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Where was the wife of Francis I Rákóczi born?
Passage 1: Waldrada of Lotharingia Waldrada was the mistress, and later the wife, of Lothair II of Lotharingia. Biography Waldrada's family origin is uncertain. The prolific 19th-century French writer Baron Ernouf suggested that Waldrada was of noble Gallo-Roman descent, sister of Thietgaud, the bishop of Trier, and niece of Gunther, archbishop of Cologne. However, these suggestions are not supported by any evidence, and more recent studies have instead suggested she was of relatively undistinguished social origins, though still from an aristocratic milieu. The Vita Sancti Deicoli states that Waldrada was related to Eberhard II, Count of Nordgau (included Strasbourg) and the family of Etichonids, though this is a late 10th-century source and so may not be entirely reliable on this question.In 855 the Carolingian king Lothar II married Teutberga, a Carolingian aristocrat and the daughter of Bosonid Boso the Elder. The marriage was arranged by Lothar's father Lothar I for political reasons. It is very probable that Waldrada was already Lothar II's mistress at this time.Teutberga was allegedly not capable of bearing children and Lothar's reign was chiefly occupied by his efforts to obtain an annulment of their marriage, and his relations with his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German were influenced by his desire to obtain their support for this endeavour. Lothair, whose desire for annulment was arguably prompted by his affection for Waldrada, put away Teutberga. However, Hucbert took up arms on his sister's behalf, and after she had submitted successfully to the ordeal of water, Lothair was compelled to restore her in 858. Still pursuing his purpose, he won the support of his brother, Emperor Louis II, by a cession of lands and obtained the consent of the local clergy to the annulment and to his marriage with Waldrada, which took place in 862. However, Pope Nicholas I was suspicious of this and sent legates to investigate at the Council of Metz in 863. The Council found in favour of Lothair's divorce, which led to rumours that the papal legates may have bribed and thus meant that Nicholas order Lothair to take Teutberga back or face excommunication. With the support of Charles the Bald and Louis the German, Teutberga appealed the annulment to Pope Nicholas. Nicholas refused to recognize the annulment and excommunicated Waldrada in 866, forcing Lothair to abandon Waldrada in favour of Teutberga. Lothair accepted this begrudgingly for a time, but shortly afterward at the end of 867 Pope Nicholas I died. Thus, Lothair began to seek the permission of the newly appointed Pope Adrian II to again put Teutberga aside and marry Waldrada, riding to Rome to speak with him on the matter in 869. However, on his way home, Lothair died. Children Waldrada and Lothair II had some sons and probably three daughters, all of whom were declared illegitimate: Hugh (c. 855–895), Duke of Alsace (867–885) Gisela (c. 865–908), who in 883 married Godfrey, the Viking leader ruling in Frisia, who was murdered in 885 Bertha (c. 863–925), who married Theobald of Arles (c. 854–895), count of Arles, nephew of Teutberga. They had two sons, Hugh of Italy and Boso of Tuscany. After Theobald's death, between 895 and 898 she married Adalbert II of Tuscany (c. 875–915) They had at least three children: Guy, who succeeded his father as count and duke of Lucca and margrave of Tuscany, Lambert succeeded his brother in 929, but lost the titles in 931 to his half-brother Boso of Tuscany, and Ermengard. Ermengarde (d. 90?) Odo (d. c.879) Passage 2: Francis I Rákóczi Francis I Rákóczi (February 24, 1645, Gyulafehérvár, Transylvania – July 8, 1676, Zboró, Royal Hungary) was a Hungarian aristocrat, elected prince of Transylvania and father of Hungarian national hero Francis Rákóczi II.Francis Rákóczi was the son of George Rákóczi II, prince of Transylvania, and Sophia Báthory. He was elected prince by the Transylvanian Diet in 1652, during his father's life. However, because of the disastrous Polish campaign of 1657 and its consequences, the Ottoman Empire removed his father from the throne in 1660, and prohibited any Rákóczi to ascend the Transylvanian throne. This left Francis unable to come by his father's legacy; he therefore withdrew to his estates in Royal Hungary. Notably, the Rákóczi family was Calvinist, and they were staunch supporters of the Reformed Church in Hungary. However, Francis' mother, Sophia Báthory, had converted to Calvinism merely for the sake of her marriage. After her husband's death, she returned to Catholicism and supported the Counter Reformation. Francis Rákóczi also became a Catholic, thus acquiring favour with the Catholic Habsburg Court. His mother converted him to Catholicism. He was made a count in 1664. In 1666 Francis married Jelena Zrinska (Hungarian: Zrínyi Ilona), a Croatian countess, and joined the Wesselényi conspiracy (Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy in Croatia), one leader of which was Jelena's father, Petar Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi Péter). Francis soon became the leader of the conspiracy, and, as a culmination of their anti-Habsburg stratagems, started an armed uprising of nobles in Upper Hungary, while the other conspirators were supposed to start the fight in Croatia. Due to poor organization and discord between the conspirators, however, the Austrian authorities were well informed; they quickly suppressed the Croatian branch of the revolt. When Rákóczi learned that Petar Zrinski had been captured by the Austrians, he laid down his arms and applied for mercy. All other leaders of the conspiracy were executed for high treason; Rákóczi, due to his mother's intervention, and for a ransom of 300,000 forints and several castles, was pardoned. Issue Francis I had three children: György (1667) Julianna Borbála (1672–1717), married Count Ferdinand Gobert von Aspremont-Lynden (1643-1708) Francis Rákóczi II (1676–1735)Francis II was born only three months before his father's death. He led a rebellion against Austrian rule (Rákóczi's War of Independence) and died in exile. Passage 3: Mary Fiennes (lady-in-waiting) Mary Fiennes (1495–1531) was an English courtier. She was the wife of Henry Norris. Norris was executed for treason as one of the alleged lovers of her cousin, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England. Mary lived for six years at the French court as a Maid of Honour to queens consort Mary Tudor, wife of Louis XII; and Claude of France, wife of Francis I. Family and early years Mary was born at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex in 1495, the only daughter of Thomas Fiennes, 8th Baron Dacre and Anne Bourchier. By both her father and mother she was descended from Edward III. She had two younger brothers, Sir Thomas and John. Her mother was an elder half-sister of Elizabeth Howard and Lord Edmund Howard, making queen consorts Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard a cousin of Mary. Her paternal grandmother, Alice FitzHugh, was sister to Elizabeth FitzHugh, grandmother of Catherine Parr, making her cousin to yet another queen consort of Henry VIII. In 1514, Mary was appointed a Maid of Honour to Princess Mary Tudor and accompanied her to France when the latter married King Louis XII of France; afterwards she served in the capacity to Queen Mary's successor, Queen Claude, consort of the new king Francis I of France. Among her fellow Maids of Honour were her cousins, Mary (a mistress of Henry VIII) and Anne Boleyn. Marriage and issue In 1520 upon her return to England, she married the courtier, Henry Norreys (1491 – 17 May 1536) of Yattendon in Berkshire, whom she had met that same year at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in France. Norris served King Henry VIII of England as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and was held in high favour by the King. He was later appointed Groom of the Stool and continued to enjoy the King's favour. According to biographer Eric Ives, Norris was "perhaps the nearest thing Henry had to a friend." Norris had control of King Henry's Privy chamber. Henry and Mary had three children: Edward Norris (died 1529) Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys (c. 1525 – 1601), married Margaret Williams of Rycote, by whom he had issue. Mary Norris, married firstly Sir George Carew, and secondly Sir Arthur Champernowne, by whom she had issue. Death Mary died in 1531, a year after her mother. Five years later her husband was attainted and executed for treason as one of the five alleged lovers of her cousin Queen Anne Boleyn, who herself was beheaded at the Tower of London on 19 May 1536. Their four orphaned children were raised by Norris's brother Sir John Norris. Ancestry Passage 4: Agatha (wife of Samuel of Bulgaria) Agatha (Bulgarian: Агата, Greek: Άγάθη; fl. late 10th century) was the wife of Emperor Samuel of Bulgaria. Biography According to a later addition to the history of the late-11th-century Byzantine historian John Skylitzes, Agatha was a captive from Larissa, and the daughter of the magnate of Dyrrhachium, John Chryselios. Skylitzes explicitly refers to her as the mother of Samuel's heir Gavril Radomir, which means that she was probably Samuel's wife. On the other hand, Skylitzes later mentions that Gavril Radomir himself also took a beautiful captive, named Irene, from Larissa as his wife. According to the editors of the Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit, this may have been a source of confusion for a later copyist, and Agatha's real origin was not Larissa, but Dyrrhachium. According to the same work, it is likely that she had died by ca. 998, when her father surrendered Dyrrhachium to the Byzantine emperor Basil II.Only two of Samuel's and Agatha's children are definitely known by name: Gavril Radomir and Miroslava. Two further, unnamed, daughters are mentioned in 1018, while Samuel is also recorded as having had a bastard son.Agatha is one of the central characters in Dimitar Talev's novel Samuil. Passage 5: Empress Shōken Empress Dowager Shōken (昭憲皇太后, Shōken-kōtaigō, 9 May 1849 – 9 April 1914), born Masako Ichijō (一条勝子, Ichijō Masako), was the wife of Emperor Meiji of Japan. She is also known under the technically incorrect name Empress Shōken (昭憲皇后, Shōken-kōgō). She was one of the founders of the Japanese Red Cross Society, whose charity work was known throughout the First Sino-Japanese War. Early life Lady Masako Ichijō was born on 9 May 1849, in Heian-kyō, Japan. She was the third daughter of Tadayoshi Ichijō, former Minister of the Left and head of the Fujiwara clan's Ichijō branch. Her adoptive mother was one of Prince Fushimi Kuniie's daughters, but her biological mother was Tamiko Niihata, the daughter of a doctor from the Ichijō family. Unusually for the time, she had been vaccinated against smallpox. As a child, Masako was somewhat of a prodigy: she was able to read poetry from the Kokin Wakashū by the age of 4 and had composed some waka verses of her own by the age of 5. By age seven, she was able to read some texts in classical Chinese with some assistance and was studying Japanese calligraphy. By the age of 12, she had studied the koto and was fond of Noh drama. She excelled in the studies of finances, ikebana and Japanese tea ceremony.The major obstacle to Lady Masako's eligibility to become empress consort was the fact that she was 3 years older than Emperor Meiji, but this issue was resolved by changing her official birth date from 1849 to 1850. They became engaged on 2 September 1867, when she adopted the given name Haruko (美子), which was intended to reflect her serene beauty and diminutive size. The Tokugawa Bakufu promised 15,000 ryō in gold for the wedding and assigned her an annual income of 500 koku, but as the Meiji Restoration occurred before the wedding could be completed, the promised amounts were never delivered. The wedding was delayed partly due to periods of mourning for Emperor Kōmei, for her brother Saneyoshi, and the political disturbances around Kyoto between 1867 and 1868. Empress of Japan Lady Haruko and Emperor Meiji's wedding was finally officially celebrated on 11 January 1869. She was the first imperial consort to receive the title of both nyōgō and of kōgō (literally, the emperor's wife, translated as "empress consort"), in several hundred years. However, it soon became clear that she was unable to bear children. Emperor Meiji already had 12 children by 5 concubines, though: as custom in Japanese monarchy, Empress Haruko adopted Yoshihito, her husband's eldest son by Lady Yanagihara Naruko, who became Crown Prince. On 8 November 1869, the Imperial House departed from Kyoto for the new capital of Tokyo. In a break from tradition, Emperor Meiji insisted that the Empress and the senior ladies-in-waiting should attend the educational lectures given to the Emperor on a regular basis about national conditions and developments in foreign nations. Influence On 30 July 1886, Empress Haruko attended the Peeresses School's graduation ceremony in Western clothing. On 10 August, the imperial couple received foreign guests in Western clothing for the first time when hosting a Western Music concert.From this point onward, the Empress' entourage wore only Western-style clothes in public, to the point that in January 1887 Empress Haruko issued a memorandum on the subject: traditional Japanese dress was not only unsuited to modern life, but Western-style dress was closer than the kimono to clothes worn by Japanese women in ancient times.In the diplomatic field, Empress Haruko hosted the wife of former US President Ulysses S. Grant during his visit to Japan. She was also present for her husband's meetings with Hawaiian King Kalākaua in 1881. Later that same year, she helped host the visit of the sons of future British King Edward VII: Princes Albert Victor and George (future George V), who presented her with a pair of pet wallabies from Australia.On 26 November 1886, Empress Haruko accompanied her husband to Yokosuka, Kanagawa to observe the new Imperial Japanese Navy cruisers Naniwa and Takachiho firing torpedoes and performing other maneuvers. From 1887, the Empress was often at the Emperor's side in official visits to army maneuvers. When Emperor Meiji fell ill in 1888, Empress Haruko took his place in welcoming envoys from Siam, launching warships and visiting Tokyo Imperial University. In 1889, Empress Haruko accompanied Emperor Meiji on his official visit to Nagoya and Kyoto. While he continued on to visit naval bases at Kure and Sasebo, she went to Nara to worship at the principal Shinto shrines.Known throughout her tenure for her support of charity work and women's education during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Empress Haruko worked for the establishment of the Japanese Red Cross Society. She participated in the organization's administration, especially in their peacetime activities in which she created a money fund for the International Red Cross. Renamed "The Empress Shōken Fund", it is presently used for international welfare activities. After Emperor Meiji moved his military headquarters from Tokyo to Hiroshima to be closer to the lines of communications with his troops, Empress Haruko joined her husband in March 1895. While in Hiroshima, she insisted on visiting hospitals full of wounded soldiers every other day of her stay. Death After Emperor Meiji's death in 1912, Empress Haruko was granted the title Empress Dowager (皇太后, Kōtaigō) by her adoptive son, Emperor Taishō. She died in 1914 at the Imperial Villa in Numazu, Shizuoka and was buried in the East Mound of the Fushimi Momoyama Ryo in Fushimi, Kyoto, next to her husband. Her soul was enshrined in Meiji Shrine in Tokyo. On 9 May 1914, she received the posthumous name Shōken Kōtaigō (昭憲皇太后). Her railway-carriage can be seen today in the Meiji Mura Museum, in Inuyama, Aichi prefecture. Honours National Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown, 1 November 1888 Foreign She received the following orders and decorations: Russian Empire: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Catherine, 13 December 1887 Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 29 November 1889 Siam: Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 12 October 1899 German Empire: Dame of the Order of Louise, 1st Class, 19 May 1903 Kingdom of Bavaria: Dame of Honour of the Order of Theresa, 29 February 1904 Korean Empire: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix, 27 July 1908 Ancestry See also Empress of Japan Ōmiya Palace Notes Passage 6: Eunoë (wife of Bogudes) Eunoë Maura was the wife of Bogudes, King of Western Mauretania. Her name has also been spelled Euries or Euryes or Eunoa. Biography Early life Eunoë Maura was thought to be descended from Berbers, but her name is Greek so it appears she might have been from there or had Greek ancestry. She was likely of very high status, as she is mentioned by historian Suetonius in the same context as Cleopatra. Marriage At an unspecified early date in her marriage to her husband Bogud he mounted an expedition along the Atlantic coast, seemingly venturing into the tropics. When he returned he presented his wife Eunoë with gigantic reeds and asparagus he had found on the journey.She is believed to have been a mistress of Julius Caesar. She may have replaced Cleopatra in Caesar's affections, when he arrived in North Africa prior to the Battle of Thapsus on 6 April 46 BC, the two were among several queens courted by Caesar. It is also possible that they first met in Spain if she accompanied her husband there on a campaign. Only a brief romance for the Roman, both Eunoe and Bogudes profited through gifts bestowed on them by Caesar. Caesar departed from Africa in June 46 BC, five and a half months after he landed. Cultural depictions Eunoë and Caesar's affair is greatly exaggerated and expanded on in the Medieval French prose work Faits des Romains. Jeanette Beer in her book A Medieval Caesar states that the Roman general is "transformed into Caesar, the medieval chevalier" in the text, and that the author is more interested in Caesar's sexual dominance over the queen than the political dominance he held over her husband Bogud. The text describes her; "Eunoe was the most beautiful woman in four kingdoms — nevertheless, she was Moorish", which Beer further analysed as being indicative of the fact that it was unimaginable to audiences of the time to believe that a lover of Caesar could be ugly, but that Moors still represented everything that was ugly to them.Eunoë has also been depicted in several novels about Caesar, as well as serialized stories in The Cornhill Magazine. In such fiction her character often serves as a foil for the relationship between Caesar and another woman, mostly Cleopatra, such as in The Memoirs of Cleopatra, The Bloodied Toga and When We Were Gods. In Song of the Nile she also plays a posthumous role as a person of interest for Cleopatra's daughter Selene II who became queen of Mauritania after her.Eunoe has also been depicted in a numismatic drawing by Italian artist and polymath Jacopo Strada, who lived in the 16th century. There is however no archaeological evidence of a coin that bears her name or picture. See also Women in ancient Rome Passage 7: Catherine Exley Catherine Exley (1779–1857) was an English diarist. She was the wife of a soldier who accompanied her husband when he served in Portugal, Spain, and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. Exley is best known as the author of a diary that gives an account of military life in that era from the viewpoint of the wife of a common soldier. Background Catherine Whitaker was born at Leeds in 1779 and married Joshua Exley there in 1806. Between 1805 and 1815, Joshua served in the Second Battalion of the 34th Regiment of Foot, initially as a private and then for a little over two years, as a corporal. Exley accompanied her husband for a substantial portion of this time and in due course wrote an account that is probably unique in that it records and reflects on life in the British Army from the perspective of the wife of a soldier who did not reach the rank of an officer. The diary Catherine's diary was first published as a booklet issued shortly after her death. A single copy of the booklet is known to exist, it was also reprinted in The Dewsbury Reporter during August 1923. The text of the diary is included in full in a more recently issued book, edited by Professor Rebecca Probert, along with essays on its military and religious context, the treatment of prisoners of war and the role of women in the British, French and Spanish armed forces during the Peninsular War. The diary unfolds the hardships that both Catherine and her husband suffered during his military service, including one period when they both wrongly thought that the other had died. There are detailed accounts of the births and deaths of children, the cold, hunger and filthy conditions of military life and the horror of the aftermaths of battles. Details of the author's religious experiences which led her to membership of the Methodist church also appear. Exley wrote the diary during the last 20 years before her death, which took place in 1857 at Batley, Yorkshire. Passage 8: Ilona Zrínyi Countess Ilona Zrínyi (Croatian: Jelena Zrinska, Hungarian: Zrínyi Ilona) (1643, Ozalj – 18 February 1703, Izmit) was a noblewoman and heroine. She was one of the last surviving members of the Croatian-Hungarian Zrinski/Zrínyi noble family. She was the daughter of Petar Zrinski, Ban (viceroy) of Croatia, the niece of both Miklós Zrínyi and Fran Krsto Frankopan and the wife of Francis Rákóczi I and Imre Thököly, as well as the mother of Francis Rákóczi II. She is remembered in history for her Defense of Palanok Castle against the Imperial army in 1685-1688, an act for which she was regarded a heroine in Hungary. Life Early years and family Ilona was born Ilona Zrínyi in Ozalj, present day Croatia. She was the eldest child of Croatian Ban, Peter Zrinyi, and his wife Katarina Zrinyi née Frankopan, a Croatian poet. Later her parents had two daughters, Judita Petronila (1652-1699), and Aurora Veronika (1658-1735), as well as a son, Ivan Antun (1651-1703). Ilona and her siblings were the last generation of descendants of the once-powerful Zrinski family. From her childhood, she was known for her beauty and good education. There is little information on her schooling; it is known though that she acquired a high level of knowledge within her family, not only from her father and mother, Croatian writers and erudite persons but from her uncle Nikola VII Zrinski as well. Marriages On 1 March 1666, she married Francis Rákóczi, with whom she had three children: György, born in 1667, who died in infancy; Julianna, born in 1672; and Ferenc (commonly known as Francis Rákóczi II), born in 1676. On June 8, 1676, not long after Francis II's birth, the elder Francis died. The widowed Ilona requested guardianship of her children and was granted it, against the advice of Emperor Leopold I's advisers and against Francis I's will. In this way she also retained control over the vast Rákóczi estates, which included among them the castles of Regéc, Sárospatak, Makovica, and Munkács. In 1682 she married Imre Thököly and became an active partner in her second husband's Kuruc uprising against the Habsburgs. Defense of Munkács (Palanok) Castle After their defeat at the 1683 Battle of Vienna, both the Ottoman forces and Thököly's allied Kuruc fighters had no choice but to retreat, and Thököly quickly lost one Rákóczi castle after another. At the end of 1685, the Imperial army surrounded the last remaining stronghold, Munkacs Castle in today's Ukraine. Ilona Zrínyi alone defended the castle for three years (1685–1688) against the forces of General Antonio Caraffa. Internment, exile and death After the recapture of Buda, the situation became untenable, and on 17 January 1688, Ilona had no choice but to surrender the castle, with the understanding that the defenders would receive amnesty from the Emperor, and that the Rákóczi estates would remain in her children's name. Under this agreement, she and her children traveled immediately to Vienna, where in violation of the pact the children were taken from her. Ilona lived until 1691 in the convent of the Ursulines, where her daughter Julianna was also raised. Her son Francis was immediately taken to the Jesuit school in Neuhaus. At the time, her husband, Thököly, was still fighting with his Kuruc rebels against the Habsburg army in Upper Hungary. When Habsburg General Heisler was captured by Thököly, a prisoner exchange was arranged, and Ilona joined her husband in Transylvania. In 1699, however, after the Treaty of Karlowitz was signed, both spouses, having found themselves on the losing side, had to go into exile in the Ottoman Empire. The countess lived in Galata, district of Constantinople, and later in Izmit, where she died on 18 February 1703. She was buried in the French church of Saint Benoit in Galata. Descendants From her first marriage with Francis Rákóczi, Ilona had three children: György (1667–1667) Julianna Borbála (September 1672 – 1717); married Count Ferdinand Gobert von Aspremont-Lynden (1643-1708) Francis II (27 March 1676 – 8 April 1735)From her second marriage with Imre Thököly, Ilona had three children, all of whom died at a young age (including one she was pregnant with during the siege of Munkács). Legacy Ilona Zrínyi is celebrated in Croatia and Hungary as one of the greatest national heroines, patriots and fighters for freedom, who opposed, although unsuccessfully, the autocracy and absolutism aspirations of the Habsburgs. Her even more famous son Francis II Rákóczi continued the struggle for the independence of Hungary (1703–1711). In October 1906 the remains of the Croatian countess were reinterred with her son's in the St Elisabeth Cathedral in present-day Košice, Slovakia. Honors Postage stamp issued by Hungary on 28 September 1952. See also House of Zrinski Zrinski family tree Zrinski–Frankopan conspiracy Kuruc Rákóczi's War for Independence Wesselényi conspiracy Passage 9: Artaynte Artaynte (f. 478 BC), was the wife of the Crown Prince Darius. Life Daughter of an unnamed woman and Prince Masistes, a marshall of the armies during the invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC, and the brother of King Xerxes I. During the Greek campaign Xerxes developed a passionate desire for the wife of Masistes, but she would constantly resist and would not bend to his will. Upon his return to Sardis, the king endeavoured to bring about the marriage of his son Daris to Artaynte, the daughter of this woman the wife of Masistes, supposing that by doing so he could obtain her more easily. After moving to Susa he brought Artaynte to the royal house with him for his son Daris, but fell in love with her himself, and after obtaining her they became lovers. At the behest of Xerxes, Artaynte committed adultery with him (Xerxes). When queen Amestris found out, she did not seek revenge against Artaynte, but against her mother, Masistes' wife, as Amestris thought that it was her connivance. On Xerxes' birthday, Amestris sent for his guards and mutilated Masistes' wife by cutting off her breasts and threw them to dogs, and her nose and ears and lips also, and cutting out her tongue as well. On seeing this, Masistes fled to Bactria to start a revolt, but was intercepted by Xerxes' army who killed him and his sons. Passage 10: Hafsa Hatun Hafsa Hatun (Ottoman Turkish: حفصه خاتون, "young lioness") was a Turkish princess, and a consort of Bayezid I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Life Hafsa Hatun was the daughter of Isa Bey, the ruler of the Aydinids. She was married to Bayezid in 1390, upon his conquest of the Aydinids. Her father had surrendered without a fight, and a marriage was arranged between her and Bayezid. Thereafter, Isa was sent into exile in Iznik, shorn of his power, where he subsequently died. Her marriage strengthened the bonds between the two families. Charities Hafsa Hatun's public works are located within her father's territory and may have been built before she married Bayezid. She commissioned a fountain in Tire city and a Hermitage in Bademiye, and a mosque known as "Hafsa Hatun Mosque" between 1390 and 1392 from the money she received in her dowry. See also Ottoman dynasty Ottoman Empire
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Who is Sobe (Sister Of Saint Anne)'s grandchild?
