Entity Title ) ORTHANC that listens on the port 4242 . Create a HTTP server for the REST API that listens on the port 8042 . ... Jump up ^ `` First steps with Docker '' . Archived from the original on 2014 - 02 - 19 . ^ Jump up to : `` Opening ports for Viber Desktop '' . Viber . Viber Media S. à r.l . Retrieved 13 June 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . www.iana.org . Retrieved 2016 - 03 - 28 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 2167 , Referral Whois ( RWhois ) Protocol '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` eMule Ports '' . Emule-project.net. 2007 - 05 - 16 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Port Details - Port 4728 '' . SANS . Jump up ^ `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . www.iana.org . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 04 . Jump up ^ `` FlightGear Howto : Multiplayer '' . flightgear.org . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` PEG Specifications '' ( PDF ) . Michigan Inter-governmental Trade Network . Jan 2015 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on 2017 - 06 - 08 . Retrieved 8 June 2017 ... TCP port 5000 shall be configured and open inbound through firewalls to the encoder ... Jump up ^ Picture of Horse ( 2017 - 07 - 18 ) . `` Troubleshooting Connection Issues '' . Riot Games Support . Riot Games . Port forwarding . Archived from the original on 2017 - 08 - 10 . Retrieved 2017 - 08 - 10 ... Now you must create an entry for each of the port ranges listed on the previous page ... 5000 - 5500 UDP ( League of Legends Game Client ) ... Jump up ^ ARX Passersystem , Användarmanual Archived August 21 , 2010 , at the Wayback Machine . ^ Jump up to : Hill , Graham ; Spiro , Jason , eds. ( 3 April 2012 ) . `` Nmap indicates that `` telepathstart '' and `` telepathattack '' are listening on ports 5010 and 5011 of my Linux box . What are these ? `` . IT Security Stack Exchange . Stack Exchange , Inc . Answer by Graham Hill . Retrieved 2012 - 07 - 13 . Jump up ^ `` Symantec Intruder Alert product support '' . Symantec . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics/base/R3-14/12-docs/CAref.html#port Jump up ^ Camarillo , Gonzalo ; Ott , Joerg ; Drage , Keith ( November 2006 ) . The Binary Floor Control Protocol ( BFCP ) . IETF . doi : 10.17487 / RFC4582 . RFC 4582 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4582 . Retrieved 2017 - 12 - 13 . Jump up ^ `` IBM Tivoli Netcool / Impact '' . IBM . Archived from the original on June 16 , 2008 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` RFC 2107 , Ascend Tunnel Management Protocol '' . IETF . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Port 5172 ( tcp / udp ) '' . Retrieved 2016 - 07 - 25 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 3920 , Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) : Core '' . Tools.ietf.org . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 6120 , Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ( XMPP ) : Core '' . IETF. 2003 - 12 - 13 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` RFC 5415 , Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points ( CAPWAP ) Protocol Specification '' . IETF. 2008 - 11 - 10 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ XEP - 0124 : Bidirectional - streams Over Synchronous HTTP ( BOSH ) Jump up ^ `` XEP - 0124 : Bidirectional - streams Over Synchronous HTTP ( BOSH ) with SSL '' . Xmpp.org . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` XEP - 0174 : Serverless Messaging '' . Xmpp.org . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Kega Fusion Mini-Manual '' . arcadezone.org . Niobium 's Arcade Zone. 2010 - 01 - 16 . Archived from the original on October 29 , 2013 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ `` Kega Fusion Mini-Manual '' . gamingpwnage.webs.com . GamingPwnage . Archived from the original on October 29 , 2013 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ Miller , Kenneth ; Robertson , Kary ; Tweedly , Alex ; White , Marc ( April 1998 ) . `` MFTP Architecture '' . StarBurst Multicast File Transfer Protocol ( MFTP ) Specification . Acknowledgements to Scott Bradner , Ken Cates , and Tony Speakman . IETF . p. 10 . sec. 3 . I-D draft - miller - mftp - spec - 03 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-miller-mftp-spec-03#section-3 . Retrieved 2017 - 05 - 19 . `` ... IANA has assigned UDP port 5402 for MFTP . Certain MFTP messages must be sent to this port because it will be the only port number known both to the sender ( Server ) and the receivers ( Clients ) ... '' Jump up ^ `` Use IT Group - Bouwsoft - Groensoft '' . Bouwsoft.be . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` Firewall Configuration to Allow Client - Server Comms '' . Schneider Electric Resource Center . Retrieved 26 November 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Port Numbers '' . Docs.oracle.com . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ ANSI E1. 17 - 2010 Jump up ^ pcAnywhere IP port usage Jump up ^ How to change the IP ports that pcAnywhere uses Jump up ^ `` AMQP URI Specification '' . www.rabbitmq.com . GoPivotal , Inc. 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Hazelcast 3.9 Reference Manual '' . docs.hazelcast.org . Retrieved 2017 - 11 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Technet : Using a Firewall with Operations Manager 2007 '' . Microsoft . Jump up ^ `` Troubleshooting ProjectWise Gateway or Connection Server ( TN ) - Content Management Wiki - Content Management - Bentley Communities '' . Retrieved 2017 - 09 - 20 . Jump up ^ `` VNC Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) : Q53 Which TCP / IP ports does VNC use ? '' . AT&T Laboratories Cambridge . 1999 . Jump up ^ `` TeamViewer 8 Manual Remote Control '' ( PDF ) . www.teamviewer.com . TeamViewer GmbH. 2012 . p. 68 . Retrieved 2013 - 08 - 30 . ^ Jump up to : `` Enter - PSSession '' . www.technet.com . Microsoft TechNet. 2013 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 31 . Jump up ^ `` vSphere Documentation Center '' . vmware.com . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Server Configuration '' . ObjectDB 2.6 Developer 's Guide . n.d. Chapter 6 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 11 - 21 . Retrieved 2016 - 11 - 21 ... The port attribute specifies a TPC ( sic ) port on which the server is listening for new connections . Usually the default port 6136 should be specified ... Jump up ^ `` RFC 5424 '' . IETF. 2008 - 11 - 10 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ Mosberger , David ( 20 Apr 2009 ) . `` SANE Unix man page '' . SANE - Scanner Access Now Easy . Jump up ^ `` Datalogger Support Software '' . Campbellsci.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ Worldwide . `` Application - Oriented Networking -- Cisco Systems '' . Cisco.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Database Mirroring Endpoint '' . SQL Server 2008 R2 . Microsoft . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` WebClientAuthenticatedSessionIDs - FAHClient '' . stanford.edu . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` The Neo4J Manual Chapter 27 . Web Interface '' . Retrieved 2014 - 06 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Open iT FAQs : What are the default port server of Open iT ? '' . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 28 . Jump up ^ Wood , Lloyd ; Eddy , Wesley M. ; Smith , Charles ; Ivancic , Will ; Jackson , Chris ( November 2016 ) . Saratoga : A Scalable Data Transfer Protocol . Contributions by James H. McKim et al. ( section 10 `` Acknowledgements '' , p. 52 ) . IETF . I-D draft - wood - tsvwg - saratoga - 20 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-wood-tsvwg-saratoga-20 . Retrieved 2017 - 03 - 27 . `` ... Saratoga is a file transfer and content delivery protocol ... IANA has allocated port 7542 ( tcp / udp ) for use by Saratoga ... '' Jump up ^ Wood , Lloyd ; Eddy , Wesley M. ; Ivancic , Will ; McKim , Jim ; Jackson , Chris ( 13 -- 14 September 2007 ) . Saratoga : a Delay - Tolerant Networking convergence layer with efficient link utilization . 2007 International Workshop on Space and Satellite Communications . Salzburg : IEEE . pp. 168 -- 172 . doi : 10.1109 / IWSSC. 2007.4409410 . ISBN 978 - 1 - 4244 - 0938 - 9 ... Saratoga is a rate - based UDP file transfer protocol capable of transferring large files . Saratoga has been in operational use since 2004 to move mission imaging data from the Disaster Monitoring Constellation ( DMC ) remote - sensing satellites to ground stations ... Jump up ^ `` Smartlaunch 4.1 Cyber Cafe Management Software Product Overview '' ( PDF ) . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on 2013 - 03 - 11 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` How to create a YSF Server , step by step guide '' . forum.ysfhq.com . YSFlight Headquarters. 2011 - 08 - 06 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 26 . Jump up ^ `` Flex 3 -- Adobe Flex 3 Help '' . adobe.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Running DynamoDB on Your Computer '' . Amazon DynamoDB -- Developer Guide ( API Version 2012 - 08 - 10 ed . ) . Amazon Web Services . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 24 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 24 ... DynamoDB uses port 8000 by default ... Jump up ^ `` Writing your first Django app '' . Django documentation ( 1.10 ed . ) . Django Software Foundation . 2016 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 24 . Retrieved 24 July 2016 ... By default , the runserver command starts the development server on the internal IP at port 8000 ... ^ Jump up to : `` AppAssure 5 Firewall Port Requirements '' . AppAssure ( Knowledge Base ) . Dell ( published 2012 - 10 - 23 ) . 2012 - 10 - 01 . Archived from the original on 2013 - 01 - 22 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 . ^ Jump up to : `` OpenERP Web Installation '' . OpenERP Documentation ( 5.0 ed . ) ( published 2017 - 02 - 12 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 ... port is the OpenERP server port which is by default 8070 for NET - RPC or 8069 for XML ( S ) - RPC . The web server itself listens by default on port 8080 ... Jump up ^ `` Changing JIRA application TCP ports '' . Administering JIRA applications 7.1. n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 ... By default , JIRA applications use TCP listening port 8080 and hence , JIRA applications are typically available at http://<yourserver>:8080 ... Jump up ^ `` web. conf '' . Splunk ® Enterprise Admin Manual ( 6.6. 3 ed . ) . Splunk . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 08 - 23 . Retrieved 2017 - 08 - 23 ... The following are the spec and example files for web. conf ... Location of splunkd ... Defaults to 127.0. 0.1 : 8089 ... Jump up ^ `` How is the FRITZ ! Box protected from attacks against port 8089 ? '' . AVM. 2016 - 02 - 05 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 07 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 07 - 06 ... The FRITZ ! Box supports the TR - 069 protocol ... If necessary , the service provider 's Auto Configuration Server ( ACS ) contacts the FRITZ ! Box over TCP port 8089 using a URI ( Uniform Resource Identifier ) that was previously negotiated ... Jump up ^ `` Change listen port for Confluence '' . Confluence Server documentation ( 6.0 ed . ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 ... If you see this error : ... This means you are running other software on Confluence 's default port of 8090 ... Jump up ^ `` Frequently asked questions '' . Coral Content Distribution Network Wiki . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 ... you can now access CoralCDN through ports 80 , 8080 , and 8090 ... ^ Jump up to : `` Network Configuration '' . CouchBase Developer Portal. 2017 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 02 - 12 . Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Remote Administration for IIS Manager '' . iis.net . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . ^ Jump up to : `` Bloomberg Transport and Security Specification '' ( PDF ) . Retrieved 17 March 2016 . ^ Jump up to : `` VMware Server 2.0 RC 2 Release Notes '' . VMWare Documentation . VMWare ( published 2008 - 08 - 26 ) . 2008 - 08 - 19 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 09 - 06 . Retrieved 2017 - 09 - 04 ... The default VI Web Access HTTP connection port is 8222 and the default HTTPS port is 8333 ... ^ Jump up to : `` Apache Synapse '' . apache.org. 2012 - 01 - 06 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Remote Access Update API - CheckIP Tool FAQ '' . dyn.com . Retrieved 2015 - 08 - 21 . Jump up ^ `` MikroTik Wiki `` IP / Services '' page `` . MikroTik. 2014 - 01 - 02 . Retrieved 2014 - 06 - 23 . Jump up ^ Bitcoin Forum : Command Line and JSON - RPC ^ Jump up to : `` FAQ - Bitcoin '' . En.bitcoin.it. 2014 - 12 - 12 . Retrieved 2015 - 01 - 01 . Jump up ^ `` Enabling the inbound firewall rule for a master VDFS service - VisualSVN Help Center '' . visualsvn.com . Retrieved 16 March 2015 . Jump up ^ Configuring and Administering Adobe ColdFusion 10 ( PDF ) . Adobe ( published 2012 - 09 - 07 ) . n.d. pp. 2 , 5 , 29 , 95 , 150 -- 151 . Archived ( PDF ) from the original on 2013 - 02 - 02 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 24 ... The ColdFusion server configuration is built on top of Tomcat , also called the built - in web server ... By default in the server configuration , the built - in web server listens on port 8500 ... ^ Jump up to : `` How to Configure a Firewall for Software Updates '' . Microsoft TechNet . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 24 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 24 ... By default , a WSUS server that is configured for the default Web site uses port 80 for HTTP and port 443 for HTTPS . By default , the WSUS server uses port 8530 for HTTP and port 8531 for HTTPS if it is using the WSUS custom Web site ... ^ Jump up to : `` Step 3 : Configure WSUS '' . Deploy Windows Server Update Services in Your Organization . Microsoft TechNet . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 24 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 24 ... WSUS upstream and downstream servers will synchronize on the port configured by the WSUS Administrator . By default , these ports are configured as follows : On WSUS 3.2 and earlier , port 80 for HTTP and 443 for HTTPS On WSUS 6.2 and later ( at least Windows Server 2012 ) , port 8530 for HTTP and 8531 for HTTPS ... Jump up ^ Ohling , Freerk ; Varley Jamieson , Helen ; Rastapopoulos , Roberto ; Schoen , Seth ; booki ; et al. ( 2011 ) . `` Freegate '' . How to Bypass Internet Censorship . FLOSS Manuals. 22 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 24 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 24 ... Freegate is a proxy tool ... If you want to use another application with Freegate ... you will have to configure them to use Freegate as a proxy server ... the port is 8580 ... Jump up ^ `` Planning your network topology '' . Lotus Notes Traveler 8.5. 1 documentation . IBM ( published 2010 - 07 - 01 ) . n.d . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 . Jump up ^ `` Network calculations '' . Ultra Fractal manual . Frederik Slijkerman . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... Ultra Fractal enables you to distribute calculations over multiple computers connected with a network ... Ultra Fractal uses the TCP / IP protocol for network calculations , ... Jump up ^ `` Network servers '' . Ultra Fractal manual . Frederik Slijkerman . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... To be able to connect to a remote computer , Ultra Fractal must be running in server mode ... By default , the server listens on port 8691 for connections ... Jump up ^ `` Which ports does the TeamSpeak 2 server use ? '' . Support . TeamSpeak . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 . Jump up ^ Nessus 6.8 User Guide ( PDF ) . Tenable Network Security ( published 2017 - 06 - 27 ) . n.d.p. 28 . Archived ( PDF ) from the original on 2017 - 07 - 06 . Retrieved 2017 - 07 - 06 ... The Nessus UI uses port 8834 ... By default , Nessus is installed and managed using HTTPS and SSL , uses port 8834 ... Jump up ^ Vaughan - Nichols , Steven J. ( 2009 - 06 - 18 ) . `` First look : Opera Unite alpha lets you share files -- but is it safe ? '' . Networking . Computerworld . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... Unite is both a Web browser and a Web server . With the included JavaScript applets , ... To make this happen , your PC and its Internet connection have to have port 8840 open ... Jump up ^ The How - To Geek ( 2010 - 02 - 15 ) . `` How to Share Large Files Over the Internet with Opera Unite '' . Lifehacker . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... Unite automatically hooks into your router using uPnP to dynamically open port 8840 , but it can also use a Unite proxy server when you 're behind a more restrictive firewall ... Jump up ^ `` Use of CDDB service in your software '' . CDDB Inc. 1998 - 09 - 28 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 -- via Department of Engineering Science , University of Oxford ... CDDB ( CD database ) is an information database containing artist , disc title , track titles , and other information for digital audio compact discs ... There are two forms of remote access to CDDB servers , CDDBP and HTTP . All current CDDB servers answer either at IP port 888 or 8880 for CDDBP and port 80 for HTTP access ... Jump up ^ `` Port number settings in WebSphere Application Server versions '' . WebSphere Application Server - Express , Version 8.0 documentation . IBM ( published 2016 - 07 - 25 ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 . Jump up ^ `` Frequently Asked Questions '' . MQTT . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... TCP / IP port 1883 is reserved with IANA for use with MQTT . TCP / IP port 8883 is also registered , for using MQTT over SSL ... Jump up ^ Banks , Andrew ; Gupta , Guhan , eds. ( 2015 - 12 - 10 ) . `` Network Connections '' . MQTT Version 3.1. 1 ( Plus Errata 01 ed . ) . OASIS . 4.2 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... TCP ports 8883 and 1883 are registered with IANA for MQTT TLS and non TLS communication respectively ... Jump up ^ Ivanov , Paul ; et al. ( 2015 - 09 - 25 ) . `` Running a notebook server '' . In Baecker , Arnd . IPython Documentation . IPython ( 3.2. 1 ed . ) . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 ... The IPython notebook web - application is based on a server - client structure ... By default , a notebook server runs on http://127.0.0.1:8888/ and is accessible only from localhost ... Jump up ^ `` Running the Notebook '' . Jupyter Documentation ( Latest ed . ) . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 25 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 25 -- via Read the Docs ... By default , the notebook server starts on port 8888 . If port 8888 is unavailable or in use , the notebook server searches the next available port ... Jump up ^ `` Running Solr '' . Apache Solr Reference Guide 6.6 . Apache Software Foundation . c. 2017 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 06 - 30 . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 30 ... If you did n't start Solr after installing it , you can start it by running bin / solr from the Solr directory ... This will start Solr in the background , listening on port 8983 ... Jump up ^ Gaudin , Olivier . `` SonarQube Installation Instructions '' . codehaus.org . Archived from the original on May 12 , 2014 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Play2 Documentation '' . Playframework.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` How to use qBittorrent as a tracker '' . Retrieved 27 June 2015 . Jump up ^ ETL Electronics Archived January 4 , 2012 , at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ `` Kafka 0.11. 0 Documentation '' . Apache Kafka . Retrieved 2017 - 09 - 01 . Jump up ^ `` RESTful API with JSON over HTTP '' . Elasticsearch . Retrieved 2015 - 04 - 04 . Jump up ^ `` PS3 TM Using remote play ( via the Internet ) '' . Manuals.playstation.net. 2013 - 09 - 13 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` Transferring data using Wi - Fi PlayStation ® Vita User 's Guide '' . Manuals.playstation.net . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . ^ Jump up to : Konopelko , Piotr Robert ( 2016 - 08 - 04 ) . Kruszona - Zawadzka , Agata , ed . MooseFS 3.0 User 's Manual ( PDF ) ( 1.0. 4 ed . ) . pp. 11 , 19 -- 23 , 58 , 62 , 74 -- 76 . Archived ( PDF ) from the original on 2016 - 08 - 30 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 30 . Jump up ^ `` Tripwire Enterprise 8 '' . Nvd.nist.gov . Archived from the original on September 23 , 2013 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . ^ Jump up to : Bergkvist , Christoffer ( 2012 - 08 - 02 ) . `` Install and initial setup '' . Tvheadend . Archived from the original on 2016 - 09 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 27 ... Tvheadend listens to the following TCP ports by default : 9981 - HTTP server ( web interface ) 9982 - HTSP server ( Streaming protocol ) ... ^ Jump up to : `` Port Forwarding '' . Vonage ( published 2016 - 12 - 16 ) . n.d . Retrieved 2017 - 12 - 13 . Jump up ^ `` Manual pages - F - PROT Antivirus Support - Unix '' . F-prot.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` Manual pages - F - PROT Antivirus Support - Unix '' . F-prot.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` GE Proficy HMI / SCADA - CIMPLICITY Input Validation Flaws Let Remote Users Upload and Execute Arbitrary Code '' . Retrieved 2016 - 05 - 10 . Jump up ^ `` network broadcast from bluestacks - Beacon - v1 '' . Getsatisfaction.com . Archived from the original on April 19 , 2014 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` IANA Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . October 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Octopus Deploy Documentation '' . October 2015 . Jump up ^ John , Ted ( 2015 - 11 - 25 ) . `` Multiplayer '' . OpenRCT2 0.0. 2 documentation . Archived from the original on 2017 - 04 - 26 . Retrieved 2017 - 04 - 26 ... enter the hostname or IP address ( and optionally a port if the server is not using the default OpenRCT2 port , 11753 ) ... configure your router to forward TCP connections on your chosen port ( default is 11753 ) ... ^ Jump up to : `` Authentication Flow '' . Second Life Wiki . Retrieved 26 July 2017 . ^ Jump up to : `` LSL_HTTP_server '' . Second Life Wiki . Retrieved 26 July 2017 . Jump up ^ http://docs.graylog.org/en/latest/pages/gelf.html Jump up ^ `` Server '' . Cube World Wiki . 2013 - 07 - 17 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` How to Access the Version 7 HMC Remotely '' . IBM . 2013 - 07 - 17 . Retrieved 2014 - 09 - 05 . Jump up ^ Scheduler - Usage . `` Forums : Controlm - M Usage Forum Index - > Control - M Enterprise Manager '' . Scheduler - Usage . Archived from the original on May 2 , 2013 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Management Plugin '' . RabbitMQ . Pivotal Software . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 09 - 23 . Retrieved 2017 - 09 - 23 ... The Web UI is located at : http://server-name:15672/ ... NB : The port for RabbitMQ versions prior to 3.0 is 55672 ... Jump up ^ `` ' ' Mac OS X Server 10 : Web service uses ports 80 and 16080 by default ' ' '' . apple.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : `` Sassafras Software Inc '' . Sassafras.com . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . ^ Jump up to : How do I allow my internal XMPP client or server to connect to the Talk service ? , Google Code Help , accessed December 15 , 2010 . ^ Jump up to : `` ' ' 4D Server and port numbers ' ' '' . 4d.com. 2013 - 12 - 03 . Archived from the original on 2014 - 04 - 08 . Retrieved 2014 - 05 - 27 . Jump up ^ `` Tutorials / Setting up a server -- Minecraft Wiki '' . minecraft.gamepedia.com . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 20 . Jump up ^ `` Protocol - wiki.vg '' . wiki.vg . Retrieved 2016 - 11 - 07 . Jump up ^ `` Query - wiki.vg '' . wiki.vg . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 29 . Jump up ^ `` RCON - wiki.vg '' . wiki.vg . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 29 . Jump up ^ `` Networking introduction - collectd Wiki '' . Collectd.org. 2012 - 01 - 25 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . ^ Jump up to : `` Required Ports for Steam '' . Support . Steam . Archived from the original on 2016 - 08 - 27 . Retrieved 2016 - 08 - 27 . Jump up ^ Kleinman , Sam ; et al. `` Default MongoDB Port '' . MongoDB 3.4 Manual . Reference . Archived from the original on 2017 - 11 - 10 . Retrieved 2017 - 11 - 10 . Jump up ^ `` Rust Dedicated Server '' . Valve Developer Community ( Revision 209464 ed . ) . Valve Corporation . 2017 - 06 - 22 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 06 - 29 . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 29 . Jump up ^ `` Configuration '' . Cube 2 : Sauerbraten -- Documentation . Sauerbraten . n.d. Archived from the original on 2017 - 06 - 29 . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 29 ... Servers use the ports 28785 ( UDP ) and 28786 ( UDP ) ... ^ Jump up to : Nintendo ® Wi - Fi Connection Instruction Booklet ( PDF ) . Nintendo . n.d.p. 24 . Archived ( PDF ) from the original on 2017 - 06 - 29 ... TCP : Allow traffic to all destinations on ports : 28910 , 29900 , 29901 , 29920 , 80 , and 443 . UDP : Allow all traffic to all destinations . ( Necessary for peer - to - peer connections and game play ) . ... Jump up ^ `` Ports Used for Call of Duty Games '' . Activision Support . Activision. 2008 -- 2016 . Archived from the original on 2017 - 06 - 30 . Retrieved 2017 - 06 - 30 . Jump up ^ boinc ( 1 ) -- Linux User Commands Manual Jump up ^ Rocket UniVerse Installation Guide ( Version 11.2. 3 ) ( PDF ) ( UNV - 113 - INST - 1 ed . ) . Rocket Software . April 2014 . pp. 3 -- 8 , 4 -- 8 ... When you install UniVerse on your system for the first time , you must add the UniRPC daemon 's port to the / etc / services file . Add the following line to the / etc / services file : uvrpc 31438 / tcp # uvrpc port ... Jump up ^ `` Immunet Protect 2.0 Requirements & Compatible Security Package List '' . Support . Immunet. 2010 - 05 - 12 . Archived from the original on 2013 - 10 - 05 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 . Jump up ^ Pedersen ( 2012 - 03 - 24 ) . `` Manually Configure Ports In Your Firewall '' . Forum . Immunet . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 18 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 . Jump up ^ `` What network ports do I need to allow through my firewall ? '' . Support ( FAQ ) . Plex . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 18 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 ... TCP : 32400 ( for access to the Plex Media Server ) ... Jump up ^ Gallagher , Sean ( 2014 - 01 - 02 ) . `` Backdoor in wireless DSL routers lets attacker reset router , get admin '' . Ars Technica . Archived from the original on 2016 - 11 - 09 . Retrieved 2016 - 11 - 09 ... A hacker has found a backdoor to wireless combination router / DSL modems ... The attack , confirmed to work on several Linksys and Netgear DSL modems ... the router responded to messages over an unusual TCP port number : 32764 ... the backdoor might affect wireless routers with DSL modems from SerComm , ... Jump up ^ `` Which ports and protocols does LogMeIn Hamachi use ? '' . Support . LogMeIn . n.d. Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 18 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 ... TCP 12975 ( initiator port ) TCP 32976 ( session port ) If the above ports can not be used to achieve a connection , Hamachi will try again using SSL ( TCP 443 ) ... Jump up ^ Kawaguchi , Kohsuke ; et al. ( 2007 - 05 - 06 ) . `` Remote access API '' . In Scheibe , René . Jenkins Wiki . Small contributions from various people . ( published 2017 - 03 - 15 ) . Archived from the original on 2017 - 05 - 19 . Retrieved 2017 - 05 - 19 ... Jenkins instances listen on UDP port 33848 ... Jump up ^ Kawaguchi , Kohsuke ; et al. ( 2010 - 05 - 10 ) . `` Auto - discovering Jenkins on the network '' . Jenkins Wiki ( published 2016 - 02 - 24 ) . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 18 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 ... Jenkins listens on UDP port 33848 ... Jump up ^ `` Appendix B. Firewalls and default ports '' . OpenStack Configuration Reference . OpenStack Foundation . 2016 - 05 - 10 . Archived from the original on 2016 - 10 - 18 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 18 . Jump up ^ `` How do I set up exceptions in my firewall for RuneScape ? '' . Support . RuneScape . n.d . Retrieved 2016 - 09 - 28 ... open the following ports ; 443 , 43594 and 43595 ... Jump up ^ `` Obtaining Data from the Local Computer ( Windows ) '' . Msdn.microsoft.com. 2013 - 08 - 23 . Retrieved 2013 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ) Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry . IETF . August 2011 . RFC 6335 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6335 . Jump up ^ Schaad , Jim ; Myers , Michael ( June 2008 ) . `` TCP - Based Protocol '' . Certificate Management over CMS ( CMC ) : Transport Protocols . IETF . p. 4 . sec. 5 . doi : 10.17487 / RFC5273 . RFC 5273 . https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5273#section-5 . Retrieved 2017 - 11 - 10 . `` ... When CMC messages are sent over a TCP - based connection ... There is no specific port that is to be used when doing TCP - based transport . Only the Private Ports 49152 - 65535 may be used in this manner ( without registration ) . The ports in the range of 1 - 49151 ( sic ? ) SHOULD NOT be used ... '' Jump up ^ `` Mosh '' . mosh.org . Retrieved 2017 - 07 - 10 . External links ( edit ) `` Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry '' . IANA . 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who has won the most wars in history
Military history of France - wikipedia Military history of France Jump to : navigation , search French Army lists Commands and Army groups Field armies in the First World War Field armies in the Second World War Corps in the First World War Corps in Second World War Divisions in the First World War Divisions in the Second World War Regiments In July 1453 , a French army crushed its English opponents at the Battle of Castillon , the last major engagement of the Hundred Years War . The decisive victory at Castillon showcased the power of artillery against charging masses of infantry and allowed the French to capture Bordeaux a few months later . The English subsequently lost their major remaining possessions on the European continent . The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France , the European continent , and a variety of regions throughout the world . According to historian Niall Ferguson : `` of the 125 major European wars fought since 1495 , the French have participated in 50 -- more than Austria ( 47 ) and England ( 43 ) . Out of 168 battles fought since 387BC , they have won 109 , lost 49 and drawn 10 . '' The first major recorded wars in the territory of modern - day France itself revolved around the Gallo - Roman conflict that predominated from 60 BC to 50 BC . The Romans eventually emerged victorious through the campaigns of Julius Caesar . After the decline of the Roman Empire , a Germanic tribe known as the Franks took control of Gaul by defeating competing tribes . The `` land of Francia , '' from which France gets its name , had high points of expansion under kings Clovis I and Charlemagne , who established the nucleus of the future French state . In the Middle Ages , rivalries with England prompted major conflicts such as the Norman Conquest and the Hundred Years ' War . With an increasingly centralized monarchy , the first standing army since Roman times , and the use of artillery , France expelled the English from its territory and came out of the Middle Ages as the most powerful nation in Europe , only to lose that status to the Holy Roman Empire and Spain following defeat in the Italian Wars . The Wars of Religion crippled France in the late 16th century , but a major victory over Spain in the Thirty Years ' War made France the most powerful nation on the continent once more . In parallel , France developed its first colonial empire in Asia , Africa , and in the Americas . Under Louis XIV France achieved military supremacy over its rivals , but escalating conflicts against increasingly powerful enemy coalitions checked French ambitions and left the kingdom bankrupt at the opening of the 18th century . Resurgent French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish , Polish , and Austrian crowns . At the same time , France was fending off attacks on its colonies . As the 18th century advanced , global competition with Great Britain led to the Seven Years ' War , where France lost its North American holdings . Consolation came in the form of dominance in Europe and the American Revolutionary War , where extensive French aid in the form of money and arms , and the direct participation of its army and navy led to America 's independence . Internal political upheaval eventually led to 23 years of nearly continuous conflict in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars . France reached the zenith of its power during this period , dominating the European continent in an unprecedented fashion under Napoleon Bonaparte . By 1815 , however , it had been restored to the same borders it controlled before the Revolution . The rest of the 19th century witnessed the growth of the Second French colonial empire as well as French interventions in Belgium , Spain , and Mexico . Other major wars were fought against Russia in the Crimea , Austria in Italy , and Prussia within France itself . Following defeat in the Franco - Prussian War , Franco -- German rivalry erupted again in the First World War . France and its allies were victorious this time . Social , political , and economic upheaval in the wake of the conflict led to the Second World War , in which the Allies were defeated in the Battle of France and the French government signed an armistice with Germany . The Allies , including the Free French Forces led by a government in exile , eventually emerged victorious over the Axis Powers . As a result , France secured an occupation zone in Germany and a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council . The imperative of avoiding a third Franco - German conflict on the scale of the first two world wars paved the way for European integration starting in the 1950s . France became a nuclear power and , since the late 20th century , has cooperated closely with NATO and its European partners . Contents ( hide ) 1 Dominant themes 2 Early period 3 Middle Ages 4 Ancien Régime 5 Revolutionary France 6 Napoleonic France 7 French colonial empire 8 From 1815 8.1 First World War 8.2 Second World War 8.3 Post-1945 warfare 9 Topical subjects 9.1 French Air Force 9.2 French Navy 9.3 French Foreign Legion 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 12.1 Historiography 12.2 In French 13 External links Dominant themes ( edit ) Animated map of French territory in continental Europe over time . After centuries of warfare and diplomacy , France has the largest territory of any nation in Western Europe . In the last few centuries , French strategic thinking has sometimes been driven by the need to attain or preserve the so - called `` natural frontiers , '' which are the Pyrenees to the southwest , the Alps to the southeast , and the Rhine River to the east . Starting with Clovis , 1,500 years of warfare and diplomacy has witnessed the accomplishment of most of these objectives . Warfare with other European powers was not always determined by these considerations , and often rulers of France extended their continental authority far beyond these barriers , most notably under Charlemagne , Louis XIV , and Napoleon . These periods of incessant conflict were characterized by their own standards and conventions , but all required strong central leadership in order to permit the extension of French rule . Important military rivalries in human history have come about as a result of conflict between French peoples and other European powers . Anglo - French rivalry , for prestige in Europe and around the world , continued for centuries , while the more recent Franco - German rivalry required two world wars to stabilize . Animated map showing growth and decline of the French colonial empire . Starting in the early 16th century , much of France 's military efforts were dedicated to securing its overseas possessions and putting down dissent among both French colonists and native populations . French troops were spread all across its empire , primarily to deal with the local population . The French colonial empire ultimately disintegrated after the failed attempt to subdue Algerian nationalists in the late 1950s , a failure that led to the collapse of the Fourth Republic . Since World War II , France 's efforts have been directed at maintaining its status as a great power and its influence on the UN Security Council . France has also been instrumental in attempting to unite the armed forces of Europe for their own defense in order to both balance the power of Russia and to lessen European military dependence on the United States . For example , France withdrew from NATO in 1966 over complaints that its role in the organization was being subordinated to the demands of the United States . French objectives in this era have undergone major shifts . Unencumbered by continental wars or intricate alliances , France now deploys its military forces as part of international peacekeeping operations , security enforcers in former colonies , or maintains them combat ready and mobilized to respond to threats from rogue states . France is a nuclear power with the largest nuclear arsenal in Europe , and its nuclear capabilities , just like its conventional forces , have been restructured to rapidly deal with emerging threats . Early period ( edit ) Brennus and the sack of Rome as imagined in the 19th century Around 390 BC , the Gallic chieftain Brennus made his own way through the Alps , defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Allia and sacked Rome for several months . The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened and encouraged several subdued Italian tribes to rebel . One by one , over the course of the next 50 years , these tribes were defeated and brought back under Roman dominion . Meanwhile , the Gauls would continue to harass the region until 345 BC , when they entered into a formal treaty with Rome . But Romans and Gauls would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries and the Gauls would remain a threat in Italia . Around 125 BC , the south of France is conquered by the Romans who called this region Provincia Romana ( `` Roman Province '' ) , which evolved into the name Provence in French . Brennus ' sack of Rome was still remembered by Romans , when Julius Caesar conquered the remainder of Gaul . Initially Caesar met with little Gallic resistance : the 60 or so tribes that made up Gaul were unable to unite and defeat the Roman army , something Caesar exploited by pitting one tribe against another . In 58 BC , Caesar defeated the Germanic tribe of the Suebi , which was led by Ariovistus . The following year he conquered the Belgian Gauls after claiming that they were conspiring against Rome . The string of victories continued in a naval triumph against the Veneti in 56 BC . In 53 BC , a united Gallic resistance movement under Vercingetorix emerged for the first time . Caesar laid siege to the fortified city of Avaricum ( Bourges ) and broke through the defenses after 25 days , with only 800 out of the 40,000 inhabitants managing to escape . He then besieged Gergovia , Vercingetorix 's home town , and suffered one of the worst defeats in his career when he had to retreat to suppress a revolt in another part of Gaul . After returning , Caesar surrounded Vercingetorix at Alesia in 52 BC . The townspeople were starved into submission and Caesar 's unique defensive earthworks , protruding towards the city and away from it in order to stop a massive Gallic relief force , eventually forced Vercingetorix to surrender . The Gallic Wars were over . Gallo - Roman culture settled over the region in the next few centuries , but as Roman power weakened in the 4th and 5th centuries AD , a Germanic tribe , the Franks , overran large areas that today form modern France . Under King Clovis I in the late 5th and early 6th centuries , Frankish dominions quadrupled as they managed to defeat successive opponents for control of Gaul . In 486 the Frankish armies under Clovis triumphed over Syagrius , the last Roman official in Northern Gaul , at the Battle of Soissons . In 491 Clovis defeated Thuringians east of his territories . In 496 he overcame the Alamanni at the Battle of Tolbiac . In 507 he scored the most impressive victory in his career , prevailing at the Battle of Vouillé against the Visigoths , who were led by Alaric II , the conqueror of Spain . Frankish expansion from the early Clovis I ' kingdom ( 481 ) to the divisions of Charlemagne 's Empire ( 843 / 870 ) . Following Clovis , territorial divisions in the Frankish domain sparked intense rivalry between the western part of the kingdom , Neustria , and the eastern part , Austrasia . The two were sometimes united under one king , but from the 6th to the 8th centuries they often warred against each other . Early in the 8th century , the Franks were preoccupied with Islamic invasions across the Pyrenees and up the Rhone Valley . Two key battles during this period were the Battle of Toulouse and the Battle of Tours , both won by the Franks , and both instrumental in slowing Islamic incursions . Under Charlemagne the Franks reached the height of their power . After campaigns against Lombards , Avars , Saxons , and Basques , the resulting Carolingian Empire stretched from the Pyrenees to Central Germany , from the North Sea to the Adriatic . In 800 the Pope made Charlemagne Emperor of the West in return for protection of the Church . The Carolingian Empire was a conscious effort to recreate a central administration modeled on that of the Roman Empire , but the motivations behind military expansion differed . Charlemagne hoped to provide his nobles an incentive to fight by encouraging looting on campaign . Plunder and spoils of war were stronger temptations than imperial expansion , and several regions were invaded over and over in order to bolster the coffers of Frankish nobility . Cavalry dominated the battlefields , and while the high costs associated with equipping horses and horse - riders helped limit their numbers , Carolingian armies maintained an average size of 20,000 by recruiting infantry from imperial territories near theaters of operation . The Empire lasted from 800 to 843 , when , following Frankish tradition , it was split between the sons of Louis the Pious by the Treaty of Verdun . See also : List of Gallo - Roman battles and List of Frankish and Carolingian battles Middle Ages ( edit ) A section of the Bayeux Tapestry chronicling the Norman victory at Hastings . Military history during this period paralleled the rise and eventual fall of the armored knight . Following Charlemagne , there was a great increase in the proportion of cavalry supplemented by improvement in armor : leather and steel , steel helmets , coats of mail , and even full armor added to the defensive capabilities of mounted forces . Cavalry eventually grew to be the most important component of armies from French territories , with the shock charge they provided becoming the standard tactic on the battlefield when it was invented in the 11th century . At the same time , the development of agricultural techniques allowed the nations of Western Europe to radically increase food production , facilitating the growth of a particularly large aristocracy under Capetian France . The rise of castles , which began in France during the 10th century , was partly caused by the inability of centralized authorities to control these emerging dukes and aristocrats . After campaigns designed for plundering , attacking and defending castles became the dominant feature of medieval warfare . Castles were the most important defensive structures during the Middle Ages , making them a valuable target for any invading army . During the Crusades , there were in fact too many armored knights in France for the land to support . Some scholars believe that one of the driving forces behind the Crusades was an attempt by such landless knights to find land overseas , without causing the type of internecine warfare that would largely damage France 's increasing military strength . However , such historiographical work on the Crusades is being challenged and rejected by a large part of the historical community . The ultimate motivation or motivations for any one individual are difficult to know , but regardless , nobles and knights from France generally formed very sizeable contingents of crusading expeditions . Crusaders were so predominantely French that the word `` crusader '' in the Arabic language is simply known as Al - Franj or `` The Franks '' and Old French became the lingua franca of the Kingdom of Jerusalem . The advent of artillery , like these bombards at the Mont - Saint - Michel , greatly changed the techniques of warfare in the late Middle Ages . In the 11th century , French knights wore knee - length mail and carried long lances and swords . The Norman knights fielded at the Battle of Hastings were more than a match for English forces , and their victory simply cemented their power and influence . Between 1202 and 1343 , France reduced England 's holdings on the continent to a few small provinces through a series of conflicts including the Bouvines Campaign ( 1202 - 1214 ) , the Saintonge War ( 1242 ) and the War of Saint - Sardos ( 1324 ) . Improvements in armor over the centuries led to the establishment of plate armor by the 14th century , which was further developed more rigorously in the 15th century . However , by the late 14th century and the early 15th century , French military power declined during the first part of the Hundred Years ' War . New weapons , including artillery , and tactics seemingly made the knight more of a sitting target than an effective battle force , but the often - praised longbowmen had little to do with the English success . Poor coordination or rough terrain led to bungled French assaults . The slaughter of knights at the Battle of Agincourt best exemplified this carnage . The French were able to field a much larger army of men - at - arms than their English counterparts , who had many longbowmen . Despite this , the French suffered about 6,000 casualties compared to a few hundred for the English because the narrow terrain prevented the tactical envelopments envisioned in recently discovered French plans for the battle . The French suffered a similar defeat at the Battle of the Golden Spurs against Flemish militia in 1302 . When knights were allowed to effectively deploy , however , they could be more useful , as at Cassel in 1328 or , even more decisively , at Bouvines in 1214 and Patay in 1429 . Popular conceptions of the final stages of the Hundred Years War are often dominated by the exploits of Joan of Arc , but French resurgence was rooted in multiple factors . A major step was taken by King Charles VII , who created the Compagnies d'ordonnance -- cavalry units with 20 companies of 600 men each -- and launched the first standing army for a dynastic state in the Western world . The Compagnies gave the French a considerable edge in professionalism and discipline . Strong French counterattacks turned the tide of the war . The important victories of Orléans , Patay , Formigny and Castillon allowed the French to win back all English continental territories , except Calais , which was later captured by the French . See also : List of French Medieval wars and battles Ancien Régime ( edit ) Francis I at the Battle of Marignan ( 1515 ) . The French Renaissance and the beginning of the Ancien Régime , normally marked by the reign of Francis I , saw the nation become far more unified under the monarch . The power of the nobles was diminished as a national army was created . With England expelled from the continent and being consumed by the Wars of the Roses , France 's main rival was the Holy Roman Empire . This threat to France became alarming in 1516 when Charles V became the king of Spain , and grew worse when Charles was also elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 . France was all but surrounded as Germany , Spain , and the Low Countries were controlled by the Habsburgs . The lengthy Italian Wars that took place during this period resulted in defeat for France and established Catholic Spain , which formed a branch of the Habsburg holdings , as the most powerful nation in Europe . Later in the 16th century , France was weakened internally by the Wars of Religion . As nobles managed to raise their own private armies , these conflicts between Huguenots and Catholics all but demolished centralization and monarchical authority , precluding France from remaining a powerful force in European affairs . On the battlefield , the religious conflicts highlighted the influence of the gendarmes , heavy cavalry units that comprised the majority of cavalrymen attached to the main field armies . The pride of the royal cavalry , gendarme companies were often attached to the main royal army in hopes of inflicting a decisive defeat on Huguenot forces , although secondary detachments were also used for scouting and intercepting enemy troops . The Battle of Rocroi in ( 1643 ) . After the Wars of Religion , France could do little to challenge the dominance of the Holy Roman Empire , although the empire itself faced several problems . From the east it was severely endangered by the Ottoman Empire , with which France formed an alliance . The vast Habsburg empire also proved impossible to manage effectively , and the crown was soon divided between the Spanish and Austrian holdings . In 1568 , the Dutch declared independence , launching a war that would last for decades and would illustrate the weaknesses of Habsburg power . In the 17th century , the religious violence that had beset France a century earlier began to tear the empire apart . At first France sat on the sidelines , but under Cardinal Richelieu it saw an opportunity to advance its own interests at the expense of the Habsburgs . Despite France 's staunch Catholicism , it intervened on the side of the Protestants . The Thirty Years ' War was long and extremely bloody , but France and its allies came out victorious . After the defeat of Spain in these two wars , France emerged as the sole dominant European power . In parallel , French explorers , such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France , paving the way for the expansion of the French colonial empire . The Battle of Fontenoy ( 1745 ) , during the War of the Austrian Succession . The long reign of Louis XIV saw a series of conflicts : the War of Devolution , the Franco - Dutch War , the War of the Reunions , the Nine Years War , and the War of the Spanish Succession . Few of these wars were either clear victories or definite defeats , but French borders expanded steadily anyway . The west bank of the Rhine , much of the Spanish Netherlands , and a good deal of Luxembourg were annexed while the War of the Spanish Succession saw the grandson of Louis placed on the throne of Spain . The French strategic situation , however , changed decisively with the Glorious Revolution in England , which replaced a pro-French king with an enemy of Louis , the Dutch William of Orange . After a period of two centuries seeing only rare hostilities with France , England now became a consistent enemy again , and remained so until the 19th century . To stop French advances , England formed coalitions with several other European powers , most notably the Habsburgs . While these armies had difficulties against the French on land , the British Royal Navy dominated the seas , and France lost many of its colonial holdings . The British economy also became Europe 's most powerful , and British money funded the campaigns of their continental allies . Surrender of Lord Cornwallis to French troops ( left ) and American troops ( right ) , at Yorktown ( 1781 ) . Wars in this era consisted mostly of sieges and movements that were rarely decisive , prompting the French military engineer Vauban to design an intricate network of fortifications for the defense of France . The armies of Louis XIV were some of the most impressive in French history , their quality reflecting militaristic as well political developments . In the mid-17th century , royal power reasserted itself and the army became a tool through which the King could wield authority , replacing older systems of mercenary units and the private forces of recalcitrant nobles . Military administration also made gigantic progress as food supply , clothing , equipment , and armaments were provided in a regularity never before equaled . In fact , the French embedded this standardization by becoming the first army to give their soldiers national uniforms in the 1680s and 1690s . The 18th century saw France remain the dominant power in Europe , but begin to falter largely because of internal problems . The country engaged in a long series of wars , such as the War of the Quadruple Alliance , the War of the Polish Succession , and the War of the Austrian Succession , but these conflicts gained France little . Meanwhile , Britain 's power steadily increased , and a new force , Prussia , became a major threat . This change in the balance of power led to the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 , when France and the Habsburgs forged an alliance after centuries of animosity . This alliance proved less than effective in the Seven Years ' War , but in the American Revolutionary War , the French helped inflict a major defeat on the British . See also : List of Ancien Régime wars and battles Revolutionary France ( edit ) Main article : French Revolutionary Wars The armies of the Revolution at Jemappes in 1792 . With chaos internally and enemies on the borders , the French were in a jittery state in 1792 . By 1797 , however , they had exported their ideology ( and the army that followed it ) to the Low Countries and Northern Italy . The French Revolution , true to its name , revolutionized nearly all aspects of French and European life . The powerful sociopolitical forces unleashed by a people seeking liberté , égalité , and fraternité made certain that even warfare was not spared this upheaval . 