Passage 1: Jim Ramel Kjellgren Jim Love Ramel Kjellgren, (born 18 July 1987) is a Swedish actor. He is the son of Lotta Ramel and Johan H:son Kjellgren and the grandchild of Povel Ramel. He is perhaps best known as the character Jonte in the SVT series Eva & Adam, he reprised the role in the film Eva & Adam – fyra födelsedagar och ett fiasko.In 2020, Jim married Bernadette Gisele Hutson, who is French-American. Filmography 1999–2000 – Eva & Adam (TV-series) 2001 – Eva & Adam – fyra födelsedagar och ett fiasko 2001 – Days Like This 2004 – Kyrkogårdsön 2005 – Storm Passage 2: Tulasi (actress) Tulasi (or Tulasi Shivamani) is an Indian actress who primarily works in Telugu, Kannada, and Tamil cinema. She started her career as a child actress. Later she appeared in lead actress and supporting actress roles. She has acted in over 300 films in Telugu, Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam, and Bhojpuri languages. She won two Nandi Awards and one Filmfare Award. Career Tulasi made her debut in the Telugu language when she was three months old in 1967. For a song in a film, a baby was needed and Tulasi was placed in the cradle after actress Savitri had requested Tulasi's mother, who was a friend of her. She was featured in a song when she was three-and-half years old in Jeevanatarangalu and said that she became a full-fledged actor when she was four. She had never been to school.She got married at age 28 to Kannada director Sivamani. She stated, "I met him in the morning and by evening we tied the knot". They have one son, Sai Tarun. Tulasi decided to quit acting after getting married, working only occasionally as a voice actor in Telugu films, including ones by Mani Ratnam. When her son was around six years old, she received several mother character roles. She initially declined them all, but finally signed on one Kannada film, Excuse Me, in which she played mother to Divya Spandana and which became a big hit. After that she was doing three films a year in Kannada. She began to act mainly in mother roles in Telugu and Tamil film industries. Her notable supporting roles include performances in Sasirekha Parinayam, Mr. Perfect, Darling, Srimanthudu, Iddarammayilatho, Nenu Local, Mahanati & Dear Comrade in Telugu and Pillaiyar Theru Kadaisi Veedu, Easan, Mankatha, Sundarapandian, Aadhalal Kadhal Seiveer and Pandiya Naadu in Tamil. Tulasi has said that Aadhalal Kadhal Seiveer, in which she had played mother to Manisha Yadav's character, changed her life and brought her an "identity as a screen mother". Her portrayal of Chellamma in Pannaiyarum Padminiyum was praised too, with critics stating that she was "brilliant", and had given her "career best performance". Partial filmography Awards Nandi AwardsBest Child Actress - Seetamalakshmi (1978) Best Child Actress - Sankarabharanam (1980)Filmfare Awards SouthFilmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress - Kannada - Josh Passage 3: Stokkseyrar-Dísa Thordis Markusdottir (Þórdís Markúsdóttir), known as Stokkseyrar-Dísa (1668–1728), was an Icelandic magician (Galdrmaster). She is known in history for her alleged magical powers. She is the subject of a least ten different folk sagas depicting her experiments within magic or Galdr. Thordis Markusdottir belonged to the elite of the Iceland and was the grandchild of sheriff Torfi Erlendsson of Stafnes and related to Thormodus Torfæus, historian of the King of Denmark. She lived in Stokkseyri, thereby the name Stokkseyrar-Dísa. Some of the sagas around her centers on her magical duels with Eiríkur í Vogsósum. Passage 4: Elizabeth (biblical figure) Elizabeth (also spelled Elisabeth; Hebrew: אֱלִישֶׁבַע / אֱלִישָׁבַע "My God has sworn", Standard Hebrew: Elišévaʿ / Elišávaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew: ʾĔlîšéḇaʿ / ʾĔlîšāḇaʿ; Greek: Ἐλισάβετ Elisabet / Elisavet) was the mother of John the Baptist, the wife of Zechariah, and maternal aunt of Mary, mother of Jesus, according to the Gospel of Luke and in Islamic tradition. She was past normal child-bearing age when she conceived and gave birth to John. Biblical narrative According to the Gospel of Luke chapter 1, Elizabeth was "of the daughters of Aaron". She and her husband Zechariah/Zachariah were "righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless" (1:5–7), but childless. While he was in the temple of the Lord (1:8–12), Zachariah was visited by the angel Gabriel: But the angel said to him: “Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to call him John. He will be a joy and delight to you, and many will rejoice because of his birth, for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He is never to take wine or other fermented drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit even before he is born. Zachariah doubted whereby he could know this since both he and his wife were old. The angel identified himself as Gabriel and told Zachariah that he would be "dumb, and not able to speak" until the words were fulfilled, because he did not believe. When the days of his ministry were complete, he returned to his house (Luke 1:16–23). After this his wife Elizabeth became pregnant and for five months remained in seclusion. “The Lord has done this for me,” she said. “In these days he has shown his favor and taken away my disgrace among the people.” According to the account, the angel Gabriel was then sent to Nazareth in Galilee to her relative Mary, a virgin, betrothed to a man called Joseph, and informed her that she would conceive by the Holy Spirit and bring forth a son to be called Jesus. Mary was also informed that her "relative Elizabeth" had begun her sixth month of pregnancy, and Mary traveled to "a town in the hill country of Judah", to visit Elizabeth (Luke 1:26–40). When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. In a loud voice she exclaimed: "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. But why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? As soon as the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. Blessed is she who has believed that the Lord would fulfill his promises to her!" Matthew Henry comments, "Mary knew that Elizabeth was with child, but it does not appear that Elizabeth had been told anything of her relative Mary's being designed for the mother of the Messiah; and therefore what knowledge she appears to have had of it must have come by a revelation, which would be a great encouragement to Mary." After Mary heard Elizabeth's blessing, she spoke the words now known as the Magnificat (Luke 1:46–55). Mary stayed with Elizabeth for about three months and then returned home.When it was time for Elizabeth to have her baby, she gave birth to a son. Her neighbors and relatives heard that the Lord had shown her great mercy, and they shared her joy.On the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they were going to name him after his father Zechariah, but his mother spoke up and said, “No! He is to be called John.”They said to her, “There is no one among your relatives who has that name.”Then they made signs to his father, to find out what he would like to name the child. He asked for a writing tablet, and to everyone’s astonishment he wrote, “His name is John.” Immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue set free, and he began to speak, praising God. That is the last mention of Elizabeth, who is not mentioned in any other chapter in the Bible. The chapter continues with the prophecy of Zachariah (known as the Benedictus,) and ends with the note that John "grew, and became strong in spirit, and was in the deserts" until his ministry to Israel began; so it is unknown how long Elizabeth and her husband lived after that (Luke 1:65–80). Since the Medieval era, Elizabeth's greeting, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb," has formed the second part of the Hail Mary prayer.A traditional "tomb of Elizabeth" is shown in the Franciscan Monastery of Saint John in the Wilderness near Jerusalem. Apocrypha Elizabeth is mentioned in several books of the Apocrypha, most prominently in the Protevangelion of James, in which the birth of her son, the subsequent murder of her husband, as well as her and John's miraculous escape during the Massacre of the Innocents are chronicled. Sainthood Elizabeth is revered as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church on 5 November, and in the Orthodox and Anglican traditions on 5 September, on the same day with her husband Zacharias/Zechariah. She is commemorated as a matriarch in the Calendar of Saints (5 September) of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and Zacharias is commemorated as a prophet.She is also commemorated on 30 March in Eastern Orthodox Church (Visitation). Islam Elizabeth (Arabic: Isha', daughter of Faqudh), the wife of Zakaria, the mother of Yahya, is an honored woman in Islam. Although Zachariah himself is frequently mentioned by name in the Qur'an, Elizabeth, while not mentioned by name, is referenced. She is revered by Muslims as a wise, pious and believing person who, like her relative Mary, was exalted by God to a high station. She lived in the household of Imran, and is said to have been a descendant of the prophet and priest Harun.Zachariah and his wife were both devout and steadfast in their duties. They were, however, both very old and they had no son. Therefore, Zachariah would frequently pray to God for a son. This was not only out of the desire to have a son but also because the great Jesus wanted someone to carry on the services of the Temple of prayer and to continue the preaching of the Lord's message before his death. God cured Elizabeth's barrenness and granted Zachariah a son, Yahya (John the Baptist), who became a prophet. God thus granted the wishes of the couple because of their faith, trust and love for God. In the Qur'an, God speaks of Zachariah, his wife, and John, and describes the three as being humble servants of the Lord: So We listened to him: and We granted him John: We cured his wife's (Barrenness) for him. These (three) were ever quick in emulation in good works; they used to call on Us with love and reverence, and humble themselves before Us. In Sunni Islamic reports of al-Tabari and al-Masudi, Elizabeth is said to have been a daughter of Imran, and thus, a sister of Mary. Therefore, their children Jesus (Isa) and John (Yahya) are believed to have been cousins. In other accounts, Elizabeth is said to be a daughter of Fakudh, and a sister of Imran's wife Hannah.In Shia hadith she is named Hananah, and is identified as a sister of Mary's mother Hannah. Abu Basir recorded that Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, the great grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, had stated: "Hannah, the wife of Imran, and Hananah, the wife of Zechariah, were sisters. He goes on to say that Mary was born from Hannah and John was born from Hananah. Mary gave birth to Jesus and he was the son of the daughter of John's aunt. John was the son of the aunt of Mary, and the aunt of one's mother is like one's aunt." Mandaeism In Mandaeism, Enišbai (Classical Mandaic: ࡏࡍࡉࡔࡁࡀࡉ, romanized: ʿnišbai) is the Mandaic name for Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist. Enišbai is mentioned in chapters 18, 21, and 32 of the Mandaean Book of John. See also Gospel of Luke Visitation (Catholic feast) Ein Kerem, traditional home town of Elizabeth, Zechariah and John Biblical figures in Islamic tradition Saint Elizabeth, patron saint archive Notes and references This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Hail Mary". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. External links Stained glass depiction of Elizabeth and Zachary, Cathédrale Saint-Etienne de Bourges Passage 5: Sobe (sister of Saint Anne) Sobe, also known as Sovin, was the mother of St. Elizabeth and sister of St. Anne.The Bible records only that Elizabeth was a descendant of Aaron and a cousin (or relative) of Mary. The name of Sobe first appears in writings of about the 7th century by Hippolytus of Thebes, Andrew of Crete, and Epiphanius Monachus, and later in Nicephorus Callistus and Andronicus. All recount essentially the same passage, given by the last two as follows: There were three sisters of Bethlehem, daughters of Matthan the priest, and Mary his wife, under the reign of Cleopatra and Sosipatrus, before the reign of Herod, the son of Antipater: the eldest was Mary, the second was Sobe, the youngest's name was Anne. The eldest being married in Bethlehem, had for daughter Salome the midwife; Sobe the second likewise married in Bethlehem, and was the mother of Elizabeth; last of all the third married in Galilee, and brought forth Mary the mother of Christ. The 19th-century mystic Anne Catherine Emmerich claims that according to her visions (which give a detailed genealogy of Mary), Sobe was a sister of Anne, but the mother of Elizabeth was Emerentia, Sobe and Anne's maternal aunt. See also List of names for the biblical nameless Passage 6: Constance Anne Herschel Constance Anne Herschel (1855 - 1939), later known as Lady Lubbock, was a scientist and mathematician. Herschel held the post of resident lecturer in natural sciences and mathematics at Girton College, Cambridge.She was the child of Sir John Frederick William Herschel, and the grandchild of William Herschel. She wrote a family history of the famous scientific dynasty by compiling family sources, 'The Herschel Chronicle'.She married Sir Neville Lubbock. Passage 7: Albina du Boisrouvray Countess Albina du Boisrouvray (born 1941) is a former journalist and film producer who has become a global philanthropist and social entrepreneur working with AIDS victims and impoverished communities around the world. She is the founder of FXB International, a non-governmental organization established in memory of her son, François-Xavier Bagnoud.Du Boisrouvray is a grandchild of the Bolivian King of Tin, Simón Patiño. She is a second cousin of Prince Rainier of Monaco and godmother to Charlotte Casiraghi, daughter of Princess Caroline of Monaco. Early life and education She is the daughter of Count Guy de Jacquelot du Boisrouvray (1903-1980) and Luz Mila Patiño Rodríguez (1909-1958) (her name is also reported as Luzmila). Her paternal grandmother was born countess Joséphine Marie Louise de Polignac, sister of Prince Pierre, Duke of Valentinois, the maternal grandfather of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco. Her maternal grandfather was Simón Patiño, one of the wealthiest men in the world at the time of her birth.Her father was part of the Free French movement and her family left the country while she was an infant. Du Boisrouvray grew up in New York City and lived at the Plaza Hotel. Her family later moved to Argentina, and du Boisrouvray lived alone in Switzerland, Morocco, England and back to France.Du Boisrouvray attended University of Sorbonne in Paris where she studied psychology and philosophy. Career Du Boisrouvray began her career as a journalist. She worked as a freelance journalist for Le Nouvel Observateur, covering international stories such as the death of Che Guevara. She later co-founded the literary magazine Libre with Juan Goytisolo.In 1978, du Boisrouvray ran as a candidate for the Friends of the Earth party in parliamentary elections.She founded a film production company, Albina Productions, in 1969 and is credited with producing 22 films over a period of 17 years. These films include Pascal Thomas' first film, Les Zozos (1972), L'important c'est d'aimer and Une Femme a sa fenêtre, both of which starred Romy Schneider, and Fort Saganne (1984), directed by Alain Corneau and starring Gérard Depardieu, Catherine Deneuve and Sophie Marceau. Police Python 357 (1976) notably was one of the few films which starred Yves Montand and Simone Signoret, a well-known couple, in the same film. Du Boisrouvray began serving as the chairperson of SEGH, her family's real estate and hotel management group, in 1980. FXB International Following the death of her only child, du Boisrouvray sold three-quarters of her assets including a jewelry collection auctioned by Sotheby's in New York for $31.2 million, an art collection of $20 million, and a substantial part of her family real-estate business which garnered $50 million. The Sotheby's auction was the largest jewelry sale since the Duchess of Windsor's auction. The sale included pre-Columbian gold, jade and other notable pieces accumulated by the noble French family. Du Boisrouvray allocated part of the profits to the FXB Foundation to create programs, including an at home palliative care program for the terminally ill in Switzerland and France, a rescue helicopter control centre in the Swiss Alps, and a professorship at the University of Michigan (her son's alma mater). The rest of the funds were used to found FXB International in memory of her son, François-Xavier Bagnoud, a search-and-rescue pilot who died while serving as a transport pilot in Mali during the Paris-Dakar rally in 1986.Du Boisrouvray founded FXB International is to fight poverty and AIDS, and support orphans and vulnerable children left in the wake of the AIDS pandemic. FXB International offers comprehensive support to the families and communities that care for these children, and advocates for their fundamental rights. The organization has helped over 17 million people from programs in more than 100 countries, with a staff of over 450. Du Boisrouvray broadened its work from supporting children impacted by AIDS to also include all families needing support to emerge from extreme poverty and become self-sufficient through the FXBVillage methodology. In 1991, she developed the FXBVillage Methodology, a community-based, sustainable approach to overcoming the AIDS orphans crisis and extreme poverty. Each FXBVillage supports 80-100 families, comprising approximately 500 individuals, mostly children. Over a three-year period, FXB provides communities with the resources and training needed to become physically, financially and socially independent. According to FXB, the FXBVillage program has graduated over 69,500 participants from eight countries and has over 12,500 current participants.In 1993, du Boisrouvray founded the FXB Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University, the first academic center to focus exclusively on health and human rights. Awards and recognition Du Boisrouvray was made Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in 1985. In 1993, the University of Michigan conferred upon her a "Doctor of Humane Letters Degree," and she was made a "John Harvard Fellow" by Harvard University in 1996. She received a Special Recognition Award for "Responding to the HIV/AIDS Orphan crisis" at the second conference on Global Strategies for the prevention of HIV transmission from mothers to infants in Montreal, in September 1999. In 2001, Harvard students presented her with the "Harvard Project for International Health and Development Award".Her philanthropy and humanitarian efforts earned her a knighthood of the Légion d'Honneur in 2001 for her pioneering work in home palliative care projects. Also in 2001, because of the innovative cost-effective projects that she formulated and directed within FXB, she was selected as a member of the Social Entrepreneurs Group of the Schwab Foundation. This recognition enables the 54 social entrepreneurs of the group to participate in the Davos World Economic Forum and to present and to share their expertise with world business leaders in the civil and public sectors.She was awarded the 2002 North-South Prize by the Council of Europe. In November 2003, du Boisrouvray received the "Lifetime Achievement Award" at the 4th International Conference on AIDS in India, in recognition for the projects that she initiated in the 35 States and Territories of India. In 2007, the French Fédération nationale des Clubs Convergences gave her an award for her activities on behalf of orphans and vulnerable children affected by AIDS in the world. In 2004, Albina received the Thai Komol Keemthong Foundation Award for Outstanding Personality for the year 2004. The award was given in appreciation of her contributions to Thailand and Burma in the fields of protecting children and women's rights, education, vocational training and support of HIV/AIDS-affected children and their families.In April 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy presented du Boisrouvray with the insignia of Officer in l'Ordre National du Mérite. The President honoured Albina and her work, saying "Your NGO is a model throughout the world. You are a woman involved. Your solidarity is exemplary and that is why the Republic will distinguish you." She is the first film producer to be awarded L'Ordre National du Mérite. In June 2009, du Boisrouvray received the BNP Paribas Jury's Special Prize. In 2013, the Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS) awarded du Boisrouvray their KISS Humanitarian Award which recognizes individuals with exceptionally high contribution to society and who have distinguished themselves as humanitarians. Personal life Du Boisrouvray was married twice, first to Swiss aviator Bruno Bagnoud and second to French film producer Georges Casati, whom she divorced in 1982. She met Bagnoud while living in Valais. They were married for four years and had one son together, François-Xavier Bagnoud, born in 1961.She lives in Portugal, near Lisbon, part of the year and has homes in Paris, New York and Switzerland. Passage 8: Diana Weston Diana Weston (born 13 November 1953) is a Canadian-British actress who has been on British television since 1975. She is a grandchild of Charles Basil Price. Biography Career Weston's first role was in a 1975 episode of Thriller, and parts in Raffles, The Sweeney, The Professionals, Agony, Shoestring and Bless Me, Father soon followed. She also appeared in the video for the 1984 Ultravox hit single Dancing with Tears in My Eyes. Since the late 1980s, she has appeared in The New Statesman, Boon, A Bit of a Do, About Face, Nightingales, Jonathan Creek, Casualty, Emmerdale, My Family, New Tricks and a main role in the 2000 sitcom Pay and Display.However, it is for the role of Caroline in the sitcom The Upper Hand that she is best known, starring alongside Joe McGann and Honor Blackman, with the show being produced for ITV from 1990 to 1996. Filmography Film Television Personal life Diana Weston had a long relationship with the actor Robert Lindsay, and they had one daughter, Sydney (born 1988), who has also made television appearances. She and Lindsay separated after he started a relationship with actress/presenter Rosemarie Ford, although she continued to work with him on occasion. Passage 9: Merlin Holland Christopher Merlin Vyvyan Holland (born December 1945) is a British biographer and editor. He is the only grandchild of Oscar Wilde, whose life he has researched and written about extensively. Biography Born in London in December 1945, Christopher Merlin Vyvyan Holland is the son of the author Vyvyan Holland and his second wife, Thelma Besant. He is the only grandchild of Oscar Wilde and Constance Lloyd.His mother Thelma was an Australian cosmetician who became the personal beauty adviser to Queen Elizabeth II for about 10 years from the mid-1940s. His paternal grandmother, Constance, had changed her and her children's surname to Holland (an old family name) in 1895, after Wilde had been convicted of homosexual acts and imprisoned, in order to gain some privacy for the boys and distance from the scandal. Work Holland has studied and researched Wilde's life for more than thirty years. He is the co-editor, with Rupert Hart-Davis, of The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. He is the editor of Irish Peacock and Scarlet Marquess, the first uncensored version of his grandfather's 1895 trials. (The book is titled The Real Trial of Oscar Wilde for release in the US.)Holland has criticised Richard Ellmann's 1987 biography, Oscar Wilde, as inaccurate, particularly his claim that Wilde had syphilis and transmitted it to Constance. According to The Guardian, Holland has "unearthed medical evidence within private family letters, which has enabled a doctor to determine the likely cause of Constance's death. The letters reveal symptoms nowadays associated with multiple sclerosis but apparently wrongly diagnosed by her two doctors. One, an unnamed German 'nerve doctor', resorted to dubious remedies and the other, Luigi Maria Bossi, conducted a botched operation that days later claimed her life."Holland has also written The Wilde Album, a small volume that included hitherto unpublished photographs of Wilde. The book focuses on how the scandal caused by Wilde's trials affected his family, most notably his wife, Constance, and their children, Cyril and Vyvyan. In 2006, his book Oscar Wilde: A Life in Letters was published, and his volume Coffee with Oscar Wilde, an imagined conversation with Wilde, was released in the autumn of 2007. Holland also wrote A Portrait of Oscar Wilde (2008), which reveals Wilde through manuscripts and letters from the Lucia Moreira Salles collection, located at The Morgan Library & Museum in New York City.In addition, Holland has also worked as a wine writer and occasionally written features for Country Life, and The Oldie.In July 2013, Holland gave the keynote address for a symposium on Oscar Wilde presented by The Santa Fe Opera. The address surveyed the popular and critical attitudes towards Wilde and his work from the end of his life to the present day. The symposium was given in conjunction with the opera company's world premiere presentations of Oscar, composed by Theodore Morrison with a libretto written by John Cox and the composer.Holland's play The Trials of Oscar Wilde, co-authored with John O'Connor and re-enacting the 1895 trials of Lord Queensberry for libel and Oscar Wilde for gross indecency, toured the United Kingdom in 2014 in a production by the European Arts Company. Personal life Holland lives in Burgundy, France, with his second wife. His son, Lucian Holland (born 1979 to Merlin's first wife Sarah), studied classics at Magdalen College. He occupied rooms that his great-grandfather Wilde had occupied. He is a computer programmer, living in London.Merlin Holland briefly toyed with the idea of changing his name back to Wilde. He told The New York Times in 1998, “But if I did it, it would have to be not just for Oscar, but for his father and mother, too, for the whole family. It was an extraordinary family before he came along, so if I put the family name back on the map for the right reasons, then it's all right.” Published works 1998 – The Wilde Album 2003 – Irish Peacock and Scarlet Marquess: The Real Trial of Oscar Wilde 2004 – The Real Trial of Oscar Wilde Passage 10: Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain Princess Elizabeth Caroline of Great Britain (10 January 1741 – 4 September 1759) was one of the children of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. She was a granddaughter of King George II and sister of King George III. Life Princess Elizabeth was born at Norfolk House, St James's Square, Westminster. Her father was The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach. Her mother was The Princess of Wales (née Augusta of Saxe-Gotha). She was christened twenty-five days later at Norfolk House, by The Bishop of Oxford, Thomas Secker — her godparents were The Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (her first cousin once-removed by marriage; for whom The Lord Baltimore (Gentleman of the Bedchamber to her father) stood proxy), The Queen of Denmark (for whom Anne, Viscountess Irwin stood proxy) and the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha (her maternal aunt by marriage, for whom Lady Jane Hamilton stood proxy).Little is known of her short life other than a fragment preserved in the Letters of Walpole. We have lost another Princess, Lady Elizabeth. She died of an inflammation in her bowels in two days. Her figure was so very unfortunate, that it would have been difficult for her to be happy, but her parts and application were extraordinary. I saw her act in "Cato" at eight years old, (when she could not stand alone, but was forced to lean against the side-scene,) better than any of her brothers and sisters. She had been so unhealthy, that at that age she had not been taught to read, but had learned the part of Lucia by hearing the others study their parts. She went to her father and mother, and begged she might act. They put her off as gently as they could—she desired leave to repeat her part, and when she did, it was with so much sense, that there was no denying her. She died on 4 September 1759 at Kew Palace, London and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Ancestors See also List of British princesses
[ "John the Baptist" ]
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Where does the director of film Man At Bath work at?
Passage 1: Jason Moore (director) Jason Moore (born October 22, 1970) is an American director of film, theatre and television. Life and career Jason Moore was born in Fayetteville, Arkansas, and studied at Northwestern University. Moore's Broadway career began as a resident director of Les Misérables at the Imperial Theatre in during its original run. He is the son of Fayetteville District Judge Rudy Moore.In March 2003, Moore directed the musical Avenue Q, which opened Off-Broadway at the Vineyard Theatre and then moved to Broadway at the John Golden Theatre in July 2003. He was nominated for a 2004 Tony Award for his direction. Moore also directed productions of the musical in Las Vegas and London and the show's national tour. Moore directed the 2005 Broadway revival of Steel Magnolias and Shrek the Musical, starring Brian d'Arcy James and Sutton Foster which opened on Broadway in 2008. He directed the concert of Jerry Springer — The Opera at Carnegie Hall in January 2008.Moore, Jeff Whitty, Jake Shears, and John "JJ" Garden worked together on a new musical based on Armistead Maupin's Tales of the City. The musical premiered at the American Conservatory Theater, San Francisco, California in May 2011 and ran through July 2011.For television, Moore has directed episodes of Dawson's Creek, One Tree Hill, Everwood, and Brothers & Sisters. As a writer, Moore adapted the play The Floatplane Notebooks with Paul Fitzgerald from the novel by Clyde Edgerton. A staged reading of the play was presented at the New Play Festival at the Charlotte, North Carolina Repertory Theatre in 1996, with a fully staged production in 1998.In 2012, Moore made his film directorial debut with Pitch Perfect, starring Anna Kendrick and Brittany Snow. He also served as an executive producer on the sequel. He directed the film Sisters, starring Tina Fey and Amy Poehler, which was released on December 18, 2015. Moore's next project will be directing a live action Archie movie. Filmography Films Pitch Perfect (2012) Sisters (2015) Shotgun Wedding (2022)Television Soundtrack writer Pitch Perfect 2 (2015) (Also executive producer) The Voice (2015) (1 episode) Passage 2: Man at the Top (film) Man at the Top is a 1973 British drama film directed by Mike Vardy and starring Kenneth Haigh, spun off from the television series Man at the Top, which itself was inspired by the 1959 film Room at the Top and its 1965 sequel Life at the Top. Plot Joe Lampton is promoted to managing director of a pharmaceutical company, and becomes involved with Lord Ackerman, the powerful chairman, who is also his father-in-law. But Joe makes a shocking discovery: his predecessor committed suicide because of his involvement in a drug that left 1,000 African women sterile. Joe threatens to reveal all to the press, while Lord Ackerman seeks to persuade him otherwise, by offering him promotion to Chief Executive. Cast Kenneth Haigh as Joe Lampton Nanette Newman as Lady Alex Ackerman Harry Andrews as Lord Ackerman William Lucas as Marshall Clive Swift as Massey Paul Williamson as Tarrant John Collin as Wisbech John Quentin as Digby Danny Sewell as Weston Charlie Williams as George Harvey Anne Cunningham as Mrs. Harvey Angela Bruce as Joyce Margaret Heald as Eileen Mary Maude as Robin Ackerman Norma West as Sarah Tarrant John Conteh as Boxer Production Filming Shooting took place from 3 March to 7 April 1973. Reception Box office The film was not a success at the box office. Critical reception Monthly Film Bulletin said it was "too much like an episode of a TV series stretched to feature length"."Network on Air" noted the film as, "offering a grittier treatment than the 1959 film adaptation and the subsequent television series".Allmovie noted, " Nanette Newman, a busy doe-eyed ingenue of the 1960s, is quietly effective as the middle-aged Mrs. Lampton." Passage 3: Dana Blankstein Dana Blankstein-Cohen (born March 3, 1981) is the executive director of the Sam Spiegel Film and Television School. She was appointed by the board of directors in November 2019. Previously she was the CEO of the Israeli Academy of Film and Television. She is a film director, and an Israeli culture entrepreneur. Biography Dana Blankstein was born in Switzerland in 1981 to theatre director Dedi Baron and Professor Alexander Blankstein. She moved to Israel in 1983 and grew up in Tel Aviv. Blankstein graduated from the Sam Spiegel Film and Television School, Jerusalem in 2008 with high honors. During her studies she worked as a personal assistant to directors Savi Gabizon on his film Nina's Tragedies and to Renen Schorr on his film The Loners. She also directed and shot 'the making of' film on Gavison's film Lost and Found. Her debut film Camping competed at the Berlin International Film Festival, 2007. Film and academic career After her studies, Dana founded and directed the film and television department at the Kfar Saba municipality. The department encouraged and promoted productions filmed in the city of Kfar Saba, as well as the established cultural projects, and educational community activities. Blankstein directed the mini-series "Tel Aviviot" (2012). From 2016-2019 was the director of the Israeli Academy of Film and Television. In November 2019 Dana Blankstein Cohen was appointed the new director of the Sam Spiegel Film and Television School where she also oversees the Sam Spiegel International Film Lab. In 2022, she spearheaded the launch of the new Series Lab and the film preparatory program for Arabic speakers in east Jerusalem. Filmography Tel Aviviot (mini-series; director, 2012) Growing Pains (graduation film, Sam Spiegel; director and screenwriter, 2008) Camping (debut film, Sam Spiegel; director and screenwriter, 2006) Passage 4: Peter Levin Peter Levin is an American director of film, television and theatre. Career Since 1967, Levin has amassed a large number of credits directing episodic television and television films. Some of his television series credits include Love Is a Many Splendored Thing, James at 15, The Paper Chase, Family, Starsky & Hutch, Lou Grant, Fame, Cagney & Lacey, Law & Order and Judging Amy.Some of his television film credits include Rape and Marriage: The Rideout Case (1980), A Reason to Live (1985), Popeye Doyle (1986), A Killer Among Us (1990), Queen Sized (2008) and among other films. He directed "Heart in Hiding", written by his wife Audrey Davis Levin, for which she received an Emmy for Best Day Time Special in the 1970s. Prior to becoming a director, Levin worked as an actor in several Broadway productions. He costarred with Susan Strasberg in "[The Diary of Ann Frank]" but had to leave the production when he was drafted into the Army. He trained at the Carnegie Mellon University. Eventually becoming a theatre director, he directed productions at the Long Wharf Theatre and the Pacific Resident Theatre Company. He also co-founded the off-off-Broadway Theatre [the Hardware Poets Playhouse] with his wife Audrey Davis Levin and was also an associate artist of The Interact Theatre Company. Passage 5: Brian Kennedy (gallery director) Brian Patrick Kennedy (born 5 November 1961) is an Irish-born art museum director who has worked in Ireland and Australia, and now lives and works in the United States. He was the director of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem for 17 months, resigning December 31, 2020. He was the director of the Toledo Museum of Art in Ohio from 2010 to 2019. He was the director of the Hood Museum of Art from 2005 to 2010, and the National Gallery of Australia (Canberra) from 1997 to 2004. Career Brian Kennedy currently lives and works in the United States after leaving Australia in 2005 to direct the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College. In October 2010 he became the ninth Director of the Toledo Museum of Art. On 1 July 2019, he succeeded Dan Monroe as the executive director and CEO of the Peabody Essex Museum. Early life and career in Ireland Kennedy was born in Dublin and attended Clonkeen College. He received B.A. (1982), M.A. (1985) and PhD (1989) degrees from University College-Dublin, where he studied both art history and history. He worked in the Irish Department of Education (1982), the European Commission, Brussels (1983), and in Ireland at the Chester Beatty Library (1983–85), Government Publications Office (1985–86), and Department of Finance (1986–89). He married Mary Fiona Carlin in 1988.He was Assistant Director at the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin from 1989 to 1997. He was Chair of the Irish Association of Art Historians from 1996 to 1997, and of the Council of Australian Art Museum Directors from 2001 to 2003. In September 1997 he became Director of the National Gallery of Australia. National Gallery of Australia (NGA) Kennedy expanded the traveling exhibitions and loans program throughout Australia, arranged for several major shows of Australian art abroad, increased the number of exhibitions at the museum itself and oversaw the development of an extensive multi-media site. Although he oversaw several years of the museum's highest ever annual visitation, he discontinued the emphasis of his predecessor, Betty Churcher, on showing "blockbuster" exhibitions. During his directorship, the NGA gained government support for improving the building and significant private donations and corporate sponsorship. However, the initial design for the building proved controversial generating a public dispute with the original architect on moral rights grounds. As a result, the project was not delivered during Dr Kennedy's tenure, with a significantly altered design completed some years later. Private funding supported two acquisitions of British art, including David Hockney's A Bigger Grand Canyon in 1999, and Lucian Freud's After Cézanne in 2001. Kennedy built on the established collections at the museum by acquiring the Holmgren-Spertus collection of Indonesian textiles; the Kenneth Tyler collection of editioned prints, screens, multiples and unique proofs; and the Australian Print Workshop Archive. He was also notable for campaigning for the construction of a new "front" entrance to the Gallery, facing King Edward Terrace, which was completed in 2010 (see reference to the building project above). Kennedy's cancellation of the "Sensation exhibition" (scheduled at the NGA from 2 June 2000 to 13 August 2000) was controversial, and seen by some as censorship. He claimed that the decision was due to the exhibition being "too close to the market" implying that a national cultural institution cannot exhibit the private collection of a speculative art investor. However, there were other exhibitions at the NGA during his tenure, which could have raised similar concerns. The exhibition featured the privately owned Young British Artists works belonging to Charles Saatchi and attracted large attendances in London and Brooklyn. Its most controversial work was Chris Ofili's The Holy Virgin Mary, a painting which used elephant dung and was accused of being blasphemous. The then-mayor of New York, Rudolph Giuliani, campaigned against the exhibition, claiming it was "Catholic-bashing" and an "aggressive, vicious, disgusting attack on religion." In November 1999, Kennedy cancelled the exhibition and stated that the events in New York had "obscured discussion of the artistic merit of the works of art". He has said that it "was the toughest decision of my professional life, so far."Kennedy was also repeatedly questioned on his management of a range of issues during the Australian Government's Senate Estimates process - particularly on the NGA's occupational health and safety record and concerns about the NGA's twenty-year-old air-conditioning system. The air-conditioning was finally renovated in 2003. Kennedy announced in 2002 that he would not seek extension of his contract beyond 2004, accepting a seven-year term as had his two predecessors.He became a joint Irish-Australian citizen in 2003. Toledo Museum of Art The Toledo Museum of Art is known for its exceptional collections of European and American paintings and sculpture, glass, antiquities, artist books, Japanese prints and netsuke. The museum offers free admission and is recognized for its historical leadership in the field of art education. During his tenure, Kennedy has focused the museum's art education efforts on visual literacy, which he defines as "learning to read, understand and write visual language." Initiatives have included baby and toddler tours, specialized training for all staff, docents, volunteers and the launch of a website, www.vislit.org. In November 2014, the museum hosted the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) conference, the first Museum to do so. Kennedy has been a frequent speaker on the topic, including 2010 and 2013 TEDx talks on visual and sensory literacy. Kennedy has expressed an interest in expanding the museum's collection of contemporary art and art by indigenous peoples. Works by Frank Stella, Sean Scully, Jaume Plensa, Ravinder Reddy and Mary Sibande have been acquired. In addition, the museum has made major acquisitions of Old Master paintings by Frans Hals and Luca Giordano.During his tenure the Toledo Museum of Art has announced the return of several objects from its collection due to claims the objects were stolen and/or illegally exported prior being sold to the museum. In 2011 a Meissen sweetmeat stand was returned to Germany followed by an Etruscan Kalpis or water jug to Italy (2013), an Indian sculpture of Ganesha (2014) and an astrological compendium to Germany in 2015. Hood Museum of Art Kennedy became Director of the Hood Museum of Art in July 2005. During his tenure, he implemented a series of large and small-scale exhibitions and oversaw the production of more than 20 publications to bring greater public attention to the museum's remarkable collections of the arts of America, Europe, Africa, Papua New Guinea and the Polar regions. At 70,000 objects, the Hood has one of the largest collections on any American college of university campus. The exhibition, Black Womanhood: Images, Icons, and Ideologies of the African Body, toured several US venues. Kennedy increased campus curricular use of works of art, with thousands of objects pulled from storage for classes annually. Numerous acquisitions were made with the museum's generous endowments, and he curated several exhibitions: including Wenda Gu: Forest of Stone Steles: Retranslation and Rewriting Tang Dynasty Poetry, Sean Scully: The Art of the Stripe, and Frank Stella: Irregular Polygons. Publications Kennedy has written or edited a number of books on art, including: Alfred Chester Beatty and Ireland 1950-1968: A study in cultural politics, Glendale Press (1988), ISBN 978-0-907606-49-9 Dreams and responsibilities: The state and arts in independent Ireland, Arts Council of Ireland (1990), ISBN 978-0-906627-32-7 Jack B Yeats: Jack Butler Yeats, 1871-1957 (Lives of Irish Artists), Unipub (October 1991), ISBN 978-0-948524-24-0 The Anatomy Lesson: Art and Medicine (with Davis Coakley), National Gallery of Ireland (January 1992), ISBN 978-0-903162-65-4 Ireland: Art into History (with Raymond Gillespie), Roberts Rinehart Publishers (1994), ISBN 978-1-57098-005-3 Irish Painting, Roberts Rinehart Publishers (November 1997), ISBN 978-1-86059-059-7 Sean Scully: The Art of the Stripe, Hood Museum of Art (October 2008), ISBN 978-0-944722-34-3 Frank Stella: Irregular Polygons, 1965-1966, Hood Museum of Art (October 2010), ISBN 978-0-944722-39-8 Honors and achievements Kennedy was awarded the Australian Centenary Medal in 2001 for service to Australian Society and its art. He is a trustee and treasurer of the Association of Art Museum Directors, a peer reviewer for the American Association of Museums and a member of the International Association of Art Critics. In 2013 he was appointed inaugural eminent professor at the University of Toledo and received an honorary doctorate from Lourdes University. Most recently, Kennedy received the 2014 Northwest Region, Ohio Art Education Association award for distinguished educator for art education. == Notes == Passage 6: Ian Barry (director) Ian Barry is an Australian director of film and TV. Select credits Waiting for Lucas (1973) (short) Stone (1974) (editor only) The Chain Reaction (1980) Whose Baby? (1986) (mini-series) Minnamurra (1989) Bodysurfer (1989) (mini-series) Ring of Scorpio (1990) (mini-series) Crimebroker (1993) Inferno (1998) (TV movie) Miss Lettie and Me (2002) (TV movie) Not Quite Hollywood: The Wild, Untold Story of Ozploitation! (2008) (documentary) The Doctor Blake Mysteries (2013) Passage 7: Christophe Honoré Christophe Honoré (born 10 April 1970) is a French writer and film and theatre director. Career Honoré was born in Carhaix, Finistère. After moving to Paris in 1995, he wrote articles in Les Cahiers du Cinéma. He started writing soon after. His 1996 book Tout contre Léo (Close to Leo) talks about HIV and is aimed at young adults; he made it into a film in 2002. He wrote other books for young adults throughout the late 1990s. His first play, Les Débutantes, was performed at Avignon's Off Festival in 1998. In 2005, he returned to Avignon to present Dionysos impuissant in the "In" Festival, with Joana Preiss and Louis Garrel playing the leads. A well-known director, he is considered an "auteur" in French cinema. His 2006 film Dans Paris has led him to be considered by French critics as the heir to the Nouvelle Vague cinema. In 2007, Les Chansons d'amour was one of the films selected to be in competition at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. Honoré is openly gay, and some of his movies or screenplays (among them Les Filles ne savent pas nager, Dix-sept fois Cécile Cassard and Les Chansons d'amour) deal with gay or lesbian relations. His film Plaire, aimer et courir vite (Sorry Angel), about a writer who has contracted HIV in the 1990s, won the Louis Delluc Prize for Best Film in 2018. Honoré has been the screenwriter for some of Gaël Morel's films. The actors Louis Garrel and Chiara Mastroianni have each had roles in several of his films. Honoré has also directed several operas for the stage. For the Opéra de Lyon he directed Poulenc's Dialogues of the