18th - century armies -- with their rigid protocols , static operational strategy , unenthusiastic soldiers , and aristocratic officer classes -- underwent massive remodeling as the French monarchy and nobility gave way to liberal assemblies obsessed with external threats . The fundamental shifts in warfare that occurred during the period have prompted scholars to identify the era as the beginning of `` modern war '' . In 1791 the Legislative Assembly passed the `` Drill - Book '' legislation , implementing a series of infantry doctrines created by French theorists because of their defeat by the Prussians in the Seven Years ' War . The new developments hoped to exploit the intrinsic bravery of the French soldier , made even more powerful by the explosive nationalist forces of the Revolution . The changes also placed a faith on the ordinary soldier that would be completely unacceptable in earlier times ; French troops were expected to harass the enemy and remain loyal enough to not desert , a benefit other Ancien Régime armies did not have . Following the declaration of war in 1792 , an imposing array of enemies converging on French borders prompted the government in Paris to adopt radical measures . August 23 , 1793 , would become a historic day in military history ; on that date the National Convention called a levée en masse , or mass conscription , for the first time in human history . By summer of the following year , conscription made some 500,000 men available for service and the French began to deal blows to their European enemies . An episode ( Battle of Entrames ) of the civil war between republicans and royalists during the French Revolutionary Wars Armies during the Revolution became noticeably larger than their Holy Roman counterparts , and combined with the new enthusiasm of the troops , the tactical and strategic opportunities became profound . By 1797 the French had defeated the First Coalition , occupied the Low Countries , the west bank of the Rhine , and Northern Italy , objectives which had defied the Valois and Bourbon dynasties for centuries . Unsatisfied with the results , many European powers formed a Second Coalition , but by 1801 this too had been decisively beaten . Another key aspect of French success was the changes wrought in the officer classes . Traditionally , European armies left major command positions to those who could be trusted , namely , the aristocracy . The hectic nature of the French Revolution , however , tore apart France 's old army , meaning new men were required to become officers and commanders . Besides opening a flood of tactical and strategic opportunities , the Revolutionary Wars also laid the foundation for modern military theory . Later authors that wrote about `` nations in arms '' drew inspiration from the French Revolution , in which dire circumstances seemingly mobilized the entire French nation for war and incorporated nationalism into the fabric of military history . Although the reality of war in the France of 1795 would be different from that in the France of 1915 , conceptions and mentalities of war evolved significantly . Clausewitz correctly analyzed the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras to give posterity a thorough and complete theory of war that emphasized struggles between nations occurring everywhere , from the battlefield to the legislative assemblies , and to the very way that people think . War now emerged as a vast panorama of physical and psychological forces heading for victory or defeat . See also : List of French Revolutionary wars and battles , French Revolutionary Army Napoleonic France ( edit ) Main article : Napoleonic Wars Napoleon and the Grande Armée receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the Battle of Ulm in October 1805 . The decisive finale of the Ulm Campaign raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000 . With the Austrian army destroyed , Vienna would fall to the French in November . The Napoleonic Era saw French power and influence reach immense heights , even though the period of domination was relatively brief . In the century and a half preceding the Revolutionary Era , France had transformed demographic leverage to military and political weight ; the French population was 19 million in 1700 , but this had grown to over 29 million in 1800 , much higher than that of most other European powers . These numbers permitted France to raise armies at a rapid pace should the need arise . Furthermore , military innovations carried out during the Revolution and the Consulate , evidenced by improvements in artillery and cavalry capabilities on top of better army and staff organization , gave the French army a decisive advantage in the initial stages of the Napoleonic Wars . Another ingredient of success was Napoleon Bonaparte himself -- intelligent , charismatic , and a military genius , Napoleon absorbed the latest military theories of the day and applied them in the battlefield with deadly effect . Napoleon I at the battle of Iena ( 1806 ) which led to the occupation of Prussia . Napoleon inherited an army that was based on conscription and used huge masses of poorly trained troops , which could usually be readily replaced . By 1805 the French Army was a truly lethal force , with many in its ranks veterans of the French Revolutionary Wars . Two years of constant drilling for an invasion of England helped to build a well - trained , well - led army . The Imperial Guard served as an example for the rest of the army and consisted of Napoleon 's best handpicked soldiers . Napoleon 's huge losses suffered during the disastrous Russian campaign would have destroyed any professional commander of the day , but those losses were quickly replaced with new draftees . After Napoleon , nations planned for huge armies with professional leadership and a constant supply of new soldiers , which had huge human costs when improved weapons like the rifled musket replaced the inaccurate muskets of Napoleon 's day during the American Civil War . Napoleonic Empire , 1811 . The French Empire is in dark blue while the `` Grand Empire '' includes areas under French military control ( light blue ) and the allies of France . This large size came at a cost , as the logistics of feeding a huge army made them especially dependent on supplies . Most armies of the day relied on the supply - convoy system established during the Thirty Years ' War by Gustavus Adolphus . This limited mobility , since the soldiers had to wait for the convoys , but it did keep possibly mutinous troops from deserting , and thus helped preserve an army 's composure . However , Napoleon 's armies were so large that feeding them using the old method proved ineffective , and consequently , French troops were allowed to live off the land . Infused with new concepts of nation and service . Napoleon often attempted to wage decisive , quick campaigns so that he could allow his men to live off the land . The French army did use a convoy system , but it was stocked with very few days worth of food ; Napoleon 's troops were expected to march quickly , effect a decision on the battlefield , then disperse to feed . For the Russian campaign , the French did store 24 days ' worth of food before beginning active operations , but this campaign was the exception , not the rule . Napoleon 's biggest influence in the military sphere was in the conduct of warfare . Weapons and technology remained largely static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras , but 18th - century operational strategy underwent massive restructuring . Sieges became infrequent to the point of near - irrelevance , a new emphasis arose towards the destruction of enemy armies as well as their outmaneuvering , and invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts , thus introducing a plethora of strategic opportunities that made wars costlier and , just as importantly , more decisive . Defeat for a European power now meant much more than losing isolated enclaves . Near - Carthaginian treaties intertwined whole national efforts -- social , political , economic , and militaristic -- into gargantuan collisions that severely upset international conventions as understood at the time . Napoleon 's initial success sowed the seeds for his downfall . Not used to such catastrophic defeats in the rigid power system of 18th - century Europe , many nations found existence under the French yoke difficult , sparking revolts , wars , and general instability that plagued the continent until 1815 , when the forces of reaction finally triumphed at the Battle of Waterloo . See also : List of Napoleonic wars and battles , History of La Grande Armée French colonial Empire ( edit ) Main articles : French colonial empire and List of French colonies Map of the first ( green ) and second ( blue ) French colonial empires The history of French colonial imperialism can be divided in two major eras : the first from the early 17th century to the middle of the 18th century , and the second from the early 19th century to the middle of the 20th century . In the first phase of expansion , France concentrated its efforts mainly in North America , the Caribbean and India , setting up commercial ventures that were backed by military force . Following defeat in the Seven Years ' War , France lost its possessions in North America and India , but it did manage to keep the wealthy Caribbean islands of Saint - Domingue , Guadeloupe , and Martinique . The second stage began with the conquest of Algeria in 1830 , then with the establishment of French Indochina ( covering modern Vietnam , Laos , and Cambodia ) and a string of military victories in the Scramble for Africa , where it established control over regions covering much of West Africa , Central Africa and Maghreb . In 1914 France had an empire stretching over 13,000,000 km2 ( 6,000,000 mile2 ) of land and about 110 million people . Following victory in World War I , Togo and most of Cameroon were also added to the French possessions , and Syria and Lebanon became French mandates . For most of the period from 1870 to 1945 , France was territorially the third largest nation on Earth , after Britain and Russia ( later the Soviet Union ) , and had the most overseas possessions following Britain . Following the Second World War , France struggled to preserve French territories but wound up losing the First Indochina War ( the precursor to the Vietnam War ) and granting independence to Algeria after a long war . Today , France still maintains a number of overseas territories , but their collective size is barely a shadow of the old French colonial empire . See also : New France , French West Indies , French India , French West Africa , and French Equatorial Africa See also : List of French colonial wars and battles , French Colonial Forces , Army of Africa From 1815 ( edit ) French Zouaves during the Franco - Austrian War ( 1859 ) . After the exile of Napoleon , the freshly restored Bourbon monarchy helped the absolute Bourbon king of Spain to recover his throne during the French intervention in Spain . To restore the prestige of the French monarchy , disputed by the Revolution and the First Empire , Charles X engaged in the military conquest of Algeria in 1830 . This marked the beginning of a new expansion of the French colonial empire throughout the 19th century . In that century , France remained a major force in continental affairs . After the July Revolution , the liberal king Louis Philippe I victoriously supported the Spanish and Belgian liberals . The French later inflicted a defeat on the Habsburgs in the Franco - Austrian War of 1859 , a victory which led to the unification of Italy in 1861 , after having triumphed over Russia with other allies in the Crimean War . Detrimentally , however , the French army emerged from these victories in an overconfident and complacent state . France 's defeat in the Franco - Prussian War led to the loss of Alsace - Lorraine and the creation of a united German Empire , both results representing major failures in long - term French foreign policy and sparking a vengeful , nationalist revanchism meant to earn back former territories . The Dreyfus Affair , however , mitigated these nationalist tendencies by prompting public skepticism about the competence of the military . First World War ( edit ) See also : French Army in World War I French soldiers in a trench , during the Battle of Verdun ( 1916 ) . In World War I , the French , with their allies , managed to hold the Western front and to counterattack on the Eastern front and in the colonies until the final defeat of the Central Powers and their allies . After major conflicts such as the Battle of the Frontiers , the First Battle of the Marne , the Battle of Verdun , and the Second Battle of the Aisne -- the latter resulting in tremendous loss of life and mutiny within the army -- the French proved to be enough of a cohesive fighting force to counterattack and defeat the Germans at the Second Battle of the Marne , the first in what would become a string of Allied victories that ended the war . The Treaty of Versailles eventually returned Alsace - Lorraine to France . The French military , civilian and material losses during the First World War were huge . With more than 1.3 million military fatalities and more than 4.6 million wounded , France suffered the second highest Allied losses , after Russia . As a result , France was adamant on the payment of reparations by Germany . The organised failure of the Weimar Republic to pay reparations led to the Occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgian forces . Second World War ( edit ) See also : Military history of France during World War II Free French Foreign Legionnaires at the Battle of Bir Hakeim ( 1942 ) A variety of factors -- ranging from inexperienced conscripts and a smaller industrial base to low population growth and obsolete military doctrines -- crippled the French effort at the outset of World War II . The Germans won the Battle of France in 1940 despite the French often having better equipment than their opponents . Prior to the Battle of France , there were sentiments among many Allied soldiers , French and British , of pointless repetition ; they viewed the war with dread since they had already beaten the Germans once , and images of that first major conflict were still poignant in military circles . The costs of World War I along with the now stale doctrine employed by the French Army ( while the Germans were developing a doctrine which stressed initiative from junior commanders and combining different arms , the French sought to minimize casualties through a rigorously controlled type of battle and a top down command structure ) forced the French to look for more defensive measures . The Maginot Line was the result of these deliberations : the French originally allocated three billion francs for the project , but by 1935 seven billion had been spent . The Maginot Line succeeded in holding off the German attack . However , while the French thought that the main weight of the German attack would arrive through central Belgium , and accordingly deployed their forces here , the assault actually came further south in the Ardennes forest . The Third Republic collapsed in the ensuing conflict . After the defeat , Vichy France cooperated with the Axis powers until 1944 . While Charles de Gaulle exhorted the French people to join the allied armies , French Vichy forces participated in direct action against Allied forces , inflicting casualties in some cases . The Normandy landings in that year were the first step towards the eventual liberation of France . The Free French Forces , under de Gaulle , had participated widely throughout previous campaigns , and their large size made them notable at the end of the war . As early as the winter of 1943 , the French already had nearly 260,000 soldiers , and these numbers only grew as the war progressed . At the end of the conflict , France was given one of four occupation zones in Germany and in Berlin and Austria . Post-1945 warfare ( edit ) Main article : List of French wars and battles § Modern period See also : Deployments of the French military and Modern equipment of the French Army An ERC 90 Sagaie of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment in Côte d'Ivoire in 2003 . Following the 1939 -- 45 war , decolonization spread through the former European empires . Following the First Indochina War , they withdrew from Vietnam , Laos and Cambodia . The military also tried to keep control of Algeria during the Algerian War , when French forces attempted to defeat the Algerian rebels . Despite its military victory , France granted independence to Algerians . French Algeria was home to over a million of settlers ( known as Pieds - Noirs ) , de Gaulle 's decision to grant independence to Algeria , almost led to a civil war , supported by various Pied - Noir , Harki and nationalist factions , including the FAF and the OAS . By 1960 France had lost its direct military influence over all of its former colonies in Africa and Indochina . Nonetheless , several colonies in the Pacific , Caribbean , Indian Oceans and South America remain French territory to this day and France kept a form of indirect political influence in Africa colloquially known as the Françafrique . As President of the French Republic , Charles de Gaulle oversaw the development of French atomic weapons and promoted a foreign policy independent of U.S. influence . He also withdrew France from the NATO military command in 1966 -- although remaining a member of the western alliance . The effect of withdrawal was reduced by continued cooperation between the French military and NATO , though France did not formally rejoin the NATO military command until 2009 . France intervened in various post-colonial conflicts , supporting former colonies ( Western Sahara War , Shaba II , Chadian -- Libyan conflict , Djiboutian Civil War ) , NATO peacekeeping missions in war - torn countries ( UNPROFOR , KFOR , UNAMIR ) and many humanitarian missions . As a nuclear power and having some of the best trained and best equipped forces in the world , the French military has now met some of its primary objectives which are the defense of national territory , the protection of French interests abroad , and the maintenance of global stability . Conflicts indicative of these objectives are the Gulf War in 1991 -- when France sent 18,000 troops , 60 combat aircraft , 120 helicopters , and 40 tanks -- and Mission Héraclès in the War in Afghanistan , along with recent interventions in Africa . African interventions during the early 21st century include peacekeeping actions in Côte d'Ivoire , which involved brief direct fighting between the French and Ivorian armies in 2004 ; French forces returned to Côte d'Ivoire in 2011 to remove the Ivorian president . In the same year , France played a pivotal role in the 2011 military intervention in Libya against Muammar Gaddafi . The year after , France intervened in Mali during that country 's civil war , as Islamist militants appeared to threaten the south after seizing control of the arid north . Changes in the government of France , including Socialist François Hollande becoming president in 2012 after years of center - right governance , have done little to alter Paris ' foreign policy in Africa . Hollande also proposed French military involvement in the Syrian civil war in the wake of chemical attacks French intelligence reports linked to the forces of President Bashar al - Assad in mid-2013 . France has encouraged military cooperation at an EU level , starting with the formation of the Franco - German Brigade in 1987 and Eurocorps in 1992 , based in Strasbourg . In 2009 a battalion of German light infantry was moved to Alsace , the first time German troops had been stationed in France since the Nazi occupation of World War II . This process has not been immune to budget cuts -- in October 2013 France announced the closure of her last infantry regiment in Germany , thus marking the end of a major presence across the Rhine although both countries will maintain around 500 troops on each other 's territory . As fellow members of the UN Security Council with many interests and problems in common , the UK and France have a long history of bilateral collaboration . This has occurred both at government level and in industrial programmes like the SEPECAT Jaguar whilst corporate mergers have seen Thales and MBDA emerge as major defence companies spanning both countries . The financial crisis of 2007 -- 08 led to renewed pressure on military budgets and the `` austerity alliance '' enshrined in the Lancaster House Treaties of 2010 . These promised close integration in both procurement and at an operational level , reaching into the most sensitive areas such as nuclear warheads . Topical subjects ( edit ) French air force ( edit ) Main articles : History of the Armée de l'Air ( 1909 -- 42 ) , Free French Air Force , Vichy French Air Force , and History of the Armée de l'Air in the colonies ( 1939 -- 62 ) The Tricolore cockade of the French Air Force was the first roundel used on combat aircraft The Armée de l'Air became one of the first professional air forces in the world when it was founded in 1909 . The French took active interest in developing their air force and had the first fighter pilots of World War I. During the interwar years , however , particularly in the 1930s , the technical quality fell when compared with the Luftwaffe , which crushed both the French and British air forces during the Battle of France . In the post -- World War II era , the French made a concerted and successful effort to develop a homegrown aircraft industry . Dassault Aviation led the way forward with their unique and effective delta - wing designs , which formed the basis for the famous Mirage series of jet fighters . The Mirage repeatedly demonstrated its deadly abilities in the Six - Day War and the Gulf War , becoming one of the most popular and well - sold aircraft in the history of military aviation along the way . Currently , the French are awaiting the A400M military transport aircraft , which is still in developmental stages , and the integration of the new Rafale multi-role jet fighter , whose first squadron of 20 aircraft became operational in 2006 at Saint - Dizier . French navy ( edit ) The French ships engage the British navy ( right ) in the Battle of Chesapeake . Main article : History of the French Navy Medieval fleets , in France as elsewhere , were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into naval service in time of war , but the early beginnings of the French naval history goes back to that era . The first battle of the French Navy was the battle of Arnemuiden ( 23 September 1338 ) , where it defeated the English Navy . The battle of Arnemuiden was also the first naval battle using artillery . It was later defeated by an Anglo - Flemish fleet at the Battle of Sluys and , with Castilian help , managed to beat the English at La Rochelle -- both battles playing a crucial role in the development of the Hundred Years War . However , the navy did not become a consistent instrument of national power until the 17th century with Louis XIV . Under the tutelage of the `` Sun King , '' the French Navy was well financed and equipped , managing to resoundingly defeat a combined Spanish - Dutch fleet at the Battle of Palermo in 1676 during the Franco - Dutch War , although , along with the English navy , it suffered several strategic reversals against the Dutch , who were led by the brilliant Michiel de Ruyter . It scored several early victories in the Nine Years War against the Royal Navy and the Dutch Navy . Financial difficulties , however , allowed the English and the Dutch to regain the initiative at sea . The Charles de Gaulle , the first nuclear - powered aircraft carrier in Europe . A perennial problem for the French Navy was the strategic priorities of France , which were first and foremost tied to its European ambitions . This reality meant that the army was often treated better than the navy , and as a result , the latter suffered in training and operational performance . The 18th century saw the beginning of the Royal Navy 's domination , which managed to inflict a number of significant defeats on the French . However , in a very impressive effort , a French fleet under de Grasse managed to defeat a British fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781 , ensuring that the Franco - American ground forces would win the ongoing Siege of Yorktown . Beyond that , and Suffren 's impressive campaigns against the British in India , there was not much more good news . The French Revolution all but crippled the French Navy , and efforts to make it into a powerful force under Napoleon were dashed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 , where the British all but annihilated a combined Franco - Spanish fleet . The disaster guaranteed British naval domination until the end of the Napoleonic wars . Later in the 19th century , the navy recovered and became the second finest in the world after the Royal Navy . It conducted a successful blockade of Mexico in the Pastry War of 1838 and obliterated the Chinese navy at the Battle of Foochow in 1884 . It also served as an effective link between the growing parts of the French empire . The navy performed well during World War I , in which it mainly protected the naval lanes in the Mediterranean Sea . At the onset of the war , the French -- with 16 battleships , 6 cruisers , and 24 destroyers -- had the largest fleet in the Mediterranean . French defeats in the early stages of World War II , however , forced the British to destroy the French navy at Mers - el - Kebir in order to prevent its fall to the Germans . Currently , French naval doctrine calls for two aircraft carriers , but the French currently only have one , the Charles de Gaulle , due to restructuring . The navy is in the midst of some technological and procurement changes ; newer submarines are under construction and Rafale aircraft ( the naval version ) are currently replacing older aircraft . French foreign Legion ( edit ) Main articles : French Foreign Legion and List of French paratrooper units Légionnaires in dress uniform . Note the red epaulettes and the distinctive white kepi . They carry the standard assault rifle , the FAMAS . The French Foreign Legion was created in 1831 by French king Louis - Philippe . Over the past century and a half , it has gone on to become one of the most recognizable and lauded military units in the world . The Legion had a very difficult start ; there were few non-commissioned officers , many of the soldiers could not speak French , and pay was often irregular . The Legion was soon transferred to fight in Algeria , performing moderately successfully given its condition . On August 17 , 1835 , the commander of the Legion , Colonel Joseph Bernelle , decided to amalgamate all the battalions so that no nationality was exclusively confined to a particular battalion ; this helped ensure that the Legion did not fragment into factions . Following participation in Africa and in the Carlist Wars in Spain , the Legion fought in the Crimean War and the Franco - Austrian War , where they performed heroically at the Battle of Magenta , before earning even more glory during the French intervention in Mexico . On April 30 , 1863 , a company of 65 legionnaires was ambushed by 2,000 Mexican troops at the Hacienda Camarón ; in the resulting Battle of Camarón , the legionnaires resisted bravely for several hours and inflicted 300 -- 500 casualties on the Mexicans while 62 of them died and three were captured . One of the Mexican commanders , impressed by the memorable intransigence he had just witnessed , characterized the Legion in a way they 've been known ever since , `` These are not men , but devils ! '' In World War I , the Legion demonstrated that it was a highly capable unit in modern warfare . It suffered 11,000 casualties in the Western Front while conducting brilliant defenses and spirited counter-attacks . Following the debacle in the Battle of France in 1940 , the Legion was split between those who supported the Vichy government and those who joined the Free French under de Gaulle . At the Battle of Bir Hakeim in 1942 , the Free French 13th Legion Demi - Brigade doggedly defended its positions against a combined Italian - German offensive and seriously delayed Rommel 's attacks towards Tobruk . The Legion eventually returned to Europe and fought until the end of the Second World War in 1945 . It later fought in the First Indochina War against the Viet Minh . At the climatic Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 , French forces , many of them legionnaires , were completely surrounded by a large Vietnamese army and were defeated after two months of tenacious fighting . French withdrawal from Algeria led to the collapse of the French colonial empire . The legionnaires were mostly used in colonial interventions , so the destruction of the empire prompted questions about their status . Ultimately , the Legion was allowed to exist and participated as a rapid reaction force in many places throughout Africa and around the world . See also ( edit ) Military history of France portal History of French foreign relations Military of France Military history of France during World War II Norman Conquest of England Marshals of France List of notable French military leaders List of French wars and battles Deployments of the French military List of battles involving France Notes ( edit ) Jump up ^ team , John Lloyd and John Mitchinson and the QI ( 22 October 2010 ) . `` Quite Interesting : the QI cabinet of curiosity '' . Archived from the original on 24 February 2018 . Retrieved 6 May 2018 -- via www.telegraph.co.uk . Jump up ^ Inc , Time ( 13 July 1953 ) . `` LIFE '' . Time Inc . Retrieved 6 May 2018 -- via Google Books . Jump up ^ `` Discover Islamic Art Virtual Exhibitions - Al - Franj : the Crusaders in the Levant - Introduction '' . www.discoverislamicart.org . Archived from the original on 6 May 2018 . Retrieved 6 May 2018 . Jump up ^ `` - Hosanna Lutheran Church '' . www.welcometohosanna.com . Archived from the original on 29 October 2016 . Retrieved 6 May 2018 . Jump up ^ Cody , Edward ( 12 March 2009 ) . `` After 43 Years , France to Rejoin NATO as Full Member '' . Archived from the original on 26 October 2017 . Retrieved 6 May 2018 -- via www.washingtonpost.com . Jump up ^ `` France emerges as key U.S. ally against Syria '' . USA Today . 2 September 2013 . Archived from the original on 2 September 2013 . Retrieved 2 September 2013 . Jump up ^ Agence France - Presse ( 31 October 2013 ) . `` France Dissolves Symbolic Regiment Based In Germany '' . Defense News . Jump up ^ Royal Air Force Museum Archived 2009 - 06 - 02 at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ Jean - Claude Castex , Dictionnaire des batailles navales franco - anglaises , Presses de l'Université Laval , 2004 , p. 21 Jump up ^ Jean - Claude Castex , Dictionnaire des batailles navales franco - anglaises , Presses de l'Université Laval , 2004 , p. 21 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 101 . `` Washington 's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory , but French intervention won the war . '' ^ William Roosen , The age of Louis XIV : the rise of modern diplomacy . p. 55 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . pp. 46&dasnh ; 7 , 84 -- 5 , 108 -- 9 . ^ Brooks pp. 46 -- 7 , 84 -- 5 , 108 -- 9 . ^ William Thompson , Great power rivalries . p. 104 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 234 ^ Kay , Sean . NATO and the future of European security . p. 43 ^ Jolyon Howorth and Patricia Chilton , Defence and dissent in contemporary France . p. 153 ^ Alfred Bradford and Pamela Bradford , With arrow , sword , and spear : a history of warfare in the ancient world . p. 213 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 31 . In De Bello Gallico , Caesar claims a Gallic relief force of 250,000 men , but the logistical requirements for such a huge army were beyond anything the Gauls could procure . It is likely that Caesar inflated the figures to make his victory seem more impressive . ^ Jim Bradbury , The Routledge companion to medieval warfare . p. 109 ^ Jim Bradbury , The Routledge companion to medieval warfare . p. 110 ^ Robert Cowley , What If ? Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been . p. 73 , p. 87 . The latter page carries an account by historian Edward Gibbon : `` A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire ; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland : the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates , and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames . Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford , and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Mahomet . '' ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 43 . The above claims seem to be more rhetoric than possible historical reality . No contemporaries viewed the battle as decisive and Arab raids continued for much longer after the Battle of Tours . What is indisputable is the battle 's huge symbolic significance , since in one of the first major fights between the Christian West and Islam , the former managed to prevail . ^ J.M. Roberts , History of the World . p. 384 ^ Brooks , Richard ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 46 ^ Brooks p. 47 ^ French Medieval Armies and Navies , Xenophon Group . Accessed March 20 , 2006 ^ French Medieval Armies and Navies , Xenophon Group . Accessed March 20 , 2006 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 53 ^ Brooks p. 50 ^ Brooks p. 50 ^ Andrew Jotischky , Crusading and the Crusader States . p. 37 . The theory that argues for sociological and economic rather than spiritual motivation provides regional examples where noble fathers would give their lands to the oldest surviving son , meaning younger sons would be left landless and looking for somewhere to go ( the Crusades , in this case ) . Problems with the theory include , but are not limited to , the fact that there is no proof that younger sons formed the majority of the crusaders , the response to the crusading movement was just as strong in areas with equitable inheritance systems , and , since they were in many ways bound to the wishes and the decisions of their nobles , knights often had little individual choice in whether they would participate in a crusade . ^ Jotischky p. 37 ^ David Eltis , The military revolution in sixteenth - century Europe . p. 12 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 59 . `` Much has been made of the success of the English longbow . However , it was not a war - winning weapon . Reliance on this defensive weapon on the battlefield gave the initiative to the French ... '' ^ Brooks p. 59 . ( continuing from last comment ) `` ... its victories also depended on the French bungling their attack . The English were fortunate that their opponent failed to get it right three times in a 70 - year period . '' ^ Trevor Dupuy , Harper Encyclopedia of Military History . p. 450 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 59 . `` The major defeats of the French by the English boosted French military thought . A recently discovered document of the French battle plan for the Agincourt campaign shows how carefully the French thought about ways of defeating the English . In the event , the plan could not be fully executed because the battlefield at Agincourt was too narrow for the French forces to fully deploy . '' ^ Brooks p. 58 ^ French Medieval Armies and Navies , Xenophon Group . Accessed March 20 , 2006 ^ Jeremy Black , Cambridge illustrated atlas , warfare : Renaissance to revolution , 1492 - 1792 . p. 49 ^ Jeff Kinard , Artillery : an illustrated history of its impact . pp. 61 -- 2 ^ John A. Lynn , The Wars of Louis XIV . p. 8 ^ James Wood , The King 's Army . p. 131 ^ Wood p. 132 ^ Kemal Karpat , The Ottoman state and its place in world history . p. 52 ^ Jamel Ostwald , Vauban under siege . p. 7 ^ John A. Lynn , Giant of the Grand Siècle : The French Army , 1610 -- 1715 . p. 16 ( preface ) ^ Lynn p. 16 ( preface ) ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 84 ^ Jackson Spielvogel , Western Civilization : Since 1500 . p. 551 ^ Lester Kurtz and Jennifer Turpin , Encyclopedia of violence , peace and conflict , Volume 2 . p. 425 ^ David G. Chandler , The Campaigns of Napoleon . p. 136 ^ John R. Elting , Swords Around a Throne : Napoleon 's Grande Armée . p. 35 . The opening words are mundane , but they helped pave the way for a new era in human history , one where militarism became entrenched in national culture : `` From this moment until our enemies shall have been driven from the territory of the Republic , all Frenchmen are permanently requisitioned for the service of the armies . '' ^ T.C.W. Blanning , The French Revolutionary Wars . p. 109 ^ John R. Elting , Swords Around a Throne : Napoleon 's Grande Armée . p. 28 -- 29 . Aristocratic officers deserted gradually , not suddenly . Furthermore , desertion rates depended upon the service : cavalry officers were more likely to leave the army than their artillery counterparts . ^ Parker , Geoffrey . The Cambridge history of warfare . p. 189 ^ Peter Paret , Clausewitz and the State . p. 332 ^ John A. Lynn , The Wars of Louis XIV . p. 28 ^ Martyn Lyons , Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution . p. 43 . Lyons writes , France had a large population by European standards , numbering over 29 million in 1800 . This was more than the population of the Habsburg Empire ( 20 million ) , more than double the population of England ( about 12 million ) , and more than four times the population of Prussia ( 6 million ) . ^ Lester Kurtz and Jennifer Turpin , Encyclopedia of violence , peace and conflict , Volume 2 . p. 425 ^ Lester Kurtz and Jennifer Turpin , Encyclopedia of violence , peace and conflict , Volume 2 . p. 425 ^ David G. Chandler , The Campaigns of Napoleon . p. 758 ^ Chandler p. 162 ^ Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont - Barnes , The Napoleonic Wars : The Rise and Fall of an Empire . p. 186 . `` Up to 1792 , ... conflicts were , of course , those of kings , and followed the pattern of eighteenth - century warfare : sovereigns sought limited objectives and entertained no desire to overthrow their adversaries ' ruling ( and indeed usually ancient ) dynasty . The outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 altered this pattern forever and international relations underwent some radical changes as a result . '' ^ Conrad Phillip Kottak , Cultural Anthropology . p. 331 ^ Richard Brooks ( editor ) , Atlas of World Military History . p. 129 ^ Paul Marie de la Gorce , The French Army : A Military - Political History p. 48 . Following the Franco - Prussian War and the loss of Alsace - Lorraine , revanchism in French politics made certain that the army was carefully nurtured and well - treated because it was viewed as the only instrument through which France could overcome the humiliations of 1870 . ^ de la Gorce p. 48 ^ Hew Strachan , The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War . p. 280 ^ John Keegan , The Second World War . p. 64 ^ Keegan p. 61 ^ Boyce , French Foreign and Defence Policy . p. 185 ^ Boyce p. 185 ^ F. Roy Willis , France , Germany , and the New Europe , 1945 - 1967 . p. 9 ^ Charles Hauss , Politics in France . p. 194 ^ Shlomo Aloni , Israeli Mirage and Nesher Aces . p. 6 ^ French airforce adds home - grown fighter plane to its arsenal Agence - France Presse . Accessed November 7 , 2006 ^ Russell Weigley , The age of battles : the quest for decisive warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo . pp. 158 -- 9 ^ Barbara Tuchman , The Guns of August . p. 166 ^ David Jordan , The History of the French Foreign Legion . p. 10 ^ Jordan p. 14 ^ Byron Farwell , The encyclopedia of nineteenth - century land warfare . p. 155 ^ David Jordan , The History of the French Foreign Legion . p. 34 ^ Jordan p. 67 ^ Jordan p. 94 Further reading ( edit ) Aloni , Shlomo . Israeli Mirage and Nesher Aces . Oxford : Osprey Publishing , 2004 . ISBN 1 - 84176 - 653 - 4 Black , Jeremy . Cambridge illustrated atlas of warfare : Renaissance to revolution , 1492 - 1792 . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 1996 . ISBN 0 - 521 - 47033 - 1 Blanning , T.C.W. The French Revolutionary Wars . London : Hodder Headline Group , 1996 . ISBN 0 - 340 - 56911 - 5 Boyce , Robert . French Foreign and Defence Policy , 1918 - 1940 . Oxford : CRC Press , 1998 . ISBN 0 - 203 - 97922 - 2 Bradbury , Jim . The Routledge companion to medieval warfare . New York : Routledge , 2004 . ISBN 0 - 415 - 22126 - 9 Bradford , Alfred and Pamela . With arrow , sword , and spear : a history of warfare in the ancient world . Westport : Greenwood Publishing Group , 2001 . ISBN 0 - 275 - 95259 - 2 Brooks , Richard ( editor ) . Atlas of World Military History . London : HarperCollins , 2000 . ISBN 0 - 7607 - 2025 - 8 Chandler , David G . The Campaigns of Napoleon . New York : Simon & Schuster , 1995 . ISBN 0 - 02 - 523660 - 1 Chilton , Patricia and Howorth , Jolyon Howorth . Defence and dissent in contemporary France Oxford : Taylor & Francis , 1984 . ISBN 0 - 7099 - 1280 - 3 Clayton , Anthony . Paths of glory : the French Army 1914 - 18 . London : Cassell , 2003 . Cowley , Robert ( editor ) . What If ? Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been . New York : Penguin Group , 1999 . ISBN 0 - 399 - 15238 - 5 Doughty , Robert A. Pyrrhic Victory : French Strategy and Operations in the Great War ( 2008 ) , 592pp ; excerpt and text search Dupuy , Trevor N. , Harper Encyclopedia of Military History . New York : HarperCollins , 1993 . ISBN 0 - 06 - 270056 - 1 Elting , John R. Swords Around a Throne : Napoleon 's Grande Armée . New York : Da Capo Press Inc. , 1988 . ISBN 0 - 306 - 80757 - 2 Eltis , David . The military revolution in sixteenth - century Europe . New York : I.B. Tauris , 1998 . ISBN 1 - 86064 - 352 - 3 Farwell , Byron . The encyclopedia of nineteenth - century land warfare . New York : W.W. Norton & Company , 2001 . ISBN 0 - 393 - 04770 - 9 Fisher , Todd & Fremont - Barnes , Gregory . The Napoleonic Wars : The Rise and Fall of an Empire . Oxford : Osprey Publishing Ltd. , 2004 . ISBN 1 - 84176 - 831 - 6 de la Gorce , Paul Marie . The French Army : A Military - Political History . New York : George Braziller , Inc. , 1963 . Greenhalgh , Elizabeth . The French Army and the First World War ( 2014 ) , 486 pages ; comprehensive scholarly history . Hauss , Charles . Politics in France . Washington , DC : CQ Press , 2007 . ISBN 1 - 56802 - 670 - 6 Jordan , David . The History of the French Foreign Legion . Spellmount Limited , 2005 . ISBN 1 - 86227 - 295 - 6 Jotischky , Andrew . Crusading and the Crusader States . Pearson Education Limited , 2004 . ISBN 0 - 582 - 41851 - 8 Karpat , Kemal . The Ottoman state and its place in world history . Leiden : BRILL , 1974 . ISBN 90 - 04 - 03945 - 7 Kay , Sean . NATO and the future of European security . Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield , 1998 . ISBN 0 - 8476 - 9001 - 6 Keegan , John . The Second World War . New York : Penguin Group , 1989 . ISBN 0 - 670 - 82359 - 7 Kinard , Jeff . Artillery : an illustrated history of its impact . Santa Barbara : ABC - CLIO , 2007 . ISBN 1 - 85109 - 556 - X Kottak , Conrad . Cultural Anthropology . Columbus : McGraw - Hill Higher Education , 2005 . ISBN 0 - 07 - 295250 - 4 Kurtz , Lester and Turpin , Jennifer . Encyclopedia of violence , peace and conflict , Volume 2 . New York : Academic Press , 1999 . ISBN 0 - 12 - 227010 - X Lyons , Martyn . Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution . New York : St. Martin 's Press , Inc. , 1994 . ISBN 0 - 312 - 12123 - 7 Lynn , John A. Giant of the Grand Siècle : The French Army , 1610 -- 1715 . New York : Cambridge University Press , 1997 . ISBN 0 - 521 - 57273 - 8 Lynn , John A . The Wars of Louis XIV . London : Longman , 1999 . ISBN 0 - 582 - 05629 - 2 Ostwald , Jamel . Vauban under siege . Leiden : BRILL , 2007 . ISBN 90 - 04 - 15489 - 2 Paret , Peter . Clausewitz and the State . Princeton : Princeton University Press , 2007 . ISBN 0 - 691 - 13130 - 9 Parker , Geoffrey . The Cambridge history of warfare . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2005 . ISBN 0 - 521 - 85359 - 1 Porch , Douglas . The March to the Marne : The French Army 1871 - 1914 Cambridge University Press ( 2003 ) ISBN 978 - 0521545921 Roberts , J.M. History of the World . New York : Penguin Group , 1992 . ISBN 0 - 19 - 521043 - 3 Roosen , William . The age of Louis XIV : the rise of modern diplomacy . Edison : Transaction Publishers , 1976 . ISBN 0 - 87073 - 581 - 0 Spielvogel , Jackson . Western Civilization : Since 1500 . Florence : Cengage Learning , 2008 . ISBN 0 - 495 - 50287 - 1 Strachan , Hew . The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War . Oxford : Oxford University Press , 1998 . ISBN 0 - 19 - 289325 - 4 Thompson , William . Great power rivalries . Columbia : University of South Carolina Press , 1999 . ISBN 1 - 57003 - 279 - 3 Tuchman W. , Barbara . The Guns of August . New York : Random House , 1962 . ISBN 0 - 345 - 38623 - X Weigley , Russell . The age of battles : the quest for decisive warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo . Bloomington : Indiana University Press , 2004 . ISBN 0 - 253 - 21707 - 5 Willis , F. Roy . France , Germany , and the New Europe , 1945 - 1967 . Palo Alto : Stanford University Press , 1968 . ISBN 0 - 8047 - 0241 - 1 Wood , James . The King 's Army . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2002 . ISBN 0 - 521 - 52513 - 6 Historiography ( edit ) Messenger , Charles , ed . Reader 's Guide to Military History ( 2001 ) 948pp ; Evaluation of thousands of books on military history , many of them involving France . In French ( edit ) Bertaud , Jean - Paul , and William Serman . Nouvelle histoire militaire de la France , 1789 - 1919 ( Paris , Fayard : 1998 ) ; 855pp External links ( edit ) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of France . French Military Terms Adopted by the English Language French military participation from 1800 to 1999 The French Army : Royal , Revolutionary and Imperial An excellent guide to French Medieval warfare France in the American Revolution French Army from Revolution to the First Empire , Illustrations by Hippolyte Bellangé from the book P. - M. Laurent de L ` Ardeche `` Histoire de Napoleon '' , 1843 The French Military in Africa ( 2008 ) - Council on Foreign Relations ( hide ) Divisions of the French Army Active 1st 3rd Cold War period ( incomplete ) Infantry 8th 15th 27th Alpine 109th 152nd Armored 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 7th 8th 10th Light Armored 6th 9th 12th 14th Airborne 4th Airmobile 10th 11th Light Intervention 24th 25th Other Division Daguet Second World War ( list ) 1939 - 1940 Armour 1st Armored 1st Light 2nd Armored 2nd Light 3rd Armored 3rd Light 4th Armored 4th Light 7th Light Cavalry 1st Light 2nd Light 3rd Light 4th Light 5th Light 6th Light Colonial 1st Moroccan 1st Colonial 1st North African Light 2nd Colonial 2nd Colonial Light 2nd Moroccan 2nd North African 3rd Colonial 3rd Moroccan 3rd North African 4th Colonial 4th North African 5th Colonial 5th North African 6th North African 6th Colonial 7th Colonial 7th North African 8th Colonial 8th Colonial Light 81st African 82nd African 83rd African 84th African 85th African 86th African 87th African 88th African 180th African 181st African 182nd African 183rd African Cochinchina and Cambodia Tonkin Infantry 1st Motorized 2nd 3rd Motorized 4th 5th Motorized 6th 7th 8th 9th Motorized 10th 11th 12th Motorized 13th 14th 15th Motorized 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th Motorized 26th 32nd 35th 36th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 47th 51st 52nd 53rd 54th 55th 56th 57th 58th 60th 61st 62nd 63rd 67th 68th 70th 71st 101st Fortress 102nd Fortress 103rd Fortress 104th Fortress 105th Fortress 191st 192nd Mountain 1st Light Chasseurs 2nd Light Chasseurs 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 64th 65th 66th Light 1st 3rd 17th 59th 235th 236th 237th 238th 239th 240th 241st Burtaire Provisional Besse March Chastanet March Poisot March Regard March Senselme March Other 1st Polish 2nd Polish Vichy France Metropolitan 7th Military 9th Military 12th Military 13th Military 14th Military 15th Military 16th Military 17th Military Africa and Asia Algiers Territorial Casablanca Cochinchina and Cambodia Constantine Territorial Fez Marrakech Meknes Oran Territorial Tunisian Forces Command Tonkin Related 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne ( 1st French ) Free France / Army of Liberation Infantry 1st Algerian 1st Alpine 1st Colonial 1st Free French Division 1st Moroccan 1st 1st Far East Colonial 2nd Algerian 2nd Colonial 2nd Far East Colonial 2nd Moroccan 3rd Moroccan 3rd Algerian 3rd Colonial 4th Moroccan Mountain 6th Moroccan Mountain 7th Algerian 8th Algerian 9th Colonial 10th Colonial 10th Infantry 14th Infantry 19th Infantry 23rd Infantry 25th Infantry 27th Alpine 36th Infantry Armour 1st Armored 2nd Armored 3rd Armored 5th Armored Temporary Constantine March Algerian March Oran March Southeast Algerian Front First World War ( list ) Infantry 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 51st Reserve 52nd Reserve 53rd 55th Reserve 56th Reserve 57th Reserve 58th Reserve 60th Reserve 61st Reserve 62nd Reserve 63rd Reserve 66th Reserve 67th 68th 69th 70th 71st 72nd 74th 76th 77th 81st Territorial 82nd Territorial 84th Territorial 87th Territorial 88th Territorial 89th Territorial 92nd Territorial 101st Territorial 102nd 120th 121st 122nd 123rd 125th 126th 127th 128th 129th 132nd 133rd 152nd 153rd 156th 157th 158th 164th 165th 166th 169th 170th Cavalry 1st 1st Foot 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th Colonial Moroccan 2nd Colonial 3rd Colonial 10th Colonial 11th Colonial 15th Colonial 16th Colonial 17th Colonial France topics History Periods Timeline Prehistory Celtic Gaul Roman Gaul Kingdom of the Visigoths Francia West Francia Middle Ages Early modern era Long nineteenth century Revolutionary era Napoleonic era Belle Époque Twentieth century Regimes Absolute monarchy Ancien Régime First Republic First Empire Constitutional monarchy Bourbon Restoration July Monarchy Second Republic Second Empire Government of National Defense Third Republic France during the Second World War Free France Vichy France Provisional Government of the French Republic Fourth Republic Fifth Republic Geography Administrative divisions Cities Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers Politics Constitution Elections presidential Foreign relations Government Human rights Intersex LGBT Judiciary Law enforcement Military Parliament Political parties Economy Agriculture Banking Central bank Economic history Energy Euro Exports Franc ( former currency ) French subdivisions by GDP Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport Society Crime Demographics Education Health care People Poverty Religion Social class Welfare Culture Architecture Art Cinema ( comedy ) Cuisine Fashion Gardens Language Literature Media Music Philosophy Public holidays Sport Symbols Theatre Outline Book Portal WikiProject Military history of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Military_history_of_France&oldid=842031562 '' Categories : Military history of France Hidden categories : Webarchive template wayback links Talk Contents About Wikipedia Español فارسی Français हिन्दी Ido Русский Suomi Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 19 May 2018 , at 19 : 19 . 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[ "According to historian Niall Ferguson : `` of the 125 major European wars fought since 1495 , the French have participated in 50 -- more than Austria ( 47 ) and England ( 43 ) . Out of 168 battles fought since 387BC , they have won 109 , lost 49 and drawn 10 . ''" ]
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where is the mcl located in the knee
Medial collateral ligament - wikipedia Medial collateral ligament Jump to : navigation , search This article 's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents . Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article . Please discuss this issue on the article 's talk page . ( June 2010 ) Medial collateral ligament Diagram of the right knee . ( Medial collateral ligament labeled at center right . ) Details From medial epicondyle of the femur To medial condyle of tibia Identifiers Latin Ligamentum collaterale tibiale MeSH A02. 513.514. 162.600 Dorlands / Elsevier l_09 / 12491979 TA A03. 6.08. 012 FMA 44600 Anatomical terminology ( edit on Wikidata ) The medial collateral ligament ( MCL ) , or tibial collateral ligament ( TCL ) , is one of the four major ligaments of the knee . It is on the medial ( inner ) side of the knee joint in humans and other primates . Its primary function is to resist valgus forces on the knee . Contents ( hide ) 1 Structure 1.1 Development 2 Clinical significance 2.1 Injury 2.1. 1 Treatment 3 Additional Images 4 References 5 See also 6 External links Structure ( edit ) This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( May 2015 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) It is a broad , flat , membranous band , situated slightly posterior on the medial side of the knee joint . It is attached proximally to the medial epicondyle of the femur immediately below the adductor tubercle ; below to the medial condyle of the tibia and medial surface of its body . It resists forces that would push the knee medially , which would otherwise produce valgus deformity . The fibers of the posterior part of the ligament are short and incline backward as they descend ; they are inserted into the tibia above the groove for the semimembranosus muscle . The anterior part of the ligament is a flattened band , about 10 centimeters long , which inclines forward as it descends . It is inserted into the medial surface of the body of the tibia about 2.5 centimeters below the level of the condyle . Crossing on top of the lower part of the MCL is the pes anserinus , the joined tendons of the sartorius , gracilis , and semitendinosus muscles ; a bursa is interposed between the two . The MCL 's deep surface covers the inferior medial genicular vessels and nerve and the anterior portion of the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle , with which it is connected by a few fibers ; it is intimately adherent to the medial meniscus . Development ( edit ) Embryologically and phylogenically , the ligament represents the distal portion of the tendon of adductor magnus muscle . In lower animals , adductor magnus inserts into the tibia . Because of this , the ligament occasionally contains muscle fibres . This is an atavistic variation . Clinical significance ( edit ) Injury ( edit ) Main article : Medial knee injuries A MCL injury can be very painful and is caused by a valgus stress to a slightly bent knee , often when landing , bending or on high impact . It may be difficult to apply pressure on the injured leg for at least a few days . The most common knee structure damaged in skiing is the medial collateral ligament , although the carve turn has diminished the incidence somewhat . MCL strains and tears are also fairly common in American football . The center and the guards are the most common victims of this type of injury due to the grip trend on their cleats , although sometimes it can be caused by a helmet striking the knee . The number of football players who get this injury has increased in recent years . Companies are currently trying to develop better cleats that will prevent the injury . MCL is also crucially affected in breaststroke and many professional swimmers suffer from chronic MCL pains . Treatment ( edit ) Main article : Medial knee injuries Depending on the grade of the injury , the lowest grade ( grade 1 ) can take between 2 and 10 weeks for the injury to fully heal . Recovery times for grades 2 and 3 can take several weeks to several months . Treatment of a partial tear or stretch injury is usually conservative . Physical Therapy should be a first choice option for treatment and diagnosis of injuries to this structure . This includes measures to control inflammation as well as bracing . Kannus has shown good clinical results with conservative care of grade II sprains , but poor results in grade III sprains . As a result , more severe grade III and IV injuries to the MCL that lead to ongoing instability may require arthroscopic surgery . However , the medical literature considers surgery for most MCL injuries to be controversial . Isolated MCL sprains are common . For higher grade tears of the MCL with ongoing instability , the MCL can be sutured or replaced . Other non-surgical approaches for more severe MCL injuries may include prolotherapy , which has been shown by Reeves in a small RCT to reduce translation on KT - 1000 arthrometer versus placebo . The future of non-surgical care for a non-healing MCL injury with laxity ( partial ligament tear ) is likely bioengineering . Fan et al. ( 2008 ) have demonstrated that knee ligament reconstruction is possible using mesenchymal stem cells and a silk scaffold . Additional Images ( edit ) Anterior view of knee . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` KNEE INJURIES '' . www.ski-injury.com . Retrieved October 13 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Kannus , P ( 1988 ) . `` Long - term results of conservatively treated medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee joint '' . Clinical orthopaedics and related research ( 226 ) : 103 -- 12 . PMID 3335084 . doi : 10.1097 / 00003086 - 198801000 - 00015 . Jump up ^ Indelicato , P.A. ( 1995 ) . `` Isolated Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in the Knee '' . The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 3 ( 1 ) : 9 -- 14 . PMID 10790648 . Jump up ^ Reeves , K.D. ; Hassanein , K ( 2000 ) . `` Randomized prospective double - blind placebo - controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity '' . Alternative therapies in health and medicine . 6 ( 2 ) : 68 -- 74 , 77 -- 80 . PMID 10710805 . Results should be contrasted with meta - analysis such as the one by Rabago et al : Rabago , D ; Best , T.M. ; Beamsley , M ; Patterson , J ( 2005 ) . `` A systematic review of prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain '' . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine . 15 ( 5 ) : 376 -- 80 . PMID 16162983 . Lay summary -- PubMed Health ( April 30 , 2007 ) . Jump up ^ Fan , Hongbin ; Liu , Haifeng ; Wong , Eugene J.W. ; Toh , Siew L. ; Goh , James C.H. ( 2008 ) . `` In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold '' . Biomaterials. 29 ( 23 ) : 3324 -- 37 . PMID 18462787 . doi : 10.1016 / j. biomaterials. 2008.04. 012 . See also ( edit ) This article uses anatomical terminology ; for an overview , see Anatomical terminology . External links ( edit ) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Medial collateral ligament . lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman ( Georgetown University ) ( antkneejointopenflexed ) Medial Collateral Ligament ( MCL ) Tears ( hide ) Joints and ligaments of the human leg Hip femoral ( iliofemoral pubofemoral ischiofemoral ) head of femur transverse acetabular acetabular labrum capsule zona orbicularis Knee Tibiofemoral Capsule Anterior meniscofemoral ligament Posterior meniscofemoral ligament extracapsular : popliteal oblique arcuate collateral medial / tibial fibular / lateral intracapsular : cruciate anterior posterior menisci medial lateral transverse anterolateral Patellofemoral Patellar ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Tibiofibular Superior tibiofibular anterior of the head of the fibula posterior of the head of the fibula Inferior tibiofibular Anterior tibiofibular Posterior tibiofibular Interosseous membrane of leg Foot Talocrural and ankle medial : medial of talocrural joint / deltoid anterior tibiotalar posterior tibiotalar tibiocalcaneal tibionavicular lateral : lateral collateral of ankle joint anterior talofibular posterior talofibular calcaneofibular Subtalar / talocalcaneal anterior / posterior lateral / medial interosseous Transverse tarsal Talocalcaneonavicular dorsal talonavicular plantar calcaneonavicular / spring bifurcated ( calcaneonavicular ) Calcaneocuboid dorsal calcaneocuboid long plantar plantar calcaneocuboid bifurcated ( calcaneocuboid ) Distal intertarsal Cuneonavicular plantar dorsal Cuboideonavicular plantar dorsal Intercuneiform plantar dorsal interosseous Other Tarsometatarsal / Lisfranc plantar dorsal Intermetatarsal / metatarsal plantar dorsal interosseous superficial transverse deep transverse Metatarsophalangeal plantar collateral Interphalangeal plantar collateral Arches Longitudinal Transverse Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Medial_collateral_ligament&oldid=778104191 '' Categories : Knee ligaments Hidden categories : All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from May 2015 Wikipedia introduction cleanup from June 2010 All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from June 2010 All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Medicine infobox template using GraySubject or GrayPage Medicine infobox template using Dorlands parameter Articles needing additional references from May 2015 All articles needing additional references Talk Contents About Wikipedia Català Español فارسی Français Nederlands 日本 語 Polski Português Simple English Edit links This page was last edited on 1 May 2017 , at 04 : 16 . 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[ "on the medial (inner) side of the knee joint" ]
[ "The medial collateral ligament ( MCL ) , or tibial collateral ligament ( TCL ) , is one of the four major ligaments of the knee . It is on the medial ( inner ) side of the knee joint in humans and other primates . Its primary function is to resist valgus forces on the knee ." ]
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who heads the ward councillors in a municipality