Carmelites in 2013, Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande in 2015, and Verdi's Don Carlos in 2018. He also presented his production of Mozart's Così fan tutte at the Aix-en-Provence Festival and the Edinburgh Festival in 2016, and Puccini's Tosca at Aix-en-Provence in 2019; both of these productions adopted a radical approach to traditional works.In the summer of 2020 Honoré's rehearsals of his stage production of Le Côté de Guermantes, based on the third volume of Proust's In Search of Lost Time, were interrupted by restrictions to combat the COVID-19 epidemic and it became impossible to present it at the Comédie-Française as planned. With his troupe of actors he decided to make a film about the production and the uncertainties they were now facing, and the film Guermantes was released in September 2021. Filmography Novels 1995 : Tout contre Léo (jeunesse), turned into a film in 2002 1996 : C'est plus fort que moi (jeunesse) 1997 : Je joue très bien tout seul (jeunesse) 1997 : L'Affaire petit Marcel (jeunesse) 1997 : L’Infamille (Éditions de l'Olivier, ISBN 2-87929-143-7) 1998 : Zéro de lecture (jeunesse) 1998 : Une toute petite histoire d'amour (jeunesse) 1998 : Je ne suis pas une fille à papa (jeunesse) 1999 : Les Nuits où personne ne dort (jeunesse) 1999 : Mon cœur bouleversé (jeunesse) 1999 : Bretonneries (jeunesse) 1999 : La Douceur (Éditions de L'Olivier, ISBN 2-87929-236-0) Theatre and opera Actor 1998: Les Débutantes 2001: Le Pire du troupeau 2004: Beautiful Guys 2005: Dionysos impuissant 2012: La Faculté 2012: Un jeune se tue 2012: Nouveau Roman 2015: Violentes femmes Director 2009 : Angelo, Tyrant of Padua by Victor Hugo, Festival d'Avignon 2012 : Nouveau Roman, Festival d'Avignon, Théâtre national de la Colline 2013 : Dialogues of the Carmelites by Francis Poulenc, Opéra National de Lyon 2015 : Fin de l'Histoire by Witold Gombrowicz, Théâtre de Lorient 2015 : Pelléas et Mélisande by Claude Debussy, Opéra National de Lyon 2016 : Così fan tutte by Mozart, Aix-en-Provence Festival and Edinburgh International Festival 2018 : Don Carlos by Verdi, Opéra National de Lyon 2019 : Les Idoles by Christophe Honoré, Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe 2019 : Tosca by Puccini, Aix-en-Provence Festival Passage 8: Man at Bath Man at Bath (French: Homme au bain) is a 2010 French film by Christophe Honoré starring François Sagat and Chiara Mastroianni. The film premiered in competition at Locarno International Film Festival in Switzerland in 2010 and was released in cinemas on 22 September 2010. This is gay pornographic actor François Sagat's second major role in general release non-pornographic film as Emmanuel after his role in L.A. Zombie. Director Christopher Honoré told French gay website Yagg.com that he was interested in Sagat because he "redefines the notion of masculinity". Sagat was the only actor to feature in two competition entries during the festival. Plot Right before departing to New York colleges to promote his latest collaborations, Omar (Omar Ben Sellem) goes through yet another impulsive fit from his boyfriend Emmanuel (François Sagat), resulting in rape. Resentful, Omar demands Emmanuel to be gone from his flat located in the outskirts of Paris before his return, and leaves. The two set out to live a separate series of vignettes depicting the ways the former lovers' mourn for each other. Being a lustful, aspiring filmmaker, Omar sees his touring in upper New York as an opportunity to finally forget Emmanuel, indulging instead in disjointed recordings of his travel. Soon after, his camera work is centered on Dustin (Dustin Segura-Suarez): a young college student who is on vacation from Canada. Omar eagerly befriends and later seduces Dustin, openly portraying their desire for each other on film with an amateurish academic intent. In a matter of days, the artistic intentions in Omar's house movie devolve into a bisexual experience including Omar's professor. Back in Paris, an animalistic Emmanuel - used to take pride on the universal praise for his body - is left broke and in denial. He resorts instead to shelter himself in Omar's place, living as carefree days as he can muster. Emmanuel goes from demanding unsolicited attentions from an upstairs neighbor who also is one of his clients as a hustler (Dennis Cooper), to hosting sexual encounters with Omar's acquaintances. All without avoiding his growing yearning for the better days with his ex, not even after luring an Omar's look-alike (Sebastian D'Azeglio) back into the apartment. After an intermission in which Emmanuel is confronted with his own collapsing lack of emotionality, he then clumsily refuses the advances of an underage boy who claims to be in need (Andréas Leflamand), nor engages in a bisexual threesome in exchange for a tip he reluctantly accepts from a successful old friend (Kate Moran). The next day, Emmanuel begrudgingly succumbs to the advances from a teenager (Rabah Zahi), and uses the opportunity to sexually lash out on the boy. Finally, shortly before Omar's return, Emmanuel cries over the improvised mural he started days earlier on one of the walls in the apartment. Not long after, Omar enters back into his apartment, stopping to contemplate the finished mural drawn by Emmanuel, who is nowhere to be seen. Cast François Sagat as Emmanuel Chiara Mastroianni as Actress Rabah Zahi as Rabah Omar Ben Sellem as Omar Kate Moran as Kate Lahcen el Mazouzi as Hicham Andréas Leflamand as Andréas Ronald Piwele as Ronald Sebastian D'Azeglio as Man with a moustache Sébastien Pouderoux as Kate's fiancé Dennis Cooper as Robin Dustin Segura-Suarez Passage 9: Paul Scheuring Paul T. Scheuring (born November 20, 1968) is an American screenwriter and director of films and television shows. His work includes the 2003 film A Man Apart and the creation of the television drama Prison Break, for which he was also credited as an executive producer and head writer. Early life Scheuring was born in Aurora, Illinois. Before his success, he had attended the UCLA School of Theater Film and Television and has worked as a courier cable installer and factory worker. Career After working on 36K in 2000 and A Man Apart in 2003, Scheuring made his first attempt to be a television show writer. After developing an idea given to him by a female colleague into a miniseries screenplay called Prison Break, he approached the Fox network with the script but was turned down due to its unconventional storyline. However, in 2004, after the successful premiere of Lost, Fox backed Prison Break's production and the first episode was aired approximately twenty months after Scheuring had written the script. The series proceeded to win the 2006 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama and was nominated for Best Drama Television Series at the 2006 Golden Globe Awards. Moreover, Prison Break was picked up by Fox for three more seasons. In 2005, he signed an overall deal with 20th Century Fox. He runs a production company, One Light Road Productions.Scheuring has also co-written Mexicali, which was scheduled for release in 2010. Future projects Following the completion of Prison Break, Scheuring began production of AR2, a drama co-developed with The West Wing director/exec producer Thomas Schlamme. The series is about a group of Midwestern youths who spark a second American Revolution. AR2 will explore how the revolting college students -- as well as the military and the law enforcement officers who oppose them -- perceive patriotism. Scheuring lessened his work on Fox's Prison Break to focus on development and features through his Mercator Pictures, which he operates with partner Matt Fiorello. He has also produced Masterwork, a drama pilot script for Fox and 20th TV, and the Inferno-produced feature The Experiment. Scheuring was also confirmed to be the writer for Halo: Nightfall. A 5 episode series which is based upon the video game franchise connecting the story line between Halo 4 and Halo 5: Guardians Filmography Passage 10: Olav Aaraas Olav Aaraas (born 10 July 1950) is a Norwegian historian and museum director. He was born in Fredrikstad. From 1982 to 1993 he was the director of Sogn Folk Museum, from 1993 to 2010 he was the director of Maihaugen and from 2001 he has been the director of the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History. In 2010 he was decorated with the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav.
[ "Cahiers du cinéma" ]
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Do both Beauty And The Bad Man and Wild Child (Film) films have the directors from the same country?
Passage 1: Betty Hall Beatrice Perin Barker Hall (March 18, 1921 – April 26, 2018) was an American politician from the state of New Hampshire. Hall served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives for a total of 28 years, serving non-consecutively from 1970 until 2008. Hall grew up in New York City, where she attended Barnard College. In 1948, she and her husband moved to the town of Brookline, New Hampshire, where they started a textile manufacturing firm. Beginning in the 1950s and early 1960s, Hall began participating in local politics, serving on several boards and commissions in Brookline. Hall was elected to the Brookline school board in 1963, and in 1972, she was elected to the town board of selectmen. Hall's career in statewide politics began in 1970 when she was elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives as a member of the Republican Party. In 1986, Hall switched her party affiliation to the Democratic Party, citing the Republican Party's shift towards conservatism during the Reagan Era. During her political career, Hall was described as a firebrand who frequently bucked her party. While a Republican, Hall was seen as a liberal member of that party, and was considered to be a political enemy by conservative leaders. In the Democratic Party, Hall was a member of the grassroots base, challenging the party's establishment in a 2007 campaign for chairman of the New Hampshire Democratic Party. In the 2000s, Hall became nationally known for her activism. In 2004, she was arrested for disorderly conduct for her participation in a protest against President George W. Bush; she was later acquitted of the charge. In 2008, Hall introduced New Hampshire House Resolution 24, which would have petitioned the United States Congress to introduce articles to impeach President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney for their actions leading to and during the Iraq War. While the bill ultimately failed, it generated a large amount of media coverage. Pre-political life and career Early life and education Beatrice Perin Barker was born on March 18, 1921, in Koblenz, Germany, where her father Joseph Warren Barker, a United States Army officer, served as the administrator of a military district following World War I. After leaving the military, Barker's father completed his education in engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, receiving an academic position at the institution. He later became the Dean of Engineering at Columbia University, and she primarily grew up in New York City. This led to Barker's entry into academia, as her father's position at Columbia University brought prominent scientists such as Enrico Fermi and Harold Urey to their home for dinner where Barker would serve as a hostess. In 1937, her mother Mary died when Barker was 16.Barker attended the Horace Mann School and later studied engineering at Barnard College. Barker would later do graduate work at the University of New Hampshire, Boston University, and the College of the Holy Cross. Family and career After graduating from Barnard College in 1943, Barker worked as an engineer at Western Electric. During World War II, she helped manufacture vacuum tubes for radar equipment, and her father served as a special assistant to Frank Knox, the United States Secretary of the Navy.On May 27, 1944, she married Sidney Leavitt Hall, an engineer from Concord, New Hampshire, leaving her job at Western Electric to join her husband in Ohio, where he was undergoing training with the United States Air Force in order to fight in World War II. However, the war ended before he was sent overseas, and in 1948, the couple moved to Brookline, New Hampshire, a town of 800 people in Hillsborough County. Hall's grandmother, Florence Hobart Perin, was a resident of Brookline, and Hall had frequently visited and spent several summers in the town during her youth. Sidney Hall initially worked at Textron, and in 1951, the couple started a textile manufacturing firm called Hall Manufacturing Company, which was informally known as Hall Tote Bags. The company produced stitching for dry-cleaners, as well as steam air covers for dry-cleaning machines. Later, the company became locally famous for the tote bags they produced, as well as other stitched products. Hall and her husband were members of the local Church of Christ, and she was credited with uniting the Brookline Methodist and Congregationalist churches into one single church.In 1957, Hall received a fellowship from the National Science Foundation. Hall served as the assistant manager for Hall Manufacturing Co. until 1962, whereupon she became a science and mathematics teacher in Groton, Massachusetts. Hall transferred to Fairgrounds Junior High School in Nashua, New Hampshire, in 1964, and taught mathematics there until 1972. In 1968, Hall was awarded a grant by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement in order to start an experimental "Mathematics Learning Laboratory" at her school. She had also been invited to academic conferences, such as the Advanced Modern Math Institute, which was sponsored by Science Research Associates.Sidney Hall died in 1987 at the age of 66. Hall and her husband had 4 sons and 1 daughter. One of their sons, Sidney Hall Jr., is a locally-known author. Following her husband's death, Hall solely ran Hall Manufacturing Co., and the company was featured in a White House symposium on small businesses in 1994. Hall Manufacturing Co. closed in 2001. Early political career Local politics During the 1950s and 1960s, Hall became very active in local politics, serving on numerous boards and committees in Brookline, including the board of assessors and the town finance committee. In 1961, Hall was defeated in an election for Brookline library trustee. In 1963, Hall was elected unopposed to the Brookline school board. She was re-elected in 1966, defeating future state representative Eben Bartlett and another candidate. In 1969, Hall was re-elected for her third and final term on the school board. She served as the chairman of the school board from 1964 until 1968 and again in 1971. She served a total of 9 years on the school board.In 1967, Hall ran for the Brookline board of selectmen; however, she was defeated by Walter W. Frost, receiving 138 votes to Frost's 152. In 1972, Hall served as the chairman of the Brookline Republican Town Committee. Later that year, Hall again ran for the Brookline board of selectmen to succeed the retiring Grover C. Farwell, defeating two candidates to win a three-year term as selectman. Following her election to the board of selectmen, Hall did not seek another term for the school board and resigned as a teacher. In 1974, Hall served as the chairman of the board of selectmen. Early 1970s In 1970, Hall ran for the New Hampshire House of Representatives in Hillsborough County's 13th district as a member of the Republican Party. Hall had decided to run for state office because she "realized she was not accomplishing what she wanted to" in local office. She was recruited to run by Governor Walter R. Peterson Jr. Hall and fellow Republican Daniel Brocklebank were elected with 43% and 41% of the vote, respectively. In 1972, Hall ran for re-election in Hillsborough County's 12th district, and was elected unopposed alongside fellow Republican Jack Boyd. During the 1970s, Hall held multiple positions in the local Republican Party, serving as a member of the Republican state committee the Hillsborough County Republican Party Executive Committee. 1974 state senate campaign In 1974, Hall ran for the 12th district of the New Hampshire Senate, running to replace retiring Republican incumbent Frederick A. Porter. In the Republican primary, Hall faced fellow state representative D. Alan Rock, as well as Milford town selectman Frederic Fletcher, a former state senator and former member of the Executive Council. During the primary, Hall campaigned via bicycle, cycling a total of 1,000 miles through the 26 towns in the district. Hall won the primary election, narrowly defeating Rock. Despite Hall placing second in her hometown of Brookline and only winning two towns, Amherst and Hollis, both towns gave her large margins. Additionally, she placed second in nearly every other town in the district, offsetting the large margin by which Rock won in Nashua. Official sources conflict on the final vote tally: the New Hampshire General Court officially reported that Hall received 1,544 votes, Rock received 1,485 votes, and Fletcher received 1,198 votes, giving Hall a winning margin of just 59 votes. However, a recount found that the margin was actually 114 votes in favor of Hall, with the town of Amherst alone overcounting 50 ballots in favor of Rock; however, the results of the recount are not officially recorded. Hall's campaign expenditure for the primary was $1,470.While there was no official Democratic Party candidate running in the heavily Republican district, both Hall and Rock also contested the Democratic primary as write-in candidates. Rock won the Democratic write-in nomination, with official sources again conflicting on the tally: the New Hampshire General Court reported that Rock received 72 votes to Hall's 71, a margin of just one vote, while a recount reportedly increased Rock's margin to 3 votes.During the general election campaign, Rock was heavily supported by William Loeb III, the publisher of the Manchester Union Leader, an influential conservative newspaper. Rock frequently used the newspaper's front page to promote his campaign. While Hall was endorsed by the Nashua Telegraph, her campaign did not have the media capabilities that Rock's did, and Rock ultimately won the general election, defeating Hall by a margin of 53% to 47%. Judd Gregg, then the chairman of the Nashua Republican Party, alleged that the party's campaign literature had been tampered with; specifically, Gregg alleged that an individual had switched out Hall's campaign literature from several envelopes and replaced it with Rock's campaign literature before they were sent out to voters in Nashua. However, Hall stated that she did not believe the incident had influenced the end result of the election. Hall was succeeded in the state house by Republican Dorothy Foss Colson. Late 1970s and early 1980s In 1975, Hall became the chairman of the New Hampshire branch of Common Cause, a lobbying group that opposes corruption and promotes campaign finance reform. In this role, Hall advocated for good government. In the 1976 presidential election, Hall criticized Republican candidate Ronald Reagan and independent candidate Eugene McCarthy for being the only two major candidates who had not agreed to the campaign standards proposed by Common Cause. She later criticized all the presidential candidates for not discussing the costs of the programs they propose. Hall left the position in September 1977.In 1978, Hall was elected back to the New Hampshire House of Representatives for Hillsborough County's 12th district. Hall and fellow Republican Eliot B. Ware won with 36% and 31% of the vote. Hall and Ware were re-elected unopposed in 1980.In November 1980, Rock, who had still serving as the state senator for the 12th district, died of cancer just three days after winning re-election. Hall was one of four candidates vying for the Republican nomination for the February 1981 special election; instead of being elected in a primary election, the party nominee was instead to be selected by delegates of the Hillsborough County Republican Party. Hall's campaign for the nomination was heavily opposed by Robert B. Monier, the influential Republican president of the New Hampshire Senate, who viewed Hall as a political opponent. Monier instead supported John Stabile, a Nashua businessman and the New Hampshire campaign chair for John Connally's 1980 presidential campaign. The other Republican candidates were state representatives Joanne Head, Philip Labombarde, and Emma Wheeler. Despite an initial convention ending in deadlock, with 9 delegates voting for Hall and the other 9 for Stabile, the party reconvened and ultimately selected Stabile to be the Republican nominee. Stabile would go on to defeat Democratic state representative Selma Pastor and independent candidate Mark Knox, a Nashua alderman, in the special election.In 1982, Hall ran for the 11th district of the New Hampshire Senate to replace retiring Republican incumbent Arthur Mann. Hall placed third in the Republican primary, losing to fellow state representative Jean T. White; Hall received 29% of the vote, while White received 40%. The second-place candidate, state representative Richard Amidon, received 31% of the vote. However, Hall won the Democratic nomination as a write-in candidate, receiving 199 votes compared to White's 81 and Amidon's 55. Hall was defeated by White in the general election, receiving 4,668 votes to White's 6,632. Party switch and later political career Late 1980s and 1990s In 1986, Hall switched to the Democratic Party, citing the Republican Party's shift towards conservatism. That year, Hall ran as a Democrat for the state house in Hillsborough County's 16th district. Hall defeated incumbent Republican state representative Barbara Fried, who had been facing charges of embezzlement after it was revealed she used her position as Greenville town clerk to embezzle $10,000 in fees. Hall received 642 votes, while Fried received 555. Hall was narrowly re-elected in 1988, defeating Republican candidate Shirley A. Morley by just 54 votes out of 2,274 cast. Hall was re-elected in 1990, defeating former Republican state representative Webster E. Bridges, 56% to 44%.In 1992, Hall ran for re-election in Hillsborough County's 20th district. Hall and Republican Thomas I. Arnold were elected, receiving 1,488 votes and 1,384 votes, respectively. Hall and Arnold had previously served together on the Brookline school board in the 1960s, where Arnold was the school board's moderator. The two were re-elected unopposed in 1994. In 1996, they were again re-elected, with Hall receiving 46% of the vote and Arnold receiving 36%. In 1996, Hall served as the chairman of the Hillsborough County Democratic Party. In 1998, Hall and Arnold were again re-elected. Arnold received 1,063 votes, while Hall received 1,001.Hall was an early supporter of Bill Clinton in the 1992 United States presidential election, and was a delegate for Clinton at the 1996 Democratic Party convention. Hall also praised Richard Lugar during the 1996 Republican Party presidential primaries, supporting his tax policy and stating that he seemed honest. 2000s In 2000, Hall and Arnold were re-elected unopposed. In 2002, Hall ran for re-election in Hillsborough County's 46th district. However, Hall was defeated in the general election, placing fifth with 12% of the vote.In 2004, Hall was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct at a protest against President George W. Bush in Nashua. Hall, who was 83 at the time, was sitting in a chair outside the designated area for protestors, and was close to the presidential motorcade route. Hall was also holding a sign that said, "Bush is bad for America". After Hall refused to move, three police officers picked Hall up, "chair, cane, and all", carrying her away and arresting her. A photographer captured the arrest, and the incident became national news. Hall was acquitted in September 2004 after Nashua District Court judge Clifford Kinghorn ruled that the evidence provided did not fit the charge of disorderly conduct; Kinghorn stated that "the police had no authority under state law to make Hall move because she wasn't getting in their way". Hall also explained that she had originally written the law that was being applied to her case.Later in 2004, Hall ran again for the state house for Hillsborough County's 5th district. Hall won, placing fourth with 13% of the vote. In the 2004 Democratic Party presidential primaries, Hall was a supporter of Howard Dean's campaign. Hall was re-elected in 2006, placing fourth and receiving 13% of the vote; Hall narrowly defeated fellow incumbent Donald Ryder, a Republican, receiving just 25 more votes than him.In 2007, Hall announced her candidacy for chairman of the New Hampshire Democratic Party. Her main opponent was Raymond Buckley, the vice chair of the state party and an executive member of the Democratic National Committee. During the campaign, Buckley, who was considered to be the frontrunner, was falsely accused of possessing child pornography by former state representative Steve Vaillancourt, who had been a former friend of his. Buckley was exonerated following an official state investigation, and Vaillancourt later stated that he had exaggerated in the allegations. Later in the campaign, Joe Kelly Levasseur, the chairman of the Manchester Republican Party, posted an old home video of Buckley to YouTube, in which Buckley, who is openly gay, is seen "cursing and unzipping his pants", as well as highlighting Buckley's membership in a MySpace group called "Gays in New Hampshire". Despite this, Buckley maintained his support amongst statewide Democrats, with the exception of U.S. representative Paul Hodes, who withdrew his support for Buckley following the release of the video. Buckley ultimately defeated Hall, receiving 109 votes to Hall's 17. A third candidate, former state house Democratic Leader Jim Craig, withdrew following Buckley's exoneration, but remained on the ballot. Proposed impeachment of George W. Bush In 2008, Hall again gained national prominence for introducing a bill in the New Hampshire House of Representatives which would petition the United States Congress to introduce articles to impeach President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney for high crimes and misdemeanors relating to the Iraq War. The bill accused Bush and Cheney of electioneering, torture, unlawful surveillance, misleading Congress, and violating the United Nations Charter by engaging in an unlawful aggressive war, as well as other alleged crimes. The bill, New Hampshire House Resolution 24, cited section 603 of Jefferson's Manual, which states that "an impeachment may be set in motion by the United States House of Representatives by charges transmitted from the legislature of a state". In 1973, Hall had opposed a similar bill calling for the impeachment of President Richard Nixon.Hall campaigned for impeachment alongside U.S. representative Dennis Kucinich, whose campaign she supported in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries. Hall's bill was supported by Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg, former US attorney general Ramsey Clark, and former director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Robert M. Bowman. However, the bill also had several outspoken opponents, such as Republican state representative David Hess, who stated he had "never seen a document more vitriolic and more inflammatory".In February 2008, the House State-Federal Relations and Veterans Affairs Committee voted 10-5 to recommend that the House not vote for the bill. In April 2008, the state house voted 227-95 to table the resolution, effectively killing the legislation. Some Democrats who voted in favor of tabling the bill, such as state representatives Ray Gagnon and Susan Almy, both of whom said they supported the bill in principle, stated that the bill would take away time that could be spent fixing everyday issues. Bernie Benn, another Democratic state representative, stated that impeachment would be too divisive. Independent candidacies Later in 2008, Hall ran for the 12th district of the New Hampshire Senate as an independent candidate, despite still being a registered Democrat. Hall placed a distant third with just 10% of the vote. Democrat Peggy Gilmour won with 47% of the vote, while Republican state representative Paul LaFlamme received 43%. In 2010, Hall officially switched her party registration to independent, stating that she "wanted to make a statement [that] neither party was doing what they should be". That year, Hall ran as an independent candidate for the New Hampshire House of Representatives in Hillsborough County's 5th district. However, Hall placed seventh out of eight candidates, receiving just 6% of the vote in the district she formerly represented. In 2012, Hall ran as an independent candidate for the state house in Hillsborough County's 12th district. She placed last out of five candidates, receiving 10% of the vote. Death Hall died on April 26, 2018, of congestive heart failure in Petersburgh, New York. At the time of her death, Hall had 5 children, 12 grandchildren, and 21 great-grandchildren. Tenure During her tenure with both the Republican and Democratic parties, Hall frequently challenged her party's political establishment. While in the Republican Party, Hall was seen as a member of the party's liberal wing; she was an objector to the Vietnam War and opposed an attempt to outlaw abortion, with Hall stating, "I don't think I should legislate my religious beliefs on someone else". While a Democrat, Hall was seen as a firebrand emblematic of the party's grassroots base, challenging the Democratic establishment by opposing Buckley in 2007 and leading the attempt to impeach Bush. Hall was described as "a giant among the moral compass-holders in the community".While in the state house, Hall's primary issues were the government integrity and campaign finance reform. Hall was also an advocate for mental health issues. She served as the first president of Milford Regional Counseling Services in the 1970s, and later founded Harbor Homes, an organization that provides transitional housing for people with mental illness. In the 1960s, Hall was also the president of the Waban Association for Retarded Children. Economy, regulation, and taxation In 1989, Hall led opposition towards a bill which would introduce new regulations against gravel pit operators. However, the following week, in what was described as "parliamentary shenanigans", the bill was revived, amended, and passed in both chambers of the state legislature. Later in 1989, Hall sponsored a bottle bill which would have introduced a 5-cent deposit on bottles and cans in order finance recycling centers. The bill also called for bottles and cans to be recycled instead of reused. Hall sponsored a similar bill in 1979, which would have imposed a tax ranging from $25 to $9,000 a year on businesses in order to fund litter control and recycling.In 1990, New Hampshire's economy collapsed and the state fell heavily into debt. Hall opposed a bill which would order the state to repay all of its bills within 30 days, stating that it didn't solve the problem and "would only make us think we're doing something". Hall also opposed a budget which would marginally cut spending and levy small taxes, such as a 4-cent cigarette tax and a 5% phone tax, stating that "cutting 10 percent and 20 percent isn't going to do. Nickel and dime taxes aren't going to do it either". She was instead supportive of the legislature stepping back and allow the governor to "reduce spending any way he could". Hall had previously opposed the state budget in 1979 due to the inclusion of a 1-cent gas tax. In 2007, Hall supported legislation pushed by the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative which would "reduce carbon pollution from power plants, lower energy bills and strengthen our economy". Education Throughout her career, Hall supported the breaking up of cooperative school districts. Cooperative school districts, known as school administrative units (SAUs), were school districts consisting of multiple towns. Hall said that wealthier, smaller towns would be forced to disproportionately fund an SAU when grouped with poorer, larger towns. She also said the small towns were effectively trapped in the SAU as long as the larger towns were able to out-vote the smaller towns.In 1971, Hall sponsored legislation which would establish a volunteer corps to provide assistance and counseling to minors who violated the law. In 1973, she sponsored a bill which would create a scholarship program for college students from New Hampshire. After a first attempt failed in the House, the bill was amended to apply only to students attending in-state colleges. The program would provide matching funds for college students: the state would allocate 25 cents for every dollar given by a private scholarship. During her 2008 state senate campaign, Hall stated that she opposed funding education from property taxes, instead supporting a "pay-as-you-go" model. Government integrity and reform In 1972, Hall supported an election reform bill which would restrict candidates from working in polling places in which their name was on the ballot. She was the only representative from a small town to support the bill. Introduced by state representative Chris Spirou, the bill had public support, but faced heavy opposition in the House after being "verbally beaten into the ground by many state representatives from small towns who double as election officials in their home communities". In her support for the bill, Hall said that it could allow for more people to become involved in the political process. While with Common Cause in 1977, Hall supported a state ethics commission to watch over the state legislature, stating that at the time New Hampshire was the only state that didn't have conflict-of-interest legislation. In 1979, Hall supported a rule change in the state house that would require all members of the House to list their sources of income. In the mid-2000s, Hall stated her concerned with the outsourcing of New Hampshire's vote counting systems to private companies, citing security and integrity concerns. In 2006, Hall proposed a bill which would make primary and general election days a state holiday. The same year, Hall supported a rules change in the state house which would end segregated party seating, which she said increased partisanship by keeping members of opposing parties separated from each other. During her independent candidacies, Hall also advocated for elections to be publicly funded in order to limit the effects of corporate influence on elections. Due to her work on campaign finance reform, Hall was frequently compared to Doris Haddock, who she was friends with, and with whom she collaborated on election reform issues with. Notes Passage 2: William Worthington (actor) William Worthington (April 8, 1872 in Troy, New York – April 9, 1941 in Beverly Hills, California) was an American silent film actor and director. Career Worthington became interested in the performing arts when he began his career as an opera singer and stage actor. He entered films with a lead role in 1913, and one of his more notable films was Damon and Pythias in 1914. From 1917 to 1925, William concentrated on directing films and was the head of a film production firm called Multicolor, which was bought by Cinecolor in 1932. He was active in films up until his death in 1941. Filmography Actor Director See also Multicolor Passage 3: Wild Child (film) Wild Child is a 2008 teen comedy film directed by Nick Moore and starring Emma Roberts, Natasha Richardson, Shirley Henderson, Alex Pettyfer and Aidan Quinn, with Georgia King, Kimberley Nixon, Juno Temple, Linzey Cocker and Sophie Wu. Roberts portrays Poppy Moore, a wealthy and spoiled American teenager who is sent to a boarding school in England by her widowed father, where she soon learns the true meaning of life and friendship. This was Richardson's final film role before her death the following year. Plot Poppy Moore, a wealthy but spoiled and rebellious teenager from Malibu, California, damages and discards the belongings of her widowed father's new girlfriend, Rosemary. She grabs a handful of Rosemary's clothes and jumps into the ocean just as her furious father, Gerry, arrives. Gerry announces he will be sending Poppy to Abbey Mount, a boarding school in England, in the hopes that attending the school will turn her life around. When Poppy arrives at Abbey Mount, she is warmly greeted by the headmistress Mrs. Kingsley, and later the head girl, Harriet Bentley, who is disgusted by her sense of entitlement. Poppy learns to her dismay that the bedrooms are communal and is introduced to Kate, Josie, Kiki and Jennifer, also known as "Drippy". She is initially hostile towards her new roommates upon meeting them, and her behaviour gets them into trouble when she insults the Matron, who confiscates their cellphones and gives them three weeks of detention. When Kate asks Poppy about her mother, she reveals that she died in a car crash when Poppy was eleven years old. Kate lets Poppy use her actual cellphone to message her friend from back home, Ruby, who is secretly cheating with Poppy's boyfriend, Roddy. The girls decide to help Poppy get expelled from Abbey Mount by carrying out several pranks, which gradually brings them closer together. When none of their plans work, they decide to have Poppy seduce Mrs. Kingsley's son, Freddie, who is forbidden from fraternizing with the female students. After the girls go shopping at a charity shop, they take Poppy to a hair salon for a makeover, where hairdresser Mr. Christopher removes her blonde hair dye and reveals her natural brunette hair. At the school dance, Freddie rejects Harriet in favour of dancing with Poppy, much to Harriet's dismay. Poppy trips on the dancefloor and Freddie takes her outside for fresh air, where he asks her out on a date. The next day, Poppy discovers her newfound talent for lacrosse and becomes the team's new captain. After several weeks of practicing and improving their skills, the team advances to the finals for the first time since 1976. Finding themselves falling in love with one another, Poppy and Freddie go for a drive in the countryside, where Freddie takes Poppy out for lunch and they kiss. Poppy returns to school only to find her roommates reading an email allegedly written by her, suggesting she was pretending to be friends with them so she could get herself expelled and return to Malibu. Poppy claims she did not write the emails, but the girls refuse to listen and walk out on her. When Freddie receives a similar email, Poppy tries to explain herself, but he slams the door in her face. With no one else to turn to, Poppy sneaks into the kitchen and calls Ruby, who accidentally reveals her affair with Roddy and hangs up on her. Feeling even more alone, Poppy starts playing with her lighter and accidentally sets a curtain on fire. Hearing footsteps, she quickly puts out the fire and runs back to her bedroom, but a few minutes later, Drippy sees the curtains engulfed in flames and is locked inside the freezer. When Poppy is awoken by the sound of an explosion, she looks out the window and sees the fire growing and immediately wakes the school. When everyone realizes Drippy is missing, Poppy runs into the burning school to rescue her. After the fire is extinguished, Freddie finds her lighter and gives it back to her, refusing to hear any explanation. Realizing she no longer wants to leave, Poppy writes an apology letter to Freddie and later goes to Mrs. Kingsley's office to take the blame for the fire. Afterwards, she finds a portrait of her late mother in the 1976 Abbey Mount lacrosse team and begins to cry upon realizing her mother had attended the school. While Poppy waits for the Honour Court to decide whether or not she should be expelled, Freddie finds her crying and becomes convinced the fire was an accident, and forgives her. Meanwhile, Drippy reads aloud Poppy's diary, revealing how much Poppy likes her roommates, and Kiki discovers who actually wrote the emails. At the hearing, Poppy gives her testimony and Harriet is determined to prove her guilt, while Poppy's roommates arrive and begin whispering to the other girls. When they all stand up in support of Poppy, Harriet bursts into a tirade and mentions Poppy's lighter. The girls realize that no lighter was ever mentioned and Mrs. Kingsley questions how Harriet knew about the lighter. When Poppy deduces that Harriet was responsible, Harriet snaps at her and accidentally confesses to restarting the fire after Poppy had put it out. A furious Mrs. Kingsley demands to see Harriet in her office and Poppy is absolved. At the lacrosse finals, Gerry arrives and is taken aback by Poppy's dramatic change in personality and how much she resembles her mother. Abbey Mount wins the lacrosse championship and Poppy, who admits that her father did the right thing by enrolling her at the school, reconciles with him. The next morning, Harriet is expelled and prepares to leave with her father, but not before Harriet's former friends toss her dead pheasants out the window and onto her. Several months later, Poppy and Freddie have resumed their relationship, and she invites her roommates to a pool party at her Malibu mansion. When Freddie notices Ruby trying to call Poppy, she ignores her, now well aware she is not a real friend, and the girls prepare to jump into the ocean. Cast Production The interiors of the boarding school were filmed at Cobham Hall in Kent. The facade of the school was filmed at Balls Park. They also filmed at 82 Main Street, 84 Main Street, 117 Main Street, and at the Brontë Parsonage Museum in Haworth, Keighley, Bradford. Filming also took place in Harrogate, and at Robin Hood's Bay in North Yorkshire. Reception Wild Child was released in the United Kingdom on 15 August 2008, taking fifth place at the box office with $2,196,366 from 359 cinemas with an average of $6,118. In its fourth weekend, it dropped to twelfth place. As of November 2008, Wild Child had grossed $8,235,794. In Australia, Wild Child was released 18 September, taking fourth place with only 93 cinemas and making $315,114. The following week, it made a 60% increase with $566,918 but still slipped to 6th place. On 16 October, Wild Child fell to 11th. As of November 2008, Wild Child had grossed US$3,268,424 (A$4,236,579) in Australia. The film has been released in many other countries, proving popular in some: the Netherlands ($1,553,825) and not so popular in others. The film has grossed a worldwide total of $21,972,336. Universal had planned a North American release in the summer of 2009, but canceled it and chose to release the film directly to DVD. Critical response Wild Child has a 41% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes, based on 27 reviews with an average rating of 4.8/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "More mild than wild. This tween comedy mess falls flat on its face due to poor characters, poor direction and poor jokes". The Sun Online gave the film 2/5 saying "WILD? More like mild, unless you think short skirts and 'horse face' put-downs are outrageous." Urban Cinefile gave Wild Child a much more favourable review, stating "The film has an energy and honesty about it: it's lively, funny and smart and the characters are appealing." Rating the film 2 out of 5 stars, The Guardian's Peter Bradshaw deemed the film's story and characters "amiable enough, but still a bit tame" compared to films such as Clueless and Freaky Friday. Describing Wild Child as "A tweenie comedy with an uplifting American-style sports movie awkwardly bolted on", David Gritten of The Daily Telegraph considered the film to be "a mess" with predictable plot twists and inferior to the film Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging. In a mostly positive review for Variety, Leslie Felperin wrote that Dahl's script "puts more emphasis on character development and plot mechanics than the recent, slapstick-laden, girls’-school-set "St. Trinian's," and still manages to have funnier one-liners". Felperin also found that the film's "third-act endorsement of female friendship turns out to be surprisingly affecting, despite obvious sentimentality." Meanwhile, Jack Wilson of The Age took a different view of the characters' development, finding that Dahl's screenplay "dwells unpleasantly on cruelty and humiliation, and finally Poppy does little more than exchange one form of snobbery for another." DVD release Wild Child was released on DVD in the United Kingdom on 8 December 2008. In Australia, it was released on 15 January 2009. In the United States, it was released directly to DVD on 17 November 2009. Soundtrack Wild Child: The Movie Soundtrack Party Album is a soundtrack album by the film of the same name, released in the United Kingdom and Australia on 18 August 2008. In the United States, the soundtrack wasn't released. Track listing Other songs non-includedThe following songs appeared in the movie and trailers, although they were not included on the soundtrack for the film, due to licensing restrictions: "Angels" – Robbie Williams "Black Gloves" – Goose "Chasing Pavements" – Adele "Heaven Is a Place on Earth" – Belinda Carlisle "I Got It from My Mama" – will.i.am "Real Wild Child" – Everlife "Roadkill Morning" – Children of Bodom "Set 'Em Up" – Imran Hanif "You Think I Don't Care" - Jack McManus "Surrender Your Groove" – Geri Halliwell "Toxic" (instrumental) – Britney Spears Passage 4: Nick Moore (film director) Nick Moore is a British film director and editor. He directed the 2011 British Movie Horrid Henry: The Movie. He directed the 2008 Wild Child, and other previous work included editing the 1997 The Full Monty for which he was nominated for a BAFTA award, the 1999 hit Notting Hill, the 2002 About a Boy for which he was nominated for the American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film – Comedy or Musical, and the 2003 Love Actually. Filmography Director 2008: Wild Child 2011: Horrid Henry: The Movie 2014: Pudsey: The Movie Editor 1983: Never Say Never Again 1987: Empire of the Sun 1989: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade 1990: Spies Inc. 1990: Memphis Belle 1991: Meeting Venus 1992: Orlando 1993: Little Buddha 1994: A Business Affair 1994: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein 1996: Mission: Impossible 1997: The Full Monty 1998: The Land Girls 1998: Divorcing Jack 1999: Notting Hill 2000: Beautiful Joe 2001: What's the Worst That Could Happen? 