Municipal corporations in India - wikipedia Municipal corporations in India ( Redirected from Municipal Corporations in India ) Jump to : navigation , search India This article is part of a series on the politics and government of India Constitution and law ( show ) Constitutional amendment Basic structure doctrine Fundamental rights Human rights -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Code of Civil Procedure , 1908 Uniform civil code Code of Criminal Procedure , 1973 Indian Penal Code Law enforcement Government of India ( show ) President ( Head of state ) ( List ) Vice president ( List ) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Executive : Prime minister ( Head of government ) ( List ) Union Council of Ministers Cabinet secretary Secretaries : ( Defence Finance Foreign Home ) Civil services All India Services ( IAS IFS / IFoS IPS ) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Legislature : Parliament Rajya Sabha ( Chairman ) Lok Sabha ( Speaker ) Judiciary : Supreme court ( Chief justice ) High courts ( Chief justices ) District courts Elections ( show ) Election commission : Chief Election Commissioner ( Election commissioners ) Recent general elections : 2009 2014 2019 Recent state elections : 2017 2018 2019 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Political parties National parties State parties National coalitions : National Democratic Alliance ( NDA ) United Progressive Alliance ( UPA ) Federalism ( show ) Administrative divisions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- State governments Governors ( List ) Chief ministers ( List ) Chief secretary ( Principal secretaries ) Field - level officers Divisional commissioners District magistrates Sub-divisional magistrates Legislatures : Vidhan Sabha Vidhan Parishad -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Local governments : Rural bodies : District councils Block panchayats Gram Panchayats Urban bodies : Municipal corporations Municipal councils Nagar panchayats Other countries Atlas Chennai Corporation headquarters A municipal corporation , city corporation , Mahanagar Palika , Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million . The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care , educational institution , housing , transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government . The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments . Contents ( hide ) 1 Other names for municipal corporations 2 Composition 3 Administration 4 Functions 5 Sources of Income 6 See also 7 References Other names for municipal corporations ( edit ) Municipal corporations are referred to by different names in different states ( due to regional language variations ) , all of which are translated to `` municipal corporation '' in English . These names include nagar nigam ( in Delhi , Uttar Pradesh , Uttarakhand , Bihar , Rajasthan , and Haryana ) , mahanagar palika ( in Gujarat , Goa , Karnataka , and Maharashtra ) , pouro nigom ( in Assam and West Bengal ) , pur porishod ( in Tripura ) , agar palika nigam ( in Madhya Pradesh ) , Nagara Palaka Samstha ( in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana ) , and Maanagaraatchi ( in Tamil Nadu ) . The Vadodara Municipal Corporation is typically called by the name `` Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan '' . The detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state , as per the laws passed by the state legislatures , but the basic structure and function is almost the same . Composition ( edit ) Administrative structure of India The area administered by a municipal corporation is known as a municipal area . Each municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards . A municipal corporation is made up of a wards committee . Each ward has one seat in the wards committee . Members are elected to the wards committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years . These members are known as councillors or corporators . The number of wards in a municipal area is determined by the population of the city . Some seats are reserved for scheduled castes , scheduled tribes , backward classes and women . A state can choose to constitute additional committees to carry functions of urban local governance , in addition to the wards committees . In addition to the councillors elected from the wards , the legislature of a state may also choose to make provisions for the representation of persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration , the MPs or MLAs representing the constituencies which comprise wholly or partly the municipal area , and / or the commissioners of additional committees that the state may have constituted . If a state legislature appoints a person from the first category to a wards committee , that individual will not have the right to vote in the meetings of the municipal corporation , while MPs , MLAs and commissioners do have the right to vote in meetings . The largest corporations are in the six metropolitan cities of India , viz . Delhi , Mumbai , Kolkata , Chennai , Bangalore and Hyderabad . The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation ( BMC ) is the richest municipal corporation in India . Administration ( edit ) The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation , but the role is largely ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner . The office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city . As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888 , a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor . The tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is five years Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of mayor and councilors . Functions ( edit ) Municipal Corporation building in Bangalore The Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution lists the subjects that municipal corporations are responsible for . Corporations may be entrusted to perform functions and implement schemes including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule . Urban planning including town planning . Regulation of land - use and construction of buildings . Planning for economic and social development Water supply for domestic , industrial and commercial purposes . Public health , sanitation conservancy and solid waste management . Fire services . Urban forestry , protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects . Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society , including the handicapped and mentally retarded . Slum improvement and upgradation . Urban poverty alleviation . Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks , gardens , playgrounds . Promotion of cultural , educational and aesthetic aspects . Burials and burial grounds ; cremations , cremation grounds and electric crematoriums . Cattle pounds ; prevention of cruelty to animals . Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths . Public amenities including street lighting , parking lots , bus stops and public conveniences . Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries Sources of income ( edit ) Its sources of income are taxes on water , houses , markets and vehicles ( commercial only ) paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government . Municipalities & CD blocks of West Bengal Municipal corporations Asansol Bidhannagar - New Town - Rajarhat Durgapur Howrah Jalpaiguri Kolkata Midnapore - Kharagpur Serampore - Chandannagar Siliguri Municipalities Alipurduar Arambagh Ashoknagar Kalyangarh Baduria Baidyabati Balurghat Bangaon Bankura Bansberia Baranagar Barasat Bardhaman Barrackpur Baruipur Basirhat Beldanga Berhampore Bhadreswar Bhatpara Birnagar Bishnupur Bolpur Budge Budge Buniadpur Chakdaha Champdani Chandrakona Contai Cooch Behar Dainhat Dalkhola Darjeeling Dhulian Dhupguri Diamond Harbour Dinhata Dubrajpur Dum Dum Egra English Bazar Gangarampur Garulia Gayespur Ghatal Gobardanga Guskara Habra Haldia Haldibari Halisahar Haringhata Hugli - Chuchura Islampur Jangipur Jhalda Jhargram Jiaganj Azimganj Jaynagar Mazilpur Kaliaganj Kalimpong Kalna Kalyani Kamarhati Kanchrapara Kandi Katwa Kharar Khardaha Khirpai Konnagar Krishnanagar Kurseong Madhyamgram Maheshtala Mainaguri Malbazar Mathabhanga Mekhliganj Memari Murshidabad Nabadwip Naihati Nalhati New Barrackpore North Barrackpur North Dumdum Old Malda Panihati Panskura Pujali Purulia Raghunathpur Raiganj Rajarhat Rajpur Sonarpur Ramjibanpur Rampurhat Ranaghat Rishra Sainthia Shantipur Sonamukhi South Dumdum Suri Taki Tamluk Tarakeswar Titagarh Tufanganj Uluberia Uttarpara Community development blocks Alipuduar I Alipurduar II Amdanga Amta I Amta II Andal Arambagh Arsha Ausgram I Ausgram II Baduria Bagdah Baghmundi Bagnan I Bagnan II Balagarh Balarampur Balurghat Bally Jagachha Bamangola Bandwan Bangaon Bankura I Bankura II Barjora Bansihari Barabani Barabazar Barrackpore I Barrackpore II Barasat I Barasat II Baruipur Basanti Basirhat I Basirhat II Beldanga I Beldanga II Berhampore Bhagawangola I Bhagawangola II Bhagabanpur I Bhagabanpur II Bhangore I Bhangore II Bharatpur I Bharatpur II Bhatar Binpur I Binpur II Bishnupur , Bankura Bishnupur I , South 24 Parganas Bishnupur II , South 24 Parganas Bolpur Sriniketan Budge Budge I Budge Budge II Burdwan I Burdwan II Burwan Canning I Canning II Chakdaha Chanchal I Chanchal II Chandipur Chanditala I Chanditala II Chapra Chandrakona I Chandrakona II Chhatna Chinsurah - Mogra Chopra Contai I Contai II Contai III Cooch Behar I Cooch Behar II Darjeeling Pulbazar Dantan I Dantan II Daspur I Daspur II Debra Deganga Diamond Harbour I Diamond Harbour II Deshapran Dhaniakhali Dhupguri Dinhata I Dinhata II Domjur Domkal Dubrajpur Egra I Egra II English Bazar Falakata Falta Farakka Faridpur - Durgapur Gaighata Galsi I Galsi II Gangajalghati Gangarampur Garhbeta I Garhbeta II Garhbeta III Gazole Ghatal Goalpokhar I Goalpokhar II Goghat I Goghat II Gopiballavpur I Gopiballavpur II Gorubathan Gosaba Habibpur Habra I Habra II Haldia Haldibari Hanskhali Hariharpara Haringhata Haripal Harirampur Harishchandrapur I Harishchandrapur II Haroa Hasnabad Hemtabad Hili Hingalganj Hirbandh Hura Ilambazar Indas Indpur Islampur Itahar Jagatballavpur Jalangi Jalpaiguri Jamalpur Jamboni Jamuria Jangipara Jaynagar I Jaynagar II Jhalda I Jhalda II Jhargram Jorebunglow Sukhiapokhri Joypur , Bankura Joypur , Purulia Kakdwip Kalchini Kaliachak I Kaliachak II Kaliachak III Kaliaganj Kaliganj Kalimpong I Kalimpong II Kalna I Kalna II Kandi Kanksa Karandighi Karimpur I Karimpur II Kashipur Katwa I Katwa II Keshiari Keshpur Ketugram I Ketugram II Khanakul I Khanakul II Khandaghosh Kharagpur I Kharagpur II Khargram Kharibari Khatra Khejuri I Khejuri II Khoyrasole Kolaghat Kotulpur Krishnaganj Krishnanagar I Krishnanagar II Kulpi Kultali Kumarganj Kumargram Kurseong Kushmandi Labpur Lalgola Madarihat - Birpara Magrahat I Magrahat II Mahisadal Mal Manbazar I Manbazar II Mandirbazar Manikchak Manteswar Mathabhanga I Mathabhanga II Mathurapur I Mathurapur II Matiali Matigara Maynaguri Mayureswar I Mayureswar II Mejia Mekhliganj Memari I Memari II Midnapore Sadar Minakhan Mirik Mohammad Bazar Mohanpur Mongalkote Moyna Murarai I Murarai II Murshidabad - Jiaganj Nabadwip Nabagram Nagrakata Nakashipara Nalhati I Nalhati II Namkhana Nandakumar Nandigram I Nandigram II Nanoor Naoda Narayangarh Naxalbari Nayagram Neturia Old Malda Onda Panchla Pandabeswar Pandua Panskura Para Patashpur I Patashpur II Patharpratima Patrasayer Phansidewa Pingla Polba - Dadpur Puncha Purbasthali I Purbasthali II Pursurah Purulia I Purulia II Raghunathganj I Raghunathganj II Raghunathpur I Raghunathpur II Raiganj Raina I Raina II Raipur Rajarhat Rajganj Rajnagar Ramnagar I Ramnagar II Rampurhat I Rampurhat II Ranaghat I Ranaghat II Rangli Rangliot Ranibandh Raniganj Raninagar I Raninagar II Ratua I Ratua II Sabang Sagar Sagardighi Sahid Matangini Sainthia Salanpur Salboni Saltora Samserganj Sandeshkhali I Sandeshkhali II Sankrail , Howrah Sankrail , Paschim Medinipur Santipur Santuri Sarenga Shyampur I Shyampur II Simlapal Singur Sitai Sitalkuchi Sonamukhi Sonarpur Sreerampur - Uttarpara Suri I Suri II Sutahata Suti I Suti II Swarupnagar Taldangra Tamluk Tapan Tarakeswar Tehatta I Tehatta II Thakurpukur Mahestala Tufanganj I Tufanganj II U Udaynarayanpur Uluberia I Uluberia II See also List of cities in West Bengal by population Similar to Tehsils in many states of India Kolkata Municipal Corporation headquarters Municipal Corporation Building , Mumbai Municipal Corporation of Delhi Headquarters See also ( edit ) List of municipal corporations of India Municipal governance in India References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : `` THE CONSTITUTION ( AMENDMENT ) '' . indiacode.nic.in . Retrieved 3 December 2016 . This article incorporates text from this source , which is in the public domain . Jump up ^ `` BMC to open green channel for octroi '' . Financialexpress.com. 2007 - 09 - 03 . Retrieved 2010 - 08 - 25 . Jump up ^ `` Gold & beautiful , News - Cover Story '' . Mumbai Mirror . Archived from the original on 2012 - 09 - 03 . Retrieved 2010 - 07 - 21 . Local government in India Urban Municipal Corporation Nagar Palika ( Municipal Council ) Intermediate Town Panchayat ( Nagar panchayat ) Rural District Panchayat ( Zila Parishad ) Block Panchayat / Taluk Panchayat / Panchayat Samiti / Panchayat Union Gram Panchayat Sarpanch Observance National Panchayati Raj Day Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Municipal_corporations_in_India&oldid=843362900 '' Categories : Local government in India Municipal corporations in India Talk Contents About Wikipedia Add links This page was last edited on 28 May 2018 , at 17 : 19 . 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crossing over occurs during which stage of prophase 1
Chromosomal crossover - wikipedia Chromosomal crossover Jump to : navigation , search Crossing over occurs between prophase 1 and metaphase 1 and is the process where homologous chromosomes pair up with each other and exchange different segments of their genetic material to form recombinant chromosomes . It can also happen during mitotic division , which may result in loss of heterozygosity . Crossing over is essential for the normal segregation of chromosomes during meiosis . Crossing over also accounts for genetic variation , because due to the swapping of genetic material during crossing over , the chromatids held together by the centromere are no longer identical . So , when the chromosomes go on to meiosis II and separate , some of the daughter cells receive daughter chromosomes with recombined alleles . Due to this genetic recombination , the offspring have a different set of alleles and genes than their parents do . In the diagram , genes B and b are crossed over with each other , making the resulting recombinants after meiosis Ab , AB , ab , and aB . Thomas Hunt Morgan 's illustration of crossing over ( 1916 ) A double crossing over Chromosomal crossover ( or crossing over ) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction . It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination , which occurs in the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during a process called synapsis . Synapsis begins before the synaptonemal complex develops and is not completed until near the end of prophase I. Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome . Crossing over was described , in theory , by Thomas Hunt Morgan . He relied on the discovery of the Belgian Professor Frans Alfons Janssens of the University of Leuven who described the phenomenon in 1909 and had called it `` chiasmatypie '' . The term chiasma is linked if not identical to chromosomal crossover . Morgan immediately saw the great importance of Janssens ' cytological interpretation of chiasmata to the experimental results of his research on the heredity of Drosophila . The physical basis of crossing over was first demonstrated by Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock in 1931 . The linked frequency of crossing over between two gene loci ( markers ) is the crossing - over value . For fixed set of genetic and environmental conditions , recombination in a particular region of a linkage structure ( chromosome ) tends to be constant and the same is then true for the crossing - over value which is used in the production of genetic maps . Contents ( hide ) 1 Origins 1.1 DNA repair theory 1.2 Links to bacterial transformation 2 Chemistry 2.1 MSH4 and MSH5 2.2 Chiasma 3 Consequences 4 Non-homologous crossover 5 See also 6 References Origins ( edit ) There are two popular and overlapping theories that explain the origins of crossing - over , coming from the different theories on the origin of meiosis . The first theory rests upon the idea that meiosis evolved as another method of DNA repair , and thus crossing - over is a novel way to replace possibly damaged sections of DNA . The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis evolved from bacterial transformation , with the function of propagating diversity . DNA repair theory ( edit ) Crossing over and DNA repair are very similar processes , which utilize many of the same protein complexes . Recombinases and primases lay a foundation of nucleotides along the DNA sequence . One such particular protein complex that is conserved between processes is RAD51 , a well conserved recombinase protein that has been shown to be crucial in DNA repair as well as cross over . Several other genes in D. melanogaster have been linked as well to both processes , by showing that mutants at these specific loci can not undergo DNA repair or crossing over . Such genes include mei - 41 , mei - 9 , hdm , spnA , and brca2 . This large group of conserved genes between processes supports the theory of a close evolutionary relationship . Furthermore , DNA repair and crossover have been found to favor similar regions on chromosomes . In an experiment using radiation hybrid mapping on wheat 's ( Triticum aestivum L . ) 3B chromosome , crossing over and DNA repair were found to occur predominantly in the same regions . Furthermore , crossing over has been correlated to occur in response to stressful , and likely DNA damaging , conditions Links to bacterial transformation ( edit ) The process of bacterial transformation also shares many similarities with chromosomal cross over , particularly in the formation of overhangs on the sides of the broken DNA strand , allowing for the annealing of a new strand . Bacterial transformation itself has been linked to DNA repair many times . The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis evolved from bacterial transformation , with the function of propagating genetic diversity. . Thus , this evidence suggests that it is a question of whether cross over is linked to DNA repair or bacterial transformation , as the two do not appear to be mutually exclusive . It is likely that crossing over may have evolved from bacterial transformation , which in turn developed from DNA repair , thus explaining the links between all three processes . Chemistry ( edit ) A current model of meiotic recombination , initiated by a double - strand break or gap , followed by pairing with an homologous chromosome and strand invasion to initiate the recombinational repair process . Repair of the gap can lead to crossover ( CO ) or non-crossover ( NCO ) of the flanking regions . CO recombination is thought to occur by the Double Holliday Junction ( DHJ ) model , illustrated on the right , above . NCO recombinants are thought to occur primarily by the Synthesis Dependent Strand Annealing ( SDSA ) model , illustrated on the left , above . Most recombination events appear to be the SDSA type . Meiotic recombination may be initiated by double - stranded breaks that are introduced into the DNA by exposure to DNA damaging agents or the Spo11 protein . One or more exonucleases then digest the 5 ' ends generated by the double - stranded breaks to produce 3 ' single - stranded DNA tails ( see diagram ) . The meiosis - specific recombinase Dmc1 and the general recombinase Rad51 coat the single - stranded DNA to form nucleoprotein filaments . The recombinases catalyze invasion of the opposite chromatid by the single - stranded DNA from one end of the break . Next , the 3 ' end of the invading DNA primes DNA synthesis , causing displacement of the complementary strand , which subsequently anneals to the single - stranded DNA generated from the other end of the initial double - stranded break . The structure that results is a cross-strand exchange , also known as a Holliday junction . The contact between two chromatids that will soon undergo crossing - over is known as a chiasma . The Holliday junction is a tetrahedral structure which can be ' pulled ' by other recombinases , moving it along the four - stranded structure . Holliday Junction Molecular structure of a Holliday junction . Molecular structure of a Holliday junction . From PDB : 3CRX ​ . MSH4 and MSH5 ( edit ) The MSH4 and MSH5 proteins form a hetero - oligomeric structure ( heterodimer ) in yeast and humans . In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH4 and MSH5 act specifically to facilitate crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis . The MSH4 / MSH5 complex binds and stabilizes double Holliday junctions and promotes their resolution into crossover products . An MSH4 hypomorphic ( partially functional ) mutant of S. cerevisiae showed a 30 % genome wide reduction in crossover numbers , and a large number of meioses with non exchange chromosomes . Nevertheless , this mutant gave rise to spore viability patterns suggesting that segregation of non-exchange chromosomes occurred efficiently . Thus in S. cerevisiae proper segregation apparently does not entirely depend on crossovers between homologous pairs . Chiasma ( edit ) The grasshopper Melanoplus femur - rubrum was exposed to an acute dose of X-rays during each individual stage of meiosis , and chiasma frequency was measured . Irradiation during the leptotene - zygotene stages of meiosis ( that is , prior to the pachytene period in which crossover recombination occurs ) was found to increase subsequent chiasma frequency . Similarly , in the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus , exposure to X-irradiation during the zygotene - early pachytene stages caused a significant increase in mean cell chiasma frequency . Chiasma frequency was scored at the later diplotene - diakinesis stages of meiosis . These results suggest that X-rays induce DNA damages that are repaired by a crossover pathway leading to chiasma formation . Consequences ( edit ) The difference between gene conversion and chromosomal crossover . In most eukaryotes , a cell carries two versions of each gene , each referred to as an allele . Each parent passes on one allele to each offspring . An individual gamete inherits a complete haploid complement of alleles on chromosomes that are independently selected from each pair of chromatids lined up on the metaphase plate . Without recombination , all alleles for those genes linked together on the same chromosome would be inherited together . Meiotic recombination allows a more independent segregation between the two alleles that occupy the positions of single genes , as recombination shuffles the allele content between homologous chromosomes . Recombination results in a new arrangement of maternal and paternal alleles on the same chromosome . Although the same genes appear in the same order , some alleles are different . In this way , it is theoretically possible to have any combination of parental alleles in an offspring , and the fact that two alleles appear together in one offspring does not have any influence on the statistical probability that another offspring will have the same combination . This principle of `` independent assortment '' of genes is fundamental to genetic inheritance . However , the frequency of recombination is actually not the same for all gene combinations . This leads to the notion of `` genetic distance '' , which is a measure of recombination frequency averaged over a ( suitably large ) sample of pedigrees . Loosely speaking , one may say that this is because recombination is greatly influenced by the proximity of one gene to another . If two genes are located close together on a chromosome , the likelihood that a recombination event will separate these two genes is less than if they were farther apart . Genetic linkage describes the tendency of genes to be inherited together as a result of their location on the same chromosome . Linkage disequilibrium describes a situation in which some combinations of genes or genetic markers occur more or less frequently in a population than would be expected from their distances apart . This concept is applied when searching for a gene that may cause a particular disease . This is done by comparing the occurrence of a specific DNA sequence with the appearance of a disease . When a high correlation between the two is found , it is likely that the appropriate gene sequence is really closer . Non-homologous crossover ( edit ) Crossovers typically occur between homologous regions of matching chromosomes , but similarities in sequence and other factors can result in mismatched alignments . Most DNA is composed of base pair sequences repeated very large numbers of times . These repetitious segments , often referred to as satellites , are fairly homogenous among a species . During DNA replication , each strand of DNA is used as a template for the creation of new strands using a partially - conserved mechanism ; proper functioning of this process results in two identical , paired chromosomes , often called sisters . Sister chromatid crossover events are known to occur at a rate of several crossover events per cell per division in eukaryotes . Most of these events involve an exchange of equal amounts of genetic information , but unequal exchanges may occur due to sequence mismatch . These are referred to by a variety of names , including non-homologous crossover , unequal crossover , and unbalanced recombination , and result in an insertion or deletion of genetic information into the chromosome . While rare compared to homologous crossover events , these mutations are drastic , affecting many loci at the same time . They are considered the main driver behind the generation of gene duplications and are a general source of mutation within the genome . Many proteins are implicated in DSB repair ; this figure shows a probable , simplified mechanism . The specific causes of non-homologous crossover events are unknown , but several influential factors are known to increase the likelihood of an unequal crossover . One common vector leading to unbalanced recombination is the repair of double - strand breaks ( DSBs ) . DSBs are often repaired using non-homologous end joining , a process which involves invasion of a template strand by the DSB strand ( see figure below ) . Nearby homologous regions of the template strand are often used for repair , which can give rise to either insertions or deletions in the genome if a non-homologous but complementary part of the template strand is used . Sequence similarity is a major player in crossover -- crossover events are more likely to occur in long regions of close identity on a gene . This means that any section of the genome with long sections of repetitive DNA is prone to crossover events . The presence of transposable elements is another influential element of non-homologous crossover . Repetitive regions of code characterize transposable elements ; complementary but non-homologous regions are ubiquitous within transposons . Because chromosomal regions composed of transposons have large quantities of identical , repetitious code in a condensed space , it is thought that transposon regions undergoing a crossover event are more prone to erroneous complementary match - up ; that is to say , a section of a chromosome containing a lot of identical sequences , should it undergo a crossover event , is less certain to match up with a perfectly homologous section of complementary code and more prone to binding with a section of code on a slightly different part of the chromosome . This results in unbalanced recombination , as genetic information may be either inserted or deleted into the new chromosome , depending on where the recombination occurred . While the motivating factors behind unequal recombination remain obscure , elements of the physical mechanism have been elucidated . Mismatch repair ( MMR ) proteins , for instance , are a well - known regulatory family of proteins , responsible for regulating mismatched sequences of DNA during replication and escape regulation . The operative goal of MMRs is the restoration of the parental genotype . One class of MMR in particular , MutSβ , is known to initiate the correction of insertion - deletion mismatches of up to 16 nucleotides . Little is known about the excision process in eukaryotes , but E. coli excisions involve the cleaving of a nick on either the 5 ' or 3 ' strand , after which DNA helicase and DNA polymerase III bind and generate single - stranded proteins , which are digested by exonucleases and attached to the strand by ligase . Multiple MMR pathways have been implicated in the maintenance of complex organism genome stability , and any of many possible malfunctions in the MMR pathway result in DNA editing and correction errors . Therefore , while it is not certain precisely what mechanisms lead to errors of non-homologous crossover , it is extremely likely that the MMR pathway is involved . See also ( edit ) Unequal crossing over Coefficient of coincidence Genetic distance Independent assortment Mitotic crossover Recombinant frequency References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Griffiths , AJF ; Gelbart , WM ; Miller , JH ; et al. ( 1999 ) . `` Modern Genetic Analysis : Mitotic Crossing - Over '' . New York : W.H. Freeman . Jump up ^ Creighton H , McClintock B ( 1931 ) . `` A Correlation of Cytological and Genetical Crossing - Over in Zea Mays '' . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . 17 ( 8 ) : 492 -- 7 . PMC 1076098 . PMID 16587654 . doi : 10.1073 / pnas. 17.8. 492 . ( Original paper ) Jump up ^ Rieger R. Michaelis A. , Green M.M. ( 1976 ) . Glossary of genetics and cytogenetics : Classical and molecular . Heidelberg - New York : Springer - Verlag . ISBN 3 - 540 - 07668 - 9 . 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Jump up ^ Steinboeck , F ( 2010 ) . `` The relevance of oxidative stress and cytotoxic DNA lesions for spontaneous mutagenesis in non-replicating yeast cells . '' . Mutat Res. 688 ( 1 -- 2 ) : 47 -- 52 . PMID 20223252 . doi : 10.1016 / j. mrfmmm. 2010.03. 006 . Jump up ^ Nedelcu , M ; Marcu , O ; Michod , RE ( 2004 ) . `` Sex as a response to oxidative stress : a twofold increase in cellular reactive oxygen species activates sex genes '' . Proc. R. Soc . B. 271 : 1591 -- 1596 . PMC 1691771 . PMID 15306305 . doi : 10.1098 / rspb. 2004.2747 . Retrieved 10 March 2015 . Jump up ^ Charpentier , X ( 2010 ) . `` Antibiotics and UV Radiation Induce Competence for Natural Transformation in Legionella pneumophila '' . Journal of Bacteriology. 193 ( 5 ) : 1114 -- 1121 . PMC 3067580 . PMID 21169481 . doi : 10.1128 / JB. 01146 - 10 . Retrieved 14 March 2015 . Jump up ^ Keeney , S ; Giroux , CN ; Kleckner , N ( 1997 ) . `` Meiosis - Specific DNA Double - Strand Breaks Are Catalyzed by Spo11 , a Member of a Widely Conserved Protein Family '' . Cell. 88 ( 3 ) : 375 -- 84 . PMID 9039264 . doi : 10.1016 / S0092 - 8674 ( 00 ) 81876 - 0 . Jump up ^ Sauvageau , S ; Stasiak , Az ; Banville , I ; Ploquin , M ; Stasiak , A ; Masson , Jy ( June 2005 ) . `` Fission Yeast Rad51 and Dmc1 , Two Efficient DNA Recombinases Forming Helical Nucleoprotein Filaments '' ( Free full text ) . Molecular and Cellular Biology . 25 ( 11 ) : 4377 -- 87 . ISSN 0270 - 7306 . PMC 1140613 . PMID 15899844 . doi : 10.1128 / MCB. 25.11. 4377 - 4387.2005 . ^ Jump up to : Pochart P , Woltering D , Hollingsworth NM ( 1997 ) . `` Conserved properties between functionally distinct MutS homologs in yeast '' . J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( 48 ) : 30345 -- 9 . PMID 9374523 . doi : 10.1074 / jbc. 272.48. 30345 . Jump up ^ Winand NJ , Panzer JA , Kolodner RD ( 1998 ) . `` Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH5 gene '' . Genomics. 53 ( 1 ) : 69 -- 80 . PMID 9787078 . doi : 10.1006 / geno. 1998.5447 . Jump up ^ Bocker T , Barusevicius A , Snowden T , Rasio D , Guerrette S , Robbins D , Schmidt C , Burczak J , Croce CM , Copeland T , Kovatich AJ , Fishel R ( 1999 ) . `` hMSH5 : a human MutS homologue that forms a novel heterodimer with hMSH4 and is expressed during spermatogenesis '' . Cancer Res. 59 ( 4 ) : 816 -- 22 . PMID 10029069 . Jump up ^ Krishnaprasad GN , Anand MT , Lin G , Tekkedil MM , Steinmetz LM , Nishant KT ( 2015 ) . `` Variation in crossover frequencies perturb crossover assurance without affecting meiotic chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae '' . Genetics . 199 ( 2 ) : 399 -- 412 . PMC 4317650 . PMID 25467183 . doi : 10.1534 / genetics. 114.172320 . Jump up ^ Church K , Wimber DE ( 1969 ) . `` Meiosis in the grasshopper : chiasma frequency after elevated temperature and x-rays '' . Can . J. Genet . Cytol. 11 ( 1 ) : 209 -- 16 . PMID 5797806 . doi : 10.1139 / g69 - 025 . Jump up ^ Westerman M ( 1971 ) . `` The effect of x-irradiation on chiasma frequency in Chorthippus brunneus '' . Heredity. 27 ( 1 ) : 83 -- 91 . PMID 5289295 . doi : 10.1038 / hdy. 1971.73 . Jump up ^ `` genetic recombination '' . Jump up ^ Genetic Recombination ^ Jump up to : Smith , George P. ( 1976 - 01 - 01 ) . `` Evolution of Repeated DNA Sequences by Unequal Crossover '' . Science . 191 ( 4227 ) : 528 -- 535 . JSTOR 1741301 . doi : 10.1126 / science. 1251186 . Jump up ^ Graur , Dan ; Li , Wen - Hsiung ( 2000 - 01 - 01 ) . Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution . Sinauer . ISBN 9780878932665 . ^ Jump up to : Puchta , Holger ( 2005 - 01 - 01 ) . `` The repair of double - strand breaks in plants : mechanisms and consequences for genome evolution '' . Journal of Experimental Botany. 56 ( 409 ) : 1 -- 14 . ISSN 0022 - 0957 . PMID 15557293 . doi : 10.1093 / jxb / eri025 . Jump up ^ Metzenberg , Ab ; et al. ( May 1991 ) . `` Homology Requirements for Unequal Crossing Over in Humans . '' . Genetics . Jump up ^ Robberecht , Caroline ; Voet , Thierry ; Esteki , Masoud Zamani ; Nowakowska , Beata A. ; Vermeesch , Joris R. ( 2012 - 12 - 03 ) . `` Non-allelic homologous recombination between retrotransposable elements is a driver of de novo unbalanced translocations '' . Genome Research . 23 : gr. 145631.112 . ISSN 1088 - 9051 . PMC 3589530 . PMID 23212949 . doi : 10.1101 / gr. 145631.112 . ^ Jump up to : Kunkel , Thomas A. ; Erie , Dorothy A. ( 2005 - 01 - 01 ) . `` Dna Mismatch Repair '' . Annual Review of Biochemistry . 74 ( 1 ) : 681 -- 710 . PMID 15952900 . doi : 10.1146 / annurev. biochem. 74.082803. 133243 . Jump up ^ Surtees , J.A. , J.A. ; Argueso , J.L. ; Alani , E. ( 2004 ) . `` Mismatch Repair Proteins : Key Regulators of Genetic Recombination '' . Cytogenetic and Genome Research . 107 : 146 -- 59 . doi : 10.1159 / 000080593 . ( hide ) Genetics : homologous recombination / mobile genetic elements Primarily prokaryotic Conjugation Transduction Transformation Occurs in eukaryotes Transfection Chromosomal crossover Gene conversion Fusion gene Horizontal gene transfer Sister chromatid exchange Transposon Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chromosomal_crossover&oldid=805451958 '' Categories : Cellular processes Molecular genetics Hidden categories : CS1 maint : Uses authors parameter All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014 Use dmy dates from April 2017 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Azərbaycanca Български Bosanski Català Čeština Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español Euskara فارسی Français Galego 한국어 Հայերեն Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ქართული Kreyòl ayisyen Кыргызча Lietuvių Magyar Nederlands 日本 語 Norsk Polski Português Română Русский Simple English Slovenčina Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi ไทย Türkçe Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 15 October 2017 , at 14 : 11 . 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[ "pachytene stage" ]
[ "Chromosomal crossover ( or crossing over ) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction . It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination , which occurs in the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during a process called synapsis . Synapsis begins before the synaptonemal complex develops and is not completed until near the end of prophase I. Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome ." ]
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when do the game of thrones books start
A Game of Thrones - wikipedia A Game of Thrones Jump to : navigation , search This article is about the novel . For the TV series , see Game of Thrones . For derivative works of the same name , see A Game of Thrones ( disambiguation ) . A Game of Thrones US hardcover ( first edition ) Author George R.R. Martin Audio read by Roy Dotrice Cover artist Tom Hallman Country United States Language English Series A Song of Ice and Fire Genre Political novel , epic fantasy Published August 1 , 1996 Publisher Bantam Spectra ( US ) Voyager Books ( UK ) Pages 694 Awards Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel ( 1997 ) ISBN 0 - 553 - 10354 - 7 ( US hardback ) ISBN 0 - 00 - 224584 - 1 ( UK hardback ) OCLC 654895986 Dewey Decimal 813 /. 54 LC Class PS3563. A7239 G36 1996 Followed by A Clash of Kings A Game of Thrones is the first novel in A Song of Ice and Fire , a series of fantasy novels by American author George R.R. Martin . It was first published on August 1 , 1996 . The novel won the 1997 Locus Award and was nominated for both the 1997 Nebula Award and the 1997 World Fantasy Award . The novella Blood of the Dragon , comprising the Daenerys Targaryen chapters from the novel , won the 1997 Hugo Award for Best Novella . In January 2011 the novel became a New York Times bestseller and reached # 1 on the list in July 2011 . In the novel , recounting events from various points of view , Martin introduces the plot - lines of the noble houses of Westeros , the Wall , and the Targaryens . The novel has inspired several spin - off works , including several games . It is also the namesake and basis for the first season of Game of Thrones , an HBO television series that premiered in April 2011 . A March 2013 paperback TV tie - in re-edition was also titled Game of Thrones , excluding the indefinite article `` A '' . Contents ( hide ) 1 Plot 1.1 In the Seven Kingdoms 1.2 On the Wall 1.3 Across the narrow sea 2 Themes 3 Viewpoint characters 4 Editions 5 Adaptations 6 Reception 7 Awards and nominations 8 References 9 External links Plot ( edit ) A Game of Thrones follows three principal storylines simultaneously . In the Seven Kingdoms ( edit ) At the beginning of the story , Lord Eddard `` Ned '' Stark executes a deserter from the Night 's Watch , who has betrayed his vows and fled from the Wall . On the way back , his children adopt six direwolf pups , the animal of his sigil . There are three male and two female direwolf pups , as well as an albino runt , which aligns with his three trueborn sons , two trueborn daughters , and one bastard son . That night , Ned receives word of the death of his mentor , Lord Jon Arryn , the principal advisor to Ned 's childhood friend , King Robert Baratheon . During his own visit to Ned 's castle of Winterfell , Robert recruits Ned to replace Arryn as the King 's Hand . Ned is reluctant , but agrees to go when he learns that Arryn 's widow Lysa believes Queen Cersei Lannister and her family poisoned Arryn . Shortly thereafter , Ned 's son Bran inadvertently discovers Cersei having sex with her twin brother Jaime Lannister , who throws Bran from the tower to conceal their affair . Ned and his daughters Sansa and Arya depart for the royal capital of King 's Landing , while his wife Catelyn , a comatose Bran , and their other sons Robb and Rickon remain at Winterfell . During the journey south , a physical altercation between Arya and Robert 's son , Prince Joffrey , to whom Sansa has been betrothed , increases both the tension between the Starks and the Lannisters and the sibling rivalry between Arya and Sansa . Arya 's direwolf Nymeria attacks Joffrey to protect her , and Arya chases Nymeria away to protect her from the Lannisters ' wrath , therefore Sansa 's direwolf Lady is executed in Nymeria 's place . At Winterfell , an assassin attempts to kill Bran , thwarted only by his direwolf . Catelyn departs for King 's Landing to bring word of this to Ned . Shortly after that , Bran awakens as a paraplegic , with no memory of the cause of his fall . Upon Catelyn 's arrival in King 's Landing , she is brought to her childhood friend , Petyr `` Littlefinger '' Baelish , who identifies Tyrion Lannister , the dwarf brother of Cersei and Jaime , as the owner of the dagger used against Bran , and agrees to help Ned investigate the possibility of Lannister treason . During her return to Winterfell , Catelyn meets Tyrion by chance on the Kingsroad , arrests him , and takes him to her sister Lysa Arryn 's stronghold in the Vale , where Tyrion demands trial by combat and regains his freedom when his champion , a mercenary named Bronn , is victorious . In retaliation for Tyrion 's abduction , his father Lord Tywin Lannister sends soldiers to raid Catelyn 's homeland , the Riverlands . In King 's Landing , Ned finds Robert 's eldest brother Stannis Baratheon left the city after Jon Arryn 's death for his island of Dragonstone . Ned begins to investigate into Jon Arryn 's affairs , which leads him to visiting locations where Jon Arryn visited with Stannis - including places where Robert 's bastard children are found . On the way back from one such place , Ned and his soldiers are waylaid by Jaime Lannister , who demands Tyrion 's return , and when he does not get what he wants he orders Ned 's men be killed - in the ensuing skirmish , Ned is crippled in one leg when his horse collapses on top of him . Even afterwards , Ned continues to investigate and eventually discovers that Robert 's legal heirs , including Joffrey , are in fact Cersei 's children by Jaime and that Jon Arryn was killed to conceal his discovery of their incest . Ned offers Cersei a chance to flee before he informs Robert , but she uses this chance to arrange Robert 's death in a hunting accident . Ned , made lord - regent by Robert 's will , enlists Littlefinger 's help to secure the loyalty and assistance of the city guards to challenge Joffrey 's claim on the throne and place Stannis on the throne ; but Littlefinger betrays him , resulting in Ned 's arrest , and the death of his men . Whilst Joffrey is crowned King of the Seven Kingdoms , Ned eventually agrees to falsely confess to high treason and join the Night 's Watch in exchange for Sansa and Arya 's safety , but Joffrey has him beheaded anyway . Whilst Sansa is retained into custody , Arya escapes with the help of her fencing instructor , Syrio Forel , and Yoren , a recruiting agent for the Night 's Watch . Robb Stark has gathered an army and marched south in response to his father 's arrest ; and upon learning of Ned 's death , attempts to raise further support from and to aid his maternal grandfather , Lord Hoster Tully . To reach the Tully lands , he agrees to a marital alliance with the notoriously unreliable House Frey , who control the intervening territory but declined to assist the Tullys despite being sworn to Riverrun . Robb proves victorious against Jaime Lannister , who is captured and taken prisoner , while his father Tywin decides to withdraw to the southern border of the Tully lands , sending Tyrion to King 's Landing to keep Joffrey under control . When Robb elects not to ally himself with Robert 's brothers Renly and Stannis , who have both made claims to the throne , the southern and northern lords hail him as `` King in the North '' : his family 's ancestral title . On the Wall ( edit ) The prologue of the novel introduces the Wall : an ancient barrier of stone , ice , and magic , hundreds of feet high and hundreds of miles long , shielding the Seven Kingdoms from the Northern wilderness . The Wall is manned by the Night 's Watch : an order of warriors sworn to serve there for life , forgoing marriage , titles , property , and children . North of the Wall , a small patrol of Rangers from the Night 's Watch encounter the Others , an ancient and hostile race of superhumans . All of the Rangers are killed except the single survivor later executed by Eddard Stark for desertion . Jon Snow , the bastard son of Eddard Stark , is inspired by his uncle , Benjen Stark , to join the Night 's Watch , but becomes disillusioned when he discovers that its primary use is that of a penal colony for criminals , meant to keep `` wildlings '' , human tribesmen in relative anarchy north of the Wall , in check . At the Wall , Jon unites the recruits against their harsh instructor and protects the cowardly but good - natured and intelligent Samwell Tarly . Jon hopes that his combat skills will earn him assignment to the Rangers , the military arm of the Night 's Watch , but instead is made a steward to the leader of the Watch , Lord Commander Jeor Mormont , potentially making Jon the successor to Mormont . Benjen , who had led a small party of Rangers beyond the Wall , fails to return , and six months later , the dead bodies of two of the Rangers from his party are recovered beyond the Wall , but soon re-animate as wights , which kill six men and threaten Mormont before being dispatched by Jon . When word of his father 's execution reaches Jon , he attempts to join Robb against the Lannisters but is prevented by his comrades and persuaded by Mormont to remain loyal to the Watch . Mormont then declares his intention to find Benjen -- dead or alive -- and to investigate the disappearance of many wildlings and the dark rumors surrounding `` the King - Beyond - the - Wall '' : a deserter from the Night 's Watch known as Mance Rayder . Across the narrow sea ( edit ) In Pentos , a city - state of Essos , a continent to the east of Westeros , Viserys Targaryen , son of the king overthrown by Robert Baratheon , betroths his sister Daenerys to Khal Drogo , a warlord of the nomadic Dothraki , in exchange for the use of Drogo 's army to reclaim the throne of Westeros . Illyrio , a wealthy merchant who has been supporting the penniless Targaryens and brokered the marriage , gives Daenerys three petrified dragon eggs as a wedding gift . Jorah Mormont , a knight exiled from Westeros , joins Viserys as an adviser . Initially terrified of her new husband and his people , Daenerys eventually embraces the role of Drogo 's queen . When Drogo shows little interest in conquering Westeros , Viserys tries to browbeat his sister into coercing Drogo , but she refuses . When Viserys publicly threatens Daenerys , Drogo executes him by pouring molten gold on his head . After that , an assassin seeking King Robert 's favor attempts to poison Daenerys and her unborn child , and Drogo agrees to help her conquer Westeros . While sacking villages to fund the invasion , Drogo is wounded , and Daenerys commands a captive folk healer to save him . When he is beyond saving , the healer , angered by the Dothraki raids , sacrifices Daenerys ' unborn child to power the spell to save Drogo 's life , which restores Drogo 's health but leaves him in a vegetative state . Most of the Dothraki army departs to follow a new leader . Daenerys smothers Drogo with a pillow and orders the healer tied to Drogo 's funeral pyre . She places her three dragon eggs on the pyre , enters it herself , and emerges unscathed with three newly hatched dragons suckling at her breasts . The remaining Dothraki and Jorah Mormont , awe - struck , swear allegiance to her . Themes ( edit ) Throughout the novel , characters are often faced with decisions that match one redeemable trait against another . The Guardian outlines characters who are frequently `` forced to choose between their love for those close to them and the greater interests of honour , duty and the realm . '' In Westeros , Ned ultimately decides to venture south with Robert , leaving much of his family in Winterfell . At the Wall , Jon wrestles with the predicament of joining his half - brother Robb in rebellion or staying with his sworn brothers in the Night 's Watch . Daenerys has issue with the Dothraki treatment of those they conquered in Essos . These conflicts characters encounter oftentimes reflect inconsistent decision making . Catelyn initially is overwhelmed by grief and does not leave Bran 's bedside while he is comatose , ignoring her political responsibilities , choosing family over duty . But soon after , Catelyn leaves Bran and her family for Kings Landing to inform Ned of potential Lannister treason , effectively displaying a more duty fulfilling role . Family , duty , and honor play major roles in conflicts that arise in the story arc , and qualities traditionally categorized as noble oppose each other in resolution . Character decision conflicts and consequence analysis are particular to how Martin wants to portray fantasy . Martin characteristically deviates from the traditional fantasy model and clear - cut lines of good versus evil . Martin reflects : `` I think the battle between good and evil is fought largely within the individual human heart , by the decisions that we make . It 's not like evil dresses up in black clothing and you know , they 're really ugly '' . This viewpoint characterizes the book and is evident in the actions of several different families which frequently have conflicts with each other . The Starks ' and Lannisters ' conflict is a central component of the novel , and the reader receives points of view from both sides . Likewise , Daenerys ' storyline develops around the Targaryen 's upheaval in Westeros , in which the Starks played a significant role . Martin argues : Having multiple viewpoints is crucial to the grayness of the characters . You have to be able to see the struggle from both sides , because real human beings in a war have all these processes of self - justification , telling ourselves why what we 're doing is the right thing . Viewpoint characters ( edit ) Each chapter concentrates on the third person limited point of view of a single character ; the book presents the perspective of eight main characters . Additionally , a minor character provides the prologue . Chapter headings indicate the perspective . Prologue : Will , a man of the Night 's Watch . Lord Eddard `` Ned '' Stark , Warden of the North and Lord of Winterfell , Hand of the King . Lady Catelyn Stark , of House Tully , wife of Eddard Stark . Sansa Stark , elder daughter of Eddard and Catelyn Stark . Arya Stark , younger daughter of Eddard and Catelyn Stark . Bran Stark , second - youngest son of Eddard and Catelyn Stark . Jon Snow , illegitimate son of Eddard Stark . Tyrion Lannister , a dwarf , brother of the twins Queen Cersei and Jaime , son of Lord Tywin Lannister . Princess Daenerys Targaryen , Stormborn , the Princess of Dragonstone and heiress to the Targaryen throne after her older brother Viserys Targaryen . In the later books , certain viewpoint characters are added while others are removed . Editions ( edit ) The novel has been translated into many languages and published in multiple editions in hardcover , paperback , e-book , and audio book form . In different languages , the number of books may not be the same . In June 2000 , Meisha Merlin published a limited edition of the book , fully illustrated by Jeffrey Jones . Adaptations ( edit ) Main article : Works based on A Song of Ice and Fire A Game of Thrones and the subsequent novels in the A Song of Ice and Fire series have been adapted in a HBO television series , a comics series , several card , board and video games , and other media . Reception ( edit ) A Game of Thrones has received critical acclaim . Lauren K. Nathan of the Associated Press wrote that the book `` grip ( s ) the reader from Page One '' and is set in a `` magnificent '' fantasy world that is `` mystical , but still believable . '' Steve Perry told readers of The Oregonian that the plot is `` complex and fascinating '' and the book is `` rich and colorful '' with `` all the elements of a great fantasy novel '' . Writing in The Washington Post , John H. Riskind commented that `` many fans of sword - and - sorcery will enjoy the epic scope of this book '' but felt that the book `` suffers from one - dimensional characters and less than memorable imagery . '' Phyllis Eisenstein of the Chicago Sun - Times wrote that , although the book uses many generic fantasy tropes , Martin 's approach is `` so refreshingly human and intimate that it transcends them . '' She described it as `` an absorbing combination of the mythic , the sweepingly historical , and the intensely personal . '' John Prior , writing in the San Diego Union - Tribune , called Martin 's writing `` strong and imaginative , with plenty of Byzantine intrigue and dynastic struggle '' , and compared it to Robert Jordan 's Wheel of Time books , `` though much darker , with no comedy or romance to relieve the nastiness . '' Awards and nominations ( edit ) Locus Award -- Best Novel ( Fantasy ) ( Won ) -- ( 1997 ) World Fantasy Award -- Best Novel ( Nominated ) -- ( 1997 ) Hugo Award -- Best Novella for Blood of the Dragon ( Won ) -- ( 1997 ) Nebula Award -- Best Novel ( Nominated ) -- ( 1997 ) Ignotus Award -- Best Novel ( Foreign ) ( Won ) -- ( 2003 ) References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Martin , George R.R. `` The Long Game ... of Thrones '' . Not a Blog . Archived from the original on 17 August 2016 . Retrieved 1 August 2016 . ^ Jump up to : `` 1997 Award Winners & Nominees '' . Worlds Without End . Retrieved 2009 - 07 - 25 . Jump up ^ `` 2004 Award Winners & Nominees '' . Worlds Without End . Retrieved 2009 - 07 - 25 . Jump up ^ Taylor , Ihsan . `` New York Times bestseller list , 2 January 2011 '' . Nytimes.com . Retrieved 2011 - 05 - 16 . Jump up ^ Taylor , Ihsan . `` New York Times bestseller list , 10 July 2011 '' . Nytimes.com . Retrieved 2011 - 07 - 04 . Jump up ^ `` Coming Next Month '' . George R.R. Martin . February 13 , 2013 . Archived from the original on February 17 , 2013 . Retrieved February 13 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Walter , Damien G. `` George RR Martin 's fantasy is not far from reality '' . the Guardian . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 02 . ^ Jump up to : Poniewozik , James . `` GRRM Interview Part 2 : Fantasy and History '' . Time . ISSN 0040 - 781X . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 02 . Jump up ^ `` Locus Online : George R.R. Martin interview excerpts '' . www.locusmag.com . Retrieved 2015 - 12 - 02 . Jump up ^ Martin , Georgerr . `` FAQ '' . www.georgerrmartin.com . Georgerr Martin . Retrieved 27 September 2016 . Jump up ^ Martin , George . `` Frequently Asked Questions '' . GeorgeRRMartin.com . Archived from the original on April 14 , 2012 . Retrieved September 19 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Nathan , Lauren K. ( November 10 , 1996 ) . `` ` Game of Thrones ' fit for a king '' . The Associated Press . Jump up ^ Perry , Steve ( October 13 , 1996 ) . `` Writer leaves TV to create epic fantasy '' . The Oregonian . Jump up ^ Riskind , John S. ( July 28 , 1996 ) . `` Science Fiction & Fantasy '' . The Washington Post . Jump up ^ Eisenstein , Phyllis ( August 11 , 1996 ) . `` Near the frozen north , where dragons awaken '' . Chicago Sun - Times . Jump up ^ Prior , John ( September 12 , 1995 ) . `` Chilling ' Decline ' a feminist vision of confrontation between the sexes '' . San Diego Union - Tribune . External links ( edit ) George R.R. Martin 's Game Of Thrones Greenlit By HBO A Game of Thrones title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database A Game of Thrones at the Internet Book List George R.R. Martin 's A Song of Ice and Fire A Game of Thrones ( 1996 ) A Clash of Kings ( 1998 ) A Storm of Swords ( 2000 ) A Feast for Crows ( 2005 ) A Dance with Dragons ( 2011 ) The Winds of Winter ( TBA ) Franchise media Novellas Tales of Dunk and Egg ( 1998 -- 2010 ) The Princess and the Queen ( 2013 ) The Rogue Prince ( 2014 ) The Sons of the Dragon ( 2017 ) TV series Episodes Season 1 5 6 7 8 Awards Characters Music `` Game of Thrones Theme '' `` The Rains of Castamere '' `` The Bear and the Maiden Fair '' `` Light of the Seven '' Catch the Throne Live Concert Experience Soundtracks Season 1 5 6 Title sequence After the Thrones Thronecast Video games A Game of Thrones : Genesis Game of Thrones ( 2012 ) Game of Thrones Ascent Game of Thrones ( 2014 ) Other media The World of Ice & Fire ( 2014 ) Board game Card game ( Second edition ) Comic book series Characters Petyr Baelish Joffrey Baratheon Renly Baratheon Robert Baratheon Stannis Baratheon Tommen Baratheon Ramsay Bolton Roose Bolton Bronn Gregor Clegane Sandor Clegane Khal Drogo Gendry Tormund Giantsbane Gilly Theon Greyjoy Cersei Lannister Jaime Lannister Tyrion Lannister Tywin Lannister Oberyn Martell Melisandre Missandei Jorah Mormont Daario Naharis Ellaria Sand Davos Seaworth Jon Snow High Sparrow Arya Stark Bran Stark Catelyn Stark Ned Stark Rickon Stark Robb Stark Sansa Stark Daenerys Targaryen Viserys Targaryen Samwell Tarly Brienne of Tarth Margaery Tyrell Olenna Tyrell Varys Ygritte World Languages Dothraki Valyrian Themes Iron Throne White Walker Miscellaneous Fandom Book Works by George R.R. Martin Novels A Song of Ice and Fire A Game of Thrones A Clash of Kings A Storm of Swords A Feast for Crows A Dance with Dragons The Winds of Winter Dying of the Light Windhaven Fevre Dream The Armageddon Rag Hunter 's Run Novellas A Song for Lya The Ice Dragon Sandkings The Skin Trade Westeros The Hedge Knight The Sworn Sword The Mystery Knight The Princess and the Queen The Rogue Prince The Sons of the Dragon Short stories `` With Morning Comes Mistfall '' `` The Way of Cross and Dragon '' Collections A Song for Lya Songs of Stars and Shadows Sandkings Songs the Dead Men Sing Nightflyers Tuf Voyaging Portraits of His Children Quartet : Four Tales from the Crossroads Dreamsongs : A RRetrospective Television The Twilight Zone `` The Last Defender of Camelot '' `` The Once and Future King '' `` Lost and Found '' `` The Toys of Caliban '' `` The Road Less Traveled '' Game of Thrones `` The Pointy End '' `` Blackwater '' `` The Bear and the Maiden Fair '' `` The Lion and the Rose '' Beauty and the Beast Doorways Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel 1978 -- 1990 The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien ( 1978 ) Harpist in the Wind by Patricia A. McKillip ( 1980 ) Lord Valentine 's Castle by Robert Silverberg ( 1981 ) The Claw of the Conciliator by Gene Wolfe ( 1982 ) The Sword of the Lictor by Gene Wolfe ( 1983 ) The Mists of Avalon by Marion Zimmer Bradley ( 1984 ) Job : A Comedy of Justice by Robert A. Heinlein ( 1985 ) Trumps of Doom by Roger Zelazny ( 1986 ) Soldier of the Mist by Gene Wolfe ( 1987 ) Seventh Son by Orson Scott Card ( 1988 ) Red Prophet by Orson Scott Card ( 1989 ) Prentice Alvin by Orson Scott Card ( 1990 ) 1991 -- 2000 Tehanu by Ursula K. Le Guin ( 1991 ) Beauty by Sheri S. Tepper ( 1992 ) Last Call by Tim Powers ( 1993 ) The Innkeeper 's Song by Peter S. Beagle ( 1994 ) Brittle Innings by Michael Bishop ( 1995 ) Alvin Journeyman by Orson Scott Card ( 1996 ) A Game of Thrones by George R.R. Martin ( 1997 ) Earthquake Weather by Tim Powers ( 1998 ) A Clash of Kings by George R.R. Martin ( 1999 ) Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by J.K. Rowling ( 2000 ) 2001 -- 2010 A Storm of Swords by George R.R. Martin ( 2001 ) American Gods by Neil Gaiman ( 2002 ) The Scar by China Miéville ( 2003 ) Paladin of Souls by Lois McMaster Bujold ( 2004 ) Iron Council by China Miéville ( 2005 ) Anansi Boys by Neil Gaiman ( 2006 ) The Privilege of the Sword by Ellen Kushner ( 2007 ) Making Money by Terry Pratchett ( 2008 ) Lavinia by Ursula K. Le Guin ( 2009 ) The City & the City by China Miéville ( 2010 ) 2011 -- present Kraken by China Miéville ( 2011 ) A Dance with Dragons by George R.R. Martin ( 2012 ) The Apocalypse Codex by Charles Stross ( 2013 ) The Ocean at the End of the Lane by Neil Gaiman ( 2014 ) The Goblin Emperor by Katherine Addison ( 2015 ) Uprooted by Naomi Novik ( 2016 ) All the Birds in the Sky by Charlie Jane Anders ( 2017 ) Best Novel ( 1971 -- 1981 ) Best SF Novel ( 1980 -- present ) Best Fantasy Novel ( 1978 -- present ) Best First Novel ( 1981 -- present ) Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_Game_of_Thrones&oldid=812205928 '' Categories : 1996 American novels A Song of Ice and Fire books American fantasy novels Novels by George R.R. Martin 1990s fantasy novels Locus Award for Best Novel winning works Novels adapted into television programs Hidden categories : Pages to import images to Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Languages বাংলা Беларуская Български Brezhoneg Català Čeština Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Eesti Español فارسی Français Gaeilge Galego 한국어 Հայերեն Hrvatski Íslenska Italiano עברית ქართული Кыргызча Latina Lietuvių Magyar Македонски Nederlands 日本 語 Norsk Polski Português Română Русский Shqip සිංහල Simple English Slovenščina Српски / srpski Suomi Svenska Taqbaylit ไทย Türkçe Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 26 November 2017 , at 16 : 44 . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . 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who played the predator character in the first predator movie in 1987
Kevin Peter Hall - wikipedia Kevin Peter Hall Kevin Peter Hall ( 1955 - 05 - 09 ) May 9 , 1955 Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , U.S. April 10 , 1991 ( 1991 - 04 - 10 ) ( aged 35 ) Hollywood , California , U.S. Cause of death AIDS - related pneumonia Education Penn Hills High School Alma mater George Washington University Occupation Actor Years active 1978 -- 1991 Known for The Predator Height 7 ft 21⁄2 in Spouse ( s ) Alaina Reed Hall ( m . 1988 -- 1991 ) Kevin Peter Hall ( May 9 , 1955 -- April 10 , 1991 ) was an American actor best known for his roles as the title character in the first two films in the Predator franchise and the title character of Harry in the film and television series , Harry and the Hendersons . He also appeared in the television series Misfits of Science and 227 , along with the film Without Warning . Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life and death 4 Honors 5 Filmography 6 References 7 External links Early life ( edit ) Hall was born in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania . His parents were of above - average stature ; his father , Charles Hall , was 6 ft 6 in ( 1.98 m ) and his mother , Sylvia Hall , was 6 ft 2 in ( 1.88 m ) . At 7 ft 2.5 in ( 2.197 m ) tall , he was the tallest of seven brothers , all over 6 ft 5 in ( 1.96 m ) . During his high school years at Penn Hills High School , he was a star basketball player . He subsequently attended George Washington University in Washington , DC , where he played for its basketball team and majored in Theatrical Arts . After graduation , Hall moved to Venezuela to play professional basketball . Career ( edit ) Due to Hall 's height , he was often cast in monster roles . He made his acting debut in the 1979 horror film Prophecy . He appeared as the alien in the 1980 horror film Without Warning and as Gorvil in the 1982 television movie Mazes and Monsters . In 1985 , he co-starred in the short - lived series Misfits of Science . He guest - starred on the sitcom Night Court as a huge but gentle mental patient who humorously towered over bailiff Bull Shannon , played by Richard Moll , who is 6 ft 8 in ( 2.03 m ) , and a fellow mental patient , played by James Cromwell , who is 6 ft 7 in ( 2.01 m ) . The next year , Hall portrayed yet another monster in the horror film Monster in the Closet , followed by the role of Harry in Harry and the Hendersons . In 1986 , Hall was cast as the main antagonist in Predator , starring Arnold Schwarzenegger . During its developmental stages , the Predator was going to be played by Jean - Claude Van Damme , who played the Predator for the first few scenes , but was not billed in the end credits . The producers decided to recast the role with Hall so that the Predator could more convincingly dominate the film 's human characters with its greater size . Hall would go on to reprise the role in the 1990 sequel . Following his role in Predator , Hall appeared in the feature film Big Top Pee - wee ( 1988 ) and had a guest spot on Star Trek : The Next Generation ; Hall had been one of the actors considered for the role of Geordi La Forge on the latter , before the role went to LeVar Burton . From 1989 to 1990 , he had a recurring role on the NBC sitcom 227 . In 1990 , Hall reprised his role as Harry in the television series Harry and the Hendersons , based on the 1987 film of the same name . He died during the series ' first season . Personal life and death ( edit ) Hall met actress Alaina Reed while taping a guest role on the television show 227 . The couple would marry both on the show and in real life . While working on the TV series Harry and the Hendersons , Hall announced that he had contracted HIV from a blood transfusion . He died from AIDS - related pneumonia on April 10 , 1991 , a month short of his 36th birthday . Honors ( edit ) Hall was posthumously inducted into the Penn Hills Hall of Fame as part of the inaugural class on May 8 , 2009 . Filmography ( edit ) Year Title Role Notes 1979 Prophecy Mutant bear Uncredited 1980 Without Warning The Alien Credited as Kevin Hall 1982 One Dark Night Eddie 1982 Mazes and Monsters Gorvil Television Movie 1984 The Wild Life Bouncer Credited as Kevin Hall 1984 E / R Donald Haines Episode : `` Mr. Fix - It '' 1985 Night Court Wendell Martin Episode : `` Nuts About Harry '' 1985 The Dukes of Hazzard Floyd Malone Episode : `` Opening Night at the Boar 's Nest '' 1985 -- 1986 Misfits of Science Dr. Elvin `` El '' Lincoln 16 episodes 1986 Monster in the Closet Monster Harry and the Hendersons Harry Predator The Predator / Helicopter pilot Big Top Pee - wee Big John 1989 Rodney Dangerfield : Opening Night at Rodney 's Place Richard Small Television special 1989 Shannon 's Deal Harry Television movie 1989 Star Trek : The Next Generation Leyor Episode : `` The Price '' 1989 -- 1990 227 Warren Merriwether 11 episodes Predator 2 The Predator / Elder Predator 1990 -- 1991 Harry and the Hendersons Harry 4 episodes 1991 Highway to Hell Charon ( final film role ) References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Halliwell , Leslie ; Walker , John ( 2003 ) . Halliwell 's Who 's Who In the Movies ( 15th ed . ) . HarperCollins . p. 209 . ISBN 0 - 06 - 053423 - 0 . Jump up ^ Donnelley , Paul ( 2005 - 11 - 01 ) . Fade To Black : A Book Of Movie Obituaries ( 3rd ed . ) . Omnibus Press . p. 436 . ISBN 1 - 84449 - 430 - 6 . Jump up ^ `` STAR TREK / Casting '' . Letters of Note . Retrieved March 25 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Actor Kevin Peter Hall Dies In L.A. At Age 35 '' . Jet . Johnson Publishing Company . 80 ( 2 ) : 62 . 2009 - 04 - 29 . ISSN 0021 - 5996 . Jump up ^ Snauffer , Douglas ; Thurm , Joel ( 2008 ) . The Show Must Go on : How the Deaths of Lead Actors Have Affected Television . McFarland . p. 201 . ISBN 0 - 7864 - 3295 - 0 . ^ Jump up to : `` Kevin Peter Hall , Actor , 35 '' . The New York Times . 1991 - 04 - 19 . Retrieved 2008 - 02 - 14 . Jump up ^ `` Penn Hills Arts and Music Education '' . Phameonline.org. 2009 . External links ( edit ) Biography portal Kevin Peter Hall on IMDb Kevin Peter Hall at Memory Alpha ( a Star Trek wiki ) Kevin Peter Hall at Find a Grave WorldCat Identities BNE : XX4615343 ISNI : 0000 0001 0922 093X LCCN : no2009058160 VIAF : 86364756 Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kevin_Peter_Hall&oldid=866128450 '' Categories : 1955 births 1991 deaths 20th - century American male actors Male actors from Pittsburgh Basketball players from Pennsylvania American expatriate basketball people in Venezuela American male film actors AIDS - related deaths in California Deaths from pneumonia George Washington Colonials men 's basketball players Infectious disease deaths in California African - American male actors American male television actors Sportspeople from Pittsburgh George Washington University alumni Hidden categories : Infobox person using alma mater Pages to import images to Wikidata Articles with hCards Find a Grave template with ID same as Wikidata Wikipedia articles with BNE identifiers Wikipedia articles with ISNI identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers Talk Contents About Wikipedia Asturianu تۆرکجه Čeština Deutsch Español فارسی Français Galego Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Kiswahili Magyar 日本 語 Polski Português Română Русский Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Türkçe 中文 13 more Edit links This page was last edited on 28 October 2018 , at 12 : 53 ( UTC ) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia ® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation , Inc. , a non-profit organization . About Wikipedia
[ "Kevin Peter Hall" ]
[ "Kevin Peter Hall ( May 9 , 1955 -- April 10 , 1991 ) was an American actor best known for his roles as the title character in the first two films in the Predator franchise and the title character of Harry in the film and television series , Harry and the Hendersons . He also appeared in the television series Misfits of Science and 227 , along with the film Without Warning ." ]
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who played the little girl on the bernie mac show
Dee Dee Davis - Wikipedia Dee Dee Davis Jump to : navigation , search This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification . Please help by adding reliable sources . Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately , especially if potentially libelous or harmful . ( April 2013 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Dee Dee Davis ( 1996 - 04 - 17 ) April 17 , 1996 ( age 21 ) Culver City , California , U.S. Residence Country Club Hills , Illinois Nationality American Other names D.D. Davis DD Davis Occupation Actress , comedian Years active 2001 - 2007 Children Dee Dee Davis ( born April 17 , 1996 ) is an American actress and comedian , best known for her role as Bryana Thomkins on The Bernie Mac Show , for which she won a Young Artist Award in 2004 . She guest - starred in Strong Medicine , House , and The Game . Davis took a break from acting in 2007 to focus on school . In February of 2017 , Davis announced that she is pregnant with her first child . Contents ( hide ) 1 Early life 2 Career 3 Television 4 References 5 External links Early life ( edit ) Davis was born in Culver City , California on April 17 , 1996 . She is the younger sister of Aree Davis . She was attended Rich Central High School in Olympia Fields , Illinois and Prairie State College in Chicago Heights but regards Park Forest as her home town . Career ( edit ) Davis began her career at age 5 on The Bernie Mac Show , in which she played Briana Thomkins `` Baby Girl '' , the title character 's young niece . Television ( edit ) The Bernie Mac Show as Bryana Thomkins ( 104 episodes , 2001 -- 2006 ) House as Paige Walker ( 1 episode , 2004 ) Strong Medicine as Anna Cortese ( 1 episode , 2003 ) Larry King Live as herself ( 2008 ) BET Awards as herself ( 2005 ) 14th Annual Inner City Destiny Awards as herself ( 2006 ) References ( edit ) Jump up ^ http://ru-crazy.com/tag/dee-dee-davis/ ^ Jump up to : Dee Dee Davis Facebook Retrieved 2017 - 02 - 19 . Jump up ^ 25th Annual Young Artist Awards : Winners and Nominees ! ( accessed 15 April 2013 ) External links ( edit ) Dee Dee Davis on IMDb This article about an American television actor or actress born in the 1990s is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it . Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dee_Dee_Davis&oldid=806020975 '' Categories : 1996 births Living people American women comedians American child actresses American film actresses African - American actresses American actresses American television actresses People from Culver City , California People from Park Forest , Illinois People from Country Club Hills , Illinois American television actor , 1990s birth stubs Hidden categories : BLP articles lacking sources from April 2013 All BLP articles lacking sources Articles with hCards All stub articles Talk Contents About Wikipedia Cymraeg Euskara فارسی Français Gaeilge 한국어 Ido Bahasa Indonesia Íslenska Italiano Nederlands Occitan Oʻzbekcha / ўзбекча Português Simple English Tagalog Walon Winaray Edit links This page was last edited on 19 October 2017 , at 03 : 59 . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply . By using this site , you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia ® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation , Inc. , a non-profit organization . About Wikipedia
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[ "Davis began her career at age 5 on The Bernie Mac Show , in which she played Briana Thomkins `` Baby Girl '' , the title character 's young niece ." ]
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where did the term what's up come from
Whassup ? - Wikipedia Whassup ? Jump to : navigation , search This article is about the advertising campaign . For other uses of the phrase What 's up ? , see What 's up ( disambiguation ) . This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( August 2009 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Whassup ? ( also known as Wazzup ) was a commercial campaign for Anheuser - Busch Budweiser beer from 1999 to 2002 . The first spot aired during Monday Night Football , December 20 , 1999 . The ad campaign was run worldwide and became a pop culture catchphrase . The phrase itself is a slurred version of the phrase `` What 's up ? '' . The commercials were based on a short film , entitled True , written and directed by Charles Stone III , that featured Stone and several of his childhood friends -- Fred Thomas , Paul Williams , Terry Williams , Jimmy `` Puerto Rock '' Perez and Kevin Lofton . The characters sat around talking on the phone and saying `` whassup ? '' to one another in a comical way . The short was popular at a number of film festivals around the country and eventually caught the attention of creative director Vinny Warren and art director Chuck Taylor at the Chicago - based ad agency DDB , who took the idea to August A. Busch IV , vice president of Anheuser - Busch , and signed Stone to direct Budweiser TV commercials based on the film . Scott Martin Brooks won the role of Dookie when Kevin Lofton declined to audition . Whassup ? won the Cannes Grand Prix award and the Grand Clio award , among others . In May 2006 , the campaign was inducted into the CLIO Hall of Fame . Six years later , Stone made another version of the ad with the same cast , called Wassup 2008 . The 2 - minute short film was heavily critical of the presidency of George W. Bush and was a clear endorsement of the presidential campaign of Barack Obama . The 2008 video was nominated for the Favorite User Generated Video award at the 35th People 's Choice Awards . In culture ( edit ) The film Scary Movie ( 2000 ) parodied the ad in one scene . Professional wrestling tag team The Dudley Boyz incorporated part of the ad as one of their signature moves . D - Von would climb to the top rope while Bubba Ray held an opponent 's legs apart , before they both stuck out their tongues and did the Whassup head shake . D - Von would then execute a diving headbutt to the crotch of the opponent . The Simpsons episodes `` The Bart Wants What It Wants '' ( 2002 ) and `` See Homer Run '' ( 2005 ) both feature the character Milhouse using the expression in an attempt to be cool . The Greg the Bunny episode `` Father and Son Reunion '' ( 2002 ) featured the character Gil trying to bond with his son Jimmy . Gil thinks all young people use the expression to be cool . They go out together along with Greg the Bunny and Gil shouts the expression at everyone they meet , much to the embarrassment of Jimmy . In the 2003 Friends episode `` The One With Phoebe 's Rats '' , Ross enters Monica and Chandler 's apartment saying `` Whassup '' trying to imitate the commercial , to which Chandler replies , `` Seriously dude , three years ago ! '' The Office episode `` Pilot '' has Michael Scott , played by Steve Carell , and Dwight K. Schrute exchanging the expression with each , which Jim Halpert implies to the audience that Scott is still doing it seven years after the ad was popular . The Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode `` Multiple Meat '' ( 2010 ) had Frylock using the expression to Master Shake and when the latter does not react to it he asks `` I 'm sorry is that out now ? '' The band Falling in Reverse parodied the ad in the music video of the song `` Good Girls , Bad Guys '' ( 2011 ) . In the film Central Intelligence ( 2016 ) , Bob Stone sends Calvin Joyner a video clip of the ad and asks , `` remember those commercials ? '' In the How I Met Your Mother episode `` Trilogy Time '' Barney Stinson uses the expression in supposed `` dream '' futures . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Drea ( February 2 , 2011 ) . `` Best Super Bowl Commercials 1989 - 2010 '' . Business Pundit . Retrieved May 7 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` '' They 're up : With a stop at Comerica Park , the friends starring in Budweiser 's ' Whassup ' commercials say hello to success , thanks to the beer guzzling of Dami Stanworth `` '' . Detroit Free Press . April 21 , 2000 . Retrieved May 7 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Luning , Earnest ( 2008 - 10 - 24 ) . `` ' Wassup ' commercial returns with same cast , political twist '' . Retrieved 2008 - 11 - 26 . Jump up ^ Grant Trimboli ( June 18 , 2011 ) . `` MUSIC VIDEO : FALLING IN REVERSE -- GOOD GIRLS BAD GUYS '' . www.underthegunreview.net . Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Whassup%3F&oldid=804661615 '' Categories : Advertising campaigns Advertising slogans Anheuser - Busch advertising Greeting words and phrases Catchphrases American television commercials 2000s in American television Running gags Hidden categories : Articles needing additional references from August 2009 All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014 Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017 Talk About Wikipedia Português Edit links This page was last edited on 10 October 2017 , at 11 : 20 . About Wikipedia
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who sang the song if i can't have you
If I Ca n't Have You - wikipedia If I Ca n't Have You Jump to : navigation , search For the song by Kelly Clarkson , see If I Ca n't Have You ( Kelly Clarkson song ) . This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations . ( May 2012 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' Song by Bee Gees A-side `` Stayin ' Alive '' Released 13 December 1977 ( US ) 6 January 1978 ( UK ) Format 7 '' single , 12 '' single Recorded January and February 1977 , Le Chateau , Herouville , France September 1977 , Cherokee Studios , Los Angeles , California Genre Disco Length 3 : 25 Label RSO Songwriter ( s ) Barry , Robin & Maurice Gibb Producer ( s ) Bee Gees , Albhy Galuten , Karl Richardson `` If I Ca n't Have You '' is a disco song written by Barry , Robin and Maurice Gibb in 1977 . The song initially appeared on the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack in a version by Yvonne Elliman , released in November 1977 . The Bee Gees ' version appeared a month later as the B - side of `` Stayin ' Alive '' . The song later appeared on the Bee Gees ' compilation Their Greatest Hits : The Record . The remixed version was released and remastered in the compilation Bee Gees Greatest in 2007 and marked the return of the Bee Gees to the US Hot Dance Tracks charts after 28 years . According to Maurice , this track was the first song they did while they were recording the other songs for the film . The recording was started at Château d'Hérouville as a basic track only and completed later at Cherokee Studios in Los Angeles . Contents ( hide ) 1 Yvonne Elliman version 1.1 Personnel 2 Chart performance 2.1 Weekly singles charts 2.2 Year - end charts 3 Kim Wilde version 3.1 Chart performance 4 If I Ca n't Have You ( The Disco Boys remix ) 4.1 Track listing 4.2 Charts 5 Jess Glynne version 5.1 Track listing 5.2 Chart performance 5.3 Release history 6 Other cover versions 6.1 Samples and interpolations 7 References 8 External links Yvonne Elliman version ( edit ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' A-side label of U.S. vinyl single Single by Yvonne Elliman from the album Saturday Night Fever : The Original Movie Sound Track B - side `` Good Sign '' Released November 1977 ( Saturday Night Fever soundtrack ) 23 January 1978 ( single ) Format 7 '' 45 rpm Recorded 1977 Genre Disco Length 2 : 57 4 : 00 ( extended version ) Label RSO Polydor Songwriter ( s ) Barry Robin Maurice Gibb Producer ( s ) Freddie Perren Yvonne Elliman singles chronology `` I Ca n't Get You Outa My Mind '' ( 1977 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 1977 ) `` Moment by Moment '' ( 1978 ) `` I Ca n't Get You Outa My Mind '' ( 1977 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 1978 ) `` Moment by Moment '' ( 1978 ) Saturday Night Fever track listing 17 tracks ( show ) Side one `` Stayin ' Alive '' `` How Deep Is Your Love '' `` Night Fever '' `` More Than a Woman '' `` If I Ca n't Have You '' Side two `` A Fifth of Beethoven '' `` More Than a Woman '' `` Manhattan Skyline '' `` Calypso Breakdown '' Side three `` Night on Disco Mountain '' `` Open Sesame '' `` Jive Talkin ' '' `` You Should Be Dancing '' `` Boogie Shoes '' Side four `` Salsation '' `` K - Jee '' `` Disco Inferno '' Audio sample file help The song was recorded by Yvonne Elliman for the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack . Although Yvonne Elliman had cut her 1976 album Love Me with producer Freddie Perren , who was a major force in the disco movement ( Perren had produced the Sylvers ' 1976 number 1 `` Boogie Fever '' and would soon collaborate with Gloria Gaynor on the disco anthem `` I Will Survive '' ) , Love Me had showcased Elliman not as a disco artist but rather as a pop ballad singer , notably on the title cut , a Barry Gibb composition which had provided Elliman with an international hit . It was originally intended that Elliman 's contribution to the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack would be another ballad written by the Gibb brothers , `` How Deep Is Your Love '' . Yvonne Elliman Meanwhile , the Bee Gees produced their own version of `` If I Ca n't Have You '' for the film . However , RSO Records chairman and Bee Gees manager Robert Stigwood , who was executive - producing the Saturday Night Fever album , dictated that the Bee Gees themselves record `` How Deep Is Your Love '' with Elliman being given a shot at the disco - style `` If I Ca n't Have You '' . The decision proved a success , as the soundtrack 's first single , the Bee Gees ' version of the ballad `` How Deep Is Your Love '' , shot to number one , followed to the top spot by the soundtrack 's second and third singles , also by the Gibb brothers , `` Stayin ' Alive '' and `` Night Fever '' . Elliman 's `` If I Ca n't Have You '' , produced by Perren , was released as the fourth single off the Saturday Night Fever album in February 1978 . The first single off the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack not performed by the Bee Gees , `` If I Ca n't Have You '' would become the fourth number 1 hit from the film , reaching the top spot on the Hot 100 in Billboard dated 13 May 1978 , ending an eight - week number 1 tenure by `` Night Fever '' . `` If I Ca n't Have You '' was the fourth consecutive US number 1 to be co-written by Barry Gibb , and the sixth consecutive to be released on the RSO record label . The B - side of the single was a track from the Love Me album , `` Good Sign '' , a composition by Melissa Manchester and Carole Bayer Sager which had previously served as the B - side of Elliman 's hit `` Hello Stranger '' . Far from the success going to Elliman 's head or giving her ideas of following up the sudden disco success with a deeper foray into the genre , a contemporary interview by journalist Peter J. Boyer found Elliman dismissive of her number 1 hit , referring to it in conversation only casually as `` that current thing from Saturday Night Fever '' . In spite of the coattail success she 's had with `` If I Ca n't Have You '' , it 's a disco song and Elliman decided her broad , husky vocals are best suited elsewhere . `` If I Ca n't Have You '' was featured on Elliman 's February 1978 album release Night Flight , which apart from that track was produced by Robert Appère and was not disco - oriented . No track from Night Flight was issued as a follow - up single to `` If I Ca n't Have You '' , Elliman 's next single being a rock ballad entitled `` Savannah '' which failed to consolidate Elliman 's potential mainstream stardom . Elliman did return to disco music in 1979 with `` Love Pains '' which returned her to the Top 40 one more time before she dropped out of the music scene in the 1980s . `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( Yvonne Elliman 's version ) was also featured in the 1999 film Big Daddy as well as on the film 's soundtrack . Personnel ( edit ) Yvonne Elliman - vocals Bob Bowles -- guitar Sonny Burke -- piano Paulinho da Costa -- percussion Scott Edwards -- bass James Gadson -- drums Freddie Perren -- synthesizer , keyboards , percussion Bob Zimmitti -- percussion Chart performance ( edit ) Weekly singles charts ( edit ) Chart ( 1978 ) Peak position Australia ( Kent Music Report ) 9 Belgium ( Ultratop 50 Flanders ) 24 Canadian RPM Adult Contemporary Canadian RPM Top Singles France ( SNEP ) 5 Irish Singles Chart 9 Netherlands ( Dutch Top 40 ) 28 Netherlands ( Single Top 100 ) 31 Netherlands 28 New Zealand ( Recorded Music NZ ) 6 UK ( Official Charts Company ) U.S. Billboard Hot 100 U.S. Billboard Hot R&B Singles 60 U.S. Cash Box Top 100 U.S. Record World Year - end charts ( edit ) Chart ( 1978 ) Rank Australia 52 Canada 13 UK 45 U.S. Billboard Hot 100 19 U.S. Cash Box 21 Preceded by `` Night Fever '' by Bee Gees Billboard Hot 100 number - one single ( Yvonne Elliman version ) 13 May 1978 Succeeded by `` With a Little Luck '' by Wings Kim Wilde version ( edit ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' Single by Kim Wilde from the album The Singles Collection 1981 -- 1993 B - side `` Never Felt So Alive '' Released 28 June 1993 Format 7 '' 12 '' CD cassette Recorded 1993 Genre Disco house Length 3 : 27 Label MCA Songwriter ( s ) Barry Robin Maurice Gibb Producer ( s ) Ricki Wilde Kim Wilde singles chronology `` Million Miles Away '' ( 1992 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 1993 ) `` In My Life '' ( 1993 ) `` Million Miles Away '' ( 1992 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 1993 ) `` In My Life '' ( 1993 ) The song was covered in 1993 by British singer Kim Wilde and recorded as one of two new tracks on her compilation album The Singles Collection 1981 -- 1993 . The single reached number 12 in the UK . It became Wilde 's biggest hit of the 1990s and one of the biggest hits of her career in Australia , where it reached number 3 . It was released in several extended remixes on the 12 '' and CD - single formats . The B - side was an exclusive non-album track called `` Never Felt So Alive '' . Chart performance ( edit ) Chart ( 1993 ) Peak position Australia ( ARIA ) Austria ( Ö3 Austria Top 40 ) 29 Belgium ( Ultratop 50 Flanders ) 6 Germany ( Official German Charts ) 51 Ireland ( IRMA ) 9 Netherlands ( Dutch Top 40 ) 23 Netherlands ( Single Top 100 ) 18 Sweden ( Sverigetopplistan ) 24 Switzerland ( Schweizer Hitparade ) 18 UK Singles ( Official Charts Company ) 12 US Dance Club Songs ( Billboard ) 14 If I Ca n't Have You ( the disco Boys remix ) ( edit ) `` If I Ca n't Have You ( The Disco Boys remix ) '' Single by Bee Gees from the album Bee Gees Greatest Released 2 November 2007 ( 2007 - 11 - 02 ) Format CD single digital download Genre House disco Length 3 : 36 ( radio edit ) Label Rhino Reprise Songwriter ( s ) Barry Gibb Robin Gibb Maurice Gibb Producer ( s ) Bee Gees The Disco Boys Finger & Kadel Bee Gees singles chronology `` Ups & Downs '' ( 2005 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You ( The Disco Boys remix ) '' ( 2007 ) `` Stayin ' Alive ( Serban mix ) '' ( 2017 ) `` Ups & Downs '' ( 2005 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( The Disco Boys remix ) ( 2007 ) `` Stayin ' Alive ( Serban mix ) '' ( 2017 ) On 2 November 2007 , Rhino Records and Reprise Records released a remix version of `` If I Ca n't Have You '' by German house music production duo The Disco Boys . The song was released as a single from the remastered version of Bee Gees Greatest ( 2007 ) , originally released in 1979 . Track listing ( edit ) Digital download -- US version `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( The Disco Boys remix ) -- 6 : 55 CD single `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( The Disco Boys radio edit ) -- 3 : 36 `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( The Disco Boys remix ) -- 6 : 35 `` If I Ca n't Have You '' -- 3 : 22 `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( The Disco Boys dub mix ) -- 6 : 55 Charts ( edit ) Chart ( 2007 ) Peak position Germany ( Official German Charts ) 71 Jess Glynne version ( edit ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' Single by Jess Glynne Released 22 May 2016 Format Digital download Recorded 2016 Genre Dance - pop disco Length 3 : 18 Label Warner Songwriter ( s ) Barry Gibb Maurice Gibb Robin Gibb Jess Glynne singles chronology `` Kill the Lights '' ( 2016 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 2016 ) `` Kill the Lights '' ( 2016 ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( 2016 ) In 2016 , English singer and songwriter Jess Glynne re-recorded `` If I Ca n't Have You '' in support of the French musical Saturday Night Fever , which is expected to be premiered in 2017 . Warner Music France released her rendition as a digital single on 22 May 2016 . Track listing ( edit ) Digital download No . Title Length 1 . `` If I Ca n't Have You '' 3 : 18 Chart performance ( edit ) Chart ( 2016 ) Peak position France ( SNEP ) 104 Release history ( edit ) Region Date Label Format Belgium 22 May 2016 Warner Digital download France Other cover versions ( edit ) English pop duo This Way Up covered `` If I Ca n't Have You '' in 1987 , from their album Feelin ' Good About It . Jesse Hultberg , the first performer to cover the song as a ballad , recorded it in his 1994 solo album . A video of the song can be found here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnO3IqnAeV4 Eve 's Plum , a pop rock band that existed from 1991 to 1998 , recorded a cover in 1995 which found its way onto a compilation CD . An abbreviated version of `` If I Ca n't Have You '' was included in the `` 70 's Moment Medley '' featured on the 1998 Gloria Estefan single release `` Do n't Let This Moment End '' . Wilber Pan recorded a Mandarin language version for his 2003 album Pass Me The Mic . Australian group Young Divas covered the song in 2007 for their second album New Attitude . Adam Lambert performed the song as his selection during disco week of season 8 of American Idol . Instead of performing the song the original way , Lambert made it into a ballad , which was highly praised by the judges . Jesse Hultberg had already recorded the song as a ballad in 1994 . Sharleen Spiteri covered the song for her 2010 album The Movie Songbook . In 2012 , the song was covered by Naya Rivera in the sixteenth episode of the third season of Glee . American singer , Demi Lovato covered the song for the tribute special program Stayin ' Alive : A Grammy Salute to the Music of the Bee Gees , where she performed at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards in 2017 . Samples and interpolations ( edit ) German Eurodance group Chyp - Notic 's 1990 single `` If I Ca n't Have U '' contains an interpolation of `` If I Ca n't Have You '' . Eurodance artist B.G. , the Prince of Rap uses the melody of the chorus for his 1995 song `` Ca n't Love You '' . LFO reworked `` If I Ca n't Have You '' as `` Ca n't Have You '' for their 1999 self - titled album only replicating the choruses , the verses being changed to rapping . DJ Khaled sampled part of this song in his 2007 single `` Brown Paper Bag '' , from his album We the Best . Tony Di Bart 's 1994 Eurodance single `` The Real Thing '' sampled the chorus . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` Gibb Songs : 1977 '' . Columbia.edu. 1976 - 12 - 20 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ Steffen Hung . `` Forum - 1970 ( ARIA Charts : Special Occasion Charts ) '' . Australian-charts.com . Archived from the original on 2 June 2016 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Ultratop.be -- Yvonne Elliman -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in Dutch ) . Ultratop 50 . Jump up ^ `` If I ca n't have you in Canadian Adult Contemporary Chart '' . Library and Archives Canada . Retrieved 8 July 2013 . Jump up ^ `` If I ca n't have you in Canadian Top Singles Chart '' . Library and Archives Canada . Retrieved 8 July 2013 . Jump up ^ Steve Hawtin ; et al. `` Tsort -- Chart positions around the world '' . Tsort.info . Jump up ^ `` If I ca n't have you in Irish Chart '' . IRMA . Archived from the original on 5 January 2010 . Retrieved 8 July 2013 . Only results when searching `` If I ca n't have you '' Jump up ^ `` Nederlandse Top 40 -- Yvonne Elliman search results '' ( in Dutch ) Dutch Top 40 . Jump up ^ `` Dutchcharts.nl -- Yvonne Elliman -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in Dutch ) . Single Top 100 . ^ Jump up to : `` Songs from the Year 1978 '' . Tsort.info . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Charts.org.nz -- Yvonne Elliman -- If I Ca n't Have You '' . Top 40 Singles . Jump up ^ `` 1978 Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive -- 27th May 1978 '' . Official Charts Company . Retrieved 8 July 2013 . ^ Jump up to : `` Yvonne Elliman awards on Allmusic '' . Allmusic . Retrieved 8 July 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Archived copy '' . Archived from the original on 31 December 2014 . Retrieved 2016 - 05 - 30 . Jump up ^ `` Australian Chart Book '' . Austchartbook.com.au . Archived from the original on 5 March 2016 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Image : RPM Weekly - Library and Archives Canada '' . Bac-lac.gc.ca . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Top 100 1978 - UK Music Charts '' . Uk-charts.top-source.info . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Top 100 Hits of 1978 / Top 100 Songs of 1978 '' . Musicoutfitters.com . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 12 . Jump up ^ `` Archived copy '' . Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 2015 - 11 - 03 . Jump up ^ `` Australian-charts.com -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' . ARIA Top 50 Singles . Jump up ^ `` Austriancharts.at -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in German ) . Ö3 Austria Top 40 . Jump up ^ `` Ultratop.be -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in Dutch ) . Ultratop 50 . Jump up ^ `` Offiziellecharts.de -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' . GfK Entertainment Charts . Jump up ^ `` Chart Track : Week 24 , 1993 '' . Irish Singles Chart . Jump up ^ `` Nederlandse Top 40 -- Kim Wilde search results '' ( in Dutch ) Dutch Top 40 . Jump up ^ `` Dutchcharts.nl -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in Dutch ) . Single Top 100 . Jump up ^ `` Swedishcharts.com -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' . Singles Top 100 . Jump up ^ `` Swisscharts.com -- Kim Wilde -- If I Ca n't Have You '' . Swiss Singles Chart . Jump up ^ `` Kim Wilde : Artist Chart History '' . Official Charts Company . Retrieved 2016 - 07 - 10 . Jump up ^ `` Kim Wilde -- Chart history '' Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Kim Wilde . Retrieved 2011 - 05 - 05 . Jump up ^ http://www.qobuz.com/fr-fr/album/if-i-cant-have-you-the-disco-boys-remix-us-version-bee-gees/0603497984442 Jump up ^ `` Musicline.de -- Bee Gees Single - Chartverfolgung '' ( in German ) . Media Control Charts . PhonoNet GmbH . Retrieved 12 February 2017 . ^ Jump up to : `` If I Ca n't Have You -- Single '' . iTunes ( Belgium ) . Retrieved 2016 - 07 - 09 . Jump up ^ `` Lescharts.com -- Jess Glynne -- If I Ca n't Have You '' ( in French ) . Les classement single . Retrieved 2016 - 07 - 10 . Jump up ^ Wilber Pan / Pass Me The Mic album liner notes . External links ( edit ) Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Bee Gees singles discography 1960s 1963 `` The Battle of the Blue and the Grey '' / `` The Three Kisses of Love '' `` Timber ! '' / `` Take Hold of That Star '' 1964 `` Peace of Mind '' / `` Do n't Say Goodbye '' `` Claustrophobia '' / `` Could It Be '' `` Turn Around , Look at Me '' / `` ( Theme From ) The Travels of Jamie McPheeters '' 1965 `` Every Day I Have to Cry '' / `` You Would n't Know '' `` Wine and Women '' / `` Follow the Wind '' `` I Was A Lover , A Leader of Men '' / `` And the Children Laughing '' 1966 `` I Want Home '' / `` Cherry Red '' `` Monday 's Rain '' / `` All of My Life '' `` Spicks and Specks '' / `` I Am the World '' 1967 `` Born a Man '' / `` Big Chance '' `` New York Mining Disaster 1941 '' / `` I Ca n't See Nobody '' `` To Love Somebody '' / `` Close Another Door '' `` Holiday '' / `` Every Christian Lion Hearted Man Will Show You '' `` Massachusetts '' / `` Barker of the UFO '' `` World '' / `` Sir Geoffrey Saved the World '' 1968 `` Words '' / `` Sinking Ships '' `` Jumbo '' / `` The Singer Sang His Song '' `` I 've Gotta Get a Message to You '' / `` Kitty Can '' `` I Started a Joke '' / `` Kilburn Towers '' 1969 `` First of May '' / `` Lamplight '' `` Tomorrow Tomorrow '' / `` Sun in My Morning '' `` Do n't Forget to Remember '' / `` The Lord '' 1970s 1970 `` If Only I Had My Mind on Something Else '' / `` Sweetheart '' ( US ) `` I.O.I.O. '' / `` Sweetheart '' `` Lonely Days '' / `` Man for All Seasons '' 1971 `` How Can You Mend a Broken Heart '' / `` Country Woman '' `` Do n't Wanna Live Inside Myself '' / `` Walking Back to Waterloo '' 1972 `` My World '' / `` On Time '' `` Run to Me '' / `` Road to Alaska '' `` Alive '' / Paper Mache , Cabbages and Kings '' 1973 `` Saw a New Morning '' / `` My Life Has Been a Song '' `` Would n't I Be Someone '' / `` Elisa '' `` Mr. Natural '' / `` It Does n't Matter Much to Me '' `` Throw a Penny '' / `` I Ca n't Let You Go '' `` Charade '' / `` Heavy Breathing '' `` Jive Talkin ' '' / `` Wind of Change '' `` Nights on Broadway '' / `` Edge of the Universe '' 1976 `` Fanny ( Be Tender with My Love ) '' / `` Country Lanes '' `` You Should Be Dancing '' / `` Subway '' `` Love So Right '' / `` You Stepped Into My Life '' 1977 `` Boogie Child '' / `` Lovers '' `` Edge of the Universe ( live ) '' / `` Words ( live ) '' `` How Deep Is Your Love '' / `` Ca n't Keep a Good Man Down '' ( live ) `` Stayin ' Alive '' / `` If I Ca n't Have You '' 1978 `` Night Fever '' / `` Down the Road ( live ) '' `` Too Much Heaven '' / `` Rest Your Love on Me '' 1979 `` Tragedy '' / `` Until '' `` Love You Inside Out '' / `` I 'm Satisfied '' 1980s 1981 `` He 's a Liar '' `` Living Eyes '' / `` I Still Love You '' `` The Woman in You '' / `` Stayin ' Alive '' `` Someone Belonging to Someone '' / `` I Love You Too Much '' ( instrumental ) `` You Win Again '' / `` Backtafunk '' `` E.S.P. '' / `` Overnight '' `` Ordinary Lives '' / `` Wing and a Prayer '' `` One '' / `` Flesh and Blood '' 1990s `` Bodyguard '' / `` Will You Ever Let Me '' 1991 `` Secret Love '' / `` Party with No Name '' `` When He 's Gone '' / `` True Confessions '' `` The Only Love '' / `` You Win Again '' ( live ) `` Happy Ever After '' / `` Evolution '' 1993 `` Paying the Price of Love '' / `` My Destiny '' `` For Whom the Bell Tolls '' / `` Decadance '' `` How to Fall in Love , Part 1 '' / `` Fallen Angel '' `` Kiss of Life '' / `` 855 - 7019 '' `` Alone '' / `` Rings Around the Moon '' `` I Could Not Love You More '' / `` Love Never Dies '' ( EUR ) `` Still Waters ( Run Deep ) '' / `` Love Never Dies '' 2000s `` This Is Where I Came In '' / `` Just in Case '' Other countries 1968 `` And the Sun Will Shine '' / `` Really and Sincerely '' ( France ) 1970 `` Let There Be Love '' / `` Really and Sincerely '' ( Netherlands ) 1971 `` When the Swallows Fly '' / `` Give Your Best '' ( Netherlands ) `` Morning of my Life '' / `` To Love Somebody '' 1972 `` Israel '' / `` Dearest '' ( Netherlands ) `` Sea of Smiling Faces '' / `` Please Do n't Turn Out the Lights '' 1977 `` Children of the World '' / `` Boogie Child '' ( Australia ) `` Crazy for Your Love '' / `` You Win Again ( Remix ) '' `` Angela '' / `` You Win Again ( Remix ) '' ( Germany , Netherlands ) Saturday Night Fever soundtrack Side one `` Stayin ' Alive '' `` How Deep Is Your Love '' `` Night Fever '' `` More Than a Woman '' ( The Bee Gees ) `` If I Ca n't Have You '' ( Yvonne Elliman ) Side two `` A Fifth of Beethoven '' ( Walter Murphy ) `` More Than a Woman '' ( Tavares ) `` Manhattan Skyline '' ( David Shire ) `` Calypso Breakdown '' ( Ralph MacDonald ) Side three `` Night on Disco Mountain '' ( David Shire ) `` Open Sesame '' ( Kool & the Gang ) `` Jive Talkin ' '' `` You Should Be Dancing '' ( The Bee Gees ) `` Boogie Shoes '' ( KC and the Sunshine Band ) Side four `` Salsation '' ( David Shire ) `` K - Jee '' ( MFSB ) `` Disco Inferno '' ( The Trammps ) Kim Wilde Studio albums Kim Wilde ( 1981 ) Select ( 1982 ) Catch as Catch Can ( 1983 ) Teases & Dares ( 1984 ) Another Step ( 1986 ) Close ( 1988 ) Love Moves ( 1990 ) Love Is ( 1992 ) Now & Forever ( 1995 ) Never Say Never ( 2006 ) Come Out and Play ( 2010 ) Snapshots ( 2011 ) Wilde Winter Songbook ( 2013 ) Remix albums The Remix Collection ( 1993 ) Compilations The Very Best of Kim Wilde ( 1984 ) The Singles Collection 1981 -- 1993 ( 1993 ) The Very Best of Kim Wilde ( 2001 ) The Hits Collection ( 2006 ) Singles `` Kids in America '' `` Chequered Love '' `` Water on Glass '' `` Cambodia '' `` View from a Bridge '' `` Child Come Away '' `` Love Blonde '' `` Dancing in the Dark '' `` House of Salome '' `` The Second Time '' `` The Touch '' `` Rage to Love '' `` Schoolgirl '' `` You Keep Me Hangin ' On '' `` Another Step ( Closer to You ) '' `` Say You Really Want Me '' `` Rockin ' Around the Christmas Tree '' `` Hey Mister Heartache '' `` You Came '' `` Never Trust a Stranger '' `` Four Letter Word '' `` Love in the Natural Way '' `` It 's Here '' `` Time '' `` Ca n't Get Enough ( Of Your Love ) '' `` I Ca n't Say Goodbye '' `` World in Perfect Harmony '' `` Love Is Holy '' `` Heart over Mind '' `` Who Do You Think You Are '' `` Million Miles Away '' `` If I Ca n't Have You '' `` In My Life '' `` Kids in America 1994 '' `` Breakin ' Away '' `` This I Swear '' `` Shame '' `` Loved '' `` Born to Be Wild '' `` Anyplace , Anywhere , Anytime '' `` You Came 2006 '' `` Perfect Girl '' `` Together We Belong '' `` Baby Obey Me '' `` Run to You '' `` Lights Down Low '' `` Real Life '' `` It 's Alright '' `` Sleeping Satellite '' `` To France '' `` Ever Fallen in Love '' Related articles Discography Marty Wilde Ricky Wilde Book : Kim Wilde Yvonne Elliman Studio albums Food of Love Singles `` I Do n't Know How to Love Him '' `` Everything 's Alright '' `` Love Me '' `` Hello Stranger '' `` If I Ca n't Have You '' `` Moment by Moment '' `` Love Pains '' Soundtracks Jesus Christ Superstar Saturday Night Fever Moment by Moment Roadie WarGames Jess Glynne Discography Albums I Cry When I Laugh ( 2015 ) Singles `` Right Here '' `` Real Love '' `` Hold My Hand '' `` Do n't Be So Hard on Yourself '' `` Take Me Home '' `` Ai n't Got Far to Go '' `` If I Ca n't Have You '' Featured singles `` Rather Be '' `` My Love '' `` Not Letting Go '' `` Kill the Lights '' Related articles Clean Bandit Atlantic Records Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=If_I_Can%27t_Have_You&oldid=795577549 '' Categories : 1977 singles 1978 singles 1993 singles 2016 singles Disco songs Bee Gees songs Yvonne Elliman songs Kim Wilde songs Jess Glynne songs Billboard Hot 100 number - one singles Songs from Saturday Night Fever Songs written by Barry Gibb Songs written by Maurice Gibb Songs written by Robin Gibb Song recordings produced by Barry Gibb Song recordings produced by Robin Gibb Song recordings produced by Maurice Gibb RSO Records singles Polydor Records singles MCA Records singles Torch songs 1977 songs Hidden categories : EngvarB from February 2014 Use dmy dates from February 2014 Articles lacking in - text citations from May 2012 All articles lacking in - text citations Articles with hAudio microformats Music infoboxes with deprecated parameters Singlechart usages for Flanders Singlechart usages for Dutch40 Singlechart usages for Dutch100 Singlechart usages for New Zealand Singlechart usages for Australia Singlechart usages for Austria Singlechart usages for Germany2 Singlechart usages for Ireland Singlechart usages for Sweden Singlechart usages for Swiss Singlechart usages for UKsinglesbyname Singlechart usages for Billboarddanceclubplay Singlechart usages for Germany Singlechart usages for France Talk Contents About Wikipedia Català Español Italiano Português Tiếng Việt Edit links This page was last edited on 15 August 2017 , at 03 : 47 . 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what do we call mash ki daal in english
Dal - Wikipedia Dal Jump to : navigation , search For other uses , see Dal ( disambiguation ) . This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . ( March 2014 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Dal Lentils are a staple ingredient in cuisines from the Indian subcontinent . Clockwise from upper right : split red lentils , common green whole lentils , and Le Puy lentils both with their outer coats visible Alternative names Daal , dail Course lunch Region or state Indian subcontinent Main ingredients Lentils , peas or beans Cookbook : Dal Media : Dal Dal ( also spelled daal , dail , dhal ; pronunciation : ( d̪aːl ) ) is a term in the Indian subcontinent for dried , split pulses ( that is , lentils , peas , and beans ) . The term is also used for various soups prepared from these pulses . These pulses are among the most important staple foods in SAARC countries , and form an important part of Indian , Nepalese , Pakistani , Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi cuisines . Dals are frequently eaten with flatbreads such as rotis or chapatis or with rice , a combination referred to as dal bhat . Dals are high in protein relative to other plants . The outer hull is usually stripped off ; dal that has not been hulled is described as chilka ( skin ) , e.g. chilka urad dal , mung dal chilka in Hindi / Urdu . The term dal is often contrasted with the term gram , used in the Indian subcontinent for pulses that are whole rather than split . Contents ( hide ) 1 Etymology 2 Use by region 3 Nutrition 4 Common ingredients 5 Split and whole pulses 6 Preparation 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Etymology ( edit ) The word dāl derives from the Sanskrit verbal root dal - `` to split '' . Use by region ( edit ) Toor slury pappu Dal preparations are eaten with rice ( in eastern India ) , as well as rotis , chapati and naan ( in western India ) on the Indian subcontinent . In the Indian subcontinent , it is eaten with rice and with a wheat flatbread called roti . The manner in which it is cooked and presented varies by region . In South India , dal is primarily used to make the dish called sambar . It is also used to make pappu that is mixed with charu and rice . Nutrition ( edit ) Dal tadka served with rice and papadam , staple meal in the Indian subcontinent . In a 100 gram amount , cooked ( boiled ) dal contains 9 % protein , 70 % water , 20 % carbohydrates ( includes 8 % fiber ) , and 1 % fat . Cooked dal ( per 100 g ) also supplies a rich content ( 20 % or more of the Daily Value , DV ) of the B vitamin , folate ( 45 % DV ) and manganese ( 25 % DV ) , with moderate amounts of thiamine ( 11 % DV ) and several dietary minerals , such as iron ( 19 % DV ) and phosphorus ( 18 % DV ) . Macronutrients in common foods as a % of Carbohydrates Food Carbs ( non-Fiber ) Fiber Protein Fat Wheat 100 20.6 21.3 2.5 Rice 100 1.6 9 0.8 Soybean 100 44.2 174 95 Pigeon Pea 100 31 45.4 Milk 100 0 61 61.8 Guava 100 60 28.6 11.2 Carrot 100 41.1 14.7 3.6 Spinach 100 157 207 28 Potato 100 14.4 13 0.6 Sweet Potato 100 17.7 9.4 0.5 Eggplant 100 148 43.4 8.6 Apple 100 21 1.4 Orange 100 25.6 1.0 Note : Carbohydrates do not include fiber . Source : https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ Split pigeon pea , commonly used in dal Selected nutrients in grams per 100 g Item Water Protein Cooked rice 68.4 2.7 Cooked dal 68.5 6.8 Roti 33.5 11.5 Cooked soybean 62.5 16.6 Boiled egg 74.6 12.6 Cooked chicken 64.3 25.3 Nutrient contents in % DV of Dals , wheat and rice ( Raw , Uncooked ) per 100 g Vitamins Minerals Food Protein B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch . Ca Fe Mg Na Zn Cu Mn Se cooking Reduction % 10 30 20 25 25 35 0 0 30 10 15 20 10 20 5 10 25 Rice 14 0 12 11 20 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 6 7 0 8 9 49 22 Wheat 27 0 28 7 34 19 21 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 36 51 12 0 28 28 151 128 Soybean 73 0 58 51 8 8 19 94 0 24 10 0 59 28 87 70 70 51 0 33 83 126 25 Toor Dal 43 43 11 15 13 13 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 29 46 37 40 18 53 90 12 Urad Dal 45 0 24 21 10 0 22 54 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 58 75 54 21 35 0 0 0 Mung Dal 43 0 54 19 15 38 29 156 0 0 6 0 9 13 52 53 52 27 0 28 0 49 0 Chana Dal 25 32 12 8 16 27 139 0 17 7 0 0 0 11 35 29 37 25 24 23 42 110 12 Ch . = Choline ; Ca = Calcium ; Fe = Iron ; Mg = Magnesium ; P = Phosphorus ; K = Potassium ; Na = Sodium ; Zn = Zinc ; Cu = Copper ; Mn = Manganese ; Se = Selenium ; % DV = % Daily value i.e. % of DRI ( Dietary reference intake ) Note : All nutrient values including protein are in % DV per 100 grams of the food item . Significant values are highlighted in light gray color and bold letters . Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo - lacto - vegetables group Common ingredients ( edit ) Dhokla , steamed , fermented chana dal snack . Pigeon pea , i.e. , yellow pigeon peas , is available either plain or oily . It is called thuvaram paruppu in Tamil Nadu , thuvara parippu in Kerala and is the main ingredient for the dish sambar . In Karnataka it is called togari bele and is an important ingredient in bisi bele bath . It is called kandi pappu in Telugu and is used in the preparation of a staple dish pappu charu . It is also known as Arhar dal in northern India . Chana dal is produced by removing the outer layer of black chickpeas and then splitting the kernel . Although machines can do this , it can be done at home by soaking the whole chickpeas and removing the loose skins by rubbing . In Karnataka it is called kadle bele . Other varieties of chickpea may be used , e.g. , kabuli dal . plain dal served with roti , sauteed vegetables and mango pickle . Yellow split peas , are very prevalent in the Indian communities of Guyana , Fiji , Suriname , Mauritius , Trinidad and Tobago , and are popular amongst Indians in the United States as well as India . There , it is referred to generically as dal and is the most popular dal . It is prepared similarly to dals found in India , but may be used in recipes . Split mung beans ( mung dal ) is by far the most popular in Bangladesh . It is used in parts of South India , such as in the Tamil dish ven pongal . Roasted and lightly salted or spiced mung bean is a popular snack in most parts of India . Urad dal , sometimes referred to as `` black gram '' , is a primary ingredient of the south Indian dishes idli and dosa . It is one of the main ingredients of East Indian ( oriya and Bengali or Assamese ) bori , sun - dried dumplings . The Punjabi version is dal makhani . In Karnataka , it is called uddina bele . It is rich in protein . Masoor dal : split red lentils . In Karnataka , it is called kempu ( red ) togari bele . Rajma dal : split kidney beans . Mussyang is from dals of various colours found in various hilly regions of Nepal . Panchratna dal ( Hindi / Urdu ) ( `` five jewels '' ) is a mixture of five varieties of dal , which produces a dish with unique flavour . Pulses may be split but not hulled ; they are distinguished from hulled dals by adding the word chilka ( skin ) . Split and whole pulses ( edit ) Split red lentil seeds ( size 6 mm ) Although dal generally refers to split pulses , whole pulses can be referred to as sabit dhal and split pulses as dhuli dhal . The hulling of a pulse is intended to improve digestibility and palatability , but , as milling of whole grains into refined grains , affects the nutrition provided by the dish , reducing dietary fibre content . Pulses with their outer hulls intact are also quite popular in the Indian subcontinent as the main cuisine . Over 50 different varieties of pulses are known in the Indian subcontinent . Preparation ( edit ) Dal tadka served over rice . Most dal recipes are quite simple to prepare . The standard preparation begins with boiling a variety of dal ( or a mix ) in water with some turmeric , salt to taste , and then adding a fried garnish at the end of the cooking process . In some recipes , tomatoes , tamarind , unripe mango , or other ingredients are added while cooking the dal , often to impart a sour flavour . Main article : Chaunk The fried garnish for dal goes by many names , including chaunk , tadka and tarka . The ingredients in the chaunk for each variety of dal vary by region and individual tastes . The raw spices ( more commonly cumin seeds , mustard seeds , asafoetida , and sometimes fenugreek seeds and dried red chili pepper ) are first fried for a few seconds in the hot oil on medium / low heat . This is generally followed by ginger , garlic , and onion , which are generally fried for 10 minutes . After the onion turns golden brown , ground spices ( turmeric , coriander , red chili powder , garam masala , etc . ) are added . The chaunk is then poured over the cooked dal . See also ( edit ) Food portal South Asia portal Chaunk / Tarka ( in Punjabi and Urdu ) Dal bati churma Dal biji Ezogelin soup Lentil soup Pea soup Vada References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : Davidson , Alan ; Jaine , Tom ( 2014 - 01 - 01 ) . `` Dal '' . The Oxford Companion to Food . Oxford University Press . ISBN 9780199677337 . Jump up ^ Yotam Ottolenghi . `` Pulse points : Yotam Ottolenghi 's dried bean and pea recipes '' . the Guardian . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Sample recipe for Chilka Urad dhal , split unhulled urad '' . Jump up ^ Monier - Williams Sanskrit - English Dictionary accessed online 2007 - 09 - 02 ^ Jump up to : `` Lentils , mature seeds , cooked , boiled , without salt per 100 g '' . Nutritiondata.com by Conde Nast ; from USDA National Nutrient Database , Standard Reference 21 . 2014 . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Nutrition Facts '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Lentils , mature seeds , cooked , boiled , without salt Nutrition Facts & Calories '' . nutritiondata.self.com . Jump up ^ `` Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Bread , chapati or roti , plain , commercially prepared '' . ndb.nal.usda.gov . Jump up ^ `` Nutrition Facts '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Nutrition Facts '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Nutrition Facts '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Nutrition Facts '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Show Nutrients List '' . usda.gov . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ `` USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors , Release 6 '' ( PDF ) . USDA . USDA . Dec 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Nutritional Effects of Food Processing '' . self.com . Retrieved 29 September 2015 . Jump up ^ Mehta , Nita ( 2006 ) . Dal & Roti . SNAB . p12 . ISBN 978 - 81 - 86004 - 06 - 7 . Jump up ^ Wang , N. ; Hatcher , D.W. ; Toews , R. ; Gawalko , E.J. `` Influence of cooking and dehulling on nutritional composition of several varieties of lentils ( Lens culinaris ) '' . LWT - Food Science and Technology . 42 ( 4 ) : 842 -- 848 . doi : 10.1016 / j. lwt. 2008.10. 007 . External links ( edit ) Media related to Dal at Wikimedia Commons Indian dishes by region North Aloo gobi Aloo Mutter Amritsari Papar Warian Baati Baingan bartha Barfi ( Kaju barfi / Kaju katli ) Bhatura Butter chicken Chana masala Chapati Chicken tikka Chole bhature Churma Dum Aloo Dal makhani Dopiaza Egg curry Haleem Jeera aloo Kachori Kadai Kadai chicken Kadhi Kahwah Keema Khichra Khichdi Kulcha Korma Kulfi Laal maans Mattar paneer Makki di roti Mirchi Bada Mutton curry Murgh Musallam Naan Nihari Palak Paneer Pakora Paneer tikka Pasanda Raita Rajma Rogan josh Rumali roti Sai bhaji Sarson ka saag Shahi paneer Shami Kebab Tandoori chicken Paneer Tikka Masala South Appam Aviyal Baghara baingan Benne Dose Bhajji Bisi bele bath Bonda Chicken 65 Chicken Chettinad Chakna Curd rice Dahi chutney Dopiaza Dosa Double ka meetha Fish molee Hyderabadi biryani Hyderabadi haleem Idiappam Idli Injipuli Kaalan Kanji Kerala porotta Koottu Kozhakkattai Kuzhambu Lukhmi Mirchi ka salan Murukku Mysore Pak Pachadi Paniyaram Parotta Payasam Pongal Poriyal Pulihora Puttu Rasam Rice and curry Sakinalu Sambar Sheer korma Sevai Upma Uttapam Thalassery biryani Vada West Akuri Basundi Bhakri Bhelpuri Bombil fry Chinese bhel Chivda Chouriço Dahi vada Dhansak Dhokla Doodhpak Handvo Kadboli Khatkhate Khandvi Khichdi Kombdi vade Kuswar Misal Misal Pav Pav bhaji Patoleo Patra ni machhi Pohe Sabudana Khichadi Sanna Sevpuri Shrikhand Solkadhi Sorpotel Thalipeeth Vada pav Veg Kolhapuri Vindaloo Xacuti East Alu Potala Rasa Beguni Bel Pana Bhuna Khicuhri Chakuli pitha Cham cham Chandrakanti Charchari Chhena gaja Chhena jalebi Chhena kheeri Chhena poda Chingudi Jhola Dahi baigana Dahi Machha Jalfrezi Indian Chinese cuisine Kati roll Luchi Machha Jhola Maachha Bihana Mathapuli Mishti Doi Ouu khatta Pakhala Pantua Pitha Prawn malai curry Rasabali Rasgulla Ras malai Sandesh Santula Sorshe Ilish Miscellaneous Biryani Chaat Chutney Dal Falooda Flattened rice Gulab Jamun Halwa Indian pickle Jalebi Kheer Kofta Laddu Mango pudding Panipuri Papadum Paratha Puri Qeema Roti Sindhi biryani Samosa Shankarpali Sabzi Zarda Puri Bhaji Indian diaspora Chicken tikka masala Fish head curry Phall Nasi kandar Pasembur Roti canai Category Commons Cookbook Food portal India portal Pakistani dishes by cuisine and region Balochi Kaak Sajji Kashmiri Dum Aloo Kahwah Kashmiri tea Rogan josh Wazwan Muhajir Mughlai Biryani Kebab Korma Nargisi Kofta Pasanda Rumali roti Shami kebab Sheer korma Miscellaneous Aloo tikki Baingan ka bartha Balushahi Bhalla Dahi chutney Golgappa Hyderabadi biryani Haleem Paya Masala chai Panipuri Nihari Paan Sheermal Pashtun Afghan bread Bolani Chapli kebab Gosh Feel Kabuli pulao Kadchgall Kadu bouranee Kahwah Mantu Peshwari naan Punjabi Lahori Chargha Lahori fried fish Gosht karahi Murgh cholay Kata - kat Miscellaneous Bhatoora Chana masala Chicken tikka Chole bhature Lassi Makki di roti Panjiri Punjabi pulao Sarson da saag Sugarcane juice Tandoori chicken Tikka Saraiki Sohan halwa Sindhi Beh Hyderabadi pickle Sai bhaji Sindhi biryani Sindhi pulao Sindhi karhi Common dishes Aloo gobi Aloo gosht Aloo paratha Bun kebab Chaat Chapati Chutney Dal Falooda Flattened rice Gajar ka halwa Gulab jamun Halwa Halwa poori Kheer Kulfi Puri Pakistani pickle Pakistani rice dishes Jalebi Khagina Kheer Khichra Khichri Laddu Magaj Naan Pakora Papadum Paratha Pulao Roti Saalan Samosa Chorba Tandoor bread Tea Zarda Pakistani diaspora Balti ( food ) Chicken tikka masala Pakistani Chinese Category Commons Cookbook Food portal Pakistan portal Sri Lankan cuisine Dishes Rice Biryani Diyabath Idli Kaha bath Kiribath Imbul Kiribath Lamprais Nasi goreng Pittu Rice and curry Roti Gothamba roti Kottu Pol roti Uraippu roti Other Dosa Hoppers Kola kandha Kool Mee goreng Sathe String hoppers Upma Side dishes Bread Gal Banis Jam paan Kimbula Banis Maalu paan Roast Paan Sri Lankan tea bun Theti Paan Curry Curry Brinjal paal curry Chicken curry Kakuluwo curry ( Crab curry ) Elumas ( Lamb curry ) Ismoru ( Beef Curry ) Jaffna lamb curry Malu Mirisata ( Fish Curry ) Moju ( Pork Curry ) Murunga curry Other Malay Achcharu Babath Cutlet Dal Ekor soup Gotukola Gova Kaldu Kiri hodi Mallung Papadum Rasam Sambol Katta sambal Pol sambola Seeni Banis Sini sambal Vaalai kai sambal Sri Lankan omelette Thakkadi Snacks Chinese rolls Kadala Lavariya Odiyal Pol Pani Sanja Sathe Surul appam Tapioca chips Vade Isso vade Parippu vade Ulundu vade Beverages Arrack Beer Faluda Koththamalli Masala chai Tea Toddy Sweets & desserts Aasmi Aggala Alpal Aluwa Athirasa Bibikkan Bolo Fiado Bombai muttai Breudher Chocolate biscuit pudding Surul appam Dodol Kalu dodol Kiri Dodol Dosi Inguru dosi Kiri dosi Puhul dosi Hakuru Kevum Konda kevum Mung kevum Naran kevum Thala kevum Undu kevum Kiri Toffee Kokis Love cake Modakam Mudavāpu meekiri Pandan cake Pani Kaju Pani walalu Pushnambu Sakkarai Muttai Seenakku Sukiri Thala Guli Undu Walalu Watalappam Weli Thalapa Condiments Chinese chili paste Lunumiris Thuna paha Ingredients Cardamom Cashew Chili pepper Cinnamon Coconut Coconut milk Condensed milk Fish Karapincha Kangkung Kithull Lemongrass Pandan Rice Treacle Turmeric Cuisine of Sri Lanka at Wikimedia Commons Sri Lanka portal Food portal Drink portal Legume dishes 15 bean soup Acarajé Amanattō Arroz con gandules Baked beans Bandeja paisa Bap Bean dip Bean pie Bean salad Bigilla Black peas Bob chorba Boiled peanuts Bouneschlupp Burmese tofu Caparrones Cassoulet Chana masala Chapea Cocido lebaniego Cocido madrileño Cocido montañés Cowboy beans Dal Dal bati churma Dal bhat Dalcha Deep - fried peanuts Dhokla Dilly beans Doubles Douzhi Fabada asturiana Fabes con almejas Falafel Fasolada Feijoada Frijoles negros Frijoles charros Ful medames Gallo pinto Garnaches Gigandes plaki Green bean casserole Guernsey Bean Jar Hong dou tang Hoppin ' John Hummus Idli Jidou liangfen Kongbap Kuli - kuli Lablabi Liangfen Linsen mit Spätzle Marrowfat peas Matevž Lobio Molagoottal Moros y Cristianos Msabbaha Mujaddara Murukku Mushy peas Nokdumuk Pabellón criollo Panelle Paripu Pasta e fagioli Pastizz Pasulj Patbap Patjuk Pea soup Peabutter Pease pudding Pie and peas Pie floater Pokhemma Pork and beans Porotos con rienda Purtumute Rajma Red bean cake Red bean paste Red beans and rice Refried beans Revalenta arabica Rice and beans Rice and peas Shahan ful Shiro Shiruko Soup beans Stew peas Succotash Texas caviar Tavče gravče Umngqusho Yun dou juan Category Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dal&oldid=836859441 '' Categories : Andhra cuisine Bangladeshi cuisine Bangladeshi soups and stews Bengali cuisine Bihari cuisine Indian cuisine Indian soups and stews Legume dishes Lentil dishes Muhajir cuisine Nepalese cuisine Pakistani soups and stews Plant common names Punjabi cuisine Rajasthani cuisine Soups Uttar Pradeshi cuisine Sri Lankan legume dishes Hidden categories : Articles needing additional references from March 2014 All articles needing additional references Use Indian English from August 2013 All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from December 2016 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Azərbaycanca বাংলা Dansk Deutsch Español Esperanto Français ગુજરાતી 한국어 Հայերեն हिन्दी עברית ಕನ್ನಡ Lietuvių മലയാളം Nederlands नेपाली 日本 語 Norsk ଓଡ଼ିଆ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Polski Português Română Русский සිංහල Svenska తెలుగు ไทย 20 more Edit links This page was last edited on 17 April 2018 , at 08 : 03 . 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who writes the guinness book of world records