2001: Ghost World 2001: All the Queen's Men 2002: About a Boy 2003: Love Actually 2004: Along Came Polly 2004: Christmas with the Kranks 2005: Nanny McPhee 2006: Freedomland 2006: Little Man 2007: Meet Bill 2008: Last Chance Harvey 2010: Leap Year 2010: Morning Glory 2012: Mirror Mirror 2013: Enough Said 2014: Finding Fanny 2014: She's Funny That Way 2015: Jenny's Wedding 2015: Burnt 2016: Bridget Jones's Baby 2017: The Ottoman Lieutenant 2018: Patrick 2018: King of Thieves Passage 5: Tula Belle Tula Belle (28 July 1906 – 13 October 1992) was an American child film actress. She was born in what is now Oslo, Norway.She starred in The Blue Bird. Filmography The Brand of Cowardice (1916) Over the Hill (1917) The Vicar of Wakefield (1917) The Blue Bird (1918) A Doll's House (1918) based on A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen At the Mercy of Men (1918) Deliverance (1919) The Miracle Man (1919) Old Dad (1920) Passage 6: West of Shanghai West of Shanghai is a 1937 American adventure film directed by John Farrow and starring Boris Karloff as a Chinese warlord. It is based on the 1920 Porter Emerson Browne play The Bad Man. Three other films, all titled The Bad Man, are also based on the same play: in 1923, directed by Edwin Carewe and starring Holbrook Blinn in 1930, directed by Clarence Badger and starring Walter Huston in 1941, starring Wallace Beery and Ronald Reagan and directed by Richard Thorpe. Plot On a train bound for lawless northern China, businessman Gordon Creed (Ricardo Cortez) encounters acquaintance Myron Galt (Douglas Wood) and his attractive daughter Lola (Sheila Bromley). Galt is on his way to foreclose on a very promising oilfield built up by Jim Hallet (Gordon Oliver). Creed, on the other hand, wants to offer Hallet enough money to pay off his loan from Galt (for a tidy share of the oilfield). Creed is annoyed when his reserved compartment is appropriated by General Chow Fu-Shan (Vladimir Sokoloff). The general is on his way to deal with self-styled General Wu Yen Fang (Boris Karloff), a warlord who has taken control of a province. However, Chow Fu-Shan is assassinated on the train by one of Fang's men. After being questioned by military governor General Ma (Tetsu Komai), the three travel by horse to a remote town, where they find not only Hallet (Gordon Oliver), but Creed's estranged wife Jane (Beverly Roberts), who is working for missionary Dr. Abernathy (Gordon Hart). Then, Fang's subordinate, Captain Kung Nui (Chester Gan) and his men take over the town. When Kung Nui casts his eyes on Jane, Hallet impulsively punches him. Jane and Hallet have fallen in love, though she does not believe in divorce and has kept their relationship strictly platonic. Hallet is knocked out and imprisoned. When Fang arrives, he tries to persuade Jane to go with him, promising she would enjoy it (blithely explaining "I am Fang"). Hallet escapes with the help of an associate disguised as one of Fang's soldiers, and sends him to notify General Ma of Fang's whereabouts. Hallet then breaks in on Fang and Jane's private discussion. Fang remembers Hallet, who once hid a coolie and dug three bullets out of his shoulder; that was Fang before his meteoric rise. The warlord decides to help his benefactor. Fang robs Creed of $50,000, uses it to pay Galt what Hallet owes, then takes the money and offers it to Dr. Abernathy. Creed bribes Captain Kung Nui to rebel against Fang. Kung Nui wants to regain face by having Hallet executed. Fang pretends to give in, but just before a firing squad shoots the oilman, Fang has his right-hand man, Mr. Cheng (Richard Loo), kill Kung Nui. Afterward, Fang personally shoots Creed to fix Hallet's romantic problem, but only manages to wound him. Government troops arrive and force their way into the town. In the confusion, Jane, accompanied by Hallet, goes to attend to her husband's wound. Creed produces a gun and announces that Hallet is going to have a fatal accident, but is killed by Fang. With the battle lost, Fang decides to surrender rather than risk the lives of his captives by fighting to the end. He is taken out and shot. Cast Boris Karloff as General Wu Yen Fang Beverly Roberts as Mrs. Jane Creed Ricardo Cortez as Gordon Creed Gordon Oliver as Jim Hallet Sheila Bromley as Lola Galt Douglas Wood as Myron Galt Vladimir Sokoloff as General Chow Fu-Shan Gordon Hart as Dr. Abernathy Richard Loo as Mr. Cheng Chester Gan as Captain Kung Nui Tetsu Komai as General Ma Production This was the second film John Farrow directed for Warner Bros. Karloff was to make Black Widow for Warner Bros. But the studio pushed forward the film in their schedule to take advantage of the Second Sino-Japanese War.It was known during production as China Bandit, then War Lord, then The Adventures of Fang. Filming took place in February 1937.Willard Parker was to have made his debut in the film. Karloff's makeup required three hours of work per day; this was less time than was required for his non-human roles. Reception The New York Times wrote Karloff "admirably acquits himself as a comedian" in the film which nonetheless had "atmospheric validity" due to "numerous Chinese extras and an imaginative treatment of sets." See also Boris Karloff filmography Passage 7: John Chaffey John Chaffey is an English osteopathic doctor and former child film actor. Film career Chaffey was featured in many television adverts as a child. He is best remembered for a role in the 1973 Peter Sellers movie The Optimists of Nine Elms. Medical career Chaffey studied at University of East London, receiving in 1991 a research-based degree comparing osteopathic and physiotherapeutic interventions in the mechanical discomforts of pregnancy. He qualified at the British School of Osteopathy (1988). He headed an osteopathic group practice beginning in 1991, working with a team of 11 osteopathic specialists. He attained leadership positions in the UK Osteopathy profession, being appointed as a Member of Council of UK Regulator, the General Osteopathic Council, in 2012. He is a member of the Education and Registration Standards Committee. Chaffey has worked in osteopathic education since 1991 as a lecturer and clinic tutor. He is currently a Clinical Tutor at the European School of Osteopathy, lecturing on communication and compliance issues. He was Module Leader for Osteopathy for 2 years at Oxford Brookes University, and currently serves as an external examiner for that institution. He became an external examiner for Final Clinical Competence in 2001. Passage 8: Shreya Sharma Shreya Sharma is an Indian child film actress. She lives in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Filmography She acted first at the age of 13 in film The Blue Umbrella. Other On the occasion of 125th birth year of popular Hindi writer Chandradhar Sharma ‘Guleri’, a special screening of the film Usne Kaha Tha based on one of his popular stories was held on 19 July 2008 in the capital city of Himachal Pradesh. Shreya Sharma narrated the story ahead of the screening, held at Auckland House School, Longwood. Passage 9: Beauty and the Bad Man Beauty and the Bad Man is a 1925 American silent Western film directed by William Worthington and starring Mabel Ballin, Forrest Stanley, and Russell Simpson. Plot As described in a film magazine review, Cassie, an orphan with vocal abilities, enters the mining town after fleeing from her worthless husband of one day. She meets the gambler, who likes her and stakes her with the money he won after breaking the bank. She uses the money to cultivate her voice, and then returns to the mining town famous. Her old husband wants her to return, and when she refuses he fires a gun, but he is late and is winged by a friend of the gambler. Cassie then realizes her love for the gambler. Cast Preservation With no prints of Beauty and the Bad Man located in any film archives, it is a lost film. Passage 10: Alias – the Bad Man Alias – the Bad Man, also known as Alias Bad Man, is a 1931 American pre-Code Western film, directed by Phil Rosen and starring Ken Maynard, Virginia Brown Faire, and Frank Mayo. It was released on July 15, 1931. Plot Clem Neville and fellow rancher Warner are being plagued by a group of rustlers. He sends for his son, Ken, to come help him round up the criminals. However, when Ken arrives he finds out that his father and Warner have been killed. He does not reveal his identity to any of the townspeople, and Warner's daughter, Mary, suspects him of being one of the rustlers. As they verbally spar, Ken learns that Mary had known of a plan of Clem and her father to trap the rustlers. The only person she shared the information with was Rance Collins. He meets up with an old friend Ranger Simpson, known by the nickname of "Repeater", who he lets know what he is attempting to do. Suspecting that Rance must be involved, Ken learns who some of his associates are. He follows one back to the gang's hideout, and after overhearing of their plans to finish rustling Warner's cattle, steps into the room and asks for a job. Collins is skeptical, but then Repeater shows up and, as set up before by him and Ken, arrests Ken for Clem's murder. Collins suspicions of Ken are alleviated, and he and some of his men ride after the two. They help Ken escape, during which Ken makes it appear as if Repeater has been killed. However, once back at the hideout, suspicions once again begin to arise. Finally, one of the rustlers returns to the hideout and recognizes Ken from Warner's ranch earlier that day. Surrounded by the gang, Ken's horse, Tarzan comes to his rescue and breaks a window allowing him to escape. Collins henchmen take off after Ken, while Collins remains behind to continue planning their rustling activities. Ken eludes the gang and doubles back to the hideout. He delays Collins long enough for Repeater to arrive with the sheriff to arrest Collins. Afterwards, Mary apologizes to Ken for jumping to conclusions, and Ken decides to stay on in town and run his father's ranch. Cast list Ken Maynard as Ken Neville Virginia Brown Faire as Mary Warner Frank Mayo as Rance Collins Charles King as Black Robert Homans as Mr. Warner Irving Bacon as Ranger Simpson Lafe McKee as Clem Neville Production In early April it was announced that one of Maynard's upcoming pictures would be titled, The Bad Man. By the middle of the month, the film had become known as Alias The Bad Man, the third of a series of eight films Maynard was slated to do for Tiffany Productions. On April 18, it was reported that Maynard had wrapped on his prior film, Two Gun Man, and that production on Alias the Bad Man would begin in the near future. The picture began filming the week of May 16, with production complete by the first week in June. The film was released on July 15, 1931. Reception The Film Daily gave the film a positive review, lauding the direction, story and cinematography. They also highlighted the acting work of Ken Maynard and Virginia Brown Faire. "The story is above the average western opus material, having an intelligent plot, with plenty of surprises and twists to keep the suspense always at a fever heat." Harrison's Reports said, "A good Western. The story is interesting and there is plenty of action and suspense. Some of the situations will hold the spectator breathless...."
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What is the date of birth of William Paulet, 3Rd Marquess Of Winchester's father?
Passage 1: Henry, Lord Paulet Lord Henry Paulet (1602–1672) was an English courtier who sat briefly in the House of Commons in the 2nd Parliament of Charles I, from February to June 1626. Paulet was a son of William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester. On 6 March 1618, he was admitted to Peterhouse, Cambridge. He was created Knight of the Bath at the Coronation of Charles I and was of Amport, Hampshire. In 1626, he was elected as one of the two members of parliament for Andover.Paulet married Lucy Philpot, a daughter of Sir George Philpot. Their son Francis was the grandfather of the twelfth Marquess of Winchester. Passage 2: Lewis Gordon, 3rd Marquess of Huntly Lewis Gordon, 3rd Marquess of Huntly (c. 1626–1653) was a Scottish nobleman. He was the third son of George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Huntly. Biography Born when his father was commander of the Garde Écossaise, he was named after Louis XIII of France, and brought up until the age of ten by his grandfather, George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly. From an early age, he showed himself to be a reckless romantic – while still a child, he stole some jewels and attempted to take ship to Holland, presumably to join the army. When he was thirteen, the First Bishops' War broke out, and the young nobleman sneaked out of Gordon Castle (one account says he climbed over the wall) and hurried to the Highlands, where he raised a brigade of clansmen from his father's estates to fight the Covenanters. His first experience of war was at Megray Hill, where his Highlanders scattered in the face of enemy cannon fire. Following the peace, Lord Lewis travelled to France, where he enlisted as an ordinary pikeman in an infantry regiment, in order to learn his soldiering from the ground up. After three years, he traveled to England, working his way north by serving on both sides in the English Civil War, first in the royalist army and then in the Scottish Covenanter forces of his uncle, the Earl of Argyll, the same army he had fought against in 1639. Eventually returning home, the sixteen-year-old nobleman seduced and married the fiancée of his absent elder brother, Viscount Aboyne. He served on both sides in the Scottish Civil War, playing an important role in his father's occupation of Aberdeen in 1646, where he engaged an enemy cavalry commander in single combat and then storming the town. Going into exile after the defeat of the royalists, he traveled again to France; in rapid succession, he succeeded his brother and father as Earl of Enzie and Marquess of Gordon, and by 1651, he was allowed to return to Scotland, even though he refused to conform to the Presbyterian Church of Scotland (he was probably a Roman Catholic). In 1645 Lord Lewis attacked Brodie Castle in Moray and setting it afire destroyed important archives and documents detailing the origins of the illustrious Clan Brodie. This despicable act secured Clan Brodie's place among the great mysteries of Scotland. He died aged 26 or 27, leaving a young widow (whom he had apparently converted to Catholicism), three daughters, and a four-year-old son who would eventually become the 1st Duke of Gordon. Miles Gourdon, a cavalry commander in the French army known as the chevalier or count of "Crolis", was perhaps an illegitimate son, as he is said to have been a brother of the duke.His reputation among historians has varied; he is the clearest hero in the Civil War narrative of his kinsman Patrick Gordon of Ruthven, while John Buchan regarded him as wild and headstrong to the point of insanity. Passage 3: Christopher Lambert (MP) Christopher Lambert, of Winchester, Hampshire, was an English politician. He was the second son of William Lambert of Winchester and a servant of Sir William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester. Lambert was a Member of Parliament for Bridport in 1593. Passage 4: William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester (c. 1532 – 24 November 1598) was an English nobleman, the son of John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester and his first wife, Elizabeth Willoughby. His maternal grandfather was Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Mary I on 30 November 1553. Career The offices he held during his career included: Justice of the Peace, Hampshire from c.1559 Sheriff of Hampshire 1560–61 Justice of the Peace, Dorset from 1564 Commissioner for the Musters, Dorset 1569 High Steward, Dorchester by 1570 Joint Lord Lieutenant of Dorset 1569 and 1585/6-98 Member of Parliament for Dorset 1571 Joint Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire 1585 Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire 1585–86 Lord High Steward for the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots, 1 August 1587 Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire 1596 Commissioner for Ecclesiastical Causes, Diocese of Winchester 1597Paulet was summoned to Parliament on 5 May 1572 in his father's Barony of St John. He succeeded his father as 3rd Marquess of Winchester on 4 November 1576. During October 1586, he was one of the judges at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, later acting as Lord High Steward at her funeral on 1 August 1587. He is known as the author of The Lord Marquess Idleness, a remarkable and most ingenious acrostic of six Latin verses. It was published in 1586 and 1587. Marriage and issue Between 20 June 1544 and 10 February 1547/1548 he married Anne or Agnes Howard, daughter of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham and his first wife, Katherine Broughton and had issue: William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester, died 4 February 1629, married Lucy Cecil, daughter of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter Anne Paulet, born 1552, married Sir Thomas Denys (modern spelling: Dennis), of Holcombe Burnell, Devon; grandparents of the prodigy Denys Rolle Katherine Paulet, married Sir Giles Wroughton Elizabeth Paulet, married Sir Edward HobyThe marriage was not a happy one, and the couple were only reconciled, on one occasion, by Elizabeth I's intervention.Paulet also had children with his recognised mistress Jane Lambert, who later married the much younger Sir Gerrard Fleetwood: Sir William Paulet, died 1628, lawyer, London, later of Edington, Wiltshire. High Sheriff of Wiltshire 1613, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Seymour Sir John Paulet, lawyer, Winchester, married Elizabeth, daughter of John Stump Sir Hercules Paulet, born 1574, married Bridgett, daughter of Sir Henry Gifford Hector Paulet, born 1578, married Joan Butler Susan or Susanna Paulet, married firstly Thomas Kirkby and secondly Launcelott Warnfford Death He died on 24 November 1598 and was buried at Basing, Hampshire. His widow, Anne Paulet, died on 18 November 1601. The date of Jane Lambert's death is not recorded. Passage 5: William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester (bef. 1560 – 4 February 1629) was an English nobleman, the son of William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester and Anne or Agnes Howard. He was styled Lord St. John from 1576 to 1598. He was summoned to Parliament on 16 January 1581 in his father's barony as Lord St. John. On 24 November 1598, he succeeded his father as 4th Marquess of Winchester. Paulet experienced great financial difficulties arising from his magnificent style of living and his lavish entertainment of Elizabeth I at Basing House. Marriage and issue On 28 February 1587 at St Martin-in-the-Fields, he married Lady Lucy Cecil, daughter of Sir Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter and his first wife, Dorothy Neville. Lucy and William had six children: William Paulet, Lord St John (1587/8–1621), married Mary Browne, daughter of Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu Thomas Paulet, died before 1621 John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester (c.1598–5 March 1675) married three times: Jane Savage, daughter of Thomas Savage, 1st Viscount Savage Honora de Burgh, daughter of Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde Isabel Howard, daughter of William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford and Mary Stafford Lord Henry Paulet, of Amport, married Lucy Philpot, daughter of Sir George Philpot of Thruxton Charles Paulet, died c.1654, had issue Edward PauletHis wife, Lucy, was treated for cancer in 1614 by the court physician Théodore de Mayerne. She died 1 October 1614 and was buried a month later in the Cecil vault in Westminster Abbey. Death William Paulet died at Hackwood, near Basingstoke, on 4 February 1629, and was buried at Basing, Hampshire. Footnotes Sources External links William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester Family tree History of Basing House Passage 6: Archibald Kennedy, 3rd Marquess of Ailsa Archibald Kennedy, 3rd Marquess of Ailsa (1 September 1847 – 9 April 1938) was a Scottish peer. Early life Archibald was born on 1 September 1847, the eldest of three sons born to Julia (née Jephson), Marchioness of Ailsa, and Archibald Kennedy, 2nd Marquess of Ailsa. Among his siblings was Maj Lord Alexander Kennedy, Lord John Kennedy, Lady Julia Alice Kennedy, Lady Evelyn Anne Kennedy, and Lady Constance Eleanor Kennedy.His father was the eldest son of Archibald Kennedy, Earl of Cassilis, himself the oldest son of Archibald Kennedy, 1st Marquess of Ailsa. His mother was the second daughter of Sir Richard Jephson, 1st Baronet and the former Charlotte Rochfort Smith. Career As a young man, he served as an officer in the Coldstream Guards. In 1885, he founded the Ailsa Shipbuilding Company, which was based in Troon and Ayr, Ayrshire. Peerage Upon the death of his father on 20 March 1870, he succeeded to the titles of 14th Earl of Cassilis, 16th Lord Kennedy, 3rd Marquess of Ailsa and 3rd Baron Ailsa. Along with the title came 76,000 acres in Ayrshire. He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Ayrshire between 1919 and 1937. Personal life Lord Ailsa was twice married. His first marriage took place on 7 March 1871 to Hon. Evelyn Stuart, daughter of Charles Stuart, 12th Lord Blantyre and Lady Evelyn Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (herself a daughter of George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland). Together, they were the parents of five children: Archibald Kennedy, 4th Marquess of Ailsa (1872–1943), who married Frances Stewart, daughter of Sir Mark MacTaggart-Stewart, 1st Baronet. Charles Kennedy, 5th Marquess of Ailsa (1875–1956), who married Constance Clarke, widow of Sir John Baird. Lady Evelyn Kennedy (1876–1886), who died young. Lady Aline Kennedy (1877–1957), who married John Edward Browne, 5th Baron Kilmaine (1878–1946) in 1901. Angus Kennedy, 6th Marquess of Ailsa (1882–1957), who married Gertrude Millicent Cooper.He married secondly on 3 November 1891 to Isabella MacMaster, the only daughter of Hugh MacMaster, a market gardener of Kausani, India. Together, they had two more children: Lt.