Guinness World Records - wikipedia Guinness World Records Jump to : navigation , search Guinness World Records Editor Craig Glenday ( ed . ) Cover artist Simon Jones Language English , Arabic , Bulgarian , Chinese , Croatian , Czech , Danish , Dutch , Estonian , Filipino , Finnish , French , German , Greek , Hebrew , Hungarian , Icelandic , Italian , Japanese , Korean , Latvian , Norwegian , Persian , Polish , Portuguese , Romanian , Russian , Slovak , Slovene , Spanish , Swedish , and Turkish Subject World Records Genre Reference Publisher Jim Pattison Group Publication date November 10 , 1951 -- present Published in English 1955 -- present Media type Book , Television Guinness World Records , known from its inception in 1955 until 1998 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records , is a reference book published annually , listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world . The book itself holds a world record , as the best - selling copyrighted book of all time . As of the 2017 edition , it is now in its 63rd year of publication , published in 100 countries and 23 languages . The international franchise has extended beyond print to include television series and museums . The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloging and verification of a huge number of world records ; the organization employs official record adjudicators authorized to verify the authenticity of the setting and breaking of records . Contents ( hide ) 1 History 2 Evolution 3 Defining records 3.1 Ethical and safety issues 3.2 Difficulty in defining records 4 Verifying existing records 5 Museums 6 Television series 7 Gamer 's edition 8 British pop music volume 9 Other media 9.1 Video games 9.2 Film 10 References 11 External links History ( edit ) On 10 November 1951 , Sir Hugh Beaver , then the managing director of the Guinness Breweries , went on a shooting party in the North Slob , by the River Slaney in County Wexford , Ireland . After missing a shot at a golden plover , he became involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe , the golden plover or the red grouse . ( It is the plover . ) That evening at Castlebridge House , he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe 's fastest game bird . Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad , but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records . He realized then that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful . Beaver 's idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter , who had been running a fact - finding agency in London . The twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954 . A thousand copies were printed and given away . After the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street , the first 198 - page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas . The following year , it launched in the US , and sold 70,000 copies . Since then , Guinness World Records has become a household name and the global leader in world records . The book has gone on to become a record breaker in its own right ; with sales of more than 100 million copies in 100 different countries and 37 languages , Guinness World Records is the world 's best selling copyright book ever . Because the book became a surprise hit , many further editions were printed , eventually settling into a pattern of one revision a year , published in September / October , in time for Christmas . The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years . Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory ; on the TV series Record Breakers , based upon the book , they would take questions posed by children in the audience on various world records and were able to give the correct answer . Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975 . Following Ross ' assassination , the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot . Guinness Superlatives ( later Guinness World Records ) Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book . Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades . The group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001 , when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment . Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002 . In 2006 , Apax Partners purchased HiT and subsequently sold Guinness World Records in early 2008 to the Jim Pattison Group , the parent company of Ripley Entertainment , which is licensed to operate Guinness World Records ' Attractions . With offices in New York City and Tokyo , Guinness World Records ' global headquarters remain in London , while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando , Florida , US . Evolution ( edit ) Lucky Diamond Rich is `` the world 's most tattooed person '' , and has tattoos covering his entire body . He holds the Guinness world record as of 2006 , being 100 percent tattooed . Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors . Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting to the longest egg tossing distances , or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in ten minutes , although eating and alcohol consumption entries are no longer accepted , possibly for fear of litigation . Besides records about competitions , it contains such facts as the heaviest tumour , the most poisonous plant , the shortest river ( Roe River ) , the two longest - running dramas ( General Hospital and Guiding Light ) in the US , and the world 's most successful salesman ( Joe Girard ) , among others . Many records also relate to the youngest person who achieved something , such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world , being Maurizio Giuliano . Clyde Beatty holds the record for mixing 40 lions and tigers in one cage with himself Each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness database , as well as select new records ; the criteria for inclusion having changed over the years . The ousting of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell the Guinness World Records brand have shifted it from a text - oriented to an illustrated reference book ( `` style over substance '' ) . The majority of world records are no longer listed in the book or on the website , and can only be determined by a written application to Guinness to ' break ' the record . For those unable to wait the 4 -- 6 weeks for a reply , Guinness will process a ' fast - track ' application for £ 300 ( US $450 ) . The Guinness Book of Records is the world 's most sold copyrighted book , earning it an entry within its own pages . A number of spin - off books and television series have also been produced . Guinness World Records bestowed the record of `` Person with the most records '' on Ashrita Furman of Queens , NY in April 2009 . At that time , he held 100 records . In 2005 , Guinness designated 9 November as International Guinness World Records Day to encourage breaking of world records . In 2006 , an estimated 100,000 people participated in over 10 countries . Guinness reported 2,244 new records in 12 months , which was a 173 % increase over the previous year . In February 2008 , NBC aired The Top 100 Guinness World Records of All Time and Guinness World Records made the complete list available on their website . Defining Records ( edit ) Sultan Kösen ( Turkey ) is the tallest living person since 17 September 2009 , as verified by Guinness World Records . Play media Cracking open a wheel of Parmigiano - Reggiano cheese as a part of a 2013 world record by Whole Foods Market . For many records , Guinness World Records is the effective authority on the exact requirements for them and with whom records reside , the company providing adjudicators to events to determine the veracity of record attempts . The list of records which the Guinness World Records covers is not fixed ; records may be added and also removed for various reasons . The public are invited to submit applications for records , which can be either the bettering of existing records or substantial achievements which could constitute a new record . The company also provides corporate services for companies to `` harness the power of record - breaking to deliver tangible success for their businesses . '' Ethical and safety issues ( edit ) Steven Petrosino drinking 1 litre of beer in 1.3 seconds in June 1977 . Petrosino set record times for 250 ml , 500 ml and 1.5 liters as well , but Guinness accepted only the record for one liter . They later dropped all beer and alcohol records from their compendium in 1991 , and reinstated the records in 2008 . Guinness World Records states several types of records it will not accept for ethical reasons , such as those related to the killing or harming of animals . Several world records that were once included in the book have been removed for ethical reasons , including concerns for the well being of potential record breakers . For example , following publication of a `` heaviest fish '' record , many fish owners overfed their pets beyond the bounds of what was healthy , and therefore such entries were removed . The Guinness Book also dropped records within their `` eating and drinking records '' section of Human Achievements in 1991 over concerns that potential competitors could harm themselves and expose the publisher to potential litigation . These changes included the removal of all liquor , wine , and beer drinking records , along with other unusual records for consuming such unlikely things as bicycles and trees . Other records , such as sword swallowing and rally driving ( on public roads ) , were closed from further entry as the current holders had performed beyond what are considered safe human tolerance levels . There have been instances of closed records being reopened . For example , the sword swallowing record was listed as closed in the 1990 Guinness Book of World Records , but the Guinness World Records Primetime TV show , which started in 1998 , accepted three sword swallowing challenges ( and so did the 2007 edition of the Guinness World Records onwards ) . Similarly , the speed beer drinking records which were dropped from the book in 1991 , reappeared 17 years later in the 2008 edition , but were moved from the `` Human Achievements '' section of the older book to the `` Modern Society '' section of the newer edition . As of 2011 , it is required in the guidelines of all `` large food '' type records that the item be fully edible , and distributed to the public for consumption , to prevent food wastage . Chain letters are also not allowed : `` Guinness World Records does not accept any records relating to chain letters , sent by post or e-mail . If you receive a letter or an e-mail , which may promise to publish the names of all those who send it on , please destroy it , it is a hoax . No matter if it says that Guinness World Records and the postal service are involved , they are not . '' Difficulty in defining Records ( edit ) For some potential categories , Guinness World Records has declined to list some records that are too difficult or impossible to determine . For example , its website states : `` We do not accept any claims for beauty as it is not objectively measurable . '' On 10 December 2010 , Guinness World Records stopped its new `` dreadlock '' category after investigation of its first and only female title holder , Asha Mandela , determining it was impossible to judge this record accurately . Verifying existing Records ( edit ) Guinness World Records website publishes selected records and is not supposed to be used for the record verification purposes , as it explains : `` There are more than 40,000 current records in our database and we try our best to feature as many as possible online . We currently include over 15,000 records online which we update every week , so make sure to check the site regularly ! '' . The book printed annually contains only 4000 records . The only way to verify a record is by contacting Guinness , expecting average response time of 2 weeks . Museums ( edit ) Guinness Museum in Hollywood In 1976 , a Guinness Book of World Records museum opened in the Empire State Building . Speed shooter Bob Munden then went on tour promoting The Guinness Book of World Records by performing his record fast draws with a standard weight single - action revolver from a western movie type holster . His fastest time for a draw was . 02 seconds . Among exhibits were life - size statues of the world 's tallest man ( Robert Wadlow ) and world 's largest earth worm , an X-ray photo of a sword swallower , repeated lightning strike victim Roy Sullivan 's hat complete with lightning holes and a pair of gem - studded golf shoes on sale for $6500 . The museum closed in 1995 . In more recent years , the Guinness company has permitted the franchising of small museums with displays based on the book , all currently ( as of 2010 ) located in towns popular with tourists : Tokyo , Copenhagen , San Antonio . There were once Guinness World Records museums and exhibitions at the London Trocadero , Bangalore , San Francisco , Myrtle Beach , Orlando , Atlantic City , New Jersey , and Las Vegas , Nevada . The Orlando museum , which closed in 2002 , was branded The Guinness Records Experience ; the Hollywood , Niagara Falls , Copenhagen , and Gatlinburg , Tennessee museums also previously featured this branding . Television series ( edit ) Guinness World Records has commissioned various television series documenting world record breaking attempts , including : Country / region Name Network Broadcast Host ( s ) Australia Australia 's Guinness World Records Seven Network 2005 Grant Denyer Shelley Craft Australia Smashes Guinness World Records James Kerley China The Night of Guinness in China CCTV 2006 -- Wang Xuechun , Zhu Xun , Lin Hai France L'émission des records ( 1999 -- 2002 ) L'été des records ( 2001 ) TF1 1999 -- 2002 Vincent Perrot L'été de tous les records ( 2003 -- 2005 ) 50 ans , 50 records ( 2004 ) France 3 2003 -- 2005 Pierre Sled La nuit des records France 2 2006 Olivier Minne Adriana Karembeu Le monde des records W9 2008 -- 2010 Alexandre Devoise Karine Ferri Les trésors du livre des records Gulli 2015 Fauve Hautot Willy Rovelli Germany Guinness World Records - Die größten Weltrekorde RTL Television 2004 -- 2008 Oliver Welke ( 2004 ) Oliver Geissen ( 2005 -- 2008 ) India Guinness World Records -- Ab India Todega Colors TV 2011 Preity Zinta Shabbir Ahluwalia Italy Lo show dei record Canale 5 2006 -- Barbara d'Urso ( 1 , 3 -- 4 ) Paola Perego ( 5 ) Gerry Scotti ( 2 , 6 ) Teo Mammucari ( 7 ) New Zealand NZ Smashes Guinness World Records TV2 2009 Marc Ellis Philippines Guinness Book of World Records Philippine Edition ABC ? ? Poland Światowe Rekordy Guinnessa Polsat 2009 -- 2011 Maciej Dowbor Portugal Guinness World Records Portugal SIC 2014 Rita Andrade João Ricardo Spain El show de los récords Antena 3 2001 -- 2002 Mar Saura Manu Carreño Mónica Martínez Guinness World Records Telecinco 2009 -- Carmen Alcayde Luis Alfonso Muñoz Sweden Guinness rekord - TV TV3 1999 -- 2000 Mårten Andersson ( 1999 ) Linda Nyberg ( 1999 ) Harald Treutiger ( 2000 ) Suzanne Sjögren ( 2000 ) United Kingdom Record Breakers BBC1 1972 -- 2001 Roy Castle ( 1972 -- 1993 ) Norris McWhirter ( 1972 -- 85 ) Ross McWhirter ( 1972 -- 75 ) Guinness World Records ( UK ) ITV 1999 -- 2001 Ian Wright Kate Charman Ultimate Guinness World Records Challenge Jamie Rickers Guinness World Records Smashed Sky1 2008 -- 2009 Steve Jones Konnie Huq Totally Bonkers Guinness Book of Records ITV2 2012 -- 2015 Matt Edmondson Officially Amazing CBBC 2013 -- Ben Shires United States The Guinness Game Syndicated 1979 -- 1980 Bob Hilton Don Galloway Guinness World Records Primetime Fox 1998 -- 2001 Cris Collinsworth Mark Thompson Guinness World Records Unleashed / Gone Wild truTV 2013 -- 2014 Dan Cortese Specials : Guinness World Records : 50 Years , 50 Records - on ITV ( UK ) , 11 September 2004 With the popularity of reality television , Guinness World Records began to market itself as the originator of the television genre , with slogans such as we wrote the book on Reality TV . Suresh Joachim Arulanantham is a Tamil Canadian film actor and producer and multiple - Guinness World Record holder who has broken over 50 world records set in several countries in attempts to benefit the underprivileged children around the world . Some world record attempts are more unusual than others : he is pictured here minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes , at Shoppers World , Brampton . Gamer 's edition ( edit ) Not to be confused with Guinness World Records : The Video Game . In 2008 , Guinness World Records released its gamer 's edition in association with Twin Galaxies . The Gamer 's Edition contains 258 pages , over 1236 video game related world records and four interviews including one with Twin Galaxies founder Walter Day . The most recent edition is the Guinness World Records Gamer 's Edition , 2017 , which was released August 30 , 2016 . British pop music volume ( edit ) Main article : British Hit Singles & Albums The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums was published from 2003 to 2012 , based on two earlier , separate HiT publications , British Hit Singles and British Hit Albums , which began in 1977 . It was effectively replaced ( in singles part ) by the Virgin Book of British Hit Singles from 2007 onward . Other media ( edit ) Video games ( edit ) A video game , Guinness World Records : The Video Game , was developed by TT Fusion and released for Nintendo DS , Wii and iOS in November 2008 . Film ( edit ) In 2012 , Warner Bros. announced the development of a live - action film version of Guinness World Records with Daniel Chun as scriptwriter . The film version will apparently use the heroic achievements of record holders as the basis for a narrative that should have global appeal . References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` Corporate '' . Guinness World Records . Archived from the original on 19 March 2010 . Retrieved 19 October 2010 . ^ Jump up to : `` Frequently Asked Questions '' . Guinness World Records . Archived from the original on 24 January 2012 . Retrieved 10 February 2012 . Jump up ^ `` The History of the Book '' . Guinness Record Book Collecting . Retrieved 10 February 2012 . Jump up ^ Fionn Davenport ( 2010 ) . Ireland . Lonely Planet . p. 193 . ISBN 9781742203508 . Jump up ^ `` Early history of Guinness World Records '' . 2005 . p. 2 . Archived from the original on 1 July 2007 . Jump up ^ Cavendish , Richard ( August 2005 ) . `` Publication of the Guinness Book of Records : 27 August 1955 '' . History Today . 55 . Jump up ^ Guinness World Records 2005 . Guinness ; 50th Anniversary edition . 2004 . p. 6 . ISBN 1892051222 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness Book History 1950 - Present '' . spyhunter007.com . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Records Corporate - Home '' . guinnessworldrecords.com . Archived from the original on 21 August 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Record Breakers ' McWhirter dies '' . BBC News . 20 April 2004 . Retrieved 9 June 2014 . Jump up ^ Guinness Book of World Records ( UK ed . ) . 2006 . p. 126 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Records honors one man 's historic milestone -- 100 Records Broken ! -- Guinness World Records Blog post '' . community.guinnessworldrecords.com . Archived from the original on 12 June 2009 . Retrieved 29 December 2009 . ^ Jump up to : `` Records Shatter Across the Globe in Honor of Guinness World Records Day 2006 '' . Retrieved 29 April 2007 . Jump up ^ Guinness World Records Live : Top 100 . Guinness World Records . Retrieved on 6 November 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Whey to go : Whole Foods Market ® cracks Parmigiano Reggiano Guinness World Records ® Title '' . Yahoo Finance . 22 April 2013 . Retrieved 15 June 2013 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Records Corportate '' . Guinness World Records . Archived from the original on 12 May 2012 . Retrieved 10 May 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Beer Record '' . 11 June 2004 . Retrieved 10 February 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Video clip '' . Retrieved 29 April 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` IS YOUR PROPOSAL A POTENTIAL GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS TM ACHIEVEMENT ? '' . `` Guinness World Records '' . Retrieved 10 May 2012 . Jump up ^ Fish World Records . Fish - World . Retrieved on 19 October 2010 . ^ Jump up to : Guinness Book of World Records . 1990 . p. 464 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Record Book Entry '' . Guinness World Beer Record . 11 June 2004 . Retrieved 10 February 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness World Record Book Entry 2008 '' . Guinness World Beer Record . 11 June 2004 . Retrieved 10 February 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Longest Dreadlock Record -- Rested -- Guinness World Records Blog post -- Home of the Longest , Shortest , Fastest , Tallest facts and feats '' . Community.guinnessworldrecords.com . Retrieved 4 November 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Frequently Asked Questions '' . Guinness World Records . Retrieved 2016 - 12 - 14 . Jump up ^ `` Bob Munden Six - Gun Magic Custom Gunsmithing - Bob & Becky Munden - Six - Gun Magic Gunwork '' . bobmunden.com . Jump up ^ In Praise of Facts , by John Leonard , the introduction to the New York Times Desk Reference Jump up ^ `` Travel & Outdoors - The Good , The Bad , The Ugly : A 1995 Travel Retrospective - Seattle Times Newspaper '' . nwsource.com . ^ Jump up to : Brown , Robert H. `` The Guinness World Records Experience : one of Florida 's Lost Tourist Attractions '' . Retrieved 1 February 2009 . Jump up ^ Ripley Entertainment , Inc . `` Guinness World Records Experience locations '' . Archived from the original on 20 January 2009 . Retrieved 1 February 2009 . ^ Jump up to : Ripley Entertainment , Inc. ( 20 November 2002 ) . `` Guinness World Records Experience locations '' . Internet Archive Wayback Machine . Archived from the original on 20 November 2002 . Retrieved 1 February 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Guinness Book of World Records could be next big brand name to hit cinemas '' . Guardian . 8 June 2012 . Retrieved 18 December 2012 . External links ( edit ) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guinness World Records . 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jolene please don't take him just because you can lyrics
Jolene ( song ) - wikipedia Jolene ( song ) Jump to : navigation , search For other songs of similar name , see Jolene . `` Jolene '' Single by Dolly Parton from the album Jolene B - side `` Love , You 're So Beautiful Tonight '' Released October 1973 Format 7 '' single Recorded RCA Studio B , Nashville ; May 22 , 1973 Genre Country pop bluegrass Length 2 : 42 Label RCA Songwriter ( s ) Dolly Parton Producer ( s ) Bob Ferguson Dolly Parton singles chronology `` Traveling Man '' ( 1973 ) `` Jolene '' ( 1973 ) `` I Will Always Love You '' ( 1974 ) `` Traveling Man '' ( 1973 ) `` Jolene '' ( 1973 ) `` I Will Always Love You '' ( 1974 ) `` Jolene '' is a song written and performed by American country music artist Dolly Parton . It was released in October 1973 as the first single and title track from her album of the same name , produced by Bob Ferguson . The song was ranked No. 217 on Rolling Stone magazine 's list of `` the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time '' in 2004 . According to Parton , `` Jolene '' is the song most recorded by other artists of all the songs she has written . `` Jolene '' was nominated for two Grammy Awards for Best Female Country Vocal Performance ( first for the original release and the following year for a live version ) ; despite not winning originally , the song eventually earned Parton a Grammy Award for Best Country Duo / Group Performance 43 years after its original release , for a cover by the a capella group Pentatonix in which she was also featured . Contents ( hide ) 1 Background 2 Charts and certifications 2.1 Weekly charts 2.2 Certifications 3 The White Stripes 4 Pentatonix 4.1 Charts 5 Other cover versions 6 Answer songs 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Background ( edit ) `` Jolene '' tells the tale of a woman confronting Jolene , a stunningly beautiful woman , who she believes is trying to steal away her lover and begging her `` please do n't take my man . '' Throughout the song , the woman implores Jolene `` please do n't take him just because you can . '' According to Parton , the song was inspired by a red - headed bank clerk who flirted with her husband Carl Dean at his local bank branch around the time they were newly married . In an interview , she also revealed that Jolene 's name and appearance are based on that of a young fan who came on stage for her autograph . The song became Parton 's second solo number - one single on the country charts after being released as a single in late 1973 ( prior to the album 's release ) . It reached the top position in February 1974 ; it was also a moderate pop hit for her and a minor adult contemporary chart entry . The song has sold 733,000 digital copies in the US since it became available for digital download . The song was released as a single later in the UK , and became Parton 's first top ten hit song in the country , reaching number seven in the UK Singles Chart in 1976 . The song also re-entered the chart when Parton performed at the Glastonbury festival in 2014 . The song has sold 255,300 digital copies in the UK as of January 2017 . The thumb - picked guitar on the recording is by Chip Young . Charts and certifications ( edit ) Weekly charts ( edit ) Chart ( 1973 -- 76 ) Peak position Canada ( RPM ) 84 Canada Adult Contemporary Songs ( RPM ) 40 Canada Country Singles ( RPM ) Denmark ( Tracklisten ) 19 Ireland ( IRMA ) 8 Sweden ( Sverigetopplistan ) 16 UK Singles ( Official Charts Company ) 7 US Billboard Hot 100 60 US Adult Contemporary ( Billboard ) 44 US Country Songs ( Billboard ) Certifications ( edit ) Region Certification Certified units / Sales Denmark ( IFPI Denmark ) Gold 5,000 United Kingdom ( BPI ) Silver 200,000 United States ( RIAA ) Gold 500,000 shipments figures based on certification alone sales + streaming figures based on certification alone The White Stripes ( edit ) `` Jolene ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' Single by The White Stripes from the album Under Blackpool Lights Released November 20 , 2004 Format CD 7 '' Genre Garage rock alternative rock Length 2 : 37 Label XL Songwriter ( s ) Dolly Parton Producer ( s ) Jack White The White Stripes singles chronology `` There 's No Home for You Here '' ( 2004 ) `` Jolene ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' ( 2004 ) `` Blue Orchid '' ( 2005 ) `` There 's No Home for You Here '' ( 2004 ) `` Jolene ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' ( 2004 ) `` Blue Orchid '' ( 2005 ) `` Jolene ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' was released as a live single by American garage rock band The White Stripes . The single reached No. 16 in the UK Singles Chart in November 2004 . The White Stripes previously released a studio version of `` Jolene '' , as the B - side to their 2000 single of `` Hello Operator '' , from the album De Stijl . In Australia , the song was ranked No. 10 on Triple J 's Hottest 100 of 2004 . Another live performance of the song is featured on the 2010 live album Under Great White Northern Lights . The White Stripes ' version was voted one of the greatest live covers by readers of Rolling Stone magazine . Track listing `` Jolene ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' `` Black Math ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' ( only on CD version ) `` Do ( Live Under Blackpool Lights ) '' ( only on vinyl flip side ) Pentatonix ( edit ) `` Jolene '' Single by Pentatonix featuring Dolly Parton from the album PTX , Vol. IV - Classics Released September 16 , 2016 Format Digital download Length 2 : 11 Songwriter ( s ) Dolly Parton Pentatonix singles chronology `` If I Ai n't Got You '' ( 2016 ) `` Jolene '' ( 2016 ) `` Hallelujah '' ( 2016 ) `` If I Ai n't Got You '' ( 2016 ) `` Jolene '' ( 2016 ) `` Hallelujah '' ( 2016 ) Dolly Parton singles chronology `` Forever Country '' ( 2016 ) Forever Country 2016 `` Jolene ' '' ( 2016 ) Jolene'2016 In September 2016 , the American a cappella group Pentatonix released a cover of the song with Dolly Parton herself as feature artist . The cover won the Grammy Award for Best Country Duo / Group Performance . Charts ( edit ) Chart ( 2016 ) Peak position Australia ( ARIA ) 92 Canada ( Canadian Hot 100 ) 84 New Zealand Heatseekers ( Recorded Music NZ ) 5 Scotland ( Official Charts Company ) 93 US Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles ( Billboard ) US Hot Country Songs ( Billboard ) 18 Other cover versions ( edit ) Peter James Band Jolene the 8th track on the Livin ' For The Summer album released August 2015 . This is the male version done in a country ballad style . Olivia Newton - John Olivia Newton - John 's version of `` Jolene '' is featured on her 1976 album Come on Over . Newton - John 's version was released as a single in Japan . Leila Forouhar Persian pop singer Leila Forouhar 's cover of `` Jolene '' was released on her 1976 album Do Parande ( The Two Birds , error : ( ( lang - xx ) ) : text has italic markup ( help ) ) . Strawberry Switchblade Scottish female pop group Strawberry Switchblade released an electro - pop version as a single in the UK and Japan in 1985 , and it was later included on an expanded edition of their 1985 s / t album . Darcy Clay Darcy Clay included a cover version of the song on his 1997 EP Jesus I Was Evil . Queenadreena British alternative rock group Queenadreena has covered the song in 2000 . Sherrié Austin Sherrié Austin 's version of `` Jolene '' is the second track on her 2001 album Followin ' A Feeling . It was released as a single , and peaked at # 55 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart in April 2001 . Mindy Smith Mindy Smith covered `` Jolene '' in 2003 , both for her debut album One Moment More and the Dolly Parton tribute album Just Because I 'm a Woman . Parton described this cover as her favorite version of the song . The version with Mindy Smith was performed on stage with Dolly Parton , who is also featured in the official music video . Susanna and the Magical Orchestra Norwegian duo Susanna and the Magical Orchestra covered the `` Jolene '' in 2004 for their debut album List of Lights and Buoys . Me First and the Gimme Gimmes The punk cover band Me First and the Gimme Gimmes cover the song on their sixth album Love Their Country , released in October 2006 . Sophie Ellis - Bextor British singer Sophie Ellis - Bextor covered the song in 2008 , and it was used on the new BBC series Beautiful People . Ellie Goulding Ellie Goulding covered this song in 2009 . Miley Cyrus In 2012 , Miley Cyrus ( Parton 's goddaughter ) performed a version in a `` Backyard Sessions '' video found on Cyrus ' official website which gained some attention . Dami Im On August 12 , 2013 , during the fifth season of The X Factor Australia Dami Im covered `` Jolene '' during Super Bootcamp but forgot the lyrics . Although she did complete the track , she was eliminated from the competition . Just prior to the Home Visits round , another contestant pulled out , and Im was invited back to resume the competition . She eventually went on to win the series and received a contract with Sony Music Australia . Im has released an acoustic version of the song . Katy B Katy B sang the song live on Zane Lowe mixed with her song `` Aaliyah '' in 2014 . The Sisters of Mercy The Sisters of Mercy often covered this song in concert as part of a series of tasteful but goth - `` uncool '' covers to provoke the audience . It can be heard on their live bootleg Amphetamine - Boeblingen . Laura Marling Laura Marling has covered this song with Mumford & Sons . Anneke van Giersbergen Dutch singer Anneke van Giersbergen , former member of the Dutch band The Gathering , has covered this song , a few times , live on stage . Other versions In addition to the above , `` Jolene '' has been performed by numerous performers , including the Finnish singer Vicky Rosti in 1976 , Dutch singer Patricia Paay in 1977 , Natalie Merchant , 1980 's new wave group Rubber Rodeo ( 1981 ) , Keith Urban , The Weepies , Jill Johnson on the 2007 album Music Row , Reba McEntire , Katie B , Sherrié Austin , Rhonda Vincent , the Geraldine Fibbers , Lacrimosa , Queen Adreena , Ashley Arrison , Alison Krauss , dance music act One Dove , the Macedonian - German singer Alexander Veljanov , the Japanese bubblegum pop trio Candies , Norwegian singer Elisabeth Andreassen in 2004 , and Irish American musician Moira Nelligan . The song was frequently covered in reality singing competition . On American Idol , the song was covered by Brooke White , Alexis Grace , and Jessica Meuse . It was also covered in the third season of Australian Idol by Klancie Keough . Las Chicas Del Can covered this song in the 1980s . The Chilean cumbia compositor Paskual Ramirez made a ' Spanish - translated ' cover with cumbia rhythms , partially based on the translation made by Las Chicas del Can for the LP : Fantasía Vol. 1 ( 1991 ) and a techno - cumbia re-arrangement of the cover for the disc Paskual y su Alegría -- Internacional ( 2000 ) . His mate Claudia sang in the first version and his daughter Eva sang in the 2000s rearrangement . A 1994 version by Swedish show group Spirella Girls was named `` Brolin , Brolin '' and was about Swedish soccer player Tomas Brolin . `` Jolene '' was remixed as a dance track by Money , a dance group offshoot of British group James in the late 1990s . The lyrics were a sample from Parton herself , with new vocals ( explaining the man in the song 's point of view ) , by Saul Davies . In 2003 , as part of an episode of CMT Crossroads , the song was performed as a duet by Parton and Melissa Etheridge , with Etheridge taking lead vocals . In 2007 , Jolene is featured , on an episode of American Dad . In 2006 , the song also appeared in Back To Mine , a mix album mix by Liam Howlett . The song was parodied by Australian satirical comedy show The Chaser 's War on Everything . The title was altered to `` Pauline '' in a reference to former One Nation Party leader Pauline Hanson . In 2008 , Icelandic artist Lay Low covered this song for the Ökutímar soundtrack . She later recorded a live version for her 2012 album Live at Home . In 2010 , Parton 's original version was featured and performed by Jessica Lowndes as Adrianna Tate - Duncan in the 90210 episode `` What 's Past is Prologue '' . In 2011 was also played at some concerts of Fiona Apple . In 2011 , John Mayer , Keith Urban , and Norah Jones performed the song at the Grammy Awards as a tribute to Dolly Parton . Vicci Martinez covered the song on The Voice . In 2011 , Samuel Larsen performed this song in the finals of Oxygen 's reality competition series The Glee Project . Larsen won the competition along with a fellow contender . It was performed on the show Glee by Dot Marie Jones who portrays Coach Beiste in the episode `` I Kissed a Girl '' . The episode aired on November 29 , 2011 . In 2012 , The Little Willies covered the song on their album For the Good Times with Norah Jones on lead vocals . In 2012 , Brandi Carlile covered this song on her Bear Creek tour . In 2012 , Sandra van Nieuwland , a Dutch singer , covered this song for her album And More . In 2013 , Straight No Chaser , an a cappella group from Indiana , covered this song ( with featured vocalist Dolly Parton herself ) on their 2013 album Under the Influence . In 2013 , YouTube user goodlittlebuddy 's slowed - down version of `` Jolene '' rose to internet fame . The song was played at 33RPM instead of 45RPM , which represents a 25 % slow down from the original . This version was featured during season one of the NBC television series The Blacklist . In July 2014 , Tori Amos covered the song on her Unrepentant Geraldines Tour . In 2014 , Natalie Bream covered the song , by changing the lyrics from `` Jolene '' to `` Fleur Bream '' , who is Bream 's pet cat . The cat Fleur has gained notoriety , by starring in hit soap Emmerdale . Melinda Schneider and Beccy Cole covered the song on their album Great Women of Country ( 2014 ) . In March 2015 , the song was parodied in the fourth episode of Community by changing the lyrics from `` Jolene '' to `` Gay dean '' . In July 2015 , Grace Pitts covered this song in the blind auditions of the fourth season of The Voice Australia , with two coaches ( Delta Goodrem and The Madden Brothers ) turning around for her . She then chose to join Team Delta . In July 2015 , a parody version aired on Austria 's alternative radio station FM4 , sung by the two radio show hosts Hannes Duscher and Roland Gratzer . The title was changed from `` Jolene '' to `` Nadine '' , and the changed song lyrics are sung in German from Austria . This version became quite popular in Austria during the summer . In August 2015 , Dutch tech - house producer and DJ Ferreck Dawn made a modern - day cover of `` Jolene '' . In December 2015 , the German band The BossHoss and the Dutch band The Common Linnets made a country music cover of `` Jolene '' . In 2016 , single `` Because You Can ( Jolene ) '' by Chad Cooper . The American group Hyperbubble recorded a cover for their 2017 album Western Ware . Norwegian dance crew Quick Style performed to a version of this song on the hit NBC show World of Dance ( 2017 ) . In August 2017 , the Central Coast ( New South Wales , Australia ) based singer - songwriter Chelsea Berman recorded a cover of `` Jolene '' . In September 2017 , satirist Roy Zimmerman recorded a parody entitled `` Joel Osteen '' , criticizing Joel Osteen for his delay in offering shelter to Hurricane Harvey victims . Answer songs ( edit ) Kirsty Maccoll 's 1994 single `` Caroline '' is in - spirit response song to `` Jolene , '' in which the Jolene character grieves the loss of her best friend ( the titular Caroline ) after having an affair with Caroline 's husband . In 2011 , Estonian indie rock band Ewert and the Two Dragons released an answer song , also titled `` Jolene , '' in response to the original recording . In this version , Parton 's `` man '' directly addresses Jolene , telling her that nothing will ever happen between them and that his current lover would fight to get him back . In 2013 , country singer Jennifer Nettles recorded `` That Girl , '' which she stated in interviews should be subtitled `` The Ballad of Jolene . '' The song is written from the perspective of the Jolene character , who Nettle feels is unfairly maligned in the original song . In this version , the other woman is shown to have no interest in taking another woman 's man , and her song is in fact framed as a warning to Parton 's character that `` her man '' has a roving eye . In 2013 , The Beautiful South guitarist David Rotheray recorded an album of answer songs , among which is `` Jolene 's Song , '' performed by Julie Murphy . This version of Jolene is equally heartbroken to learn that the man who loves her belongs to another woman and expresses her pain at being painted as a heartless temptress by the original song . In 2017 , American singer - songwriter Cam released her single Diane in response to Parton 's song . The song is sung from Jolene 's point of view , where she sings to ' Diane ' , Parton 's character , and states that she did not know that ' her man ' was her man . Cam noted to Rolling Stone Country that the song is her `` response to Dolly Parton 's ' Jolene . ' It 's the apology so many spouses deserve , but never get . The other woman is coming forward to break the news to the wife about an affair , respecting her enough to have that hard conversation , once she realized he was married . Because everyone should be able to decide their own path in life , based on the truth . Women especially should do this for each other , since our self - worth can still be so wrapped up in our partners . And in true country fashion , I 've set the whole raw story to upbeat music , so you can dance while you process it all . '' See also ( edit ) Jolene ( 2008 film ) `` That Girl '' , a song by Jennifer Nettles that serves as a lyrical counterpart to `` Jolene '' References ( edit ) Jump up ^ `` The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time '' . Rolling Stone . 2004 - 12 - 09 . ^ Jump up to : `` Dolly Parton 's ' Jolene ' Still Haunts Singers '' . NPR . October 9 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Dolly Parton and Pentatonix win country duo / roup performance award for ' Jolene ' '' . Los Angeles Times . Randall Roberts . Retrieved April 10 , 2017 . Jump up ^ Simon Usborne ( July 1 , 2014 ) . `` Glastonbury 2014 : So who 's Jolene ? '' . The Independent . Jump up ^ Bjorke , Matt ( November 8 , 2016 ) . `` Top 30 Digital Singles Sales Report : November 8 , 2016 '' . Roughstock . ^ Jump up to : Copsey , Rob ( 19 January 2017 ) . `` Happy Birthday Dolly Parton ! Her most downloaded songs in the UK revealed '' . Official Charts Company . Retrieved 21 March 2017 . Jump up ^ http://www.nashvillescene.com/music/article/13057379/chip-young-legendary-nashville-session-guitarist-and-producer-dies-at-76 Jump up ^ `` Top Singles - Volume 21 , No. 3 , March 02 1974 '' . RPM . Collectionscanada.gc.ca . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Adult Contemporary - Volume 21 , No. 2 , February 23 , 1974 '' . RPM . Collectionscanada.gc.ca . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Country Singles - Volume 21 , No. 1 , February 16 , 1974 '' . RPM . Collectionscanada.gc.ca . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Danishcharts.com -- Dolly Parton -- Jolene '' . Tracklisten . Jump up ^ `` The Irish Charts - Search the Charts - Jolene '' . Irish Recorded Music Association . Irishcharts.ie . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Swedishcharts.com -- Dolly Parton -- Jolene '' . Singles Top 100 . Jump up ^ `` Official Singles Chart Top 100 '' . Official Charts Company . Jump up ^ `` Dolly Parton Chart History ( Hot 100 ) '' Billboard . Jump up ^ `` Chart Search Results - Adult Contemporary 1974 - 02 - 23 '' . Billboard.biz . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Dolly Parton Awards '' . AllMusic . Retrieved November 2 , 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Cerificeringer '' ( in Danish ) . IFPI Denmark . Retrieved 30 October 2012 . Jump up ^ `` British single certifications -- Dolly Parton -- Jolene '' . British Phonographic Industry . Enter Jolene in the search field and then press Enter . Jump up ^ `` American single certifications -- Dolly Parton -- Jolene '' . Recording Industry Association of America . If necessary , click Advanced , then click Format , then select Single , then click SEARCH Jump up ^ `` Readers ' Poll : The Greatest Live Cover Songs '' . Rolling Stone . Jump up ^ `` Jolene ( feat . Dolly Parton ) - Single by Pentatonix on Apple Music '' . Itunes.apple.com. 2016 - 09 - 16 . Retrieved 2016 - 10 - 08 . Jump up ^ `` ARIA CHART WATCH # 387 '' . auspOp . September 24 , 2016 . Retrieved October 1 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Pentatonix Chart History ( Canadian Hot 100 ) '' Billboard . Retrieved October 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` NZ Heatseekers Singles Chart '' . Recorded Music NZ . September 26 , 2016 . Retrieved October 1 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100 '' . Official Charts Company . Retrieved October 1 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Pentatonix Chart History ( Bubbling Under Hot 100 ) '' Billboard . Retrieved October 1 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Pentatonix Chart History ( Hot Country Songs ) '' Billboard . Retrieved October 1 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Strawberry Switchblade - singles discography '' . StrawberrySwitchblade.net . Retrieved 26 May 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Sherrié Austin - Chart History '' . Billboard . Retrieved 2016 - 12 - 20 . Jump up ^ `` Jolene : Me First and the Gimme Gimmes '' . RockPeaks . Jump up ^ Marc Malkin . `` Miley Cyrus Cover Songs : Dolly Parton 's '' Jolene '' Is n't the Only One `` . E Online . She also performed a version with Jimmy Fallon , both in disguise , while busking in a New York City subway on one of his Late Night With Jimmy Fallon episodes . Jump up ^ `` Dami Im Sings ' Jolene ' on The X Factor Australia 2013 Bootcamp '' . Jump up ^ `` Minogue gets vocal about Dami '' . Jump up ^ `` X Factor Australia Grand Final : Dami Im completes demolition with army '' . Jump up ^ `` Dami Im - Jolene ( Acoustic ) '' . Jump up ^ `` damiimVEVO '' . Jump up ^ Music row / Jill Johnson , Svensk mediedatabas . Retrieved 9 September 2011 . Jump up ^ `` I 'm the singer , you 're the song '' . Genus , sexualitet och förhållandet mellan röst och text inom populärmusik by Anders N. Nilsson , pp. 12 - 13 Jump up ^ `` Jolene ( featuring Dolly Parton ) '' . www.sncmusic.com . Archived from the original on 7 August 2013 . Retrieved 3 August 2013 . Jump up ^ Cinquemani , Sal ( August 21 , 2014 ) . `` The 10 Best Cover Songs from Tori Amos 's Unrepentant Geraldines Tour '' . Slant Magazine . Retrieved August 22 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` Nadine '' . Retrieved 9 October 2015 . Jump up ^ Betts , Stephen L ( October 27 , 2017 ) . `` Hear Cam 's `` Jolene '' - Inspired New Song `` Diane '' `` . Rolling Stone Country . Retrieved 27 October 2017 . External links ( edit ) Jolene lyrics at Dolly Parton On - Line NPR : Dolly Parton 's ' Jolene ' Still Haunts Singers Dolly Parton Albums Singles Studio albums Hello , I 'm Dolly ( 1967 ) Just Because I 'm a Woman ( 1968 ) In the Good Old Days ( When Times Were Bad ) ( 1969 ) My Blue Ridge Mountain Boy ( 1969 ) The Fairest of Them All ( 1970 ) The Golden Streets of Glory ( 1971 ) Joshua ( 1971 ) Coat of Many Colors ( 1971 ) Touch Your Woman ( 1972 ) My Favorite Songwriter , Porter Wagoner ( 1972 ) My Tennessee Mountain Home ( 1973 ) Bubbling Over ( 1973 ) Jolene ( 1974 ) Love Is Like a Butterfly ( 1974 ) The Bargain Store ( 1975 ) Dolly ( 1975 ) All I Can Do ( 1976 ) New Harvest ... First Gathering ( 1977 ) Here You Come Again ( 1977 ) Heartbreaker ( 1978 ) Great Balls of Fire ( 1979 ) Dolly , Dolly , Dolly ( 1980 ) 9 to 5 and Odd Jobs ( 1980 ) Heartbreak Express ( 1982 ) Burlap & Satin ( 1983 ) The Great Pretender ( 1984 ) Real Love ( 1985 ) Rainbow ( 1987 ) White Limozeen ( 1989 ) Eagle When She Flies ( 1991 ) Slow Dancing with the Moon ( 1993 ) Something Special ( 1995 ) Treasures ( 1996 ) Hungry Again ( 1998 ) The Grass Is Blue ( 1999 ) Little Sparrow ( 2001 ) Halos & Horns ( 2002 ) For God and Country ( 2003 ) Those Were The Days ( 2005 ) Backwoods Barbie ( 2008 ) Better Day ( 2011 ) Blue Smoke ( 2014 ) Pure & Simple ( 2016 ) Compilations As Long as I Love ( 1970 ) The Best of Dolly Parton ( 1970 ) Just the Way I Am ( 1972 ) Mine ( 1973 ) Best of Dolly Parton ( 1975 ) Dolly Parton 's Greatest Hits ( 1982 ) Collector 's Series ( 1985 ) Think About Love ( 1986 ) The Best There Is ( 1987 ) Best of Dolly Parton , Vol. 3 ( 1987 ) I Will Always Love You and Other Greatest Hits ( 1996 ) Ultimate Dolly Parton ( 2003 ) Singer , Songwriter & Legendary Performer ( 2006 ) The Very Best of Dolly Parton ( 2007 ) 16 Biggest Hits ( 2007 ) Playlist : The Very Best of Dolly Parton ( 2008 ) Dolly ( 2009 ) Exclusives Precious Memories ( 1999 ) Sha - Kon - O - Hey ! 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who threw the last perfect game in mlb
List of major League Baseball perfect games - wikipedia List of major League Baseball perfect games Lee Richmond , pitcher of the first perfect game in major league history Over the 140 years of Major League Baseball history , and over 210,000 games played , there have been 23 official perfect games by the current definition . No pitcher has ever thrown more than one . The perfect game thrown by Don Larsen in game 5 of the 1956 World Series is the only postseason perfect game in major league history and one of only two postseason no - hitters . The first two major league perfect games , and the only two of the premodern era , were thrown in 1880 , five days apart . The most recent perfect game was thrown on August 15 , 2012 , by Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners . There were three perfect games in 2012 ; the only other year of the modern era in which as many as two were thrown was 2010 . By contrast , there have been spans of 23 and 33 consecutive seasons in which not a single perfect game was thrown . Though two perfect - game bids have gone into extra innings , no extra-inning game has ever been completed to perfection . The first two pitchers to accomplish the feat did so under rules that differed in many important respects from those of today 's game : in 1880 , for example , only underhand pitching -- from a flat , marked - out box 45 feet from home plate -- was allowed , it took eight balls to draw a walk , and a batter was not awarded first base if hit by a pitch . Lee Richmond , a left - handed pitcher for the Worcester Ruby Legs , threw the first perfect game . He played professional baseball for six years and pitched full - time for only three , finishing with a losing record . The second perfect game was thrown by John Montgomery Ward for the Providence Grays . Ward , an excellent pitcher who became an excellent position player , went on to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame . Though convention has it that the modern era of Major League Baseball begins in 1900 , the essential rules of the modern game were in place by the 1893 season . That year the pitching distance was moved back to 60 feet , 6 inches , where it remains , and the pitcher 's box was replaced by a rubber slab against which the pitcher was required to place his rear foot . Two other crucial rules changes had been made in recent years : In 1887 , the rule awarding a hit batsman first base was instituted in the National League ( this had been the rule in the American Association since 1884 : first by the umpire 's judgment of the impact ; as of the following year , virtually automatically ) . In 1889 , the number of balls required for a walk was reduced to four . Thus , from 1893 on , pitchers sought perfection in a game whose most important rules are the same as today , with two significant exceptions : counting a foul ball as a first or second strike , enforced by the National League as of 1901 and by the American League two years later , and the use of the designated hitter in American League games since the 1973 season . During baseball 's modern era , 21 pitchers have thrown perfect games . Most were accomplished major leaguers . Six have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame : Cy Young , Addie Joss , Jim Bunning , Sandy Koufax , Catfish Hunter , and Randy Johnson . Roy Halladay won two Cy Young Awards and was named to eight All - Star teams . David Cone won the Cy Young once and was named to five All - Star teams . Félix Hernández is likewise a one - time Cy Young winner , as well as a six - time All - Star . Four other perfect - game throwers , Dennis Martínez , Kenny Rogers , David Wells and Mark Buehrle , each won over 200 major league games . Matt Cain , though he ended with a 104 -- 118 record , was a three - time All - Star , played a pivotal role on two World Series -- winning teams , and twice finished top ten in Cy Young voting . For a few , the perfect game was the highlight of an otherwise unremarkable career . Mike Witt and Tom Browning were solid major league pitchers ; Browning was a one - time All - Star with a career record of 123 -- 90 , while Witt was a two - time All - Star , going 117 -- 116 . Larsen , Charlie Robertson , and Len Barker were journeyman pitchers -- each finished his major - league career with a losing record ; Barker made one All - Star team , Larsen and Robertson none . Dallas Braden retired with a 26 -- 36 record after five seasons due to a shoulder injury . Philip Humber 's perfect game was the only complete game he ever recorded , and his major league career , in which he went 16 -- 23 , ended the year after he threw it . Contents 1 Major League Baseball perfect games 1.1 19th century 1.1. 1 Lee Richmond 1.1. 2 John Montgomery Ward 1.2 Modern era 1.2. 1 Cy Young 1.2. 2 Addie Joss 1.2. 3 Charlie Robertson 1.2. 4 Don Larsen 1.2. 5 Jim Bunning 1.2. 6 Sandy Koufax 1.2. 7 Catfish Hunter 1.2. 8 Len Barker 1.2. 9 Mike Witt 1.2. 10 Tom Browning 1.2. 11 Dennis Martínez 1.2. 12 Kenny Rogers 1.2. 13 David Wells 1.2. 14 David Cone 1.2. 15 Randy Johnson 1.2. 16 Mark Buehrle 1.2. 17 Dallas Braden 1.2. 18 Roy Halladay 1.2. 19 Philip Humber 1.2. 20 Matt Cain 1.2. 21 Félix Hernández 1.3 General notes 2 Perfect games by team 3 Unofficial perfect games 4 Perfect games spoiled by the 27th batter 5 Other notable near - perfect games 5.1 Nine or more consecutive innings of perfection 5.2 No - hit , no - walk , no -- hit batsman games 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources Major League Baseball perfect games ( edit ) 19th century ( edit ) Pitcher Date Game Lee Richmond ( Wor ) LHP , 23 5 K June 12 , 1880 Cleveland Blues , 0 at Worcester Worcesters , 1 Venue : Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds Attendance : n.a. Time : 1 : 26 Caught by : Charlie Bennett Umpired by : Foghorn Bradley Box score John Montgomery Ward ( Prov ) RHP , 20 5 K June 17 , 1880 Providence Grays , 5 vs. Buffalo Bisons , 0 Venue : Messer Street Grounds Attendance : n.a. Time : n.a. Caught by : Emil Gross Umpired by : Charles F. Daniels Box score Lee Richmond ( edit ) Scorecard for Richmond 's perfect game : `` R-A '' notation in fifth inning represents the 9 -- 3 putout Richmond was pitching in his first full season in the big leagues after appearing in one game in 1879 . He was apparently considered a good hitter , as he batted second in the lineup . His perfect game featured an unusual 9 -- 3 putout , with Worcester right fielder Lon Knight throwing out Cleveland 's Bill Phillips at first . The play came on one of three balls Cleveland hit out of the infield . Three outs were recorded on `` foul bounds '' : balls caught after bouncing once in foul territory ( the foul bound rule was eliminated three years later ) . In the seventh inning , the game was delayed for seven minutes due to rain ; Richmond dried the ball off with sawdust when he returned to the mound . A monument marks the site of the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds where the game took place , now part of the campus of Becker College . The feat was recognized as unusual : a newspaper report described it as `` the most wonderful game on record '' . John Montgomery Ward ( edit ) Monte Ward threw his perfect game at the Grays ' park in Providence , but Buffalo , by virtue of a coin toss , which was the custom under the rules at that time , was officially the `` home '' team , batting in the bottom of each inning . At the age of 20 years , 105 days , Ward is the youngest pitcher ever to throw a perfect game . He batted sixth in the lineup . Beginning in 1881 , the year after his perfect game , Ward spent more time as a position player than a pitcher ; in 1885 , following an arm injury , he became a full - time infielder . The five days between Ward 's game and Richmond 's is the shortest amount of time between major - league perfect games . Modern era ( edit ) Pitcher Date Game Cy Young ( BOS ) RHP , 37 8 K May 5 , 1904 Philadelphia Athletics , 0 at Boston Americans , 3 Venue : Huntington Avenue Grounds , day game Attendance : 10,267 Time : 1 : 25 Caught by : Lou Criger Umpired by : Frank Dwyer Box score Addie Joss ( CLE ) RHP , 28 74 pitches , 3 K October 2 , 1908 Chicago White Sox , 0 at Cleveland Naps , 1 Venue : League Park , day game Attendance : 10,598 Time : 1 : 32 Caught by : Nig Clarke Umpired by : Tommy Connolly Box score Charlie Robertson ( CHW ) RHP , 26 90 pitches , 6 K April 30 , 1922 Chicago White Sox , 2 at Detroit Tigers , 0 Venue : Navin Field , day game Attendance : 25,000 Time : 1 : 55 Caught by : Ray Schalk Umpires : HP : Dick Nallin 2B : Billy Evans Box score Don Larsen ( NYY ) RHP , 27 97 pitches , 7 K October 8 , 1956 Brooklyn Dodgers , 0 at New York Yankees , 2 Venue : Yankee Stadium , day game ( Game 5 of the World Series ) Attendance : 64,519 Time : 2 : 06 Caught by : Yogi Berra Umpires : HP : Babe Pinelli 1B : Hank Soar 2B : Dusty Boggess 3B : Larry Napp LF : Tom Gorman RF : Ed Runge Box score and play - by - play Jim Bunning ( PHI ) RHP , 32 90 pitches , 10 K June 21 , 1964 Philadelphia Phillies , 6 at New York Mets , 0 Venue : Shea Stadium , day game ( first game of doubleheader ) Attendance : 32,026 Time : 2 : 19 Caught by : Gus Triandos Umpires : HP : Ed Sudol 1B : Paul Pryor 2B : Frank Secory 3B : Ken Burkhart Box score and play - by - play Sandy Koufax ( LAD ) LHP , 29 113 pitches , 14 K September 9 , 1965 Chicago Cubs , 0 at Los Angeles Dodgers , 1 Venue : Dodger Stadium , night game Attendance : 29,139 Time : 1 : 43 Caught by : Jeff Torborg Umpires : HP : Ed Vargo 1B : Chris Pelekoudas 2B : Bill Jackowski 3B : Paul Pryor Box score and play - by - play Catfish Hunter ( OAK ) RHP , 22 107 pitches , 11 K May 8 , 1968 Minnesota Twins , 0 at Oakland Athletics , 4 Venue : Oakland -- Alameda County Coliseum , night game Attendance : 6,298 Time : 2 : 28 Caught by : Jim Pagliaroni Umpires : HP : Jerry Neudecker 1B : Larry Napp 2B : Al Salerno 3B : Bill Haller Box score and play - by - play Len Barker ( CLE ) RHP , 25 103 pitches , 11 K May 15 , 1981 Toronto Blue Jays , 0 at Cleveland Indians , 3 Venue : Cleveland Stadium , night game Attendance : 7,290 Time : 2 : 09 Caught by : Ron Hassey ( 1 ) Umpires : HP : Rich Garcia 1B : Greg Kosc 2B : Don Denkinger 3B : Jim McKean Box score and play - by - play Mike Witt ( CAL ) RHP , 24 94 pitches , 10 K September 30 , 1984 California Angels , 1 at Texas Rangers , 0 Venue : Arlington Stadium , day game Attendance : 8,375 Time : 1 : 49 Caught by : Bob Boone Umpires : HP : Greg Kosc 1B : Ted Hendry 2B : Drew Coble 3B : Jim Evans Box score and play - by - play Tom Browning ( CIN ) LHP , 28 100 pitches , 7 K September 16 , 1988 Los Angeles Dodgers , 0 at Cincinnati Reds , 1 Venue : Riverfront Stadium , night game Attendance : 16,591 Time : 1 : 51 Caught by : Jeff Reed Umpires : HP : Jim Quick 1B : Mark Hirschbeck 2B : John Kibler 3B : Eric Gregg Box score and play - by - play Dennis Martínez ( MON ) RHP , 36 95 pitches , 5 K July 28 , 1991 Montreal Expos , 2 at Los Angeles Dodgers , 0 Venue : Dodger Stadium , day game Attendance : 45,560 Time : 2 : 14 Caught by : Ron Hassey ( 2 ) Umpires : HP : Larry Poncino 1B : Bruce Froemming 2B : Dana DeMuth 3B : Greg Bonin Box score and play - by - play Kenny Rogers ( TEX ) LHP , 29 98 pitches , 8 K July 28 , 1994 California Angels , 0 at Texas Rangers , 4 Venue : The Ballpark in Arlington , night game Attendance : 46,581 Time : 2 : 08 Caught by : Iván Rodríguez Umpires : HP : Ed Bean 1B : Don Denkinger 2B : John Shulock 3B : Tim Tschida Box score and play - by - play David Wells ( NYY ) LHP , 34 120 pitches , 11 K May 17 , 1998 Minnesota Twins , 0 at New York Yankees , 4 Venue : Yankee Stadium , day game Attendance : 49,820 Time : 2 : 40 Caught by : Jorge Posada Umpires : HP : Tim McClelland 1B : John Hirschbeck 2B : Rich Garcia 3B : Mike Reilly Box score and play - by - play David Cone ( NYY ) RHP , 36 88 pitches , 10 K July 18 , 1999 Montreal Expos , 0 at New York Yankees , 6 Venue : Yankee Stadium , day game Attendance : 41,930 Time : 2 : 16 ( with a 33 - minute rain delay ) Caught by : Joe Girardi Umpires : HP : Ted Barrett ( 1 ) 1B : Larry McCoy 2B : Jim Evans 3B : Chuck Meriwether Box score and play - by - play Randy Johnson ( ARI ) LHP , 40 117 pitches , 13 K May 18 , 2004 Arizona Diamondbacks , 2 at Atlanta Braves , 0 Venue : Turner Field , night game Attendance : 23,381 Time : 2 : 13 Caught by : Robby Hammock Umpires : HP : Greg Gibson 1B : Bruce Dreckman 2B : Gerry Davis 3B : Larry Poncino Box score and play - by - play Mark Buehrle ( CHW ) LHP , 30 116 pitches , 6 K July 23 , 2009 Tampa Bay Rays , 0 at Chicago White Sox , 5 Venue : U.S. Cellular Field , day game Attendance : 28,036 Time : 2 : 03 Caught by : Ramón Castro Umpires : HP : Eric Cooper 1B : Mike Reilly 2B : Chuck Meriwether 3B : Laz Díaz Box score and play - by - play Dallas Braden ( OAK ) LHP , 26 109 pitches , 6 K May 9 , 2010 Tampa Bay Rays , 0 at Oakland Athletics , 4 Venue : Oakland -- Alameda County Coliseum , day game Attendance : 12,288 Time : 2 : 07 Caught by : Landon Powell Umpires : HP : Jim Wolf 1B : Derryl Cousins 2B : Jim Joyce 3B : Todd Tichenor Box score and play - by - play Roy Halladay ( PHI ) RHP , 34 115 pitches , 11 K May 29 , 2010 Philadelphia Phillies , 1 at Florida Marlins , 0 Venue : Sun Life Stadium , night game Attendance : 25,086 Time : 2 : 13 Caught by : Carlos Ruiz Umpires : HP : Mike DiMuro 1B : Tim Welke 2B : Jim Reynolds 3B : Bill Welke Box score and play - by - play Philip Humber ( CHW ) RHP , 29 96 pitches , 9 K April 21 , 2012 Chicago White Sox , 4 at Seattle Mariners , 0 Venue : Safeco Field , day game Attendance : 22,472 Time : 2 : 17 Caught by : A.J. Pierzynski Umpires : HP : Brian Runge 1B : Marvin Hudson 2B : Tim McClelland 3B : Ted Barrett Box score and play - by - play Matt Cain ( SF ) RHP , 27 125 pitches , 14 K June 13 , 2012 Houston Astros , 0 at San Francisco Giants , 10 Venue : AT&T Park , night game Attendance : 42,298 Time : 2 : 36 Caught by : Buster Posey Umpires : HP : Ted Barrett ( 2 ) 1B : Mike Muchlinski 2B : Angel Campos 3B : Brian Runge Box score and play - by - play Félix Hernández ( SEA ) RHP , 26 113 pitches , 12 K August 15 , 2012 Tampa Bay Rays , 0 at Seattle Mariners , 1 Venue : Safeco Field , day game Attendance : 21,889 Time : 2 : 22 Caught by : John Jaso Umpires : HP : Rob Drake 1B : Joe West 2B : Sam Holbrook 3B : Andy Fletcher Box score and play - by - play Cy Young ( edit ) Main article : Cy Young 's perfect game Young 's perfect game was part of a hitless streak of 24 or 251⁄3 straight innings -- depending on whether partial innings at either end of the streak are included . In either calculation , the streak remains a record . It was also part of a streak of 45 straight innings in which Young did not give up a run , which was then a record . Addie Joss ( edit ) Of the 20 perfect games for which pitch counts are available , Addie Joss 's was the most efficient -- 74 pitches , fewer than three per batter . Main article : Addie Joss ' perfect game Joss 's was the most pressure - packed of any regular - season perfect game . With just four games left on their schedule , the Cleveland Naps were involved in a three - way pennant race with the Tigers and the White Sox , that day 's opponents . Joss 's counterpart , Ed Walsh , struck out 15 and gave up just four scattered singles . The lone , unearned run scored as a result of a botched pickoff play and a wild pitch . The Naps ended the day tied with the Tigers for first , with the White Sox two games back ; the Tigers won the league by a half game over the Naps . Joss threw a second no - hitter against the White Sox in 1910 , making him and Tim Lincecum of the San Francisco Giants the only major league pitchers ever to throw two no - hitters against the same team . Charlie Robertson ( edit ) Main article : Charlie Robertson 's perfect game Robertson 's perfect game was only his fifth appearance , and fourth start , in the big leagues . He finished his career with a 49 -- 80 record , the fewest wins of any perfect - game pitcher until Dallas Braden ; Robertson 's winning percentage of . 380 remains the lowest of anyone who ever threw a perfect game . The Tigers , led by player - manager Ty Cobb , accused Robertson of illegally doctoring the ball with oil or grease . In terms of the opposing team 's ability to get on base , this is statistically the most unlikely of perfectos : the 1922 Tigers had an on - base percentage ( OBP ) of . 373 . Don Larsen ( edit ) Main article : Don Larsen 's perfect game See also : 1956 World Series Larsen did not know he would pitch in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series until a few hours before game time . This was his second start of the Series ; he had lasted less than two innings in Game 2 . In his perfect game , Larsen employed the style he had adopted in mid-season , working without a windup . Just one Dodgers batter -- Pee Wee Reese , in the first inning -- worked a three - ball count . The Dodgers had the highest season winning percentage of any team ever to lose a perfect game : . 