-Col. Lord Hugh Kennedy (1895–1970), who married Katharine Louisa Clare Atherton, daughter of Francis Henry Atherton. Lady Marjory Kennedy (b. 1898), who married Sir Laurence Pierce Brooke Merriam, MC.Lord Ailsa died at his home, Culzean Castle, overlooking the Firth of Clyde where he was known as one of the foremost floriculturists, on 9 April 1938. Sailing He was a keen sailor, having studied navigation, and had William Fife build him Foxhound in 1870, Bloodhound in 1874 and Sleuthhound in 1881. He had his own shipyard at Culzean Castle, where he built the 5-ton Cocker. Passage 7: Richard Paulet, 17th Marquess of Winchester Richard Charles Paulet, 17th Marquess of Winchester (born on 8 July 1905; died 5 March 1968) was the son of Charles Standish Paulet and Lillian Jane Charlotte Fosbery. He was the great-grandson of Lord Charles Paulet, a younger son of the 13th Marquess. He inherited the title from Henry Paulet, 16th Marquess of Winchester, in 1962. He died unmarried, and the title was passed to his cousin Nigel Paulet, 18th Marquess of Winchester. Passage 8: William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester (c. 1483/1485 – 10 March 1572), styled Lord St John between 1539 and 1550 and Earl of Wiltshire between 1550 and 1551, was an English Lord High Treasurer, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and statesman. Family origins and early career in Hampshire Paulet was the eldest son of Sir John Paulet (1460 – 5 January 1525) of Basing Castle in the parish of Old Basing, near Basingstoke in Hampshire, and of Nunney Castle in Somerset (inherited from the Delamere family in 1415), a cadet branch of Paulet of Hinton St George in Somerset. His mother Alice Paulet was his father's second cousin-once-removed the daughter of Sir William Paulet by his wife Elizabeth Denebaud. William had six siblings, including Sir George Paulet of Crondall Manor in Hampshire and Eleanor Paulet (born 1479), wife of William Giffard of Itchell Manor at Ewshot, also in Hampshire. The family originated at the manor of Paulet (now Pawlett), near Bridgwater in Somerset. The senior branch of the Paulet/Powlet/Poulett family was seated at Hinton St George in Somerset, and had lived in that county since the early thirteenth century; the first Member of Parliament from that line represented Devon in 1385.There is some disagreement over his date of birth, with different authorities quoting 1483 or 1485. A claim that he was ninety-seven at his death would place his birth in 1474 or 1475. There is also uncertainty about where he was born, but it may have been at Fisherton Delamere in Wiltshire, one of his father's manors.His father, who had held a command against the Cornish rebels in 1497, was the head of the branch seated at Paulet and Road, close to Bridgwater, being the son of John Paulet and Elizabeth Roos. William's great-grandfather John Paulet acquired the Hampshire estates by his marriage with Constance Poynings, granddaughter and coheiress of Thomas Poynings, 5th Baron St John of Basing; his barony became abeyant upon his death in 1428/1429. William Paulet was High Sheriff of Hampshire in 1512, 1519, 1523, and again in 1527. Knighted before the end of 1525, he was appointed Master of the King's Wards in November 1526 and appeared in the Privy Council in the same year. Marriage and issue He married Elizabeth (d. 25 December 1558), daughter of Sir William Capel, Lord Mayor of London in 1503, and by her had four sons and four daughters: John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester Thomas Chidiock Paulet (also spelled Chidiok, Chediok, Chidieok, or Chidiock), governor of Southampton under Mary and Elizabeth Giles Alice, married Richard Stawell, of Cotherston, Somerset Margaret, married Sir William Berkeley Margery, married Sir Richard Waller, of Oldstoke, Hampshire Eleanor (died 26 September 1558), married Sir Richard Pecksall (died 1571) of Beaurepaire, Hampshire, hereditary Master of the Buckhounds. Career as a national statesman During his long career Paulet held numerous offices, which included: High Sheriff of Hampshire 1511–12, 1518–19 and 1522–23 Joint Master of the King's Wards 1526–34 and sole Master of the King's Wards 1534–40 Member of Parliament for Hampshire 1529–36 Comptroller of the Household 1532–37 Keeper of Pamber Forest 1535/6 Treasurer of the Household 1537–38/9 Master of the King's Woods 1541 Master of the Court of Wards 1540–42 Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries 1542–54 Privy Counsellor 1542 Lord Chamberlain of the Household 1543–45 Lord Steward of the Household 1545-1549/50 Chief Justice in Eyre, South of Trent 1545–49/50 Lord President of the Council 1546–49 Joint Governor of King Edward VI Lord Keeper of the Great Seal 1547 Keeper and Captain of St Andrew's Castle, Hamble 1547–71/2 Keeper of Alice Holt and Woolmer Forests 1548–71/2 Lord High Treasurer 1549/50–71/2 Lord High Steward for the trial of the Duke of Somerset 1551 Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire 1552, 1553 and 1559 Lieutenant of the forces in London 1558 Speaker of the House of Lords 1558 and 1566 Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire and Middlesex 1569 Joint Lord Lieutenant of London 1569Paulet's political career began in 1529, when he was elected knight of the shire for Hampshire. In 1532, he accompanied King Henry VIII to Calais, France, and the following spring, he accompanied the Duke of Norfolk to join King Francis I of France in a proposed audience with the Pope, to discuss Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. In 1536, he was granted the keepership of Pamber Forest, and on 9 March 1539 was created Baron St John. He became steward of the bishopric of Winchester, and became a close associate of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and a friend of Thomas Cromwell. He was also Comptroller of the Royal Household, and held many other high positions. In 1535 and 1536, he served as one of the judges for the trials of John Fisher, Sir Thomas More, and the alleged accomplices of Anne Boleyn; in 1535, he became Lord Chamberlain. He partially led the royal forces against the Pilgrimage of Grace, a rebellion that broke out in the autumn of 1536, and in 1538, he became Treasurer of the Household. In 1540, he became the master of Henry's Court of Wards and Liveries, a Knight of the Garter in 1543, and Governor of Portsmouth and Lord Steward of the Household in 1545. In 1546, he became Lord President of the Council, and in 1547, he was an executor of the will of King Henry VIII.He continued his political manoeuvres in 1549 by supporting the Earl of Warwick against the Duke of Somerset—in reward, on 19 January 1550 he was given the Earldom of Wiltshire and Somerset's position of Lord Treasurer. In the following month Warwick took over the post of Lord President of the Council. When Warwick was created Duke of Northumberland on 11 October 1551, Paulet received the Marquessate of Winchester. Six weeks later, he served as Lord High Steward in the Duke of Somerset's trial. It was said that Northumberland and Winchester "ruled the court" of the minor King Edward VI. Mary I affirmed him in all of his positions. After her death, he remained Lord Treasurer and retained many of his other positions, and even at an advanced age (in 1559, he was over seventy years old), he showed no signs of declining—he was Speaker of the House of Lords in 1559 and 1566. He remained in good standing with the English monarchs—Queen Elizabeth once joked, "for, by my troth, if my lord treasurer were but a young man, I could find it in my heart to have him for a husband before any man in England." Late in life, he opposed any military support of Continental Protestantism, as he feared it would cause a breach with strongly Catholic Spain. Paulet enjoyed a remarkably long career during the Reformation. Starting out as a Catholic, he was quickly persuaded to see things Henry's way once the breach with Rome had been decided on. He was rewarded with former Church properties following the dissolution of the monasteries. Under Edward VI he became an evangelical Protestant and persecuted Roman Catholics and Henrician Conservatives alike. On the accession of the Catholic Mary he announced his reconversion and commenced persecuting his former Protestant co-religionists, even denouncing Bishop Bonner for "laxity in prosecuting the heretics." His wife also found favour with Mary. On Tuesday 21 August 1554, when Mary went into Westminster Abbey her train was carried by Elizabeth, Marchioness of Winchester and Anne of Cleves.On Elizabeth's succession, he once again shifted his sails and became an advocate of middle-road Anglicanism. All in all, he professed five changes in religious course. Once, when asked how he managed to survive so many storms, not only unhurt, but rising all the while, Paulet answered: "By being a willow, not an oak". Death Paulet was still in office when he died on 10 March 1572, a very old man, at Basing House, which he held to rebuild and fortify. His tomb is on the south side of the chancel of Basing church. Passage 9: John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester (c. 1598 – 5 March 1675), styled Lord John Paulet until 1621 and Lord St John from 1621 to 1628, was the third but eldest surviving son of William Paulet and his successor as 5th Marquess of Winchester. Life He kept terms at Exeter College, Oxford, but as a Roman Catholic could not matriculate. He sat for St Ives from 1620 to 1622. Staying away to recover his family fortune for most of the 1630s, he returned and presented himself to the court and the king in 1639. The fifth Marquess and the Queen became firm friends thereafter, and therefore his chief seat, Basing House, was the great resort of Queen Henrietta Maria's friends in southwest England.On the outbreak of the English Civil War, he fortified and garrisoned Basing House and held it for Charles I during 1643 and 1644. The siege of Basing House, notwithstanding an attempt of his youngest brother, Lord Edward Paulet, to deliver it up to the enemy, lasted from August 1643 to 16 October 1645, when, during the general decline of the Royal cause, it was taken by storm, after a determined defence, by Oliver Cromwell. The brutality with which the house was sacked was most unusual, as atrocities against civilians during the Civil War were rare and generally discouraged by both sides: the explanation may be the presence of a number of Catholic priests among the defenders. Paulet was subsequently renowned as a great loyalist.The Marquess was made prisoner with such of his garrison as survived the fight; ten pieces of ordnance and much ammunition were also taken by the victors, as Oliver Cromwell himself, who directed the assault, wrote to the Speaker.He was committed to the Tower of London on a charge of high treason in 1645, where he remained a long time; an order was made for allowing him 5l. a week out of his property on 15 Jan 1646. Lady Winchester, who had escaped from Basing two days before its fall, was sent to join her husband in the Tower on 31 Jan, and a weekly sum of 10l., afterwards increased to 15l., was ordered to be paid her for the support of herself and her children, with the stipulation that the latter were to be educated as Protestants. An ordinance for the sale of Winchester's land was passed on 30 Oct, and by the act of 16 July 1651, a portion was sold by the trustees for the sale of forfeited estates. On 7 September 1647 Winchester was allowed to drink the waters at Epsom, and stayed there by permission of parliament for nearly six months. The House of Lords on 30 June 1648 urged the commons to release him on bail in consideration of his bad health. In the propositions sent to the king at the Isle of Wight on 13 October, it was expressly stipulated that Winchester's name be excepted from pardon. Ultimately the commons resolved on 14 March 1649 not to proceed against him for high treason, but they ordered him to be detained in prison and excepted from any composition for his estate. In January 1656 he was a prisoner in execution in the upper bench for debts amounting to 2,000l., and he petitioned Cromwell for relief. The sale of his lands was discontinued by order of parliament on 15 March 1660, and after the Restoration Winchester received them back. It was proposed on 3 August 1660 to recompense him for his losses to the amount of 19,000l. and damages, subsequently reduced to 10,000l., and this was agreed to on 2 July 1661. In the event he was allowed to go unrecompensed at the Restoration of the Monarchy, but regained his lands. Marriages and issue He married as his first wife: Jane Savage, daughter of Thomas Savage, 1st Viscount Savage of Rocksavage, on 18 December 1622, and by her had a son:Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton, born c. 1630 Jane died in childbirth in 1631, prompting an epitaph by John MiltonHe married as his second wife: Honora de Burgh, born c. 1605, daughter of Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde and Frances Walsingham, in around 1645 and by her, had a daughter:Anne, died c. September 1694, married John Belasyse, 1st Baron BelasyseHe married as his third wife: Isabel Howard, daughter of William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford and Mary Stafford, sister of the 5th Baron Stafford, in 1669. Death He retired to Englefield House in Berkshire, which was a wedding gift from his second marriage to Lady Honora de Burgh in the early 1630s. He died on 5 March 1674 and was buried at Englefield, Berkshire. Paulet was succeeded, by his eldest son, Charles Paulet, as 6th Marquess of Winchester, later created 1st Duke of Bolton. Charles converted to the Church of England, a great blow to the Roman Catholic community of Hampshire, who had for many years looked to the Paulet family to shield them from the worst rigours of the Penal Laws. Footnotes Attribution This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The Genealogy of the Existing British Peerage" by Edmund Lodge (1859) This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Goodwin, Gordon (1895). "Paulet, John" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 90–92. Sources External links John Paulet, Marquess of Winchester A family tree Royal Berkshire History: John Paulet Portraits of John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester at the National Portrait Gallery, London John Paulet History of Basing House Passage 10: John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester (c. 1510 – 4 November 1576), styled The Honourable John Paulet between 1539 and 1550, Lord St John between 1550 and 1551 and Earl of Wiltshire between 1551 and 1555, was an English peer. He was the eldest son of William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester and Elizabeth Capel. Career John Paulet was knighted by Henry VIII at Boulogne on 30 September 1544. After the death of Edward VI he was (with his father) one of the signatories to the settlement of the Crown on Lady Jane Grey of 16 June 1553, although he later changed his allegiance to Queen Mary. He was styled Lord St John from 1550 to 1572. He was summoned to Parliament on 3 October 1554 in one of his father's baronies as Lord St John. He was one of the Peers at the trial of the Duke of Norfolk on 16 January 1572. He succeeded his father as Marquess of Winchester on 10 March 1572.The offices he held during his career included: High Sheriff of Hampshire 1533–34 High Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset 1543–44 Steward of Canford castle 1549/50 Constable of Corfe Castle 1549/50 Lord Lieutenant of Dorset 1557 Governor of the Isle of Wight 1558 Keeper of St Andrew's Castle, Hamble 1572–1576 Marriages and issue Paulet was married three times: He married as his first wife, by 20 October 1528, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke by his second wife, Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, and by her had four sons and two daughters:William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester (c. 1532 – 24 November 1598) George Paulet Richard Paulet Thomas Paulet Elizabeth Paulet, married firstly Sir William Courtenay of Powderham and secondly Sir Henry Ughtred Mary Paulet (died 10 October 1592), married Henry Cromwell, 2nd Baron CromwellHe married secondly, between 10 March and 24 April 1554, Elizabeth Seymour, daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margery Wentworth, and widow of Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell. He married thirdly, before 30 September 1568, Winifred, widow of Sir Richard Sackville, and daughter of John Brydges, a former Lord Mayor of London. He succeeded his father as Marquess of Winchester in 1572. Death John Paulet died at Chelsea on 4 November 1576 and was buried in St. Mary's Church, Basing, Hampshire. His widow, Winifred, died at Chelsea in 1586 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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Who is Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes's paternal grandfather?
Passage 1: Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes (3 July 1686 – 20 March 1722) of Lees Court, Sheldwich, Kent, and Park Place, London, was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1708 and 1722.Watson was the eldest son of Lewis Watson, 1st Earl of Rockingham and Catherine Sondes, daughter of George Sondes, 1st Earl of Feversham. He matriculated at Merton College, Oxford on 1 June 1703, aged 16 and travelled abroad to Germany in 1707.Watson arrived back from Germany in 1708, in time to be elected as a Whig Member of Parliament for Canterbury at the 1708 British general election. He proposed a motion on 25 January 1709 for an address to the Queen that she should consider remarrying. He also supported the naturalization of the Palatines. He was appointed to a committee to draft a bill to limit the time allowed for public mourning, since this was felt to be having an adverse effect on Canterbury's silk trade. He also voted for the impeachment of Dr Sacheverell and possibly in consequence he lost his seat at the 1710 British general election. He was returned unopposed as MP for New Romney at a by-election on 20 April 1713. Following his father's elevation as Earl of Rockingham in 1714, he was styled Viscount Sondes. In 1718, he went over to the Opposition and in 1719 he was appointed a Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the Prince of Wales.He married, on 21 March 1709, Catherine Tufton, eldest daughter of Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet in 1709, and had three sons and a daughter: Lewis Watson, 2nd Earl of Rockingham, no issue Thomas Watson, 3rd Earl of Rockingham, no issue Edward Watson, no issue Catherine Watson, married Edward Southwell and had issue.Watson died of consumption at Kensington Gravel Pits 20 March and was buried 31 March 1722 at Rockingham, predeceasing his father by 2 years. In 1729 his widow and her four sisters became co-heiresses to the Barony of Clifford. She died 13 February and was buried 20 February 1734 at Rockingham. The abeyance was terminated in 1734 for the third sister Margaret, wife of Lord Lovel, but following her death without surviving issue in 1775 the barony was restored in favour of Viscount Sondes' grandson, Edward Southwell, 20th Baron Clifford. Passage 2: Kaya Alp Kaya Alp (Ottoman Turkish: قایا الپ, lit. 'Brave Rock') was, according to Ottoman tradition, the son of Kızıl Buğa or Basuk and the father of Suleyman Shah. He was the grandfather of Ertuğrul Ghazi, the father of the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman I. He was also famously known for being the successing name of Ertokus Bey’s son Kaya Alp. He was a descendant of the ancestor of his tribe, Kayı son of Gun son of Oghuz Khagan, the legendary progenitor of the Oghuz Turks. Passage 3: Edward Watson (footballer) Edward Watson (27 October 1901 – 1986) was an English professional footballer who played as a full-back for Sunderland. Passage 4: Lewis Watson, 1st Earl of Rockingham Lewis Watson, 1st Earl of Rockingham (29 December 1655 – 19 March 1724) was an English peer and politician. He was the eldest son of Edward Watson, 2nd Baron Rockingham (1630 – 1689) and Anne Wentworth, daughter of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford.In 1681–1685, Watson was Whig Member of Parliament for Canterbury and for Higham Ferrers briefly in 1689, before having to leave the Commons on inheriting his father's barony that year.Lord Rockingham was Master of the Buckhounds in 1703–1705, Custos Rotulorum and Lord Lieutenant of Kent in 1705–1724, Vice-Admiral of Kent in 1705 and Deputy Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1705–1708. In 1714, he was created Earl of Rockingham.In July 1677, he married Catherine Sondes (d. 1696), a daughter of George Sondes, 1st Earl of Feversham. They had five surviving children: Edward, styled Viscount Sondes (c. 1687 – Kensington, 20 March 1722), married on 21 March 1708 Lady Catherine Tufton (24 April 1693 – 13 February 1733), daughter of Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet and Lady Catherine Cavendish, parents of the 2nd and 3rd Earls of Rockingham and Catherine Watson (d. April 1765), who married Edward Southwell and had Edward Southwell, 20th Baron de Clifford. Hon. George (24 May 1689 – 1735) Lady Margaret (1695–1751), married John Monson, 1st Baron Monson. Lady Mary (d. 1737), married Wray Saunderson. Lady Arabella, married Sir Robert Furnese, 2nd Baronet. His wife died on 21 March 1696 and was buried at Rockingham. He died on 19 march 1724 and was buried 1 April at Rockingham. He was succeeded by his grandson, Lewis. Passage 5: Thomas Watson, 3rd Earl of Rockingham Thomas Watson, 3rd Earl of Rockingham (30 December 1715 – 26 February 1746), styled Hon. Thomas Watson until 1745, was an English nobleman and politician. He represented Canterbury in the House of Commons and was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Kent after succeeding to the earldom, but died shortly thereafter.The second son of Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes, Watson entered Eton College in 1725 and Lincoln's Inn in 1732. In the 1741 British general election, he stood for Canterbury as an opposition Whig. Watson and the Tory Thomas Best ousted the incumbent Sir Thomas Hales, a Whig supporter of Walpole's administration. He continued in opposition to successive governments during his tenure in the House of Commons, which terminated in 1745 when he became Earl of Rockingham on the death of his elder brother Lewis. Despite his politics, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Kent in succession to his brother, but did not long survive the appointment: he died of smallpox at Rockingham Castle 26 February and was buried 11 March 1746 at Rockingham.On his death, which brought to an end the male line of the Watsons of Rockingham Castle, the Earldom of Rockingham, the Viscountcy of Sondes of Lees Court, and the Barony of Throwley became extinct. He was succeeded as Baron Rockingham by Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Earl of Malton, his first cousin once removed. Rockingham left his estate to his first cousin Lewis Monson, who thereafter adopted the surname of Watson. Passage 6: Edward Watson (dancer) Edward Watson MBE (born 21 May 1976) is a British ballet dancer. He is a principal dancer and coach with the Royal Ballet in London. Early years Edward Watson was born in Bromley, Kent and was brought up in Dartford with his twin sister, Liz. He first attended dance classes at the age of 3, and was later accepted as a student at the Royal Ballet School, eventually joining the full-time school at White Lodge, Richmond Park. Whilst at the school, he trained with Anatoly Grigoriev, a former dancer of the Kirov Ballet and was one of six male students who graduated into the Upper School at the age of 16. At the Upper School his teachers included German Zammel and Julie Lincoln. Whilst training at the Upper School, Watson danced a number of roles: Checkmate by Ninette de Valois, 1993 (Role: Black Castle) Simple Symphony by Matthew Hart, 1993 Monotones No. 2 by Frederick Ashton, 1994 Napoli by August Bournonville, 2004 (Role: Pas de Six) Career Watson graduated into The Royal Ballet in 1994 and was promoted to Principal in 2005. His repertory with the Company includes major roles in works by Frederick Ashton and Kenneth MacMillan. His many role creations for Wayne McGregor include in Symbiont(s), Qualia, Chroma, Infra, Limen, Carbon Life, Raven Girl, Tetractys, Woolf Works, Obsidian Tear and Multiverse, and for Christopher Wheeldon Lewis Carroll/The White Rabbit in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland), Leontes in The Winter’s Tale and John Singer Sargent in Strapless. Watson has worked with numerous other choreographers, including Siobhan Davies, David Dawson, Javier de Frutos, Alastair Marriott, Cathy Marston, Ashley Page and Arthur Pita.In August 2020, it was announced that Watson will retire following a performance of McGregor's The Dante Project. He will remain with the