604 . The image of catcher Yogi Berra leaping into Larsen 's arms after the final strike is one of the most famous in baseball history . The 34 years between Robertson 's feat and Larsen 's is the longest gap between perfect games . Jim Bunning ( edit ) Main article : Jim Bunning 's perfect game Bunning 's perfect game , pitched on Father 's Day , was the first in the National League since Ward 's 84 years before . Defying the baseball superstition that holds one should not talk about a no - hitter in progress , Bunning spoke to his teammates about the perfect game as it developed to loosen them up and relieve the pressure . Sandy Koufax ( edit ) Sandy Koufax 's perfect game was the last of his four no - hitters , pitched in four consecutive seasons . Main article : Sandy Koufax 's perfect game Koufax 's perfect game was the first one pitched at night . It was nearly a double no - hitter , as Cubs pitcher Bob Hendley gave up only one hit , a bloop double to left - fielder Lou Johnson in the seventh inning that did not figure in the scoring . The Dodgers scored their only run in the fifth inning : Lou Johnson reached first on a walk , advanced to second on a sacrifice bunt , stole third , and scored when Cubs catcher Chris Krug overthrew third base on the play . The game also set records for the fewest hits by both teams , one , and the fewest base runners by both teams , two ( both Johnson ) . Koufax 's 14 strikeouts are tied with Matt Cain for the most ever thrown by a perfect game pitcher . Catfish Hunter ( edit ) Main article : Catfish Hunter 's perfect game Hunter , a talented batter , was also the hitting star of his perfect game . He went 3 for 4 with a double and 3 RBIs , including a bunt single that drove home the first and thus winning run in the seventh inning -- easily the best offensive performance ever by a perfect game pitcher . At 22 years and 30 days old , Hunter was the youngest pitcher to throw a perfect game in the modern era . This was the first no - hitter of the Athletics ' Oakland tenure , which was only 25 games old . Len Barker ( edit ) Main article : Len Barker 's perfect game Barker 's perfect game was the first one in which designated hitters were used . He did not reach a three - ball count in the entire game . Toronto shortstop Alfredo Griffin , who played for the losing team in this game , went on to play for the losers in the perfect games of Browning and Martínez . Also on the losing end of this game was Danny Ainge , who played 14 seasons in the National Basketball Association . All 11 of Barker 's strikeouts were swinging . Mike Witt ( edit ) Main article : Mike Witt 's perfect game Witt 's perfect game came on the last day of the 1984 season . Reggie Jackson , who drove in the only run of the game on a seventh - inning fielder 's choice ground ball , was also on the winning team in Catfish Hunter 's perfect game . On April 11 , 1990 , Witt , pitching out of the bullpen , combined with starting pitcher Mark Langston to throw a no - hitter for the California Angels . Tom Browning ( edit ) A ticket from Browning 's perfect game . Main article : Tom Browning 's perfect game Browning 's perfect game , for the Cincinnati Reds against the Los Angeles Dodgers in September 1988 , came against the team that eventually won that year 's World Series , the only time that has happened . A two - hour , twenty - seven - minute rain delay caused the game to start at approximately 10 PM . Right fielder Paul O'Neill , who played for the winning side in this game , also played for the winning side in the perfect games of Wells and Cone . The following July 4 , Browning came within an inning of becoming the first pitcher to throw two perfect games , retiring the first 24 batters in a game against the Phillies before surrendering a leadoff double in the ninth . Dennis Martínez ( edit ) Main article : Dennis Martínez 's perfect game Martínez , born in Granada , Nicaragua , was the first major league pitcher born outside of the United States to throw a perfect game . He achieved the feat for the Montreal Expos against the Los Angeles Dodgers in July 1991 . Opposing pitcher Mike Morgan was perfect through five full innings , the latest the opposing starter in a perfect game has remained perfect . Two days earlier , Expos pitcher Mark Gardner no - hit the Dodgers through nine innings but lost the no - hitter in the tenth , meaning the Expos narrowly missed throwing a no - hitter and a perfect game in the same series . Martínez 's catcher , Ron Hassey , had also caught Len Barker 's perfect game . This was the third perfect game pitched against the Brooklyn / Los Angeles Dodgers , joining those of Larsen and Browning ; the only other teams to lose more than one perfect game are the Twins ( Hunter and Wells ) and the Rays ( Buehrle , Hernandez and Braden ) . Kenny Rogers ( edit ) Main article : Kenny Rogers ' perfect game Rogers benefited from center fielder Rusty Greer 's fantastic diving catch of a line drive hit by Rex Hudler , leading off the ninth inning. Rogers ' performance against the Angels came 10 seasons after Witt 's perfect game against the Rangers . The Angels and Rangers are the only major league teams to record perfect games against each other . The home plate umpire was a minor league fill - in , Ed Bean , who was working his 29th Major League game and seventh behind the plate . Bean , who was substituting for 17 - year veteran Ken Kaiser , worked only seven more MLB games following Rogers ' performance . David Wells ( edit ) Main article : David Wells ' perfect game Wells attended the same high school as Don Larsen : Point Loma High School , San Diego , California . They also both enjoyed the night life . Casey Stengel once said of Larsen , `` The only thing he fears is sleep . '' Wells has claimed to have been `` half - drunk '' and suffering from a `` raging , skull - rattling hangover '' during his perfect game . Wells ' perfect game comprised the core of a streak of 38 consecutive retired batters ( May 12 -- 23 , 1998 ) , an American League record he held until 2007 . David Cone ( edit ) Main article : David Cone 's perfect game Cone 's perfect game occurred on Yogi Berra Day . Don Larsen threw out the ceremonial first pitch to Berra , who had been his catcher during the 1956 World Series perfect game . As the game wore on , television cameras showed Larsen , the only perfect game pitcher to attend another perfect game . No Expo worked even a three - ball count . Cone 's perfect game , which took only 88 pitches , was interrupted by a 33 - minute rain delay and is the only one to date in regular - season interleague play . Following teammate Wells 's perfect game the previous season , this also represents the only time two successive perfect games have been thrown by the same team . Randy Johnson ( edit ) In 2004 , Randy Johnson , then with the Arizona Diamondbacks , became the oldest pitcher ever to throw a perfect game . Main article : Randy Johnson 's perfect game Johnson threw his perfect game at the age of 40 years , 256 days , becoming by more than three and a half years the oldest pitcher to achieve the feat . The former holder of the mark , Cy Young , threw his at the age of 37 years , 37 days . Johnson is also the tallest perfect game pitcher at 6 ' 10 `` , surpassing Mike Witt by three inches . Of the teams to have a perfect game thrown against them , the 2004 Braves have the second - highest OBP (. 343 ) and are tied for the second - highest winning percentage (. 593 ) . In contrast , the Diamondbacks had by far the worst season winning percentage (. 315 ) of any team to benefit from a perfect game . Mark Buehrle ( edit ) Main article : Mark Buehrle 's perfect game Buehrle was assisted by a dramatic ninth - inning wall - climbing catch by center fielder DeWayne Wise to rob Gabe Kapler of a home run ; Wise had just entered the game as a defensive replacement before Kapler 's at - bat . This was the first major league perfect game in which the pitcher and catcher were battery - mates for the first time ; Ramón Castro had been acquired by the White Sox less than two months before . This was also the first perfect game to feature a grand slam , by Josh Fields in the bottom of the second inning . Umpire Eric Cooper , who called the game , had been behind the plate for Buehrle 's previous no - hitter . On July 28 , Buehrle followed up with another 5 2 / 3 perfect innings to set the major league record for consecutive batters retired at 45 ( this includes the final batter he faced in his appearance before the perfect game ) . That record was broken by Yusmeiro Petit of the San Francisco Giants in 2014 Dallas Braden ( edit ) Main article : Dallas Braden 's perfect game Braden 's perfect game , pitched on Mother 's Day , was the first complete game of his career . His grandmother attended the game and celebrated on the field with him . It was the first time a perfect game had been pitched against the team with the best record in the majors at the time ; coming into the contest , the Rays were 22 -- 8 . The 2010 Rays are tied for the second - highest winning percentage (. 593 ) of any team to be on the receiving end of a perfect game . MLB 's previous perfect game had also been thrown against the Rays , making them the second team to have successive perfect games against them ( the first was the Dodgers in 1988 and 1991 ) . This game came 290 days after Buehrle 's , the shortest period between modern - day perfect games -- a record which lasted just three weeks , until Halladay 's perfect game . Roy Halladay ( edit ) Main article : Roy Halladay 's perfect game Halladay pitched the second perfect game of the 2010 season 20 days after Braden 's , the shortest period between perfect games in the modern era . Mark Buehrle 's perfect game had been 10 months earlier , marking the first time that three perfect games occurred within a one - year span . Seven batters reached three - ball counts against Halladay . Halladay nearly pitched a second perfect game in the 2010 NL Division Series against the Reds but gave up a walk to Jay Bruce . The hurler had to settle for a no - hitter and became the only perfect game pitcher to throw another no - hitter in the same season , and the fifth with two no - hitters . Halladay is the second pitcher to throw a perfect game and win the Cy Young Award in the same season ; Sandy Koufax did so in 1965 . Philip Humber ( edit ) Main article : Philip Humber 's perfect game On April 21 , 2012 , Philip Humber of the Chicago White Sox pitched the third perfect game in White Sox history . The final out of Humber 's perfect game came after a full - count check - swing third strike to Brendan Ryan on a ball that catcher A.J. Pierzynski dropped . As Ryan disputed umpire Brian Runge 's decision that he had swung , Pierzynski threw the ball to first base for the final out . As with Braden , Humber 's perfect game was the first complete game of his career . Humber 's lifetime major league record of 16 - 23 gives him the fewest career wins of any pitcher who has thrown an MLB perfect game . The White Sox became the second franchise with three perfect games , joining the Yankees . Matt Cain ( edit ) Main article : Matt Cain 's perfect game On June 13 , 2012 , Matt Cain of the San Francisco Giants pitched the first perfect game in Giants franchise history , the second of three in 2012 , and the 22nd in MLB history . Third baseman Joaquín Árias threw out Jason Castro for the final out on a chopped grounder he fielded deep behind the bag . Cain tallied 14 strikeouts , tying Sandy Koufax for the most strikeouts in a perfect game . Cain 's 125 pitches are the most ever thrown in a perfect game . Cain was aided by a running catch at the wall by Melky Cabrera in the 6th and a diving catch by Gregor Blanco in the 7th . The winning Giants scored 10 runs , making this the highest - scoring perfect game . Home plate umpire Ted Barrett had also called Cone 's perfect game , making him the only person to call two ; having umpired at third base for Humber 's game , Barrett also became just the second man , after Alfredo Griffin , to have been on the field for three perfect games -- within two months ; since then , there have been four more . Félix Hernández ( edit ) Main article : Félix Hernández 's perfect game On August 15 , 2012 , Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners threw the 23rd perfect game in MLB history ( and the first in August ) against the Tampa Bay Rays . This was the first perfect game in Mariners history , and the franchise 's fourth no - hitter . Hernandez 's performance was highlighted by 12 strikeouts and a career - high 26 swinging - strikes . In an on - field interview immediately following the last out , Hernandez said he had started thinking about the possibility of a perfect game in the second inning . It was the third time in the past four seasons that Tampa Bay was on the losing side of a perfect game . Four Rays -- Evan Longoria , Carlos Peña , B.J. Upton , and Ben Zobrist -- joined Alfredo Griffin in having played in three perfect games for the losing team ; all four also participated in Buehrle 's and Braden 's . General notes ( edit ) Three perfect - game pitchers had RBIs in their games : Hunter ( 3 ) , Bunning ( 2 ) , and Young ( 1 ) . Hunter had three hits ; Richmond , Ward , Bunning , Martínez , and Cain each had one . Cain is the only pitcher to score a run during a perfect game ( Gregor Blanco followed him in the order and hit a home run ) . Barker , Witt , Rogers , Wells , Cone , Buehrle , Braden , Humber , and Hernández did not bat in their perfect games , as the American League adopted the designated hitter rule in 1973 . The latest the winning run has been scored in a perfect game is the seventh inning -- this occurred in the games of Hunter ( bottom ) , Witt ( top ) , and Martínez ( top ) . Seven perfect - game pitchers have also thrown at least one additional no - hitter : Young , Joss , Bunning , Koufax , Johnson , Buehrle , and Halladay . Witt participated in a combined no - hitter . Koufax has the most total no - hitters of any perfect - game pitcher , with four . Richmond and Robertson were rookies , though each had made a single appearance in a previous season . Although by the latter part of the twentieth century , major league games were being played predominantly at night , six of the last ten perfect games , and four of the last six , have taken place in the daytime . Since 1973 , nine perfect games have been thrown with the DH rule in effect ( including one interleague game held at an American League park ) and only five without it . Perfect games by team ( edit ) Of the thirty franchises that currently make up Major League Baseball , seven have never as of the end of the 2017 season been involved in a perfect game , win or lose , including three of the `` Original 16 '' franchises ( the Cardinals , Pirates , and Orioles ) and four of the fourteen teams that joined MLB in the expansion era ( the Royals , Brewers , Padres , and Rockies ) . The table below shows the number of perfect games won and lost by the remaining twenty - three franchises . Franchise Perfect games won Perfect games won against Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Houston Astros 0 Oakland Athletics Toronto Blue Jays 0 Atlanta Braves 0 Chicago Cubs 0 Arizona Diamondbacks 0 Los Angeles Dodgers San Francisco Giants 0 Cleveland Indians 0 Seattle Mariners Miami Marlins 0 New York Mets 0 Washington Nationals Philadelphia Phillies 0 Texas Rangers Tampa Bay Rays 0 Cincinnati Reds 0 Boston Red Sox 0 Detroit Tigers 0 Minnesota Twins 0 Chicago White Sox New York Yankees 0 Unofficial perfect games ( edit ) Boston Red Sox pitchers Babe Ruth and Ernie Shore . In a 1917 game , Ruth was ejected after walking the first batter . Shore replaced him , erased the baserunner , and completed the game without allowing another . There have been three instances in which a major league pitcher retired every player he faced over nine innings without allowing a baserunner , but , by the current definition , is not credited with a perfect game , either because there was already a baserunner when he took the mound , or because the game went into extra innings and an opposing player eventually reached base : On June 23 , 1917 , Babe Ruth , then a pitcher with the Boston Red Sox , walked the Washington Senators ' first batter , Ray Morgan , on four straight pitches . Ruth , who had already been shouting at umpire Brick Owens about the quality of his calls , became even angrier and , in short order , was ejected . Enraged , Ruth charged Owens , swung at him , and had to be led off the field by a policeman . Ernie Shore came in to replace Ruth , while catcher Sam Agnew took over behind the plate for Pinch Thomas . Morgan was caught stealing by Agnew on the first pitch by Shore , who proceeded to retire the next 26 batters . All 27 outs were made while Shore was on the mound . Once recognized as a perfect game by Major League Baseball , this still counts as a combined no - hitter . On May 26 , 1959 , Harvey Haddix of the Pittsburgh Pirates pitched what is often referred to as the greatest game in baseball history . Haddix carried a perfect game through 12 innings against the Milwaukee Braves , only to have it ruined when an error by third baseman Don Hoak allowed Félix Mantilla , the leadoff batter in the bottom of the 13th inning , to reach base . A sacrifice by Eddie Mathews and an intentional walk to Hank Aaron followed ; the next batter , Joe Adcock , hit a home run that became a double when he passed Aaron on the bases . Haddix and the Pirates had lost the game 1 -- 0 ; despite their 12 hits in the game , they could not bring a run home . The 12 perfect innings -- 36 consecutive batters retired in a single game -- remains a record . On June 3 , 1995 , Pedro Martínez of the Montreal Expos had a perfect game through nine innings against the San Diego Padres . The Expos scored a run in the top of the tenth inning , but in the bottom , Martínez gave up a leadoff double to Bip Roberts , and was relieved by Mel Rojas , who retired the next three batters . Martínez was therefore the winning pitcher in a 1 -- 0 Expos victory . Four other games in which one team failed to reach base are not official perfect games because they were called off before nine innings were played : On August 11 , 1907 , Ed Karger of the St. Louis Cardinals pitched seven perfect innings against the Boston Braves ; second game of doubleheader called by prior agreement . On October 5 , 1907 , Rube Vickers of the Philadelphia Athletics pitched five perfect innings against the Senators ; second game of doubleheader called on account of darkness . Vickers achieved his feat on the last day of the season . He also pitched the final 12 innings of the 15 - inning first game . His back - to - back victories were his only wins of the year . On August 6 , 1967 , Dean Chance of the Minnesota Twins pitched five perfect innings against the Red Sox ; game called on account of rain . On April 21 , 1984 , David Palmer of the Expos pitched five perfect innings against the Cardinals ; second game of doubleheader called on account of rain . On March 14 , 2000 , in a spring training game -- by definition unofficial -- the Red Sox used six pitchers to retire all 27 Toronto Blue Jays batters in a 5 -- 0 victory . The starting pitcher for the Red Sox was Pedro Martínez ( see above ) . Perfect games spoiled by the 27th batter ( edit ) On thirteen occasions in Major League Baseball history , a perfect game has been spoiled when a batter reached base with two out in the ninth inning . Unless otherwise noted , the pitcher in question finished and won the game without allowing any more baserunners : On July 4 , 1908 , Hooks Wiltse of the New York Giants hit Philadelphia Phillies pitcher George McQuillan on a 2 -- 2 count in a scoreless game -- the only time a 0 -- 0 perfect game has been broken up by the 27th batter . Umpire Cy Rigler later admitted that he should have called the previous pitch strike 3 . Wiltse pitched on , winning 1 -- 0 ; his ten - inning no - hitter set a record for longest complete game no - hitter that has been tied twice but never broken . On August 5 , 1932 , Tommy Bridges of the Detroit Tigers gave up a pinch - hit single to the Washington Senators ' Dave Harris . On June 27 , 1958 , Billy Pierce of the Chicago White Sox gave up a double , which landed just inches in fair territory , on his first pitch to Senators pinch hitter Ed Fitz Gerald . On September 2 , 1972 , Milt Pappas of the Chicago Cubs walked San Diego Padres pinch hitter Larry Stahl on a borderline 3 -- 2 pitch . Pappas finished with a no - hitter . The umpire , Bruce Froemming , was in his second year ; he went on to a 37 - year career in which he umpired a record 11 no - hitters . Pappas believed he had struck out Stahl , and years later continued to bear ill will toward Froemming . On April 15 , 1983 , Milt Wilcox of the Tigers surrendered a pinch - hit single to the White Sox ' Jerry Hairston , Sr . On May 2 , 1988 , Ron Robinson of the Cincinnati Reds gave up a two - strike single to the Montreal Expos ' Wallace Johnson . Robinson then allowed a two - run homer to Tim Raines and was removed from the game . The final score was 3 -- 2 , with Robinson the winner . ( Robinson 's teammate Tom Browning threw his perfect game later that season . ) On August 4 , 1989 , Dave Stieb of the Toronto Blue Jays gave up a double to the New York Yankees ' Roberto Kelly , followed by an RBI single by Steve Sax . Stieb finished with a 2 -- 1 victory . This was the third time Stieb had a no - hitter broken up with two outs in the ninth inning . On April 20 , 1990 , Brian Holman of the Seattle Mariners gave up a home run to Ken Phelps of the Oakland Athletics . On September 2 , 2001 , Mike Mussina of the Yankees gave up a two - strike single to Boston Red Sox pinch hitter Carl Everett . The opposing pitcher in the game was David Cone , who had thrown the most recent perfect game two years earlier as a Yankee . On June 2 , 2010 , Armando Galarraga of the Tigers was charged with a single when first - base umpire Jim Joyce incorrectly ruled Jason Donald of the Cleveland Indians safe on an infield grounder . After the game , Joyce acknowledged his mistake : `` I just cost that kid a perfect game . I thought he beat the throw . I was convinced he beat the throw , until I saw the replay . '' Tyler Kepner of the New York Times wrote that no call had been `` so important and so horribly botched '' since the 1985 World Series . Galarraga retired the next batter as Donald advanced to third base via defensive indifference . Having taken place just four days after Halladay 's feat , the game would have set a new mark for proximity had it been perfect ; it would also have been the third perfect game in a 25 - day span . Donald was awarded first base on Galarraga 's 83rd pitch , which would have made it the second most efficient perfect game on record . Main article : Armando Galarraga 's near - perfect game On April 2 , 2013 , Yu Darvish of the Texas Rangers gave up a first pitch single to Marwin González of the Astros on a ground ball between Darvish 's legs and through the middle infield . Darvish was removed from the game without facing another batter , having thrown 111 pitches . With 14 strikeouts through the first 26 batters , Darvish had a chance to tie ( or exceed , had he struck out González ) a record for a perfect game . The Rangers won the game 7 - 0 . On September 6 , 2013 , Yusmeiro Petit of the San Francisco Giants retired the first 26 Arizona Diamondbacks batters before giving up a single to pinch hitter Eric Chávez on a 3 - 2 pitch . Giants right fielder Hunter Pence dove for the ball but came up just a couple of inches short . Petit retired the next batter to finish the one - hit shutout . On June 20 , 2015 , Max Scherzer of the Washington Nationals retired the first 26 Pittsburgh Pirates batters before hitting pinch - hitter José Tábata with a pitch on a 2 - 2 count . It has been argued that Tábata intentionally leaned into the pitch -- by rule , if `` the batter makes no attempt to avoid being touched by the ball '' , let alone attempts to be hit by it , he is not entitled to first base . If the umpires had so ruled , the at - bat would have continued with a full count . Scherzer retired the following batter to complete the no - hitter , joining Wiltse and Pappas as only the third pitcher to do so after being denied a perfect game with two outs in the ninth . Other notable near - perfect games ( edit ) Nine or more consecutive innings of perfection ( edit ) There have been fifteen occasions in Major League Baseball history when a pitcher -- or , in one case , multiple pitchers -- recorded at least 27 consecutive outs after one or more runners reached base . In four instances , the game went into extra innings and the pitcher ( s ) recorded more than 27 consecutive outs : On May 11 , 1919 , Walter Johnson , pitching for the Senators against the Yankees , retired 28 batters in a row : After surrendering a one - out single in the first to Roger Peckinpaugh and then retiring the next two batters to end the inning , he was perfect in the second through the ninth . He recorded two outs in the tenth , before giving up a walk to Home Run Baker . The first Sunday game to be played legally in New York , it was ended after the 12th inning , still scoreless , because Yankee owner Jacob Ruppert mistakenly believed the new law barred play after 6 PM . On September 24 , 1919 , Waite Hoyt , pitching for the Red Sox against the Yankees in the second game of a doubleheader , gave up a run in the second inning . The Red Sox tied the game in the ninth on a solo home run by Babe Ruth , his then record - breaking 28th of the season . The game report in the New York Times states , `` Hoyt gave a remarkable performance of his pitching skill , and from the fourth inning to the thirteenth he did not allow a hit and not a Yankee runner reached first base . In these nine hitless innings the youngster was at the top of his form '' . The Yankees eventually won 2 -- 1 when , in the 13th , Wally Pipp tripled and was brought home by a sacrifice fly . ( The New York Times report states that Pipp tripled with `` two out '' -- evidently a typographical or counting error , as the subsequent sacrifice fly , which is described in detail , would not then have been possible . ) Play - by - play records are not currently available for the game , but it appears that Hoyt recorded no less than 28 consecutive outs -- the last out in the third inning and 27 in the perfect nine innings encompassing the fourth through the 12th . On September 18 , 1971 , Rick Wise , pitching for the Phillies against the Cubs , gave up a home run to the leadoff batter in the second inning , Frank Fernández . He did not allow another baserunner until Ron Santo singled with two outs in the top of the 12th . Wise retired the next batter and the Phillies scored in the bottom of the inning , making him the winner , 4 -- 3 . Wise had been perfect for 10 2 / 3 , retiring 32 consecutive batters -- the record for most consecutive outs in a game by a winning pitcher . At the plate , Wise helped his cause by going 3 for 6 , with a double and the game - winning RBI in the bottom of the 12th . The starting pitcher for the Cubs was Milt Pappas , who had his near - perfect game one year later . On July 6 , 2005 , A.J. Burnett , then pitching for the Florida Marlins , surrendered a two - out single in the third inning that gave the Milwaukee Brewers a 4 -- 1 lead . It was the fourth hit he had given up , on top of five walks . He then retired the next ten batters before leaving the game with the Marlins trailing 4 -- 2 . In his six innings , he struck out 14 . Jim Mecir pitched a perfect seventh and Guillermo Mota pitched a perfect eighth and ninth as the Marlins rallied to send the game into extra innings . Todd Jones was perfect in the 10th and 11th and Valerio de los Santos picked up the win with a perfect 12th , for a total of 28 straight batters retired starting with the final batter of the third inning . Cy Young , first perfect game pitcher of the modern era . His 1908 no - hitter was a solo version of the Ruth -- Shore game of 1917 : a leadoff walk , a caught stealing , and perfection the rest of the way . In the eleven other instances , the leadoff batter ( or batters ) reached base in the first inning , followed by 27 consecutive batters ( or batters and baserunners ) being retired through the end of a nine - inning game . In two cases , the leadoff baserunner was retired , meaning the pitcher faced the minimum : On June 30 , 1908 , Red Sox pitcher Cy Young walked the New York Highlanders ' leadoff batter , Harry Niles , who was caught stealing . No one else reached base against Young , who also had three hits and four RBIs in Boston 's 8 -- 0 win . It was the third no - hitter of Young 's career and about as close as possible to being his second perfect game . He is the only pitcher in major league history to retire 27 consecutive men in a game on two separate occasions . On June 23 , 1917 , Ernie Shore of the Red Sox was on the mound when Ray Morgan , the leadoff batter , who had been walked by Babe Ruth , the previously ejected pitcher , was picked off . Shore retired the next 26 batters in succession ( see `` Unofficial perfect games '' above ) . The remaining instances in which a pitcher recorded 27 consecutive outs in a game , noting how the opponent 's leadoff batter ( or batters ) reached base : May 24 , 1884 , Al Atkinson / Philadelphia Athletics ( Pittsburgh Alleghenys ' Ed Swartwood hit by pitch , stole second , reached third on a groundout , and scored on a passed ball ) May 16 , 1953 , Curt Simmons / Philadelphia Phillies ( single by Milwaukee Braves ' Bill Bruton ) May 13 , 1954 , Robin Roberts / Phillies ( home run by Reds ' Bobby Adams ) July 1 , 1966 , Woodie Fryman / Pittsburgh Pirates ( single by New York Mets ' Ron Hunt ) May 19 , 1981 , Jim Bibby / Pirates ( single by Atlanta Braves ' Terry Harper ) June 11 , 1982 , Jerry Reuss / Los Angeles Dodgers ( double by Reds ' Eddie Milner , who reached third on a sacrifice bunt and scored on a fielder 's choice ) April 22 , 1993 , Chris Bosio / Seattle Mariners ( walks by Red Sox Ernest Riles and Carlos Quintana , the latter of whom was retired on a double play ) July 7 , 2006 , John Lackey / Los Angeles Angels ( double by Oakland Athletics ' Mark Kotsay ) May 10 , 2013 , Shelby Miller / St. Louis Cardinals ( single by Colorado Rockies ' Eric Young , Jr . ) No - hit , no - walk , no -- hit batsman games ( edit ) In Major League Baseball play since 1893 , with the essential modern rules in place , there have been ten instances when a pitcher allowed not a single baserunner through his pitching efforts over a complete game of at least nine innings , but was not awarded a perfect game because of one or more fielding errors : On June 13 , 1905 , Christy Mathewson of the New York Giants pitched masterfully , but two Cubs nonetheless reached base on errors by shortstop Bill Dahlen and second baseman Billy Gilbert . In a classic pitching duel , the Cubs ' Mordecai `` Three Finger '' Brown also carried a no - hitter into the ninth , losing it and the game , 1 -- 0 . On September 5 , 1908 , the Brooklyn Dodgers ' Nap Rucker blanked the Boston Doves with a flawless pitching performance , despite errors that allowed three Doves to reach base . In more than a century since , no otherwise perfect game has been spoiled by multiple errors . On July 1 , 1920 , an error by Senators second baseman Bucky Harris was the lone defect in a game dominated by Walter Johnson 's no - hit , no - walk , no -- hit batsman effort . Harry Hooper , the Red Sox who reached base , was batting leadoff in the seventh . On September 3 , 1947 , with one out in the second , Philadelphia Athletics first baseman Ferris Fain , after fielding a routine grounder , threw wildly to pitcher Bill McCahan , covering first base . Stan Spence of the Senators made it all the way to second , the only blemish on McCahan 's otherwise perfect game . On July 19 , 1974 , flawless through 3 2 / 3 innings , Cleveland Indians pitcher Dick Bosman , handling a grounder off the bat of Oakland Athletic Sal Bando , threw over the first baseman 's head . Not one other Athletic reached base , making this the only occasion in major league history when the sole demerit on an otherwise perfect defensive line was the pitcher 's own fielding error . On June 27 , 1980 , Jerry Reuss of the Los Angeles Dodgers pitched a virtually immaculate game , but without hope of perfection -- a first - inning throwing error by shortstop Bill Russell allowed the San Francisco Giants ' Jack Clark to reach base . Russell atoned for his gaffe with a sharp fielding play in the eighth inning . On August 15 , 1990 , Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Terry Mulholland lost his perfect - game bid in the seventh inning when the Giants ' Rick Parker , batting leadoff , reached base on a throwing error by third baseman Charlie Hayes . Parker was retired when the next batter , Dave Anderson , grounded into a double play . Mulholland pitched flawlessly and faced the minimum 27 batters , but still did not qualify for a perfect game . Hayes redeemed himself for the fielding error by making a spectacular catch on a line drive in the ninth inning , protecting Mulholland 's no - hitter . On July 10 , 2009 , the Giants ' Jonathan Sánchez pitched perfectly against the San Diego Padres through one out in the eighth inning . Third baseman Juan Uribe , who switched positions from second base to start the seventh inning , committed an error on a ground ball , his first chance at third , that allowed Chase Headley to reach first -- the latest an error has resulted in the sole baserunner in an otherwise perfect game . Headley advanced to second on a wild pitch . It was the first complete game of Sánchez 's career . On June 18 , 2014 , reigning NL Cy Young winner Clayton Kershaw of the Dodgers threw a game against the Colorado Rockies that was perfect save for shortstop Hanley Ramírez 's throwing error with no outs in the seventh inning . Kershaw 's 15 strikeouts were at that point the most in a no - hit , no - walk game and his game score of 102 was the highest - ever in any no - hitter . On October 3 , 2015 , Max Scherzer of the Washington Nationals surpassed both of Kershaw 's marks , setting the record for a no - hit , no - walk game by striking out 17 and achieving a game score of 104 against the New York Mets . Scherzer 's masterpiece , his second no - hitter of the year , was denied perfection by third baseman Yunel Escobar 's sixth - inning throwing error . No otherwise perfect game in major league history has ever been spoiled solely by a dropped third strike , interference , or outfield error . On August 23 , 2017 , the Dodgers ' Rich Hill had been pitching perfectly when third baseman Logan Forsythe booted a grounder by the Pirates ' first batter in the bottom of the ninth inning , Jordy Mercer . It was the first time in major league history a perfect - game bid was ruined by an error in the ninth . Hill retired the next three batters , but as the Dodgers had not supported his effort with a single run ( as they failed to in the top of the first extra frame , as well ) , Hill took his no - hit , no - walk , no -- hit batsman game into the bottom of the 10th inning . The leadoff batter , Josh Harrison , became the first player ever to spoil a no - hitter with a walk - off homer in extra innings . See also ( edit ) Baseball portal List of Major League Baseball no - hitters Nippon Professional Baseball perfect games Golden set in tennis Maximum break in snooker Nine - dart finish in darts Perfect game in bowling References ( edit ) Jump up ^ Forman , Sean . `` MLB 's 200,000 th Game '' . Baseball Reference . Retrieved 10 May 2015 . Jump up ^ Nemec ( 2006 ) , pp. 21 -- 22 , 85 , 123 . Jump up ^ Dickson ( 2009 ) , p. 415 . Jump up ^ `` Baseball Rules Chronology 1845 -- 1899 '' . BaseballLibrary.com . Archived from the original on October 1 , 2007 . Retrieved August 20 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Baseball Rules Chronology 1900 -- present '' . BaseballLibrary.com . Archived from the original on August 26 , 2014 . Retrieved November 28 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Akin , William ( 2003 ) . `` Bill Phillips '' . SABR Baseball Biography Project . Retrieved August 20 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Hanlon ( 1968 ) . Jump up ^ `` J. Lee Richmond 's Remarkable 1879 Season '' Jump up ^ `` Becker College : History '' . Becker College . Archived from the original on February 6 , 2009 . Retrieved June 1 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Egan ( 2008 ) , pp. 100 , 295 n . 6 , quotes the line within a longer passage quoted from the Cleveland Leader , June 14 , 1880 . Buckley ( 2002 ) , p. 14 , credits the Chicago Tribune with the line . Deutsch ( 1975 ) , p. 14 , presents a clipping from the New York Herald with the line . Jump up ^ Okrent and Wulf ( 1989 ) , pp. 14 -- 15 , describe a story that later emerged that Richmond hurled his historic perfecto after staying up all night following a pre-graduation dinner at Brown University , pitching in an early morning class game , and taking a train to Worcester just in time to perform his professional duties . The BaseballLibrary.com entry on Richmond Archived July 28 , 2009 , at the Wayback Machine . claims that a similar sequence of events preceded not his perfect game , but a game he pitched against the Chicago White Stockings on June 16 . Egan ( 2008 ) , p. 101 , debunks the tale . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2002 ) , p. 27 . Jump up ^ Browning ( 2003 ) , pp. 145 , 248 . Jump up ^ Coffey ( 2004 ) , p. 28 . Jump up ^ Anderson ( 2000 ) , pp. 185 -- 186 . BaseballLibrary.com Archived June 29 , 2011 , at the Wayback Machine . claims it was a passed ball . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2005 ) , pp. 58 , 61 -- 64 . Jump up ^ 1922 American League Season Summary . Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on September 16 , 2010 . See Coffey ( 2004 ) , p. 43 , for an analysis of Detroit 's relatively desultory hitting at the point in the season when the game was played . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2002 ) , pp. 73 -- 74 . Jump up ^ Kennedy ( 1996 ) . Jump up ^ Lupica ( 1999 ) , p. 51 . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2002 ) , p. vi . Jump up ^ 1968 Oakland Athletics Game Log . Retrosheet . Retrieved on July 26 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Newman ( 1981 ) . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2002 ) , p. 141 . Jump up ^ Buckley ( 2002 ) , p. 169 . Jump up ^ `` 100 Most Memorable Reds Moments of the 20th Century '' . Cincinnati Enquirer. 1999 . Retrieved June 3 , 2010 . Box score : July 4 , 1989 -- Cincinnati Reds at Philadelphia Phillies Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on June 3 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Nightengale , Bob ( July 29 , 1994 ) . `` The Pitcher Is Perfect , but Greer Gets the Save '' . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved August 7 , 2009 . Richards , Charles ( July 29 , 1994 ) . `` Rogers Fires Perfect Game For Rangers ; Diving Grab in 9th Saves Gem '' . Washington Post . Retrieved August 7 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Wells Claims `` 25 to 40 Percent '' of Players Use Steroids `` . ESPN / Associated Press . February 27 , 2003 . Retrieved March 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Gallagher ( 2003 ) , p. 431 . Jump up ^ The OBP of the 2009 Rays , against which Buehrle later threw his perfect game , also rounds to . 343. 2004 Atlanta Braves Batting , Pitching , & Fielding Statistics . Baseball-Reference.com. 2009 Tampa Bay Rays Batting , Pitching , & Fielding Statistics . Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on July 1 , 2011 . Jump up ^ 2004 National League Season Summary . Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on July 26 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Schlegel , John ( July 24 , 2009 ) . `` For Buehrle , a Perfect Day for History '' . MLB.com . Retrieved July 24 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Just , David ( July 23 , 2009 ) . `` Same Ump Called Both Buehrle No - Nos '' . MLB.com . Retrieved July 24 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Buehrle Breaks Record '' . ESPN.com . July 29 , 2009 . Retrieved July 29 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` SB Nation '' . SBNation.com . August 28 , 2014 . Retrieved October 5 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` Standings and Games on Saturday , May 8 , 2010 '' . Baseball-Reference.com . May 8 , 2010 . Retrieved May 9 , 2010 . Jump up ^ 2010 American League Season Summary . Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on October 6 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Braden 's Perfect Game 19th Ever and Second Straight Against Rays '' . ESPN . Associated Press . May 9 , 2010 . Retrieved May 9 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Perfect Phillie : Halladay Pitches Perfect Game '' . MSNBC . May 29 , 2010 . Retrieved May 29 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Halladay 's Perfect Game Is This Season 's Second '' . ESPN / Associated Press . May 29 , 2010 . Retrieved May 29 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` Second Cy Young Boosts Halladay 's Hall of Fame Credentials '' . Sports Illustrated . November 16 , 2010 . Retrieved November 26 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Caple , Jim ( April 21 , 2012 ) . `` Phil Humber Completes Perfect Game '' . MLB.com . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Powers , Scott ( April 21 , 2012 ) . `` Phil Humber Throws Perfect Game '' . ESPN.com . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Tucker , Heather ( August 15 , 2012 ) . `` Felix Hernandez Pitches Perfect Game '' . USA Today . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Vass ( 2002 ) . Jump up ^ Ernie Shore hastily relieves and Sam Agnew takes over behind the plate for Pinch Thomas Archived October 20 , 2012 , at the Wayback Machine . Baseball Library . Retrieved on May 6 , 2011 . Jump up ^ See , e.g. , Chen ( 2009 ) ; Reisler ( 2007 ) , p. 57 ; Thielman ( 2005 ) , p. 169 ; Sullivan ( 2002 ) , p. 139 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Tuesday , May 26 , 1959 ( N ) at County Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on July 21 , 2008 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Saturday , June 3 , 1995 ( N ) at Jack Murphy Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . ^ Jump up to : Robbins ( 2004 ) , p. 242 . ^ Jump up to : Rothe , Emil H. The Shortened No - Hitters Baseball Research Journal . SABR . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Zingg and Medeiros ( 1994 ) , p. 27 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Saturday , April 21 , 1984 ( N ) at Busch Stadium II Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Pedro Martinez : Perfect Game -- Spring Training 1918RedSox.com . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ See Buckley ( 2002 ) for descriptions of perfect games spoiled by the 27th batter through 2001 . Note that Coffey ( 2004 ) gives incorrect years for the near - perfect games of Wiltse , Stieb , Holman , and Mussina ( p. 279 ) . Jump up ^ Nemec ( 2006 ) , pp. 86 -- 87 ; Simon ( 2004 ) , p. 54 ; `` No Hitter Records '' . Baseball Almanac . Retrieved August 20 , 2007 . Vass ( 1998 ) notes that , as of his writing , this was one of only three otherwise perfect games where the sole lapse was a hit batsman . The pitchers in the two other cases were Lew Burdette ( August 18 , 1960 ; fifth inning ) and Kevin Brown ( June 10 , 1997 ; eighth inning ) . Max Scherzer 's June 20 , 2015 , game , described later in the section , is the fourth such instance . Jump up ^ Deveaux ( 2001 ) , p. 111 ; James ( 2003 ) , p. 891 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , June 27 , 1958 ( N ) at Comiskey Park I Retrosheet ; Billy Pierce Interview Baseball Almanac . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Saturday , September 2 , 1972 ( D ) at Wrigley Field Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 ; Amspacher , Bruce ( April 11 , 2003 ) . `` What Really Happened ? An Interview with Major League Pitching Great Milt Pappas '' . Professional Sports Authenticator . Archived from the original on September 28 , 2007 . Retrieved August 20 , 2007 . Weinbaum , William ( September 20 , 2007 ) . `` Froemming Draws Pappas ' Ire , 35 Years Later '' . ESPN . Retrieved September 26 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , April 15 , 1983 ( N ) at Comiskey Park I Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Monday , May 2 , 1988 ( N ) at Riverfront Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Box score : August 4 , 1989 -- New York Yankees at Toronto Blue Jays Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on May 14 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` David Brown , August 9 , 2010 . Retrieved August 9 , 2010 '' . Yahoo ! Sports . Retrieved October 5 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Box score : April 20 , 1990 -- Seattle Mariners at Oakland Athletics Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on May 14 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Larry Stone ( April 15 , 2010 ) . `` Losing a perfect game was tough -- but Brian Holman 's been through tougher '' . Seattle Times . Archived from the original on November 4 , 2011 . Retrieved October 7 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Box score : September 2 , 2001 -- New York Yankees at Boston Red Sox Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on May 14 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Umpire : ' I Just Cost That Kid a Perfect Game ' '' . ESPN / Associated Press . June 2 , 2010 . Retrieved June 2 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Kepner , Tyler ( June 2 , 2010 ) . `` Pitcher Loses Perfect Game on Questionable Call '' . New York Times . Retrieved June 2 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` MLB.com At Bat '' . Major League Baseball . Retrieved October 5 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Corcoran , Cliff ( June 20 , 2015 ) . `` Blame Umpires , Not Tabata for Scherzer 's Lost Chance at Perfection '' . Sports Illustrated . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Deveaux ( 2001 ) , p. 49 ; Washington Post , `` The Game in Detail '' , May 12 , 1919 , p. 4 . Jump up ^ New York Times , `` Ruth Wallops Out His 28th Home Run '' , September 24 , 1919 , p. 23 ( available online ) . Jump up ^ See , e.g. , Cook ( 2004 ) , p. 236 . Jump up ^ Nowlin ( 2005 ) , p. 69 ; Box score : September 18 , 1971 -- Chicago Cubs at Philadelphia Phillies Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on May 14 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Burnett K 's 14 over Six Innings Associated Press via ESPN.com . Retrieved on August 13 , 2010 ; Box score : July 6 , 2005 -- Milwaukee Brewers at Florida Marlins Baseball-Reference.com . Retrieved on 2011 - 07 - 27 . Jump up ^ Arnold , Bill ( July 14 , 2006 ) . `` Beyond the Box Score -- Almost Perfect '' . MLB.com . Retrieved May 11 , 2009 . Arnold does not list Bosio 's 1993 game , as his list is restricted to games in which only the leadoff man reached base before the next 27 batters were retired . Jump up ^ Elston ( 2006 ) , pp. 173 -- 174 . Jump up ^ Charlton 's Baseball Chronology -- 1884 ( May ) Archived October 17 , 2007 , at the Wayback Machine . Baseball Library . Retrieved on May 11 , 2009 . Note that this was an American Association game ; the National League had not yet instituted the rule awarding hit batsmen first base . Charlton 's Baseball Chronology , the source for this game , incorrectly describes Monte Ward retiring 27 straight batters after the first singled in a game of July 23 , 1880 . In fact , he also walked a batter and another reached on an error . See Boston Globe , `` Providence 5 , Cincinnati 0 '' , July 24 , 1880 , p. 4 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Saturday , May 16 , 1953 ( D ) at County Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on January 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Thursday , May 13 , 1954 ( N ) at Connie Mack Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on January 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , July 1 , 1966 ( N ) at Shea Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on January 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Tuesday , May 19 , 1981 ( N ) at Three Rivers Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on January 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , June 11 , 1982 ( N ) at Dodger Stadium Retrosheet . Retrieved on May 11 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Thursday , April 22 , 1993 ( N ) at Kingdome Retrosheet . Retrieved on January 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , July 7 , 2006 ( N ) at Network Associates Coliseum Retrosheet . Retrieved on November 21 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , May 10 , 2013 at Busch Stadium ESPN . Retrieved on May 10 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Schott and Peters ( 2003 ) , p. 410 . Jump up ^ Fenster , Kenneth R. ( May 1 , 2006 ) . `` Nap Rucker ( 1884 -- 1970 ) '' . New Georgia Encyclopedia . Retrieved June 1 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Deveaux ( 2001 ) , p. 53 ; Robbins ( 2004 ) , pp. 238 -- 239 . Jump up ^ Robbins ( 2004 ) , p. 239 . See also Deveaux ( 2001 ) , pp. 170 -- 171 . Jump up ^ Schneider ( 2005 ) , p. 142 ; Robbins ( 2004 ) , p. 240 ; Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , July 19 , 1974 ( N ) at Cleveland Stadium . Retrosheet . Retrieved on April 22 , 2009 . Jump up ^ McNeil ( 2003 ) , p. 342 ; Robbins ( 2004 ) , pp. 240 -- 241 ; Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , June 27 , 1980 ( N ) at Candlestick Park . Retrosheet . Retrieved on April 22 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Westcott ( 2005 ) , p. 77 ; Robbins ( 2004 ) , pp. 241 -- 242 ; Boxscore -- Game Played on Wednesday , August 15 , 1990 ( N ) at Veterans Stadium . Retrosheet . Retrieved on April 22 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Sanchez Makes Most of Opportunity , Throws No - hitter in Front of Father '' . ESPN.com/Associated Press . July 10 , 2009 . Retrieved July 11 , 2009 . Boxscore -- Game Played on Friday , July 10 , 2009 ( N ) at AT&T Park . Retrosheet . Retrieved on June 3 , 2010 . Jump up ^ Greenberg , Neil ( June 19 , 2014 ) . `` Dodgers ' Clayton Kershaw Throws the Best No - hitter of All Time '' . Washington Post . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Kepner , Tyler ( October 3 , 2015 ) . `` In Terms of One Outing , at Least , Max Scherzer Has Few Peers '' . New York Times . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Ladson , Bill ; DiComo , Anthony ( October 3 , 2015 ) . `` No - no Encore : Scherzer Tosses 2nd of 2015 '' . MLB.com . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Joseph , Andrew ( August 23 , 2017 ) . `` Rich Hill Lost a 9 - inning No - hitter in the Most Heartbreaking Way Possible '' . USA Today . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Los Angeles Dodgers at Pittsburgh Pirates Box Score , August 23 , 2017 '' . Baseball Reference . Retrieved January 10 , 2018 . Sources ( edit ) Alvarez , Mark , ed. ( 1993 ) . The Perfect Game : A Classic Collection of Facts , Figures , Stories and Characters from the Society for American Baseball Research ( Taylor ) . ISBN 0 - 87833 - 815 - 2 Anderson , David W. ( 2000 ) . More Than Merkle : A History of the Best and Most Exciting Baseball Season in Human History ( Lincoln and London : University of Nebraska Press ) . ISBN 0 - 8032 - 1056 - 6 Browning , Reed ( 2003 ) . Cy Young : A Baseball Life ( Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press ) . ISBN 1 - 55849 - 398 - 0 Buckley , Jr. , James ( 2002 ) . Perfect : The Inside Story of Baseball 's Seventeen Perfect Games ( Triumph Books ) . ISBN 1 - 57243 - 454 - 6 Chen , Albert ( 2009 ) . `` The Greatest Game Ever Pitched '' , Sports Illustrated ( June 1 ; available online ) . Coffey , Michael ( 2004 ) . 27 Men Out : Baseball 's Perfect Games ( New York : Atria Books ) . ISBN 0 - 7434 - 4606 - 2 Cook , William A. ( 2004 ) . Waite Hoyt : A Biography of the Yankees ' Schoolboy Wonder ( Jefferson , N.C. : McFarland ) . ISBN 0786419601 Deutsch , Jordan A. et al. ( 1975 ) . The Scrapbook History of Baseball ( New York : Bobbs - Merrill ) . ISBN 0 - 672 - 52028 - 1 Deveaux , Tom ( 2001 ) . The Washington Senators , 1901 -- 1971 ( Jefferson , N.C. : McFarland ) . ISBN 0 - 7864 - 0993 - 2 Dewey , Donald , and Nicholas Acocella ( 1995 ) . The Biographical History of Baseball ( New York : Carroll & Graf ) . ISBN 1 - 57243 - 567 - 4 Dickson , Paul ( 2009 ) . The Dickson Baseball Dictionary , 3d ed . ( New York : W.W. Norton ) . ISBN 0 - 393 - 06681 - 9 Egan , James M. ( 2008 ) . Base Ball on the Western Reserve : The Early Game in Cleveland and Northeast Ohio , Year by Year and Town by Town , 1865 -- 1900 ( Jefferson , N.C. : McFarland ) . ISBN 0 - 7864 - 3067 - 2 Elston , Gene ( 2006 ) . A Stitch in Time : A Baseball Chronology , 3d ed . ( Houston , Tex. : Halcyon Press ) . ISBN 1 - 931823 - 33 - 2 Fleitz , David L. ( 2004 ) . Ghosts in the Gallery at Cooperstown : Sixteen Little - Known Members of the Hall of Fame ( Jefferson , N.C. : McFarland ) . ISBN 0 - 7864 - 1749 - 8 Forker , Dom , Robert Obojski , and Wayne Stewart ( 2004 ) . The Big Book of Baseball Brainteasers ( Sterling ) . ISBN 1 - 4027 - 1337 - 1 Gallagher , Mark ( 2003 ) . The Yankee Encyclopedia , 6th ed . ( Champaign , Ill. : Sports Publishing LLC ) . ISBN 1 - 58261 - 683 - 3 Hanlon , John ( 1968 ) . `` First Perfect Game In the Major Leagues '' , Sports Illustrated ( August 26 ; available online ) . James , Bill . The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract , rev . ed . ( Simon and Schuster , 2003 ) . ISBN 0 - 7432 - 2722 - 0 Kennedy , Kostya ( 1996 ) . `` His Memory Is Perfect '' , Sports Illustrated ( October 14 ; available online ) Lewis , Allen ( 2002 ) . `` Tainted No - hitters '' , Baseball Digest ( February ; available online ) . Lupica , Mike ( 1999 ) . Summer of ' 98 : When Homers Flew , Records Fell , and Baseball Reclaimed America ( New York : G.P. Putnam 's Sons ) . ISBN 0 - 399 - 14514 - 1 McNeil , William F. ( 2003 ) . The Dodgers Encyclopedia , 2d ed . ( Champaign , Ill. : Sports Publishing LLC ) . ISBN 1 - 58261 - 633 - 7 Nemec , David ( 2006 ( 1994 ) ) . The Official Rules of Baseball Illustrated ( Guilford , Conn. : Globe Pequot ) . ISBN 1 - 59228 - 844 - 8 Newman , Bruce ( 1981 ) . `` Perfect in Every Way '' , Sports Illustrated ( May 25 ; available online ) . Nowlin , Bill ( 2005 ) . `` Rick Wise '' , in ' 75 : The Red Sox Team That Saved Baseball , ed . Bill Nowlin and Cecilia Tan ( Cambridge , Mass. : Rounder ) . ISBN 1 - 57940 - 127 - 9 Okrent , Daniel , and Steve Wulf ( 1989 ) . Baseball Anecdotes ( New York and Oxford : Oxford University Press ) . ISBN 0 - 19 - 504396 - 0 Reisler , Jim ( 2007 ) . The Best Game Ever : Pirates vs. Yankees , October 13 , 1960 ( New York : Carroll & Graf ) . ISBN 0 - 7867 - 1943 - 5 Robbins , Mike ( 2004 ) . Ninety Feet from Fame : Close Calls with Baseball Immortality ( New York : Carroll & Graf ) . ISBN 0 - 7867 - 1335 - 6 Schneider , Russell ( 2005 ) . The Cleveland Indians Encyclopedia , 3d ed . ( Champaign , Ill. : Sports Publishing LLC ) . ISBN 1 - 58261 - 840 - 2 Schott , Tom , and Nick Peters ( 2003 ) . The Giants Encyclopedia ( Champaign , Ill. : Sports Publishing LLC ) . ISBN 1 - 58261 - 693 - 0 Simon , Thomas P. , ed. ( 2004 ) . Deadball Stars of the National League ( Brassey 's ) . ISBN 1 - 57488 - 860 - 9 Sullivan , Dean , ed. ( 2002 ) . Late Innings : A Documentary History of Baseball , 1945 -- 1972 ( Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press ) . ISBN 0 - 8032 - 9285 - 6 Thielman , Jim ( 2005 ) . Cool of the Evening : The 1965 Minnesota Twins ( Minneapolis , Minn. : Kirk House Publishers ) . ISBN 1886513716 Vass , George ( 1998 ) . `` Here Are the 13 Most Fascinating No - Hitters '' , Baseball Digest ( June ) . Vass , George ( 2002 ) . `` Seven Most Improbable No - Hitters '' , Baseball Digest ( August ; available online ) . Vass , George ( 2007 ) . `` One Out Away from Fame : The Final Out of Hitless Games Has Often Proved to Be a Pitcher 's Toughest Conquest '' , Baseball Digest ( June ; available online ) . Westcott , Rich ( 2005 ) . Veterans Stadium : Field of Memories ( Philadelphia : Temple University Press ) . ISBN 1 - 59213 - 428 - 9 Young , Mark C. ( 1997 ) . The Guinness Book of Sports Records ( Guinness Media ) . ISBN 0 - 9652383 - 1 - 8 Zingg , Paul J. , and Mark D. Medeiros ( 1994 ) . Runs , Hits , and an Era : the Pacific Coast League , 1903 -- 58 ( Champaign : University of Illinois Press ) . ISBN 0 - 252 - 06402 - X Major League Baseball records Baseball statistics ( types of records ) General Record holders Single - game records Single - season records Record breakers by season Records considered unbreakable Titles leaders Batting leaders Career Batting average On - base percentage Times on base Slugging percentage OPS Hits 3,000 club Progressive Singles Doubles Triples Home runs 500 club Progressive Extra base hits RBIs Total bases Walks Intentional HBP Strikeouts Games played At - bats Plate appearances Annual Batting average Doubles Triples Home runs RBI Season Batting average Triples Home run Progressive Game Home runs Hitting for the cycle Grand slams RBI Game Inning Hits Misc Consecutive game hitting streak On - base plus slugging Hits Home runs Doubles Triples RBIs Baserunning leaders Career Runs Stolen bases Annual Runs Stolen bases Game Runs Misc Runs Stolen bases Pitching leaders Career Wins 300 club Losses Games started Games finished Innings pitched Strikeouts 3,000 club Saves Complete games Shutouts ERA WHIP Walks Hit batsmen Wild pitches Batters faced Annual Wins Saves Shutouts Strikeouts ERA Game No - hitter Perfect game List of perfect games Strikeouts Game Inning Immaculate innings Misc Wins Fielding leaders Career Putouts 1B 2B SS 3B OF LF CF RF Errors 1B 2B SS 3B OF LF Assists Passed balls Annual Putouts Errors Managing records Wins and winning percentage Multiple stat records Triple Crown 20 -- 20 -- 20 club 30 -- 30 club 40 -- 40 club Other Consecutive games played Longest winning streaks Longest losing streaks Individual streaks Titles streaks Major League Baseball pitchers who have pitched a perfect game Lee Richmond ( game ) John Montgomery Ward ( game ) Cy Young ( game ) Addie Joss ( game ) Charlie Robertson ( game ) Don Larsen ( game ) Jim Bunning ( game ) Sandy Koufax ( game ) Catfish Hunter ( game ) Len Barker ( game ) Mike Witt ( game ) Tom Browning ( game ) Dennis Martínez ( game ) Kenny Rogers ( game ) David Wells ( game ) David Cone ( game ) Randy Johnson ( game ) Mark Buehrle ( game ) Dallas Braden ( game ) Roy Halladay ( game ) Philip Humber ( game ) Matt Cain ( game ) Félix Hernández ( game ) Italics denotes post-season perfect game Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Major_League_Baseball_perfect_games&oldid=853601236 '' Categories : Major League Baseball lists Lists of Major League Baseball no - hitters by franchise Major League Baseball statistics Baseball pitching Major League Baseball perfect games Hidden categories : Webarchive template wayback links Use mdy dates from October 2013 Talk Contents About Wikipedia Português Русский Edit links This page was last edited on 5 August 2018 , at 22 : 04 ( UTC ) . 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[ "Félix Hernández" ]
[ "Over the 140 years of Major League Baseball history , and over 210,000 games played , there have been 23 official perfect games by the current definition . No pitcher has ever thrown more than one . The perfect game thrown by Don Larsen in game 5 of the 1956 World Series is the only postseason perfect game in major league history and one of only two postseason no - hitters . The first two major league perfect games , and the only two of the premodern era , were thrown in 1880 , five days apart . The most recent perfect game was thrown on August 15 , 2012 , by Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners . There were three perfect games in 2012 ; the only other year of the modern era in which as many as two were thrown was 2010 . By contrast , there have been spans of 23 and 33 consecutive seasons in which not a single perfect game was thrown . Though two perfect - game bids have gone into extra innings , no extra-inning game has ever been completed to perfection ." ]
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where is oklahoma located in the united states
Oklahoma - Wikipedia Oklahoma This article is about the U.S. state of Oklahoma . For other uses , see Oklahoma ( disambiguation ) . State of Oklahoma Flag Seal Nickname ( s ) : Native America , Land of the Red Man , Sooner State Motto ( s ) : Labor omnia vincit ( Latin : Work conquers all ) State song ( s ) : `` Oklahoma ( Rodgers and Hammerstein song ) , Oklahoma Hills '' Official language English ( Choctaw official within Choctaw Nation , Cherokee official within Cherokee Nation and UKB ) Demonym Oklahoman ; Okie ( colloq . ) Capital ( and largest city ) Oklahoma City Largest metro Greater Oklahoma City Area Ranked 20th Total 69,960 sq mi ( 181,295 km ) Width 230 miles ( 370 km ) Length 465 miles ( 750 km ) % water 1.8 Latitude 33 ° 37 ' N to 37 ° N Longitude 94 ° 26 ' W to 103 ° W Population Ranked 28th Total 3,930,864 ( 2017 est . ) Density 55.2 / sq mi ( 21.3 / km ) Ranked 35th Median household income $47,000 ( 43rd ) Elevation Highest point Black Mesa 4,975 ft ( 1516 m ) Mean 1,300 ft ( 400 m ) Lowest point Little River at Arkansas border 289 ft ( 88 m ) Before statehood Indian Territory ( 1834 -- 1907 ) Oklahoma Territory ( 1890 -- 1907 ) Admission to Union November 16 , 1907 ( 46th ) Governor Mary Fallin ( R ) Lieutenant Governor Todd Lamb ( R ) Legislature Oklahoma Legislature Upper house Senate Lower house House of Representatives U.S. Senators Jim Inhofe ( R ) James Lankford ( R ) U.S. House delegation 4 Republicans 1 Vacant ( list ) Time zones all of state ( legally ) Central : UTC - 6 / - 5 Kenton ( informally ) Mountain : UTC - 7 / - 6 ISO 3166 US - OK Abbreviations OK , Okla . Website www.ok.gov show Oklahoma state symbols The Flag of Oklahoma The Seal of Oklahoma Living insignia Amphibian Bullfrog Bird Scissor - tailed Flycatcher Fish Sand bass Flower Oklahoma Rose Wildflower : Indian Blanket Grass Indian Grass Insect European honey bee Mammal American bison Reptile Mountain Boomer Tree Redbud Inanimate insignia Beverage Milk Colors White and green ( vice versa ) Dance Waltz : Oklahoma Wind Dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis Folk dance Square dance Fossil Saurophaganax maximus Instrument Drum Rock Rose Rock Soil Port Silt Loam Tartan Oklahoma Tartan Other Cartoon : Gusty created by Don Woods , Oklahoma 's first professional meteorologist , used on KTUL - TV from 1954 to 1989 . Fruit : Strawberry Vegetable : Watermelon Game bird : Wild turkey Monument : Golden Driller Rock song : `` Do You Realize ? ? '' by The Flaming Lips Theater group : Lynn Riggs Players of Oklahoma State route marker State quarter Released in 2008 , as part of the state quarters series . Oklahoma 's state bird flying above its state wildflower . Lists of United States state symbols Oklahoma ( / ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə / ( listen ) ; Pawnee : Uukuhuúwa , Cayuga : Gahnawiyoˀgeh ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States . It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States . The state 's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma , meaning `` red people '' . It is also known informally by its nickname , `` The Sooner State '' , in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 , which dramatically increased European - American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory . Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16 , 1907 . Its residents are known as Oklahomans ( or colloquially , `` Okies '' ) , and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City . A major producer of natural gas , oil , and agricultural products , Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation , energy , telecommunications , and biotechnology . Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma 's primary economic anchors , with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas . With ancient mountain ranges , prairie , mesas , and eastern forests , most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains , Cross Timbers , and the U.S. Interior Highlands , a region prone mainly to severe weather . More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma , ranking third behind Alaska and California . Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives , a destination for Southern settlers , and a government - sanctioned territory for Native Americans . Contents 1 Etymology 2 Geography 2.1 Topography 2.2 Flora and fauna 2.3 Protected lands 2.4 Climate 3 History 3.1 20th and 21st centuries 4 Demographics 4.1 Cities and towns 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 5 Economy 5.1 Industry 5.2 Energy 5.2. 1 Wind generation 5.3 Agriculture 6 Education 6.1 Non-English education 7 Culture 7.1 Arts 7.2 Festivals and events 7.3 Sports 7.3. 1 Current teams 8 Health 9 Media 10 Transportation 11 Law and government 11.1 State government 11.2 Local government 11.3 National politics 11.4 Military 12 Cities and towns 12.1 Major cities 13 State symbols 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links 18.1 Government 18.2 Tourism and recreation 18.3 Culture and history 18.4 Maps and demographics Etymology ( edit ) The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma , literally meaning red people . Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory , in which he envisioned an all - Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs . Equivalent to the English word Indian , okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole . Oklahoma later became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory , and it was officially approved in 1890 , two years after the area was opened to white settlers . Geography ( edit ) Main article : Geography of Oklahoma Köppen climate types of Oklahoma State rock ( rose rock ) specimens from Cleveland County , with a US quarter for size reference American bison Elk Mountain , in the eastern Wichita Mountains Oklahoma is the 20th - largest state in the United States , covering an area of 69,898 square miles ( 181,030 km ) , with 68,667 square miles ( 177,850 km ) of land and 1,281 square miles ( 3,320 km ) of water . It lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states . It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri , on the north by Kansas , on the northwest by Colorado , on the far west by New Mexico , and on the south and near - west by Texas . Much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen , a failed continental rift . The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River . The Oklahoma panhandle 's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border . The Oklahoma / New Mexico border is 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line . The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819 . It was then set along the 103rd meridian . In the 1890s , when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques , it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian . Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819 , and the actual 103rd meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east . It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error . The placement of the Oklahoma / New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian . Cimarron County in Oklahoma 's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states : New Mexico , Texas , Colorado and Kansas . See also : List of Oklahoma tri-points Topography ( edit ) See also : List of lakes in Oklahoma Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed , generally sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary . Its highest and lowest points follow this trend , with its highest peak , Black Mesa , at 4,973 feet ( 1,516 m ) above sea level , situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle . The state 's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel , Oklahoma , which dips to 289 feet ( 88 m ) above sea level . The lower dam on Medicine Creek in Medicine Park , below Lake Lawtonka , built c. 1901 to serve the nearby city of Lawton . Medicine Park was one of the first resort communities established in the Wichita Mountains . Wichita Mountains Narrows Among the most geographically diverse states , Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions , with 11 in its borders -- more per square mile than in any other state . Its western and eastern halves , however , are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity : Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three . Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many rare , relic species . The Ouachita Mountains cover much of southeastern Oklahoma Grave Creek in McIntosh County , Oklahoma Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges : the Ouachita Mountains , the Arbuckle Mountains , the Wichita Mountains , and the Ozark Mountains . Contained within the U.S. Interior Highlands region , the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians . A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north - central Oklahoma , and near the state 's eastern border , The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world 's tallest hill ; at 1,999 feet ( 609 m ) , it fails their definition of a mountain by one foot . The semi-arid high plains in the state 's northwestern corner harbor few natural forests ; the region has a rolling to flat landscape with intermittent canyons and mesa ranges like the Glass Mountains . Partial plains interrupted by small , sky island mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains dot southwestern Oklahoma ; transitional prairie and oak savannas cover the central portion of the state . The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state 's eastern third , gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction . Turner Falls More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma 's waterways , and with 200 lakes created by dams , it holds the nation 's highest number of artificial reservoirs . Most of the state lies in two primary drainage basins belonging to the Red and Arkansas rivers , though the Lee and Little rivers also contain significant drainage basins . Flora and fauna ( edit ) See also : List of fauna of Oklahoma Populations of American bison inhabit the state 's prairie ecosystems Due to Oklahoma 's location at the confluence of many geographic regions , the state 's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity . Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass , mixed - grass , and tallgrass prairie , harbor expansive ecosystems in the state 's central and western portions , although cropland has largely replaced native grasses . Where rainfall is sparse in the state 's western regions , shortgrass prairie and shrublands are the most prominent ecosystems , though pinyon pines , red cedar ( junipers ) , and ponderosa pines grow near rivers and creek beds in the panhandle 's far western reaches . Southwestern Oklahoma contains many rare , disjunct species including sugar maple , bigtooth maple , nolina and southern live oak . Marshlands , cypress forests and mixtures of shortleaf pine , loblolly pine , blue palmetto , and deciduous forests dominate the state 's southeastern quarter , while mixtures of largely post oak , elm , red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana ) and pine forests cover northeastern Oklahoma . The state holds populations of white - tailed deer , mule deer , antelope , coyotes , mountain lions , bobcats , elk , and birds such as quail , doves , cardinals , bald eagles , red - tailed hawks , and pheasants . In prairie ecosystems , American bison , greater prairie chickens , badgers , and armadillo are common , and some of the nation 's largest prairie dog towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state 's panhandle . The Cross Timbers , a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma , harbors 351 vertebrate species . The Ouachita Mountains are home to black bear , red fox , gray fox , and river otter populations , which coexist with 328 vertebrate species in southeastern Oklahoma . Also , in southeastern Oklahoma lives the American alligator . Protected lands ( edit ) Mesas rise above one of Oklahoma 's state parks Oklahoma has 50 state parks , six national parks or protected regions , two national protected forests or grasslands , and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas . Six percent of the state 's 10 million acres ( 40,000 km ) of forest is public land , including the western portions of the Ouachita National Forest , the largest and oldest national forest in the Southern United States . With 39,000 acres ( 160 km ) , the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in north - central Oklahoma is the largest protected area of tallgrass prairie in the world and is part of an ecosystem that encompasses only 10 percent of its former land area , once covering 14 states . In addition , the Black Kettle National Grassland covers 31,300 acres ( 127 km ) of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma . The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge is the oldest and largest of nine national wildlife refuges in the state and was founded in 1901 , encompassing 59,020 acres ( 238.8 km ) . Of Oklahoma 's federally protected parks or recreational sites , the Chickasaw National Recreation Area is the largest , with 9,898.63 acres ( 40.0583 km ) . Other sites include the Santa Fe and Trail of Tears national historic trails , the Fort Smith and Washita Battlefield national historic sites , and the Oklahoma City National Memorial . Climate ( edit ) Oklahoma 's climate is prime for the generation of thunderstorms Winter at the Oklahoma Baptist University campus Oklahoma is in a humid subtropical region . Oklahoma lies in a transition zone between humid continental climate to the north , semi-arid climate to the west , and humid subtropical climate in the central , south and eastern portions of the state . Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley characterized by frequent interaction between cold , dry air from Canada , warm to hot , dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S. , and warm , moist air from the Gulf of Mexico . The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces severe weather ( severe thunderstorms , damaging thunderstorm winds , large hail and tornadoes ) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth . An average 62 tornadoes strike the state per year -- one of the highest rates in the world . Because of Oklahoma 's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds , weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances and can change drastically in a short time . As an example , on November 11 , 1911 , the temperature at Oklahoma City reached 83 ° F ( 28 ° C ) in the afternoon ( the record high for that date ) , then an Arctic cold front of unprecedented intensity slammed across the state , causing the temperature to fall 66 degrees , down to 17 ° F ( − 8 ° C ) at midnight ( the record low for that date ) ; thus , both the record high and record low for November 11 were set on the same date . This type of phenomenon is also responsible for many of the tornadoes in the area , such as the 1912 Oklahoma tornado outbreak , when a warm front traveled along a stalled cold front , resulting in an average of about one tornado per hour over the course of a day . The humid subtropical climate ( Koppen Cfa ) of central , southern and eastern Oklahoma is influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the Gulf of Mexico . Traveling westward , the climate transitions progressively toward a semi-arid zone ( Koppen BSk ) in the high plains of the Panhandle and other western areas from about Lawton westward , less frequently touched by southern moisture . Precipitation and temperatures decline from east to west accordingly , with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of 62 ° F ( 17 ° C ) and an annual rainfall of generally over 40 inches ( 1,020 mm ) and up to 56 inches ( 1,420 mm ) , while areas of the ( higher - elevation ) panhandle average 58 ° F ( 14 ° C ) , with an annual rainfall under 17 inches ( 430 mm ) . Over almost all of Oklahoma , winter is the driest season . Average monthly precipitation increases dramatically in the spring to a peak in May , the wettest month over most of the state , with its frequent and not uncommonly severe thunderstorm activity . Early June can still be wet , but most years see a marked decrease in rainfall during June and early July . Mid-summer ( July and August ) represents a secondary dry season over much of Oklahoma , with long stretches of hot weather with only sporadic thunderstorm activity not uncommon many years . Severe drought is common in the hottest summers , such as those of 1934 , 1954 , 1980 and 2011 , all of which featured weeks on end of virtual rainlessness and high temperatures well over 100 ° F ( 38 ° C ) . Average precipitation rises again from September to mid-October , representing a secondary wetter season , then declines from late October through December . All of the state frequently experiences temperatures above 100 ° F ( 38 ° C ) or below 0 ° F ( − 18 ° C ) , though below - zero temperatures are rare in south - central and southeastern Oklahoma . Snowfall ranges from an average of less than 4 inches ( 10 cm ) in the south to just over 20 inches ( 51 cm ) on the border of Colorado in the panhandle . The state is home to the Storm Prediction Center , the National Severe Storms Laboratory , and the Warning Decision Training Division , all part of the National Weather Service and in Norman . Oklahoma 's highest - recorded temperature of 120 ° F ( 49 ° C ) was recorded at Tipton on June 27 , 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature of − 31 ° F ( − 35 ° C ) was recorded at Nowata on February 10 , 2011 . Monthly temperatures for Oklahoma 's largest cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Oklahoma City 50 / 29 55 / 33 63 / 41 73 / 50 80 / 60 88 / 68 94 / 72 93 / 71 85 / 63 73 / 52 62 / 40 51 / 31 Tulsa 48 / 27 53 / 31 62 / 40 72 / 49 79 / 59 88 / 68 93 / 73 93 / 71 84 / 62 73 / 51 61 / 40 49 / 30 Lawton 50 / 26 56 / 31 65 / 40 73 / 49 82 / 59 90 / 68 96 / 73 95 / 71 86 / 63 76 / 51 62 / 39 52 / 30 Average high / low temperatures in ° F History ( edit ) Main article : History of Oklahoma Map of Indian Territory ( Oklahoma ) 1889 . Britannica 9th edition . Evidence suggests indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma as early as the last ice age . Ancestors of the Wichita , Kichai , Teyas , Escanjaques , and Caddo lived in what is now Oklahoma . Southern Plains villagers lived in the central and west of the state , with a subgroup , the Panhandle culture people living in panhandle region . Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state . Spiro Mounds , in what is now Spiro , Oklahoma , was a major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450 . The Spaniard Francisco Vázquez de Coronado traveled through the state in 1541 , but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s . In the 18th century , Kiowa , Apache , and Comanche entered the region from the west and Quapaw and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma . French colonists claimed the region until 1803 , when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River was purchased by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase . The territory now known as Oklahoma was first a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828 . During the 19th century , thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present - day Oklahoma . The Choctaw was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed from the Southeastern United States . The phrase `` Trail of Tears '' originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831 , although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal . Seventeen thousand Cherokees and 2,000 of their black slaves were deported . The area , already occupied by Osage and Quapaw tribes , was called for the Choctaw Nation until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans . By 1890 , more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within Indian Territory or `` Indian Country '' . All Five Civilized Tribes supported and signed treaties with the Confederate military during the American Civil War . The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war . Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866 . In the period between 1866 and 1899 , cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner . Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory . In 1881 , four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory . Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887 , which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families , encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government . In the process , railroad companies took nearly half of Indian - held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase . The Dust Bowl sent thousands of farmers into poverty during the 1930s Major land runs , including the Land Run of 1889 , were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time . Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis . Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner , leading to the term sooners , which eventually became the state 's official nickname . Deliberations to make the territory into a state began near the end of the 19th century , when the Curtis Act continued the allotment of Indian tribal land . 20th and 21st Centuries ( edit ) Attempts to create an all - Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all - Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention , which took place two years later . On November 16 , 1907 , Oklahoma was established as the 46th state in the Union . The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was one of the deadliest acts of terrorism in American history The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry , as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth . Tulsa eventually became known as the `` Oil Capital of the World '' for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state 's early economy . In 1927 , Oklahoman businessman Cyrus Avery , known as the `` Father of Route 66 '' , began the campaign to create U.S. Route 66 . Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo , Texas to Tulsa , Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66 , Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66 , based in his hometown of Tulsa . Oklahoma also has a rich African American history . Many black towns thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states , especially Kansas . The politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory . He discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority - black state . By the early 20th century , the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa was one of the most prosperous African - American communities in the United States . Jim Crow laws had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century , but the blacks had created a thriving area . Social tensions were exacerbated by the revival of the Ku Klux Klan after 1915 . The Tulsa Race Riot broke out in 1921 , with whites attacking blacks . In one of the costliest episodes of racial violence in American history , sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed , $1.8 million in property damage , and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people . By the late 1920s , the Ku Klux Klan had declined to negligible influence within the state . During the 1930s , parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practices , extended drought and high winds . Known as the Dust Bowl , areas of Kansas , Texas , New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma were hampered by long periods of little rainfall and abnormally high temperatures , sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States . Over a twenty - year period ending in 1950 , the state saw its only historical decline in population , dropping 6.9 percent as impoverished families migrated out of the state after the Dust Bowl . Soil and water conservation projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams ; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man - made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation . By the 1960s , Oklahoma had created more than 200 lakes , the most in the nation . In 1995 , Oklahoma City was the site of one of the most destructive acts of domestic terrorism in American history . The Oklahoma City bombing of April 19 , 1995 , in which Timothy McVeigh detonated a large , crude explosive device outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building , killed 168 people , including 19 children . For his crime , McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11 , 2001 . His accomplice , Terry Nichols , is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive . On May 31 , 2016 , several cities experienced record setting flooding . Demographics ( edit ) Main article : Demographics of Oklahoma Oklahoma population density map Historical population Census Pop . % ± 1890 258,657 -- 1900 790,391 205.6 % 1910 1,657,155 109.7 % 1920 2,028,283 22.4 % 1930 2,396,040 18.1 % 1940 2,336,434 − 2.5 % 1950 2,233,351 − 4.4 % 1960 2,328,284 4.3 % 1970 2,559,229 9.9 % 1980 3,025,290 18.2 % 1990 3,145,585 4.0 % 2000 3,450,654 9.7 % 3,751,351 8.7 % Est. 2017 3,930,864 4.8 % U.S. Decennial Census 2015 Estimate The United States Census Bureau estimates Oklahoma 's population was 3,923,561 on July 1 , 2016 , a 4.6 % increase since the 2010 United States Census . At the 2010 Census , 68.7 % of the population was non-Hispanic white , down from 88 % in 1970 , 7.3 % non-Hispanic Black or African American , 8.2 % non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native , 1.7 % non-Hispanic Asian , 0.1 % non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander , 0.1 % from some other race ( non-Hispanic ) and 5.1 % of two or more races ( non-Hispanic ) . 8.9 % of Oklahoma 's population was of Hispanic , Latino , or Spanish origin ( they may be of any race ) . Oklahoma racial breakdown of population hide Racial composition 1970 1990 2000 White 89.1 % 82.1 % 76.2 % 72.0 % Native 3.8 % 8.0 % 7.9 % 8.7 % Black 6.7 % 7.4 % 7.6 % 7.4 % Asian 0.1 % 1.1 % 1.4 % 1.7 % Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander -- -- 0.1 % 0.1 % Other race 0.2 % 1.3 % 2.4 % 4.1 % Two or more races -- -- 4.5 % 6.0 % As of 2011 , 47.3 % of Oklahoma 's population younger than age 1 were minorities , meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white . As of 2005 Oklahoma 's estimated ancestral makeup was 14.5 % German , 13.1 % American , 11.8 % Irish , 9.6 % English , 8.1 % African American , and 11.4 % Native American ( including 7.9 % Cherokee ) though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1 % . Most people from Oklahoma who self - identify as having American ancestry are of overwhelmingly English ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well . The state had the second - highest number of Native Americans in 2002 , estimated at 395,219 , as well as the second - highest percentage among all states . In 2011 , U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey data from 2005 -- 2009 indicated about 5 % of Oklahoma 's residents were born outside the United States . This is lower than the national figure ( about 12.5 % of U.S. residents were foreign - born ) . The center of population of Oklahoma is in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks . The state 's 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210 , though it has the third - fastest - growing per capita income in the nation and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index . The Oklahoma City suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income at $73,661 , though Tulsa County holds the highest average . In 2011 , 7.0 % of Oklahomans were under the age of 5 , 24.7 % under 18 , and 13.7 % were 65 or older . Females made up 50.5 % of the population . Demographics of Oklahoma ( csv ) By race White Black AIAN * Asian NHPI * 2000 ( total population ) 82.59 % 8.31 % 11.39 % 1.71 % 0.15 % 2000 ( Hispanic only ) 4.73 % 0.19 % 0.37 % 0.05 % 0.02 % 2005 ( total population ) 82.20 % 8.55 % 11.31 % 1.92 % 0.16 % 2005 ( Hispanic only ) 6.10 % 0.24 % 0.35 % 0.06 % 0.03 % Growth 2000 -- 05 ( total population ) 2.33 % 5.76 % 2.04 % 15.49 % 9.51 % Growth 2000 -- 05 ( non-Hispanic only ) 0.50 % 5.17 % 2.22 % 15.19 % 9.47 % Growth 2000 -- 05 ( Hispanic only ) 32.58 % 31.44 % - 3.27 % 25.17 % 9.69 % * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native ; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Cities and towns ( edit ) The state is in the U.S. Census ' Southern region . According to the 2010 United States Census , Oklahoma is the 28th-most populous state with 7006375161600000000 ♠ 3,751,616 inhabitants but the 19th - largest by land area spanning 68,594.92 square miles ( 177,660.0 km ) of land . Oklahoma is divided into 77 counties and contains 597 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns . In Oklahoma , cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities . Towns are limited to town board type of municipal government . Cities may choose among aldermanic , mayoral , council - manager , and home - rule charter types of government . Cities may also petition to incorporate as towns . Largest cities or towns in Oklahoma Source ( 2016 est . ) : Rank Name County Pop . Oklahoma City Tulsa Oklahoma City Oklahoma 638,367 Norman Broken Arrow Tulsa Tulsa 403,090 Norman Cleveland 122,180 Broken Arrow Tulsa 107,403 5 Lawton Comanche 94,653 6 Edmond Oklahoma 91,191 7 Moore Cleveland 61,415 8 Midwest City Oklahoma 57,305 9 Enid Garfield 51,004 10 Stillwater Payne 49,504 Language ( edit ) Recording of a Cherokee language stomp dance ceremony in Oklahoma Bilingual stop sign in English and the Cherokee syllabary , Tahlequah , Oklahoma The English language has been official in the state of Oklahoma since 2010 . The variety of North American English spoken is called Oklahoma English , and this dialect is quite diverse with its uneven blending of features of North Midland , South Midland , and Southern dialects . In 2000 , 2,977,187 Oklahomans -- 92.6 % of the resident population five years or older -- spoke only English at home , a decrease from 95 % in 1990 . 238,732 Oklahoma residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census , about 7.4 % of the state 's population . Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state , with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000 . The two most commonly spoken native North American languages are Cherokee and Choctaw with 10,000 Cherokee speakers living within the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area of eastern Oklahoma , and another 10,000 Choctaw speakers living in the Choctaw Nation directly south of the Cherokees . Cherokee is an official language in the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area and in the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians . Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Oklahoma Language Percentage of population ( as of 2000 ) Spanish 4.4 % Native North American languages 0.6 % German and Vietnamese ( tied ) 0.4 % French 0.3 % Chinese 0.2 % Korean , Arabic , Tagalog , Japanese ( tied ) 0.1 % German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4 % of the state 's population , and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people , or about 0.4 % of the population , many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma City . Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers ( 0.3 % ) , Chinese with 6,413 ( 0.2 % ) , Korean with 3,948 ( 0.1 % ) , Arabic with 3,265 ( 0.1 % ) , other Asian languages with 3,134 ( 0.1 % ) , Tagalog with 2,888 ( 0.1 % ) , Japanese with 2,546 ( 0.1 % ) , and African languages with 2,546 ( 0.1 % ) . In addition to Cherokee , more than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma , second only to California ( though , it should be noted only Cherokee exhibits language vitality at present ) . Religion ( edit ) The Boston Avenue Methodist Church in Tulsa is a National Historic Landmark Religion in Oklahoma ( 2014 ) Religion Percent Protestant 69 % None 18 % Catholic 8 % Mormon 1 % Other faith 2 % Unanswered 1 % Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the `` Bible Belt '' . Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States , the area is known for politically and socially conservative views , with the Republican Party having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties . Tulsa , the state 's second - largest city , home to Oral Roberts University , is sometimes called the `` buckle of the Bible Belt '' . According to the Pew Research Center , the majority of Oklahoma 's religious adherents are Christian , accounting for about 80 percent of the population . The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average , while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average -- tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state . The Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Oklahoma City In 2010 , the state 's largest church memberships were in the Southern Baptist Convention ( 886,394 members ) , the United Methodist Church ( 282,347 ) , the Roman Catholic Church ( 178,430 ) , and the Assemblies of God ( 85,926 ) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter - Day Saints ( 47,349 ) . Other religions represented in the state include Buddhism , Hinduism , and Islam . In 2000 , there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims , with 10 congregations to each group . Oklahoma religious makeup : Evangelical Protestant -- 53 % Mainline Protestant -- 16 % Roman Catholic -- 13 % Other -- 6 % Unaffiliated -- 12 % Economy ( edit ) Main article : Economy of Oklahoma See also : Oklahoma locations by per capita income The BOK Tower of Tulsa , Oklahoma 's second - tallest building , serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies Oklahoma is host to a diverse range of sectors including aviation , energy , transportation equipment , food processing , electronics , and telecommunications . Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas , aircraft , and food . The state ranks third in the nation for production of natural gas , is the 27th-most agriculturally productive state , and also ranks 5th in production of wheat . Four Fortune 500 companies and six Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in Oklahoma , and it has been rated one of the most business - friendly states in the nation , with the 7th - lowest tax burden in 2007 . In 2010 , Oklahoma City - based Love 's Travel Stops & Country Stores ranked 18th on the Forbes list of largest private companies , Tulsa - based QuikTrip ranked 37th , and Oklahoma City - based Hobby Lobby ranked 198th in 2010 report . Oklahoma 's gross domestic product grew from $131.9 billion in 2006 to $147.5 billion in 2010 , a jump of 10.6 percent . Oklahoma 's gross domestic product per capita was $35,480 in 2010 , which was ranked 40th among the states . Though oil has historically dominated the state 's economy , a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy - related jobs between 1980 and 2000 , severely damaging the local economy . Oil accounted for 35 billion dollars in Oklahoma 's economy in 2007 , and employment in the state 's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007 . As of July 2017 , the state 's unemployment rate is 4.4 % . Industry ( edit ) In mid-2011 , Oklahoma had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.5 million . The government sector provides the most jobs , with 339,300 in 2011 , followed by the transportation and utilities sector , providing 279,500 jobs , and the sectors of education , business , and manufacturing , providing 207,800 , 177,400 , and 132,700 jobs , respectively . Among the state 's largest industries , the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually . Tulsa is home to the largest airline maintenance base in the world , which serves as the global maintenance and engineering headquarters for American Airlines . In total , aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma 's industrial output , and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing . Because of its position in the center of the United States , Oklahoma is also among the top states for logistic centers , and a major contributor to weather - related research . The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest - growing biotechnology industries in the nation . In 2005 , international exports from Oklahoma 's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion , accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact . Tire manufacturing , meat processing , oil and gas equipment manufacturing , and air conditioner manufacturing are the state 's largest manufacturing industries . Energy ( edit ) A major oil producing state , Oklahoma is the fifth - largest producer of crude oil in the United States Oklahoma is the nation 's third - largest producer of natural gas , and its fifth - largest producer of crude oil . The state also has the second - greatest number of active drilling rigs , and it is even ranked fifth in crude oil reserves . While the state is ranked eighth for installed wind energy capacity in 2011 , it is at the bottom of states in usage of renewable energy , with 94 % of its electricity being generated by non-renewable sources in 2009 , including 25 % from coal and 46 % from natural gas . Oklahoma has no nuclear power . Ranking 13th for total energy consumption per capita in 2009 , The state 's energy costs were eighth - lowest in the nation . As a whole , the oil energy industry contributes $35 billion to Oklahoma 's gross domestic product ( GDP ) , and employees of the state 's oil - related companies earn an average of twice the state 's typical yearly income . In 2009 , the state had 83,700 commercial oil wells churning 65.374 million barrels ( 10,393,600 m ) of crude oil . Eight and a half percent of the nation 's natural gas supply is held in Oklahoma , with 1.673 trillion cubic feet ( 47.4 km ) being produced in 2009 . The Oklahoma Stack Play is a geographic referenced area in the Anadarko Basin . The oil field `` Sooner Trend '' , Anadarko basin and the counties of Kingfisher and Canadian make up the basis for the `` Oklahoma STACK '' . Other Plays such as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical . According to Forbes magazine , Oklahoma City - based Devon Energy Corporation , Chesapeake Energy Corporation , and SandRidge Energy Corporation are the largest private oil - related companies in the nation , and all of Oklahoma 's Fortune 500 companies are energy - related . Tulsa 's ONEOK and Williams Companies are the state 's largest and second - largest companies respectively , also ranking as the nation 's second - and third - largest companies in the field of energy , according to Fortune magazine . The magazine also placed Devon Energy as the second - largest company in the mining and crude oil - producing industry in the nation , while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and Oklahoma Gas & Electric ranks as the 25th - largest gas and electric utility company . Oklahoma Gas & Electric , commonly referred to as OG&E ( NYSE : OGE ) operates four base electric power plants in Oklahoma . Two of them are coal - fired power plants : one in Muskogee , and the other in Red Rock . Two are gas - fired power plants : one in Harrah and the other in Konawa . OG&E was the first electric company in Oklahoma to generate electricity from wind farms in 2003 . Wind generation ( edit ) Main article : Wind power in Oklahoma Oklahoma Wind Generation ( GWh , Million kWh ) Year Total January February March April May June July August September October November December 2009 2,698 183 182 233 233 159 175 140 172 152 253 269 308 3,808 252 187 389 400 305 360 265 260 311 299 408 375 2011 5,369 319 446 519 531 510 513 329 335 337 487 574 469 2012 632 555 744 634 726 639 570 453 516 100 Source : Agriculture ( edit ) The 27th-most agriculturally productive state , Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat . Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma , while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat , 4.2 percent of American pig products , and 2.2 percent of dairy products . The state had 85,500 farms in 2012 , collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and fewer than one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state 's gross domestic product . Poultry and swine are its second - and third - largest agricultural industries . Education ( edit ) See also : List of school districts in Oklahoma and List of colleges and universities in Oklahoma Oklahoma 's system of public regional universities includes Northeastern State University in Tahlequah With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions , Oklahoma had 638,817 students enrolled in 1,845 public primary , secondary , and vocational schools in 533 school districts as of 2008 . Oklahoma has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 126,078 students in the 2009 -- 10 school year . Oklahoma spent $7,755 for each student in 2008 , and was 47th in the nation in expenditures per student , though its growth of total education expenditures between 1992 and 2002 ranked 22nd . The state is among the best in pre-kindergarten education , and the National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards , quality , and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004 , calling it a model for early childhood schooling . High school dropout rate decreased from 3.1 to 2.5 percent between 2007 and 2008 with Oklahoma ranked among 18 other states with 3 percent or less dropout rate . In 2004 , the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas , though at 85.2 percent , it had the highest rate among Southern states . According to a study conducted by the Pell Institute , Oklahoma ranks 48th in college - participation for low - income students . The University of Oklahoma , Oklahoma State University , the University of Central Oklahoma , and Northeastern State University are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma , operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state . The two state universities , along with Oklahoma City University and the University of Tulsa , rank among the country 's best in undergraduate business programs . Oklahoma City University School of Law , University of Oklahoma College of Law , and University of Tulsa College of Law are the state 's only ABA accredited institutions . Both University of Oklahoma and University of Tulsa are Tier 1 institutions , with the University of Oklahoma ranked 68th and the University of Tulsa ranked 86th in the nation . Oklahoma holds eleven public regional universities , including Northeastern State University , the second - oldest institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River , also containing the only College of Optometry in Oklahoma and the largest enrollment of Native American students in the nation by percentage and amount . Langston University is Oklahoma 's only historically black college . Six of the state 's universities were placed in the Princeton Review 's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007 , and three made the list of top colleges for best value . The state has 55 post-secondary technical institutions operated by Oklahoma 's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade . In the 2007 -- 2008 school year , there were 181,973 undergraduate students , 20,014 graduate students , and 4,395 first - professional degree students enrolled in Oklahoma colleges . Of these students , 18,892 received a bachelor 's degree , 5,386 received a master 's degree , and 462 received a first professional degree . This means the state of Oklahoma produces an average of 38,278 degree - holders per completions component ( i.e. July 1 , 2007 -- June 30 , 2008 ) . National average is 68,322 total degrees awarded per completions component . Beginning on April 2 , 2018 , tens of thousands of K -- 12 public school teachers went on strike due to lack of funding . According to the National Education Association , teachers in Oklahoma had ranked 49th out of the 50 states in terms of teacher pay in 2016 . The Oklahoma Legislature had passed a measure a week earlier to raise teacher salaries by $6,100 , but it fell short of the $10,000 raise for teachers , $5,000 raise for other school employees , and $200 million increase in extra education funding many had sought . Non-english Education ( edit ) Oklahoma Cherokee - language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary The Cherokee Nation instigated a 10 - year language preservation plan that involved growing new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home . This plan was part of an ambitious goal that in 50 years , 80 % or more of the Cherokee people will be fluent in the language . The Cherokee Preservation Foundation has invested $3 million into opening schools , training teachers , and developing curricula for language education , as well as initiating community gatherings where the language can be actively used . A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah , Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade . Graduates are fluent speakers of the language . Several universities offer Cherokee as a second language , including the University of Oklahoma and Northeastern State University . Culture ( edit ) Oklahoma 's heritage as a pioneer state is depicted with the Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City Oklahoma is placed in the South by the United States Census Bureau , but lies partially in the , Southwest , and Southern cultural regions by varying definitions , and partially in the Upland South and Great Plains by definitions of abstract geographical - cultural regions . Oklahomans have a high rate of English , Scotch - Irish , German , and Native American ancestry , with 25 different native languages spoken . Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma when White settlement in North America increased , Oklahoma has much linguistic diversity . Mary Linn , an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma and the associate curator of Native American languages at the Sam Noble Museum , notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment . Sixty - seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma , including 39 federally recognized tribes , who are headquartered and have tribal jurisdictional areas in the state . Western ranchers , Native American tribes , Southern settlers , and eastern oil barons have shaped the state 's cultural predisposition , and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States . Residents of Oklahoma are associated with traits of Southern hospitality -- the 2006 Catalogue for Philanthropy ( with data from 2004 ) ranks Oklahomans 7th in the nation for overall generosity . The state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck 's novel The Grapes of Wrath , which described the plight of uneducated , poverty - stricken Dust Bowl - era farmers deemed `` Okies '' . However , the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans . Arts ( edit ) Philbrook Museum is one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States Further information : List of Native American artists from Oklahoma In the state 's largest urban areas , pockets of jazz culture flourish , and Native American , Mexican American , and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures . The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is one of the largest classical music festivals on the southern plains , and Oklahoma City 's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation . The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame . These were Yvonne Chouteau , sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief , Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin , known collectively as the Five Moons . The New York Times rates the Tulsa Ballet as one of the top ballet companies in the United States . The Oklahoma City Ballet and University of Oklahoma 's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov . The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States . In Sand Springs , an outdoor amphitheater called `` Discoveryland ! '' is the official performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma ! Ridge Bond , native of McAlester , Oklahoma , starred in the Broadway and International touring productions of Oklahoma ! , playing the role of `` Curly McClain '' in more than 2,600 performances . In 1953 he was featured along with the Oklahoma ! cast on a CBS Omnibus television broadcast . Bond was instrumental in the Oklahoma ! title song becoming the Oklahoma state song and is also featured on the U.S. postage stamp commemorating the musical 's 50th anniversary . Historically , the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound and western swing , which was popularized at Cain 's Ballroom in Tulsa . The building , known as the `` Carnegie Hall of Western Swing '' , served as the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s . Stillwater is known as the epicenter of Red Dirt music , the best - known proponent of which is the late Bob Childers . Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma include , in the capital city , Oklahoma City Theatre Company , Carpenter Square Theatre , Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park , and CityRep . CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals . In Tulsa , Oklahoma 's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company , and Theatre Tulsa is the oldest community theatre company west of the Mississippi . Other companies in Tulsa include Heller Theatre and Tulsa Spotlight Theater . The cities of Norman , Lawton , and Stillwater , among others , also host well - reviewed community theatre companies . Oklahoma is in the nation 's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts , ranking 17th , and contains more than 300 museums . The Philbrook Museum of Tulsa is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States , and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History in Norman , one of the largest university - based art and history museums in the country , documents the natural history of the region . The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa , which also holds the world 's largest , most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West . The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee - Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago and Los Angeles . The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world , and Oklahoma City 's National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier . With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism , the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States . Festivals and events ( edit ) National Powwow dancer of the Cherokee of Oklahoma , 2007 Oklahoma 's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the American Bus Association , and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of statehood on November 16 , 2007 . Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events , and include festivals ( as examples ) in Scottish , Irish , German , Italian , Vietnamese , Chinese , Czech , Jewish , Arab , Mexican and African - American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions . During a ten - day run in Oklahoma City , the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people along with the annual Festival of the Arts . Large national pow wows , various Latin and Asian heritage festivals , and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year . The Tulsa State Fair attracts over one million people during its 10 - day run , and the city 's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 people in four days during 2007 . In 2006 , Tulsa 's Oktoberfest was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appétit magazine . Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival , a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians . Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman , which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma 's first medieval fair . The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003 . The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma 's `` largest weekend event and the third - largest event in Oklahoma , and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation '' . Sports ( edit ) Oklahoma has teams in basketball , football , arena football , baseball , soccer , hockey , and wrestling in Oklahoma City , Tulsa , Enid , Norman , and Lawton . The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) is the state 's only major league sports franchise . The state had a team in the Women 's National Basketball Association , the Tulsa Shock , from 2010 through 2015 , but the team relocated to Dallas -- Fort Worth after that season and became the Dallas Wings . Oklahoma has teams in several minor leagues , including Minor League Baseball at the AAA and AA levels ( Oklahoma City Dodgers and Tulsa Drillers , respectively ) , hockey 's ECHL with the Tulsa Oilers , and a number of indoor football leagues . In the last - named sport , the state 's most notable team was the Tulsa Talons , which played in the Arena Football League until 2012 , when the team was moved to San Antonio . The Oklahoma Defenders replaced the Talons as Tulsa 's only professional arena football team , playing the CPIFL . The Oklahoma City Blue , of the NBA G League , relocated to Oklahoma City from Tulsa in 2014 , where they were formerly known as the Tulsa 66ers . Tulsa is the base for the Tulsa Revolution , which plays in the American Indoor Soccer League . Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL and the CBA . The Oklahoma City Thunder moved to the state in 2008 , becoming its first permanent major - league team in any sport The NBA 's New Orleans Hornets became the first major league sports franchise based in Oklahoma when the team was forced to relocate to Oklahoma City 's Ford Center , now known as Chesapeake Energy Arena , for two seasons following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 . In July 2008 , the Seattle SuperSonics , relocated to Oklahoma City and began to play at the Ford Center as the Oklahoma City Thunder for the 2008 -- 09 season , becoming the state 's first permanent major league franchise . Collegiate athletics are a popular draw in the state . The state has four schools that compete at the highest level of college sports , NCAA Division I . The most prominent are the state 's two members of the Big 12 Conference , one of the so - called Power Five conferences of the top tier of college football , Division I FBS . The University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University average well over 50,000 fans attending their football games , and Oklahoma 's football program ranked 12th in attendance among American colleges in 2010 , with an average of 84,738 people attending its home games . The two universities meet several times each year in rivalry matches known as the Bedlam Series , which are some of the greatest sporting draws to the state . Sports Illustrated magazine rates Oklahoma and Oklahoma State among the top colleges for athletics in the nation . Two private institutions in Tulsa , the University of Tulsa and Oral Roberts University ; are also Division I members . Tulsa competes in FBS football and other sports in the American Athletic Conference , while Oral Roberts , which does not sponsor football , is a member of the Summit League . In addition , 12 of the state 's smaller colleges and universities compete in NCAA Division II as members of four different conferences , and eight other Oklahoma institutions participate in the NAIA , mostly within the Sooner Athletic Conference . Regular LPGA tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa , and major championships for the PGA or LPGA have been played at Southern Hills Country Club in Tulsa , Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City , and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa . Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation , Southern Hills has hosted four PGA Championships , including one in 2007 , and three U.S. Opens , the most recent in 2001 . Rodeos are popular throughout the state , and Guymon , in the state 's panhandle , hosts one of the largest in the nation . Current teams ( edit ) Basketball Club Type League Venue City Area ( Metro / Region ) Oklahoma City Thunder Men 's Basketball NBA Chesapeake Energy Arena Oklahoma City OKC Metro Oklahoma City Blue Men 's Basketball NBA G League Cox Convention Center Oklahoma City OKC Metro Baseball Club Type League Venue City Area ( Metro / Region ) Oklahoma City Dodgers Baseball PCL ( AAA ) Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark Oklahoma City OKC Metro Tulsa Drillers Baseball Texas League ( AA ) ONEOK Field Tulsa Tulsa Metro Hockey Club Type League Venue City Area ( Metro / Region ) Tulsa Oilers Hockey ECHL BOK Center Tulsa Tulsa Metro Football Club Type League Venue City Area ( Metro / Region ) Oklahoma Defenders Indoor Football CPIFL Tulsa Convention Center Tulsa Tulsa Metro Oklahoma Thunder Football GDFL Bixby High School Bixby Tulsa Metro Oklahoma City Bounty Hunters Football GDFL Putnam City Stadium Warr Acres OKC Metro Soccer Club Type League Venue City Area ( Metro / Region ) Tulsa Spirit Women 's Soccer WPSL Union 8th Broken Arrow Tulsa Metro Oklahoma City FC Women 's Soccer WPSL Miller Stadium Oklahoma City OKC Metro Oklahoma City Energy Men 's Soccer USL Taft Stadium ; Oklahoma City OKC Metro Tulsa Roughnecks Men 's Soccer USL ONEOK Field Tulsa Tulsa Metro Tulsa Athletics Men 's Soccer NPSL Drillers Stadium Tulsa Tulsa Metro Tulsa Rugby Club Men 's Rugby Division II Rugby Riverside Pitch Tulsa Tulsa Metro Health ( edit ) INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma , in Oklahoma City Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center is in Tulsa Oklahoma was the 21st - largest recipient of medical funding from the federal government in 2005 , with health - related federal expenditures in the state totaling $75,801,364 ; immunizations , bioterrorism preparedness , and health education were the top three most funded medical items . Instances of major diseases are near the national average in Oklahoma , and the state ranks at or slightly above the rest of the country in percentage of people with asthma , diabetes , cancer , and hypertension . In 2000 , Oklahoma ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita , but was slightly over the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a 12 - year period . One of the worst states for percentage of insured people , nearly 25 percent of Oklahomans between the age of 18 and 64 did not have health insurance in 2005 , the fifth - highest rate in the nation . Oklahomans are in the upper half of Americans in terms of obesity prevalence , and the state is the 5th most obese in the nation , with 30.3 percent of its population at or near obesity . Oklahoma ranked last among the 50 states in a 2007 study by the Commonwealth Fund on health care performance . The OU Medical Center , Oklahoma 's largest collection of hospitals , is the only hospital in the state designated a Level I trauma center by the American College of Surgeons . OU Medical Center is on the grounds of the Oklahoma Health Center in Oklahoma City , the state 's largest concentration of medical research facilities . The Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center in Tulsa is one of four such regional facilities nationwide , offering cancer treatment to the entire southwestern United States , and is one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country . The largest osteopathic teaching facility in the nation , Oklahoma State University Medical Center at Tulsa , also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of neuroscience . On June 26 , 2018 , Oklahoma made marijuana legal for medical purposes . This was a milestone for a state in the Bible Belt . Media ( edit ) Main articles : List of newspapers in Oklahoma , List of radio stations in Oklahoma , and List of television stations in Oklahoma The second - largest newspaper in Oklahoma , the Tulsa World , has a circulation of 189,789 Oklahoma City and Tulsa are the 45th - and 61st - largest media markets in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research . The state 's third - largest media market , Lawton - Wichita Falls , Texas , is ranked 149th nationally by the agency . Broadcast television in Oklahoma began in 1949 when KFOR - TV ( then WKY - TV ) in Oklahoma City and KOTV - TV in Tulsa began broadcasting a few months apart . Currently , all major American broadcast networks have affiliated television stations in the state . The state has two primary newspapers . The Oklahoman , based in Oklahoma City , is the largest newspaper in the state and 54th - largest in the nation by circulation , with a weekday readership of 138,493 and a Sunday readership of 202,690 . The Tulsa World , the second-most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma and 79th in the nation , holds a Sunday circulation of 132,969 and a weekday readership of 93,558 . Oklahoma 's first newspaper was established in 1844 , called the Cherokee Advocate , and was written in both Cherokee and English . In 2006 , there were more than 220 newspapers in the state , including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications . The state 's first radio station , WKY in Oklahoma City , signed on in 1920 , followed by KRFU in Bristow , which later on moved to Tulsa and became KVOO in 1927 . In 2006 , there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks . Five universities in Oklahoma operate non-commercial , public radio stations / networks . Oklahoma has a few ethnic - oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish and Asian languages , and there is some Native American programming . TBN , a Christian religious television network , has a studio in Tulsa , and built its first entirely TBN - owned affiliate in Oklahoma City in 1980 . Transportation ( edit ) One of ten major toll highways in Oklahoma , the Will Rogers Turnpike extends northeast from Tulsa A map of Oklahoma showing major roads and thoroughfares Transportation in Oklahoma is generated by an anchor system of Interstate Highways , inter-city rail lines , airports , inland ports , and mass transit networks . Situated along an integral point in the United States Interstate network , Oklahoma contains three interstate highways and four auxiliary Interstate Highways . In Oklahoma City , Interstate 35 intersects with Interstate 44 and Interstate 40 , forming one of the most important intersections along the United States highway system . More than 12,000 miles ( 19,000 km ) of roads make up the state 's major highway skeleton , including state - operated highways , ten turnpikes or major toll roads , and the longest drivable stretch of Route 66 in the nation . In 2008 , Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City was Oklahoma 's busiest highway , with a daily traffic volume of 123,300 cars . In 2010 , the state had the nation 's third - highest number of bridges classified as structurally deficient , with nearly 5,212 bridges in disrepair , including 235 National Highway System Bridges . Oklahoma 's largest commercial airport is Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma City , averaging a yearly passenger count of more than 3.5 million ( 1.7 million boardings ) in 2010 . Tulsa International Airport , the state 's second - largest commercial airport , served more than 1.3 million boardings in 2010 . Between the two , six airlines operate in Oklahoma . In terms of traffic , R.L. Jones Jr . ( Riverside ) Airport in Tulsa is the state 's busiest airport , with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008 . Oklahoma has over 150 public - use airports . Oklahoma is connected to the nation 's rail network via Amtrak 's Heartland Flyer , its only regional passenger rail line . It currently stretches from Oklahoma City to Fort Worth , Texas , though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer to Tulsa . Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma : the Port of Muskogee and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa . The state 's only port handling international cargo , the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean - going port in the nation and ships over two million tons of cargo each year . Both ports are on the McClellan -- Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System , which connects barge traffic from Tulsa and Muskogee to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers , contributing to one of the busiest waterways in the world . Law and government ( edit ) Main article : Government of Oklahoma The Oklahoma State Capitol in Oklahoma City Oklahoma is a constitutional republic with a government modeled after the Federal government of the United States , with executive , legislative , and judicial branches . The state has 77 counties with jurisdiction over most local government functions within each respective domain , five congressional districts , and a voting base with a plurality in the Republican Party . State officials are elected by plurality voting in the state of Oklahoma . Oklahoma is one of 32 states with capital punishment as a legal sentence , and the state has had ( between 1976 through mid-2011 ) the highest per capita execution rate in the US . State government ( edit ) See also : Governor of Oklahoma , Oklahoma Legislature , and Oklahoma Supreme Court The Legislature of Oklahoma consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives . As the lawmaking branch of the state government , it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government . The Senate has 48 members serving four - year terms , while the House has 101 members with two - year terms . The state has a term limit for its legislature that restricts any one person to twelve cumulative years service between both legislative branches . Oklahoma 's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma Supreme Court , the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals , and 77 District Courts that each serve one county . The Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent courts : a Court of Impeachment and the Oklahoma Court on the Judiciary . Oklahoma has two courts of last resort : the state Supreme Court hears civil cases , and the state Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal cases ( this split system exists only in Oklahoma and neighboring Texas ) . Judges of those two courts , as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial Nominating Commission , and are subject to a non-partisan retention vote on a six - year rotating schedule . The five congressional districts in Oklahoma The executive branch consists of the Governor , their staff , and other elected officials . The principal head of government , the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch , serving as the ex officio Commander - in - chief of the Oklahoma National Guard when not called into Federal use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature . The responsibilities of the Executive branch include submitting the budget , ensuring state laws are enforced , and ensuring peace within the state is preserved . Local government ( edit ) The state is divided into 77 counties that govern locally , each headed by a three - member council of elected commissioners , a tax assessor , clerk , court clerk , treasurer , and sheriff . While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive , legislative and judicial power , county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries , but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power . Both county and municipal governments collect taxes , employ a separate police force , hold elections , and operate emergency response services within their jurisdiction . Other local government units include school districts , technology center districts , community college districts , rural fire departments , rural water districts , and other special use districts . Thirty - nine Native American tribal governments are based in Oklahoma , each holding limited powers within designated areas . While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma , tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era , but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties . Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive , judicial , and legislative powers over tribal members and functions , but are subject to the authority of the United States Congress to revoke or withhold certain powers . The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress for approval . Oklahoma has 11 substate districts including the two large Councils of Governments , INCOG in Tulsa ( Indian Nations Council of Governments ) and ACOG ( Association of Central Oklahoma Governments ) . For a complete list visit the Oklahoma Association of Regional Councils . National Politics ( edit ) Presidential election results Year Republicans Democrats 2016 65.32 % 949,136 28.93 % 420,375 2012 66.77 % 891,325 33.23 % 443,547 2008 65.65 % 960,165 34.35 % 502,496 65.57 % 959,792 34.43 % 503,966 2000 60.31 % 744,337 38.43 % 474,276 48.26 % 582,315 40.45 % 488,105 42.65 % 592,929 34.02 % 473,066 1988 57.93 % 678,367 41.28 % 483,423 1984 68.61 % 861,530 30.67 % 385,080 1980 60.50 % 695,570 34.97 % 402,026 1976 49.96 % 545,708 48.75 % 532,442 1972 73.70 % 759,025 24.00 % 247,147 1968 47.68 % 449,697 31.99 % 301,658 1964 44.25 % 412,665 55.75 % 519,834 1960 59.02 % 533,039 40.98 % 370,111 Main article : Politics of Oklahoma Treemap of the popular vote by county , 2016 presidential election Oklahoma has been politically conservative for much of its history , especially recently . During the first half - century of statehood , it was considered a Democratic stronghold , being carried by the Republican Party in only two presidential elections ( 1920 and 1928 ) . During this time , it was also carried by every winning Democratic candidate up to Harry Truman . However , Oklahoma Democrats were generally considered to be more conservative than Democrats in other states . After the 1948 election , the state turned firmly Republican . Although registered Republicans were a minority in the state until 2015 , starting in 1952 , Oklahoma has been carried by Republican presidential candidates in all but one election ( 1964 ) . This is not to say every election has been a landslide for Republicans : Jimmy Carter lost the state by less than 1.5 % in 1976 , while Michael Dukakis and Bill Clinton both won 40 % or more of the state 's popular vote in 1988 and 1996 respectively . Al Gore in 2000 , though , was the last Democrat to even win any counties in the state . Oklahoma was one of three states , the others being Utah and West Virginia , where Barack Obama failed to carry any of its counties in 2012 , and it was the only state where Barack Obama failed to carry any county in 2008 . In 2016 , Donald Trump , the Republican nominee , again won every county , being one of only two states , the other being West Virginia , where Democrat Hillary Clinton failed to carry a single county . Generally , Republicans are strongest in the suburbs of Oklahoma City and Tulsa , as well as the Panhandle . Democrats are strongest in the eastern part of the state and Little Dixie , as well as the most heavily African American and inner parts of Oklahoma City and Tulsa . With a population of 8.6 % Native American in the state , it is also worth noting most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by African Americans . Following the 2000 census , the Oklahoma delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was reduced from six to five representatives , each serving one congressional district . In the current congress , Oklahoma 's entire delegation are all Republicans . Voter registration and party enrollment as of 15 January 2018 Party Number of voters Percentage Republican 942,621 46.75 % Democratic 769,772 38.18 % Others 303,764 15.07 % Total 2,016,157 100 % Further information : Political party strength in Oklahoma Military ( edit ) Further information : List of military units and installations in Oklahoma Further information : List of battles fought in Oklahoma Cities and towns ( edit ) See also : List of cities in Oklahoma , List of towns in Oklahoma , and List of towns and cities in Oklahoma by population Major cities ( edit ) Most Populous Cities City Population ( 2017 Census estimate ) 1 . Oklahoma City 643,648 2 . Tulsa 401,800 3 . Norman 122,843 4 . Broken Arrow 108,303 5 . Lawton 93,714 6 . Edmond 91,950 7 . Moore 61,523 8 . Midwest City 57,308 9 . Enid 50,122 10 . Stillwater 49,829 11 . Muskogee 37,858 12 . Bartlesville 35,750 Oklahoma City is the state 's capital and largest city . Oklahoma had 598 incorporated places in 2010 , including four cities over 100,000 in population and 43 over 10,000 . Two of the fifty largest cities in the United States are in Oklahoma , Oklahoma City and Tulsa , and sixty - five percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas , or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau as a metropolitan statistical area . Oklahoma City , the state 's capital and largest city , had the largest metropolitan area in the state in 2010 , with 1,252,987 people , and the metropolitan area of Tulsa had 937,478 residents . Between 2000 and 2010 , the cities that led the state in population growth were Blanchard ( 172.4 % ) , Elgin ( 78.2 % ) , Jenks ( 77.0 % ) , Piedmont ( 56.7 % ) , Bixby ( 56.6 % ) , and Owasso ( 56.3 % ) . Tulsa is the state 's second - largest city by population and land area . In descending order of population , Oklahoma 's largest cities in 2010 were : Oklahoma City ( 579,999 , + 14.6 % ) , Tulsa ( 391,906 , − 0.3 % ) , Norman ( 110,925 , + 15.9 % ) , Broken Arrow ( 98,850 , + 32.0 % ) , Lawton ( 96,867 , + 4.4 % ) , Edmond ( 81,405 , + 19.2 % ) , Moore ( 55,081 , + 33.9 % ) , Midwest City ( 54,371 , + 0.5 % ) , Enid ( 49,379 , + 5.0 % ) , and Stillwater ( 45,688 , + 17.0 % ) . Of the state 's ten largest cities , three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City and Tulsa , and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau , though the metropolitan statistical area of Fort Smith , Arkansas extends into the state . Under Oklahoma law , municipalities are divided into two categories : cities , defined as having more than 1,000 residents , and towns , with under 1,000 residents . Both have legislative , judicial , and public power within their boundaries , but cities can choose between a mayor -- council , council -- manager , or strong mayor form of government , while towns operate through an elected officer system . State Symbols ( edit ) See also : List of Oklahoma state symbols The American bison , Oklahoma 's state mammal State law codifies Oklahoma 's state emblems and honorary positions ; the Oklahoma Senate or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations . In 2012 the House passed HCR 1024 , which would change the state motto from `` Labor Omnia Vincit '' to `` Oklahoma -- In God We Trust ! '' The author of the resolution stated a constituent researched the Oklahoma Constitution and found no `` official '' vote regarding `` Labor Omnia Vincit '' , therefore opening the door for an entirely new motto . See also ( edit ) Oklahoma portal Index of Oklahoma - related articles Outline of Oklahoma -- organized list of topics about Oklahoma Notes ( edit ) A. Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center in 2008 . Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs , not necessarily membership in any particular congregation . Figures have a ± 5 percent margin of error . B. Buddhism , Islam , Hinduism , Judaism , other faiths each account for less than 1 percent . Jehovah 's Witnesses , Mormons , Orthodox Christianity , and other Christian traditions each compose less than half a percent . One percent refused to answer the Pew Research Center 's survey . References ( edit ) ^ Jump up to : `` Keetoowah Cherokee is the Official Language of the UKB '' ( PDF ) . Keetoowah Cherokee News : Official Publication of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma . April 2009 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on July 15 , 2014 . Retrieved June 1 , 2014 . ^ Jump up to : `` UKB Constitution and By - Laws in the Keetoowah Cherokee Language '' ( PDF ) . United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on February 1 , 2016 . Retrieved July 6 , 2017 . ^ Jump up to : `` The Cherokee Nation & its Language '' ( PDF ) . University of Minnesota : Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition . 2008 . Retrieved May 22 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma : Population estimates '' . U.S. Census Bureau . July 1 , 2017 . Retrieved May 6 , 2017 . Jump up ^ `` Median Annual Household Income '' . The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation . Retrieved December 9 , 2016 . ^ Jump up to : `` Elevations and Distances in the United States '' . United States Geological Survey . 2001 . Archived from the original on October 15 , 2011 . Retrieved October 24 , 2011 . ^ Jump up to : Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Amphibian - Bullfrog '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma State Icons '' . Oklahoma Department of Libraries . Archived from the original on January 15 , 2014 . Retrieved May 11 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Fish - White Bass '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Animal - Buffalo '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Beverage - Milk '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Dinosaur - Acrocanthosaurus atokensis '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Fossil '' . State fossils . Archived from the original on February 20 , 2007 . Retrieved January 20 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Percussive Instrument - Drum '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ Oklahoma Statutes , § 25 -- 98.8 Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Cartoon Character - Gusty '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Symbols and Emblems -- Complete list of Oklahoma state symbols including the state flag and state seal from NETSTATE.COM '' . Netstate.com . Retrieved November 18 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Watermelon State Vegetable '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Matthew Weaver . `` It 's a scandal : Oklahoma declares watermelon a vegetable '' . the Guardian . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Game Bird - Wild Turkey '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Monument - Golden Driller '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ John Benson , ( April 28 , 2009 ) . `` Flaming Lips prepare for Oklahoma honor '' . Reuters . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Theater Group - Lynn Riggs Players of Oklahoma '' . State Symbols USA . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` New Oklahoma Quarter Launches into History '' . United States Mint . Retrieved February 9 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma '' . Dictionary.com . Retrieved August 10 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` '' River `` , Southband Pawnee '' . American Indian Studies Research Institute . Retrieved May 26 , 2012 . Jump up ^ `` Cayuga : Our Oral Legacy '' . Cayuga Digital Dictionary . 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Retrieved July 31 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma State Map Collection '' . geology.com. 2006 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : Arndt , Derek ( January 1 , 2003 ) . `` The Climate of Oklahoma '' . Oklahoma Climatological Survey . Retrieved July 31 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Managing Upland Forests of the Midsouth '' . USD Forest Service . March 7 , 2007 . Archived from the original on June 22 , 2008 . Retrieved July 31 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` About Oklahoma '' . TravelOK.com. 2007 . Retrieved July 10 , 2006 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma in Brief '' ( PDF ) . State of Oklahoma . 2003 . Retrieved August 4 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` A Look at Oklahoma : A Student 's Guide '' ( PDF ) . State of Oklahoma . 2005 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on December 30 , 2006 . Retrieved August 14 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma Ecoregional Maps '' . Oklahoma Department of Agriculture . Archived from the original on October 13 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . 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Jump up ^ `` Chickasaw National Recreation Area -- Park Statistics '' . National Park Service . Retrieved January 16 , 2010 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma 's Climate : an Overview '' ( PDF ) . University of Oklahoma . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Tornado Climatology '' . NOAA National Climatic Data Center . Retrieved October 24 , 2006 . Jump up ^ `` News November 11 , 1911 : A Palindrome to Remember '' . Mesonet . Retrieved February 6 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` The Tornado Outbreak of April 27 -- 28 , 1912 '' . National Weather Service . National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved August 20 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Oklahoma Water Resources Board Archived July 23 , 2009 , at the Wayback Machine . Jump up ^ Novy , Chris . `` SPC and its Products '' . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma Weather And Climate '' . UStravelweather.com. 2007 . Archived from the original on September 27 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Weather Averages : Lawton , Oklahoma '' . MSN Weather . Retrieved August 13 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Palino , Valerie . `` Early Man in North America : The Known to the Unknown '' . Yale - New Haven Teachers Institute . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` The Historic Spiro Mounds '' . Spiro Area Chamber of Commerce . 2007 . Archived from the original on August 8 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Prehistory of Oklahoma '' . rootsweb . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma 's History '' . Government of Oklahoma . Archived from the original on July 26 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` French and Spanish Explorations '' . rootsweb . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Len Green . `` Choctaw Removal was really a `` Trail of Tears '' `` . Bishinik , mboucher , University of Minnesota . Archived from the original on June 4 , 2008 . Retrieved April 28 , 2008 . Jump up ^ Carter , Samuel ( III ) ( 1976 ) . Cherokee sunset : A nation betrayed : a narrative of travail and triumph , persecution and exile . New York : Doubleday , p. 232 . Jump up ^ `` 1890 Indian Territory Map '' . RootsWeb . Retrieved May 6 , 2009 . Jump up ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160201074014/http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v031/v031p189.pdf Jump up ^ Rodman , Leslie . The Five Civilized Tribes and the American Civil War ( PDF ) . p. 2 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on July 23 , 2011 . Jump up ^ Hornsby , Jr. , Alton ( 2008 ) . A Companion to African American History . John Wiley & Sons . p. 127 . ISBN 978 - 1 - 4051 - 3735 - 5 . Jump up ^ `` Map of Cattle Drives in 1881 '' . Genealogy Trails History Group . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Hamilton , Robert . `` United States and Native American Relations '' . Florida Gulf Coast University . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Factors Influencing Enrollment in Agricultural Education Classes of Native American Students in Oklahoma '' . Oklahoma State University . 1999 . Archived from the original ( DOC ) on August 8 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Rushes to Statehood '' . National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum . Archived from the original on September 26 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Clem Rogers '' . Will Rogers Museum Association . Archived from the original on May 20 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Tulsa Area History '' . Tulsa County Library . Archived from the original on January 8 , 2007 . Retrieved April 25 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` The Father of Route 66 '' . University of Virginia . Retrieved April 20 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Oxman , Steven ( May 30 , 2000 ) . `` The Tulsa Lynching of 1921 : A Hidden Story '' . Variety Magazine . Retrieved June 26 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Tulsa Race Riot , A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 , February 28 , 2001 '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma Historical Society . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on June 24 , 2008 . Retrieved June 10 , 2008 . Jump up ^ O'Dell , Larry . `` Ku klux klan '' . Oklahoma Historical Society . Archived from the original on October 9 , 2008 . Retrieved June 26 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` 1930s Dust Bowl '' . Cimarron County Chamber of Commerce . August 5 , 2005 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` History of the States : Oklahoma , The Sooner State '' . The History Channel . 2007 . Archived from the original on October 10 , 2007 . Retrieved August 9 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma City Tragedy '' . CNN . 1996 . Archived from the original on August 20 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Sutton , Joe ( April 28 , 2016 ) . `` Seven dead after record - setting floods in Texas , Kansas -- KPAX.com Continuous News Missoula & Western Montana '' . KPAX.com . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Texas and Oklahoma Set All - Time Record Wet Month ; Other May Rain Records Shattered in Arkansas , Nebraska '' . Weather.com . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` U.S. Decennial Census '' . United States Census Bureau . Archived from the original on October 19 , 2013 . Retrieved January 25 , 2014 . Jump up ^ `` State & County QuickFacts '' . United States Census Bureau . Retrieved December 20 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Table 1 . Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States , Regions , States , and Puerto Rico : April 1 , 2010 to July 1 , 2016 '' ( CSV ) . U.S. Census Bureau . December 20 , 2016 . Retrieved April 4 , 2017 . ^ Jump up to : `` Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race , 1790 to 1990 , and By Hispanic Origin , 1970 to 1990 , For The United States , Regions , Divisions , and States '' . Census.gov . Archived from the original on July 25 , 2008 . Retrieved April 23 , 2014 . 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Oklahoma Baptist University . August 26 , 2005 . Archived from the original on August 8 , 2007 . Retrieved August 3 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma Colleges : A Profile of College Degree Programs & Post-Secondary Education in Oklahoma '' . Jump up ^ `` Fed up with school spending cuts , Oklahoma teachers walk out '' . The Washington Post . April 2 , 2018 . Retrieved April 2 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` Native Now : Language : Cherokee '' . We Shall Remain -- American Experience -- PBS . 2008 . Archived from the original on April 7 , 2014 . Retrieved April 9 , 2014 . ^ Jump up to : `` Cherokee Language Revitalization '' . Cherokee Preservation Foundation . 2014 . Archived from the original on April 7 , 2014 . Retrieved April 9 , 2014 . Jump up ^ Chavez , Will ( April 5 , 2012 ) . `` Immersion students win trophies at language fair '' . Cherokeephoenix.org . Retrieved April 8 , 2013 . Jump up ^ Lew , Allen . `` What is geography ? '' . Northern Arizona University . 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Jump up ^ `` Capri Films '' ( PDF ) . Geller / Goldfine Productions . 2008 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on June 24 , 2008 . Retrieved June 17 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Honors and Awards '' . Discoveryland ! . Archived from the original on April 5 , 2007 . Retrieved April 26 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : World 's own Service . `` Ridge Bond , Oklahoman -- Tulsa World : Archives '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma Today February -- March 1998 Volume 48 No. 2 : 1997 Year in Review '' ( PDF ) . Digital.library.okstate.edu . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma ! : Rodgers & Hammerstein : Show Details '' . Rnh.com . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Photographic image : Berliner Festwochen : Oklahoma ! '' ( JPG ) . Ridgebond.com . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Ridge Bond Archives -- Images '' . Ridgebond.com . September 21 , 1951 . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . ^ Jump up to : `` OHS Podcasts '' . Okhistory.org . March 24 , 2012 . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` December 2013 Oklahoma : Magazine of the Oklahoma Heritage Association by Oklahoma Hall of Fame '' . Issuu . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Musical Actor to Be Honored With Hall of Fame Award '' . News OK . November 7 , 1993 . Retrieved June 3 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Elliott , Matt ( March 25 , 2007 ) . `` Cain 's Ballroom -- A Music Icon : Venue is a landmark for Western swing , punk fans '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved July 2 , 2016 . Jump up ^ Stancavage , John ( July 15 , 2006 ) . `` Selling Tulsa : Branded '' . Tulsa World . Archived from the original on August 11 , 2007 . Retrieved August 4 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` The All - Terrain Vacation '' . Travelok.com . Retrieved August 4 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Mabee - Gerrer Museum of Art , Travel OK '' . Travelok.com . Retrieved November 22 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` About the Museum '' . Oklahoma City Museum of Art . Archived from the original on August 9 , 2007 . Retrieved August 4 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Sherwin Miller Museum of Judaism '' . Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art . Archived from the original on February 26 , 2010 . Retrieved April 20 , 2006 . Jump up ^ Cross , Robert S. ( September 7 , 2006 ) . `` 100 and 1 : State 's centennial is named top - ranked bus - tour destination '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved July 2 , 2016 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma State Fair Opens September 14 '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma State Fair . September 11 , 2006 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on June 29 , 2007 . Retrieved August 4 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Tulsa State Fair -- General Information '' . Tulsa State Fair . 2007 . Archived from the original on August 28 , 2007 . Retrieved August 25 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Bell , Leigh ( May 21 , 2007 ) . `` Mayfest : Celebrating Downtown : Festival closes after big year '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved May 21 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Harrison , Daniel . `` Top 10 : American Oktoberfest Destinations '' . Ask Men . Retrieved May 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Medieval Fair of Norman '' . Medieval Fair of Norman . 2010 . Archived from the original on July 27 , 2011 . Retrieved February 14 , 2010 . Jump up ^ `` WNBA Approves Relocation of Shock from Tulsa to Dallas - Fort Worth '' ( Press release ) . Women 's National Basketball Association . July 23 , 2015 . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` WNBA 's Dallas Wings Introduced in DFW Metroplex '' ( Press release ) . Women 's National Basketball Association . November 2 , 2015 . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ Hibdon , Glenn ( July 29 , 2007 ) . `` Pro soccer : Soccer comes to Tulsa '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` BA Team Valuations -- No. 29 New Orleans Hornets '' . PGA . January 25 , 2007 . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Sonics , city reach settlement '' . The Seattle Times . July 2 , 2008 . Archived from the original on June 3 , 2009 . Retrieved July 2 , 2008 . Jump up ^ `` Big 12 Conference -- One True Champion '' . Big 12 Conference . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Attendance Records '' ( PDF ) . National Collegiate Athletic Association . 2011 . Retrieved October 20 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` America 's Best Sports Colleges : 1 -- 10 '' . Sports Illustrated . October 7 , 2002 . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` America 's Best Sports Colleges : 11 -- 100 '' . Sports Illustrated . October 7 , 2002 . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` About TU '' . Tulsa Golden Hurricane . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Home Page '' . Oral Roberts Golden Eagles . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Move the cursor over `` Sports '' on the menu to see a list of varsity sports ; football is not listed . Jump up ^ `` Oral Roberts '' . The Summit League . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Home Page '' . Great American Conference . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Move the cursor over `` The GAC '' on the menu to see a list of members ; six members are from Oklahoma . Jump up ^ `` About the Heartland Conference '' . Heartland Conference . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Lone Star Conference History '' . Lone Star Conference . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` About the MIAA '' . Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association . Retrieved November 9 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` NAIA Member Schools : Oklahoma '' . National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics . Retrieved November 10 , 2015 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma 's Top 10 Private Golf Courses '' . Tulsaweb . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Southern Hills Country Club is rich in History '' . PGA. 2007 . Retrieved August 5 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Rodeo History '' . Guymon Rodeo Foundation . Archived from the original on May 25 , 2007 . Retrieved May 2 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` Health Report : Oklahoma '' . Trust for America 's Health . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` State health workforce profiles : Oklahoma '' ( PDF ) . United States Department of Health and Human Services . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on February 17 , 2011 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Health insurance , lack of coverage among adults : State , 2002 -- 2005 '' . United States Department of Health and Human Services . Archived from the original on October 12 , 2007 . Retrieved September 8 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` U.S. Obesity Trends '' . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Archived from the original on August 25 , 2009 . Retrieved September 12 , 2009 . Jump up ^ Hitti , Miranda ( June 13 , 2007 ) . `` How States Rank on Health Care '' . WebMD Health News . Retrieved January 26 , 2012 . Jump up ^ `` OU Medical Center Employment Opportunities '' . University of Oklahoma . Archived from the original on August 17 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Trauma One Center '' . University of Oklahoma . Archived from the original on July 21 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Southwestern Regional Medical Center '' . Cancer Treatment Centers of America . Retrieved May 7 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Tulsa Regional Medical Center Changes its name to OSU Medical Center '' . Oklahoma State University . 2007 . Archived from the original on October 13 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Basic Biomedical Research in the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine '' . Oklahoma State University . Archived from the original on September 1 , 2006 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` 2011 Top Media Outlets : Newspapers , Blogs , Consumer Magazines & Social Network '' ( PDF ) . BurrellesLuce. 2011 . Retrieved October 17 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Local Television Market Universe Estimates Comparisons of 2008 -- 09 and 2009 -- 10 Market Ranks '' ( PDF ) . Nielsen Media . Retrieved October 17 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Historical Highlights of Television in Tulsa , Oklahoma '' . Tulsa TV History . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` U.S. Television Stations in Oklahoma '' . Global Computing. 2007 . Archived from the original on September 27 , 2007 . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` History of Newspapers in Oklahoma '' . Oklahoma Historical Society . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma Fun Facts '' . Legends of America . 2007 . Archived from the original on November 7 , 2006 . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Complete List of Radio Stations in the State of OK '' . On the Radio.net. 2006 . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Federal Communications Commission . `` Call Sign History '' . Retrieved May 16 , 2010 . ^ Jump up to : `` Transportation in Oklahoma City '' . Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce . 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Route 66 -- Facts and Trivia '' . Legends of America . 2007 . Archived from the original on August 9 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` 2008 Annual Average Daily Traffic '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma Department of Transportation . 2008 . Retrieved September 28 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Deficient Bridges by State and Highway System '' . United States Department of Transportation -- Federal Highway Administration . 2010 . Retrieved September 28 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Aviation Activity Report December 2010 '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma City Airport Authority . 2010 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on March 17 , 2012 . Retrieved September 30 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Passenger Boarding ( Enplanement ) and All - Cargo Data for U.S. Airports '' ( PDF ) . Federal Aviation Administration . 2010 . Archived from the original ( PDF ) on September 20 , 2011 . Retrieved September 30 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Tulsa International Airport -- Airline Information '' . Tulsa Airport Authority . 2007 . Archived from the original on September 28 , 2012 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Will Rogers World Airports -- Airline Information '' . Oklahoma City Airport Authority . 2004 . Archived from the original on March 15 , 2011 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Riverside Jones Airport '' . Tulsa Airport Authority . 2007 . Archived from the original on August 22 , 2011 . Retrieved September 30 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` Airports of Oklahoma '' . Oklahoma Airport Operators Association . Archived from the original on September 28 , 2007 . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Barber , Brian ( January 18 , 2007 ) . `` Federal matching funds may help bring Amtrak to Tulsa '' . Tulsa World . Retrieved August 2 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Live in Tulsa '' . Tulsa Chamber of Commerce . 2005 . Archived from the original on May 25 , 2007 . Retrieved July 14 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` What 's new at the port ? '' . Tulsa Port Authority . Archived from the original on July 14 , 2007 . Retrieved July 30 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` State Government -- Oklahoma '' . GoveEngine.com. 2006 . Retrieved July 31 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Current Registration Statistics by County '' ( PDF ) . State of Oklahoma . January 15 , 2013 . Retrieved May 21 , 2013 . Jump up ^ `` The Execution State ? '' . Oklahoma Watch . February 21 , 2013 . Retrieved July 10 , 2013 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma State Government '' . Netstate . June 7 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Legislative Longevity Limits '' . U.S. Term Limits . Archived from the original on September 20 , 2007 . Retrieved August 9 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Report of the Governor 's Commission on Government Performance '' . Governor 's Commission . December 1 , 1995 . Archived from the original on April 29 , 2007 . Retrieved August 6 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` List of County Officers '' . Government of Oklahoma . January 6 , 2006 . Archived from the original on May 31 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . ^ Jump up to : `` Oklahoma Municipal Government '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma Department of Libraries. 2005 . Retrieved August 7 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Diehl , Don ( July 24 , 2007 ) . `` Metro About Jenks population figures ... doubled in size since 2000 census '' . Neighbor Newspapers . Archived from the original on September 30 , 2007 . Retrieved August 1 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Henry , Robert ( March 22 , 1989 ) . `` Oklahoma Attorney General 's Opinions : Question Submitted by : The Honorable Enoch Kelly Haney , Oklahoma State Senate '' . The Oklahoma State Courts Network . Retrieved August 21 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Robertson , Lindsay ( 2001 ) . `` Native Americans and the Law : Native Americans Under Current United States Law '' . University of Oklahoma . Retrieved August 21 , 2007 . Jump up ^ Leip , David . `` Presidential General Election Results Comparison -- Oklahoma '' . US Election Atlas . Retrieved December 29 , 2009 . Jump up ^ `` Registration by Party as of January 15 , 2015 '' ( PDF ) . Oklahoma State Election Board . Retrieved February 6 , 2015 . Jump up ^ Dems woo Native American vote . Politico . Published 5 / 29 / 08 . ^ Jump up to : Oklahoma Department of Commerce . `` 2000 -- 2010 Oklahoma Incorporated Place Populations '' . Archived from the original ( xls ) on May 20 , 2011 . Retrieved October 9 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` P1 Total Population All Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas ( or parts ) within Oklahoma '' . US Census Bureau . 2010 . Retrieved October 9 , 2011 . Jump up ^ `` OCIS Document Index '' . The Oklahoma Supreme Court Network . Retrieved May 11 , 2007 . Jump up ^ `` Oklahoma House approves ' In God We Trust ' for state motto '' . newsok.com . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Jump up ^ `` HCR 1024 '' ( PDF ) . Retrieved March 27 , 2018 . Further reading ( edit ) Baird , W. David ; Danney Goble ( 1994 ) . The Story of Oklahoma . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 2650 - 7 . Dale , Edward Everett ; Morris L. Wardell ( 1948 ) . History of Oklahoma . New York : Prentice - Hall . Gibson , Arrell Morgan ( 1981 ) . Oklahoma : A History of Five Centuries ( 2nd ed . ) . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 1758 - 3 . Goble , Danney ( 1980 ) . Progressive Oklahoma : The Making of a New Kind of State . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 1510 - 6 . Gunther , John ( 1947 ) . `` Oklahoma and the Indians '' . Inside U.S.A. New York City , London : Harper & Brothers . pp. 869 -- 885 . Jones , Stephen ( 1974 ) . Oklahoma Politics in State and Nation ( vol. 1 ( 1907 -- 62 ) ed . ) . Enid , Okla. : Haymaker Press . Joyce , Davis D. ( ed . ) ( 1994 ) . An Oklahoma I Had Never Seen Before : Alternative Views of Oklahoma History . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 2599 - 3 . CS1 maint : Extra text : authors list ( link ) Morgan , Anne Hodges ; Morgan , H. Wayne ( eds . ) ( 1982 ) . Oklahoma : New Views of the Forty - sixth State . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 1651 - X . CS1 maint : Extra text : authors list ( link ) Morgan , David R. ; Robert E. England ; George G. Humphreys ( 1991 ) . Oklahoma Politics and Policies : Governing the Sooner State . Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press . ISBN 0 - 8032 - 3106 - 7 . Morris , John W. ; Charles R. Goins ; Edwin C. McReynolds ( 1986 ) . Historical Atlas of Oklahoma ( 3rd ed . ) . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0 - 8061 - 1991 - 8 . Wishart , David J. ( ed . ) ( 2004 ) . Encyclopedia of the Great Plains . Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press . ISBN 0 - 8032 - 4787 - 7 . CS1 maint : Extra text : authors list ( link ) complete text online ; 900 pages of scholarly articles External links ( edit ) Find more aboutOklahomaat Wikipedia 's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Government ( edit ) Official website Oklahoma Legislative Branch Oklahoma Department of Commerce Oklahoma Department of Human Services Oklahoma Department of Transportation Tourism and recreation ( edit ) Official Oklahoma Tourism Info Oklahoma State Parks Red Earth Woody Guthrie Folk Festival Culture and history ( edit ) Oklahoma State Guide from the Library of Congress Oklahoma Arts Council Oklahoma Theatre Association Oklahoma Oral History Research Program Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture Voices of Oklahoma Oral History Project Maps and Demographics ( edit ) Oklahoma QuickFacts Geographic and Demographic information State highway maps Oklahoma Genealogical Society Realtime USGS geographic , weather , and geologic information Geographic data related to Oklahoma at OpenStreetMap Oklahoma Digital Maps : Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory Preceded by Utah List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on November 16 , 1907 ( 46th ) Succeeded by New Mexico hide Topics related to Oklahoma Native America hide State of Oklahoma Oklahoma City ( capital ) Topics History Government Governor ( List ) Symbols People Geography Earthquakes Media Newspapers Radio TV Sports Tourist attractions Unassigned Lands Society Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Regions Arklatex Central Cherokee Outlet Cross Timbers Four State Area Flint Hills Green Country Kiamichi Country Little Dixie Northwestern Oklahoma City Metro Ouachita Mountains The Ozarks Panhandle South Central Southwestern Texoma Tulsa Metro Western Largest cities Ardmore Bartlesville Bixby Broken Arrow Del City Duncan Edmond Enid Lawton Midwest City Muskogee Moore Norman Oklahoma City Owasso Ponca City Shawnee Stillwater Tulsa Yukon Counties Adair Alfalfa Atoka Beaver Beckham Blaine Bryan Caddo Canadian Carter Cherokee Choctaw Cimarron Cleveland Coal Comanche Cotton Craig Creek Custer Delaware Dewey Ellis Garfield Garvin Grady Grant Greer Harmon Harper Haskell Hughes Jackson Jefferson Johnston Kay Kingfisher Kiowa Latimer Le Flore Lincoln Logan Love Major Marshall Mayes McClain McCurtain McIntosh Murray Muskogee Noble Nowata Okfuskee Oklahoma Okmulgee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Payne Pittsburg Pontotoc Pottawatomie Pushmataha Roger Mills Rogers Seminole Sequoyah Stephens Texas Tillman Tulsa Wagoner Washington Washita Woods Woodward Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Oklahoma David Holt ( R ) ( Oklahoma City ) G.T. Bynum ( R ) ( Tulsa ) Cindy Rosenthal ( Norman ) Dave Wooden ( Broken Arrow ) Protected areas of Oklahoma Federal National Historic Sites : Fort Smith Washita Battlefield National Recreation Areas : Chickasaw National Forests : Ouachita USFS National Recreation Areas : Winding Stair Mountain National Grasslands : Black Kettle Rita Blanca National Memorials : Oklahoma City National Wildlife Refuges : Deep Fork Little River Optima Ozark Plateau Salt Plains Sequoyah Tishomingo Washita Wichita Mountains State State Parks : Alabaster Caverns Arrowhead Beaver Dunes Beavers Bend Resort Park Bernice Black Mesa Boggy Depot Boiling Springs Brushy Lake Cherokee Cherokee Landing Clayton Lake Disney / Little Blue Dripping Springs Fort Cobb Foss Gloss Mountain Great Plains Great Salt Plains Greenleaf Hochatown Honey Creek Hugo Lake Keystone Lake Eufaula Lake Murray Lake Texoma Lake Wister Lake Thunderbird Little Sahara McGee Creek Natural Falls Okmulgee Osage Hills Quartz Mountain Raymond Gary Red 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Insular areas American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Outlying islands Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island Indian reservations List of Indian reservations Coordinates : 35 ° 30 ′ N 98 ° 00 ′ W  /  35.5 ° N 98 ° W  / 35.5 ; - 98 BNF : cb12338977k ( data ) GND : 4102053 - 4 ISNI : 0000 0004 0647 1356 LCCN : n79046257 NARA : 10045325 SUDOC : 032341547 VIAF : 137038395 Retrieved from `` https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oklahoma&oldid=856994209 '' Categories : Demographics of the United States Oklahoma States of the United States States and territories established in 1907 Southern United States Cherokee - speaking countries and territories 1907 establishments in the United States Hidden categories : Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from April 2017 Wikipedia indefinitely move - protected pages Use mdy dates from July 2018 Articles with hAudio microformats Articles including recorded pronunciations ( English ) Articles containing Pawnee - language text Articles containing Cayuga - language text Articles containing Choctaw - language text Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011 All articles containing potentially dated statements Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005 Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2000 Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2017 Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008 Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2018 CS1 maint : Extra text : authors list Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia Featured articles Coordinates on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with ISNI identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers Talk Contents About Wikipedia Wikiquote Wikivoyage Afrikaans አማርኛ Ænglisc Aragonés ܐܪܡܝܐ Arpetan Asturianu Avañe'ẽ Aymar aru Azərbaycanca تۆرکجه বাংলা Bân - lâm - gú Беларуская Беларуская ( тарашкевіца ) ‎ भोजपुरी Bikol Central Bislama Български Boarisch Bosanski Brezhoneg Буряад Català Чӑвашла Cebuano Čeština Chavacano de Zamboanga Corsu Cymraeg Dansk Davvisámegiella Deitsch Deutsch Diné bizaad Eesti Ελληνικά Emiliàn e rumagnòl Español Esperanto Euskara فارسی Fiji Hindi Føroyskt Français Frysk Gaeilge Gaelg Gagauz Gàidhlig Galego ગુજરાતી 客家 語 / Hak - kâ - ngî Хальмг 한국어 Hawaiʻi Հայերեն हिन्दी Hrvatski Ido Igbo Ilokano বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua Interlingue ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ / inuktitut Iñupiak Ирон Íslenska Italiano עברית Basa Jawa ಕನ್ನಡ Kapampangan ქართული Қазақша Kernowek Kiswahili Kreyòl ayisyen Kurdî Кыргызча Кырык мары Ladino لۊری شومالی Latina Latviešu Lëtzebuergesch Lietuvių Ligure Limburgs Lumbaart Magyar मैथिली Македонски Malagasy മലയാളം Māori मराठी მარგალური مصرى مازِرونی Bahasa Melayu Mìng - dĕ̤ng - ngṳ̄ Монгол မြန်မာဘာသာ Nāhuatl Dorerin Naoero Nederlands Nedersaksies नेपाली नेपाल भाषा 日本 語 Нохчийн Nordfriisk Norsk Norsk nynorsk Occitan Олык марий Oʻzbekcha / ўзбекча ਪੰਜਾਬੀ पालि پنجابی Papiamentu Piemontèis Plattdüütsch Polski Português Română Rumantsch Runa Simi Русский Саха тыла संस्कृतम् Sardu Scots Seeltersk Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Ślůnski کوردی Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Taqbaylit Татарча / tatarça తెలుగు ไทย ᏣᎳᎩ Tsetsêhestâhese Türkçe Українська اردو ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche Tiếng Việt Volapük 文言 Winaray ייִדיש Yorùbá 粵語 Zazaki Žemaitėška 中文 Kabɩyɛ Lingua Franca Nova 164 more Edit links This page was last edited on 28 August 2018 , at 21 : 27 ( UTC ) . 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[ "bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas", "in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states" ]
[ "Oklahoma is the 20th - largest state in the United States , covering an area of 69,898 square miles ( 181,030 km ) , with 68,667 square miles ( 177,850 km ) of land and 1,281 square miles ( 3,320 km ) of water . It lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states . It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri , on the north by Kansas , on the northwest by Colorado , on the far west by New Mexico , and on the south and near - west by Texas . Much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen , a failed continental rift . The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River ." ]
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who came up with the butterfly effect theory
Butterfly effect - wikipedia Butterfly effect Jump to : navigation , search For other uses , see Butterfly effect ( disambiguation ) . A plot of Lorenz 's strange attractor for values ρ = 28 , σ = 10 , β = 8 / 3 . The butterfly effect or sensitive dependence on initial conditions is the property of a dynamical system that , starting from any of various arbitrarily close alternative initial conditions on the attractor , the iterated points will become arbitrarily spread out from each other . The butterfly effect is a concept that states that `` small causes can have larger effects '' . This concept was initially used in theories about weather prediction but later the term became a popular metaphor in science writing . In chaos theory , the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state . The term itself was coined by Edward Lorenz , and is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado ( exact time of formation , exact path taken ) being influenced by minor perturbations such as the flapping of the wings of a distant butterfly several weeks earlier . Lorenz discovered the effect when he observed that runs of his weather model with initial condition data that was rounded in a seemingly inconsequential manner would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data . A very small change in initial conditions had created a significantly different outcome . The idea that small causes may have large effects in general and in weather specifically was used from Henri Poincaré to Norbert Wiener . Edward Lorenz 's work placed the concept of instability of the earth 's atmosphere onto a quantitative base and linked the concept of instability to the properties of large classes of dynamic systems which are undergoing nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos . The butterfly effect can also be demonstrated by very simple systems . For example , the randomness of the outcomes of throwing dice depends on this characteristic to amplify small differences in initial conditions -- the precise direction , thrust , and orientation of the throw -- into significantly different dice paths and outcomes , which makes it virtually impossible to throw a dice exactly the same way twice . Contents ( hide ) 1 History 2 Illustration 3 Theory and mathematical definition 4 In physical systems 4.1 In weather 4.2 In quantum mechanics 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links History ( edit ) In The Vocation of Man ( 1800 ) , Fichte says that `` you could not remove a single grain of sand from its place without thereby ... changing something throughout all parts of the immeasurable whole '' . Chaos theory and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions were described in the literature in a particular case of the three - body problem by Henri Poincaré in 1890 . He later proposed that such phenomena could be common , for example , in meteorology . In 1898 , Jacques Hadamard noted general divergence of trajectories in spaces of negative curvature . Pierre Duhem discussed the possible general significance of this in 1908 . The idea that one butterfly could eventually have a far - reaching ripple effect on subsequent historic events made its earliest known appearance in `` A Sound of Thunder '' , a 1952 short story by Ray Bradbury about time travel . In 1961 , Lorenz was running a numerical computer model to redo a weather prediction from the middle of the previous run as a shortcut . He entered the initial condition 0.506 from the printout instead of entering the full precision 0.506127 value . The result was a completely different weather scenario . Lorenz wrote : `` At one point I decided to repeat some of the computations in order to examine what was happening in greater detail . I stopped the computer , typed in a line of numbers that it had printed out a while earlier , and set it running again . I went down the hall for a cup of coffee and returned after about an hour , during which time the computer had simulated about two months of weather . The numbers being printed were nothing like the old ones . I immediately suspected a weak vacuum tube or some other computer trouble , which was not uncommon , but before calling for service I decided to see just where the mistake had occurred , knowing that this could speed up the servicing process . Instead of a sudden break , I found that the new values at first repeated the old ones , but soon afterward differed by one and then several units in the last decimal place , and then began to differ in the next to the last place and then in the place before that . In fact , the differences more or less steadily doubled in size every four days or so , until all resemblance with the original output disappeared somewhere in the second month . This was enough to tell me what had happened : the numbers that I had typed in were not the exact original numbers , but were the rounded - off values that had appeared in the original printout . The initial round - off errors were the culprits ; they were steadily amplifying until they dominated the solution . '' ( E.N. Lorenz , The Essence of Chaos , U. Washington Press , Seattle ( 1993 ) , page 134 ) In 1963 Lorenz published a theoretical study of this effect in a highly cited , seminal paper called Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow ( the calculations were performed on a Royal McBee LGP - 30 computer ) . Elsewhere he stated : One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct , one flap of a sea gull 's wings would be enough to alter the course of the weather forever . The controversy has not yet been settled , but the most recent evidence seems to favor the sea gulls . Following suggestions from colleagues , in later speeches and papers Lorenz used the more poetic butterfly . According to Lorenz , when he failed to provide a title for a talk he was to present at the 139th meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972 , Philip Merilees concocted Does the flap of a butterfly 's wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas ? as a title . Although a butterfly flapping its wings has remained constant in the expression of this concept , the location of the butterfly , the consequences , and the location of the consequences have varied widely . The phrase refers to the idea that a butterfly 's wings might create tiny changes in the atmosphere that may ultimately alter the path of a tornado or delay , accelerate or even prevent the occurrence of a tornado in another location . The butterfly does not power or directly create the tornado , but the term is intended to imply that the flap of the butterfly 's wings can cause the tornado : in the sense that the flap of the wings is a part of the initial conditions ; one set of conditions leads to a tornado while the other set of conditions does n't . The flapping wing represents a small change in the initial condition of the system , which cascades to large - scale alterations of events ( compare : domino effect ) . Had the butterfly not flapped its wings , the trajectory of the system might have been vastly different -- but it 's also equally possible that the set of conditions without the butterfly flapping its wings is the set that leads to a tornado . The butterfly effect presents an obvious challenge to prediction , since initial conditions for a system such as the weather can never be known to complete accuracy . This problem motivated the development of ensemble forecasting , in which a number of forecasts are made from perturbed initial conditions . Some scientists have since argued that the weather system is not as sensitive to initial conditions as previously believed . David Orrell argues that the major contributor to weather forecast error is model error , with sensitivity to initial conditions playing a relatively small role . Stephen Wolfram also notes that the Lorenz equations are highly simplified and do not contain terms that represent viscous effects ; he believes that these terms would tend to damp out small perturbations . Illustration ( edit ) The butterfly effect in the Lorenz attractor time 0 ≤ t ≤ 30 ( larger ) z coordinate ( larger ) These figures show two segments of the three - dimensional evolution of two trajectories ( one in blue , and the other in yellow ) for the same period of time in the Lorenz attractor starting at two initial points that differ by only 10 in the x-coordinate . Initially , the two trajectories seem coincident , as indicated by the small difference between the z coordinate of the blue and yellow trajectories , but for t > 23 the difference is as large as the value of the trajectory . The final position of the cones indicates that the two trajectories are no longer coincident at t = 30 . An animation of the Lorenz attractor shows the continuous evolution . Theory and Mathematical definition ( edit ) Recurrence , the approximate return of a system towards its initial conditions , together with sensitive dependence on initial conditions , are the two main ingredients for chaotic motion . They have the practical consequence of making complex systems , such as the weather , difficult to predict past a certain time range ( approximately a week in the case of weather ) since it is impossible to measure the starting atmospheric conditions completely accurately . A dynamical system displays sensitive dependence on initial conditions if points arbitrarily close together separate over time at an exponential rate . The definition is not topological , but essentially metrical . If M is the state space for the map f t ( \ displaystyle f ^ ( t ) ) , then f t ( \ displaystyle f ^ ( t ) ) displays sensitive dependence to initial conditions if for any x in M and any δ > 0 , there are y in M , with distance d (. , . ) such that 0 < d ( x , y ) < δ ( \ displaystyle 0 < d ( x , y ) < \ delta ) and such that d ( f τ ( x ) , f τ ( y ) ) > e a τ d ( x , y ) ( \ displaystyle d ( f ^ ( \ tau ) ( x ) , f ^ ( \ tau ) ( y ) ) > \ mathrm ( e ) ^ ( a \ tau ) \ , d ( x , y ) ) for some positive parameter a . The definition does not require that all points from a neighborhood separate from the base point x , but it requires one positive Lyapunov exponent . The simplest mathematical framework exhibiting sensitive dependence on initial conditions is provided by a particular parametrization of the logistic map : x n + 1 = 4 x n ( 1 − x n ) , 0 ≤ x 0 ≤ 1 , ( \ displaystyle x_ ( n + 1 ) = 4x_ ( n ) ( 1 - x_ ( n ) ) , \ quad 0 \ leq x_ ( 0 ) \ leq 1 , ) which , unlike most chaotic maps , has a closed - form solution : x n = sin 2 ⁡ ( 2 n θ π ) ( \ displaystyle x_ ( n ) = \ sin ^ ( 2 ) ( 2 ^ ( n ) \ theta \ pi ) ) where the initial condition parameter θ ( \ displaystyle \ theta ) is given by θ = 1 π sin − 1 ⁡ ( x 0 1 / 2 ) ( \ displaystyle \ theta = ( \ tfrac ( 1 ) ( \ pi ) ) \ sin ^ ( - 1 ) ( x_ ( 0 ) ^ ( 1 / 2 ) ) ) . For rational θ ( \ displaystyle \ theta ) , after a finite number of iterations x n ( \ displaystyle x_ ( n ) ) maps into a periodic sequence . But almost all θ ( \ displaystyle \ theta ) are irrational , and , for irrational θ ( \ displaystyle \ theta ) , x n ( \ displaystyle x_ ( n ) ) never repeats itself -- it is non-periodic . This solution equation clearly demonstrates the two key features of chaos -- stretching and folding : the factor 2 shows the exponential growth of stretching , which results in sensitive dependence on initial conditions ( the butterfly effect ) , while the squared sine function keeps x n ( \ displaystyle x_ ( n ) ) folded within the range ( 0 , 1 ) . In physical systems ( edit ) In weather ( edit ) The butterfly effect is most familiar in terms of weather ; it can easily be demonstrated in standard weather prediction models , for example . The climate scientists James Annan and William Connolley explain that chaos is important in the development of weather prediction methods ; models are sensitive to initial conditions . They add the caveat : `` Of course the existence of an unknown butterfly flapping its wings has no direct bearing on weather forecasts , since it will take far too long for such a small perturbation to grow to a significant size , and we have many more immediate uncertainties to worry about . So the direct impact of this phenomenon on weather prediction is often somewhat overstated . '' In quantum Mechanics ( edit ) The potential for sensitive dependence on initial conditions ( the butterfly effect ) has been studied in a number of cases in semiclassical and quantum physics including atoms in strong fields and the anisotropic Kepler problem . Some authors have argued that extreme ( exponential ) dependence on initial conditions is not expected in pure quantum treatments ; however , the sensitive dependence on initial conditions demonstrated in classical motion is included in the semiclassical treatments developed by Martin Gutzwiller and Delos and co-workers . Other authors suggest that the butterfly effect can be observed in quantum systems . Karkuszewski et al. consider the time evolution of quantum systems which have slightly different Hamiltonians . They investigate the level of sensitivity of