company as a coach. His official title is répétiteur to the principal dancers. Awards At the National Dance Awards in 2008, Watson won 'Best Male Dancer'. He also won the Olivier Award in 2012 for Outstanding Achievement in Dance for his performance as Gregor Samsa in Arthur Pita's interpretation of Franz Kafka's Metamorphorsis at the Linbury Studio. In 2015 he won Prix Benois de la Danse for his performance as Leontes in Christopher Wheeldon The Winter's Tale at the Royal Ballet. Honours In the 2015 Birthday Honours, Watson was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for services to dance. Passage 7: Lewis Watson, 2nd Earl of Rockingham Lewis Watson, 2nd Earl of Rockingham (c. 1714 – 4 December 1745) was a British peer, styled Viscount Sondes from 1722 to 1724.He was born the eldest son of Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes and Lady Catherine Tufton, the daughter of Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet and Lady Catherine Cavendish.His father having predeceased his own father, Lewis inherited the earldom from his grandfather, Lewis Watson, 1st Earl of Rockingham, in 1724. He was Lord Lieutenant of Kent from 1737 to his death in 1745.He married his first cousin Catherine, daughter of Sir Robert Furnese. As part of the marriage settlement, he purchased a London house in Grosvenor Square and had it grandly decorated with marble tables, Persian carpets, mahogany panelling, silk damask hangings, and an organ.Watson died childless on 4 December and was buried on 14 December 1745 at Rockingham. He was succeeded by his brother, Thomas. His widow subsequently married, on 13 June 1751, as his third wife, Francis, Earl of Guildford, who died on 4 August 1790. She died on 17 December 1766 and was buried at Wroxton. Passage 8: Edward Southwell Jr. Edward Southwell Jr. (16 June 1705 – 16 March 1755) of King's Weston, Gloucestershire, was an Anglo-Irish Whig politician who sat in the Parliament of Ireland from 1727 to 1755 and in the British House of Commons from 1739 to 1754. Southwell was the son of Edward Southwell (1671–1730) and Elizabeth Cromwell, 8th Baroness Cromwell and the grandson of Sir Robert Southwell. He was educated at Westminster School from 1715 to 1716 and matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford in 1721. He travelled abroad from 1723.Southwell sat in the Irish House of Commons for Downpatrick from 1727 until his death. He succeeded his father as Principal Secretary of State (Ireland) in 1730, and on 6 May 1732 he was appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland.Southwell married on 21 August 1729, to Lady Katherine Watson (died April 1765), daughter of Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes and Lady Katherine (née Tufton), and lived in Kings Weston House near Bristol. Their son, Edward, later became Baron de Clifford. Edward Southwell Jr. sat in the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1739 to 1754 as MP for Bristol. Personal papers Papers relating to Edward Southwell are held by Bristol Archives (Ref. 44785 and 45317/2/5/1) (online catalogue page 1, online catalogue page 2). A travel journal, dating from 1725 to 1726, is held in the British Library Manuscripts Collections. Other records relating to Edward Southwell are held at Bristol Reference Library. Passage 9: Abd al-Muttalib Shayba ibn Hāshim (Arabic: شَيْبَة إبْن هَاشِم; c. 497–578), better known as ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, (Arabic: عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب, lit. 'Servant of Muttalib') was the fourth chief of the Quraysh tribal confederation. He was the grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Early life His father was Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf,: 81  the progenitor of the distinguished Banu Hashim, a clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. They claimed descent from Ismā'īl and Ibrāhīm. His mother was Salma bint Amr, from the Banu Najjar, a clan of the Khazraj tribe in Yathrib (later called Madinah). Hashim died while doing business in Gaza, before Abd al-Muttalib was born.: 81 His real name was "Shaiba" meaning 'the ancient one' or 'white-haired' because of the streak of white through his jet-black hair, and is sometimes also called Shaybah al-Ḥamd ("The white streak of praise").: 81–82  After his father's death he was raised in Yathrib with his mother and her family until about the age of eight, when his uncle Muttalib ibn Abd Manaf went to see him and asked his mother Salmah to entrust Shaybah to his care. Salmah was unwilling to let her son go and Shaiba refused to leave his mother without her consent. Muṭṭalib then pointed out that the possibilities Yathrib had to offer were incomparable to Mecca. Salmah was impressed with his arguments, so she agreed to let him go. Upon first arriving in Mecca, the people assumed the unknown child was Muttalib's servant and started calling him 'Abd al-Muttalib ("servant of Muttalib").: 85–86 Chieftain of Hashim clan When Muṭṭalib died, Shaiba succeeded him as the chief of the Hāshim clan. Following his uncle Al-Muṭṭalib, he took over the duties of providing the pilgrims with food and water, and carried on the practices of his forefathers with his people. He attained such eminence as none of his forefathers enjoyed; his people loved him and his reputation was great among them.: 61  'Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb's grandfather Nufayl ibn Abdul Uzza arbitrated in a dispute between 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib and Ḥarb ibn Umayyah, Abu Sufyan's father, over the custodianship of the Kaaba. Nufayl gave his verdict in favour of 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib. Addressing Ḥarb ibn Umayyah, he said: Why do you pick a quarrel with a person who is taller than you in stature; more imposing than you in appearance; more refined than you in intellect; whose progeny outnumbers yours and whose generosity outshines yours in lustre? Do not, however, construe this into any disparagement of your good qualities which I highly appreciate. You are as gentle as a lamb, you are renowned throughout Arabia for the stentorian tones of your voice, and you are an asset to your tribe. Discovery of Zam Zam Well 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib said that while sleeping in the sacred enclosure, he had dreamed he was ordered to dig at the worship place of the Quraysh between the two deities Isāf and Nā'ila. There he would find the Zamzam Well, which the Jurhum tribe had filled in when they left Mecca. The Quraysh tried to stop him digging in that spot, but his son Al-Ḥārith stood guard until they gave up their protests. After three days of digging, 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib found traces of an ancient religious well and exclaimed, "Allahuakbar!" Some of the Quraysh disputed his claim to sole rights over water, then one of them suggested that they go to a female shaman who lived afar. It was said that she could summon jinns and that she could help them decide who was the owner of the well. So, 11 people from the 11 tribes went on the expedition. They had to cross the desert to meet the priestess but then they got lost. There was a lack of food and water and people started to lose hope of ever getting out. One of them suggested that they dig their own graves and if they died, the last person standing would bury the others. So all began digging their own graves and just as Abdul-Muṭṭalib started digging, water spewed out from the hole he dug and everyone became overjoyed. It was then and there decided that Abdul-Muttalib was the owner of the Zam Zam well. Thereafter he supplied pilgrims to the Kaaba with Zam Zam water, which soon eclipsed all the other wells in Mecca because it was considered sacred.: 86–89 : 62–65 The Year of the Elephant According to Muslim tradition, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abrahah al-Ashram, envied the Kaaba's reverence among the Arabs and, being a Christian, he built a cathedral on Sana'a and ordered pilgrimage be made there.: 21  The order was ignored and someone desecrated (some saying in the form of defecation: 696 note 35 ) the cathedral. Abrahah decided to avenge this act by demolishing the Kaaba and he advanced with an army towards Mecca.: 22–23 There were thirteen elephants in Abrahah's army: 99 : 26  and the year came to be known as 'Ām al-Fīl (the Year of the Elephant), beginning a trend for reckoning the years in Arabia which was used until 'Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb replaced it with the Islamic Calendar in 638 CE (17 AH), with the first year of the Islamic Calendar being 622 CE. When news of the advance of Abrahah's army came, the Arab tribes of Quraysh, Kinānah, Khuzā'ah and Hudhayl united in defence of the Kaaba. A man from the Ḥimyar tribe was sent by Abrahah to advise them that he only wished to demolish the Kaaba and if they resisted, they would be crushed. "Abdul-Muṭṭalib told the Meccans to seek refuge in the nearest high hills while he, with some leading members of Quraysh, remained within the precincts of the Kaaba. Abrahah sent a dispatch inviting 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib to meet him and discuss matters. When 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib left the meeting he was heard saying, "The Owner of this House is its Defender, and I am sure He will save it from the attack of the adversaries and will not dishonour the servants of His House.": 24–26 It is recorded that when Abrahah's forces neared the Kaaba, Allah commanded small birds (abābīl) to destroy Abrahah's army, raining down pebbles on it from their beaks. Abrahah was seriously wounded and retreated towards Yemen but died on the way.: 26–27  This event is referred to in the following Qur'anic chapter: Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the owners of the Elephant? Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray? And He sent against them birds in flocks, striking them with stones of baked clay, so He rendered them like straw eaten up. Most Islamic sources place the event around the year that Muhammad was born, 570 CE, though other scholars place it one or two decades earlier. A tradition attributed to Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri in the musannaf of ʽAbd al-Razzaq al-Sanʽani places it before the birth of Muhammad's father. Sacrificing his son Abdullah Al-Harith was 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib's only son at the time he dug the Zamzam Well.: 64  When the Quraysh tried to help him in the digging, he vowed that if he were to have ten sons to protect him, he would sacrifice one of them to Allah at the Kaaba. Later, after nine more sons had been born to him, he told them he must keep the vow. The divination arrows fell upon his favourite son Abdullah. The Quraysh protested 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib's intention to sacrifice his son and demanded that he sacrifice something else instead. 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib agreed to consult a "sorceress with a familiar spirit". She told him to cast lots between Abdullah and ten camels. If Abdullah were chosen, he had to add ten more camels, and keep on doing the same until his Lord accepted the camels in Abdullah's place. When the number of camels reached 100, the lot fell on the camels. 'Abdul-Muṭṭalib confirmed this by repeating the test three times. Then the camels were sacrificed, and Abdullah was spared.: 66–68 Family Wives Abd al-Muttalib had six known wives. Sumra bint Jundab of the Hawazin tribe. Lubnā bint Hājar of the Khuza'a tribe. Fatima bint Amr of the Makhzum clan of the Quraysh tribe. Halah bint Wuhayb of the Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe. Natīla bint Janab of the Namir tribe. Mumanna'a bint Amr of the Khuza'a tribe. Children According to Ibn Hisham, ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib had ten sons and six daughters.: 707–708 note 97  However, Ibn Sa'd lists twelve sons.: 99–101 By Sumra bint Jundab: Al-Ḥārith.: 708  He was the firstborn and he died before his father.: 99  Quthum.: 100  He is not listed by Ibn Hisham.By Fatima bint Amr: Al-Zubayr.: 707  He was a poet and a chief; his father made a will in his favour.: 99  He died before Islam, leaving two sons and daughters.: 101 : 34–35  Abu Talib, born as Abd Manaf,: 99 : 707  father of the future Caliph Ali. He later became chief of the Hashim clan. Abdullah, the father of Muhammad.: 99 : 707  Umm Hakim al-Bayda,: 100 : 707  the maternal grandmother of the third Caliph Uthman.: 32  Barra,: 100 : 707  the mother of Abu Salama.: 33  Arwa.: 100 : 707  Atika,: 100 : 707  a wife of Abu Umayya ibn al-Mughira.: 31  Umayma,: 100 : 707  the mother of Zaynab bint Jahsh and Abd Allah ibn Jahsh.: 33 By Lubnā bint Hājar: Abd al-'Uzzā, better known as Abū Lahab.: 100 : 708 By Halah bint Wuhayb: Ḥamza,: 707  the first big leader of Islam. He killed many leaders of the kufar and was considered as the strongest man of the quraysh. He was martyred at Uhud.: 100  Ṣafīyya.: 100 : 707  Al-Muqawwim.: 707  He married Qilaba bint Amr ibn Ju'ana ibn Sa'd al-Sahmia, and had children named Abd Allah, Bakr, Hind, Arwa, and Umm Amr (Qutayla or Amra). Hajl.: 707  He married Umm Murra bint Abi Qays ibn Abd Wud, and had two sons, named Abd Allah, Ubayd Allah, and three daughters named Murra, Rabi'a, and Fakhita.By Natīlah bint Khubāb: al-'Abbas,: 100 : 707  ancestor of the Abbasid caliphs. Ḍirār,: 707  who died before Islam.: 100  Jahl, died before Islam Imran, died before IslamBy Mumanna'a bint 'Amr: Mus'ab, who, according to Ibn Saad, was the one known as al-Ghaydāq.: 100  He is not listed by Ibn Hisham. Al-Ghaydaq, died before Islam. Abd al-Ka'ba, died before Islam.: 100  Al-Mughira,: 100  who had the byname al-Ghaydaq. The family tree and some of his important descendants Death Abdul Muttalib's son 'Abdullāh died four months before Muḥammad's birth, after which Abdul Muttalib took care of his daughter-in-law Āminah. One day Muhammad's mother, Amina, wanted to go to Yathrib, where her husband, Abdullah, died. So, Muhammad, Amina, Abd al-Muttalib and their caretaker, Umm Ayman started their journey to Medina, which is around 500 kilometres away from Makkah. They stayed there for three weeks, then, started their journey back to Mecca. But, when they reached halfway, at Al-Abwa', Amina became very sick and died six years after her husband's death. She was buried over there. From then, Muhammad became an orphan. Abd al-Muttalib became very sad for Muhammad because he loved him so much. Abd al-Muttalib took care of Muhammad. But when Muhammad was eight years old, the very old Abd al-Muttalib became very sick and died at age 81-82 in 578-579 CE. Shaybah ibn Hāshim's grave can be found in the Jannat al-Mu'allā cemetery in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. See also Family tree of Muhammad Family tree of Shaiba ibn Hashim Sahaba Passage 10: Kevin Watson Kevin Edward Watson (born 3 January 1974) is a former professional footballer who played as a midfielder. After his retirement from playing, he turned non-league coach. Playing career Watson started his career as a trainee with his local side Tottenham Hotspur. Watson scored his only Spurs goal on his debut in a League Cup tie against Brentford. As a youngster his first-team opportunities were limited and he went out on loan to several sides to build his experience, namely Brentford, Bristol City and Barnet. In 1996, he was signed by Swindon Town manager Steve McMahon. Newly promoted to second tier of the English Football League – Watson helped them avoid relegation. Watson moved on to Rotherham United in July 1999, astute Millers' manager Ronnie Moore signing him on a free transfer. In his first season Watson helped Rotherham to promotion from League Two, narrowly missing out on the title. Another promotion (and another title near miss) followed in the next season and Rotherham were promoted again into the Football League Championship. A key part of their rapid acceleration, Watson helped guide the team to survival by the narrowest of goal-difference margins. After over 100 games at Rotherham his knack for promotions was spotted by then Reading manager Alan Pardew who at first, took Watson on loan before signing him permanently in March 2002 for £150,000 – where he promptly repeated the trick, guiding the Royals to promotion from League One, in his now customary second place. His first full season at Reading saw the Royals into a play-off place, where narrow defeat to Wolves cost them a place in the Premiership. Perhaps tellingly Watson was on the bench for those key play-off games. When former teammate Phil Parkinson was installed as manager at Colchester United one of his first acts was to bring Watson to Layer Road. Marshalling the midfield Watson played a key role as in his (and Parkinson's) first full season the U's stormed to promotion from League One, finishing in second place. Now with over 100 games for the U's under his belt he has been a key part of "The Best Col U ever" as the underdog U's finished their first season in the Football League Championship in 10th place. He was released by Colchester at the end of the 2007–08 season, and then signed on a free transfer for Luton Town. However, Watson failed to make an impact at Luton as a result of a knee injury that kept him out of action for much of his contract duration, and he was released at the end of 2008. In 2015 whilst assistant manager of Stevenage, Watson alongside Stevenage manager Teddy Sheringham registered as players. Coaching career After his release from a playing contract at Luton, Watson was given the position of first-team coach by Luton manager Mick Harford on 14 January 2009. After Harford's departure on 1 October 2009, Watson continued in his coaching capacity under new boss Richard Money until May 2010, when he left the club.Following the departure of Aidy Boothroyd from Colchester United to take the manager's job at Coventry City on 20 May 2010, Watson expressed an interest in taking up the vacant managerial position at his former club.In May 2015 he was appointed manager of Maldon & Tiptree However, Watson left the club after only eleven days to take up the position of assistant manager to Teddy Sheringham at Stevenage. He left his position in February after Teddy Sheringham's departure. From July 2015 to November 2015, he worked at the academy of Colchester United. In August 2016, Watson was appointed assistant manager at Eastleigh. In January 2017 he was appointed to the same position at Whitehawk but left the club after just two games, following a change of manager. In March 2017 he was appointed manager of Bishop's Stortford. He left the club at the end of the 2017–18 season.On 28 June 2018, Watson was appointed assistant manager of Hungerford Town. He left the club on 2 October to join Ebbsfleet United as a first-team coach. However, only eight days later, he was appointed caretaker after manager Gary Hill's departure. After a three-game unbeaten run the club confirmed, that Watson had been appointed to the manager's job on a permanent basis.The club was beaten in the heaviest defeat in 27 years, 7–0 by Barrow on 4 January and also crashed out of the FA Trophy to lower league opponents Royston. Other heavy losses such as a 4–0 drubbing at Chesterfield away ultimately saw the club relegated out of the National League and Watson sacked.On 7 January 2021, Watson was announced as the new manager of National League South side Billericay Town.On 5 October 2021, Watson was sacked by Billericay after Watson led them to one win and one draw from eight matches to start the season. Personal life Watson has been involved in greyhound racing, pairing up with Tottenham Hotspur teammate Stuart Nethercott to buy Elegant Brandy, who won the 1995 Grand National. Honours Rotherham United Football League Division Three runner-up: 1999–2000 Football League Division Two runner-up: 2000–01Reading Football League Division Two runner-up: 2001–02Colchester United Football League One runner-up: 2005–06
[ "Edward Watson" ]
4,625
2wikimqa
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81cd47ec621f2228d8bb4ec351ffd6b23d23107e5b287ffb
What is the date of death of Humphrey De Bohun, 7Th Earl Of Hereford's father?
"Passage 1:\nHenry de Bohun\nSir Henry de Bohun (died 23 June 1314) was an English knight, of Anglo-(...TRUNCATED)
[ "16 September 1360" ]
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048e82b64b5651b74d452db7151c2110a718128dfd12a774
Who is Helmichis's father-in-law?
"Passage 1:\nBill Dundee\nWilliam Cruickshanks (born 24 October 1943) is a retired Scottish-born Aus(...TRUNCATED)
[ "Cunimund" ]
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c8fd8db4d295aef41a9434299a8eeffb9af5e2bbcde4f13a
Where did Helena Carroll's father study?
"Passage 1:\nDonnie Elbert\nDonnie Elbert (May 25, 1936 – January 26, 1989) was an American soul s(...TRUNCATED)
[ "St Patrick's College" ]
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4db5bcd1d49fce674507d9128850eb71b808b7dc4246e882
Where does the director of film Wine Of Morning work at?
"Passage 1:\nDana Blankstein\nDana Blankstein-Cohen (born March 3, 1981) is the executive director o(...TRUNCATED)
[ "Bob Jones University" ]
5,162
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be97290f663a83ba27007dd262ca2a6072c9156f775a24ad
YAML Metadata Warning: The task_categories "conversational" is not in the official list: text-classification, token-classification, table-question-answering, question-answering, zero-shot-classification, translation, summarization, feature-extraction, text-generation, text2text-generation, fill-mask, sentence-similarity, text-to-speech, text-to-audio, automatic-speech-recognition, audio-to-audio, audio-classification, voice-activity-detection, depth-estimation, image-classification, object-detection, image-segmentation, text-to-image, image-to-text, image-to-image, image-to-video, unconditional-image-generation, video-classification, reinforcement-learning, robotics, tabular-classification, tabular-regression, tabular-to-text, table-to-text, multiple-choice, text-retrieval, time-series-forecasting, text-to-video, image-text-to-text, visual-question-answering, document-question-answering, zero-shot-image-classification, graph-ml, mask-generation, zero-shot-object-detection, text-to-3d, image-to-3d, image-feature-extraction, other

Introduction

LongBench is the first benchmark for bilingual, multitask, and comprehensive assessment of long context understanding capabilities of large language models. LongBench includes different languages (Chinese and English) to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the large models' multilingual capabilities on long contexts. In addition, LongBench is composed of six major categories and twenty one different tasks, covering key long-text application scenarios such as single-document QA, multi-document QA, summarization, few-shot learning, synthetic tasks and code completion.

We are fully aware of the potentially high costs involved in the model evaluation process, especially in the context of long context scenarios (such as manual annotation costs or API call costs). Therefore, we adopt a fully automated evaluation method, aimed at measuring and evaluating the model's ability to understand long contexts at the lowest cost.

LongBench includes 14 English tasks, 5 Chinese tasks, and 2 code tasks, with the average length of most tasks ranging from 5k to 15k, and a total of 4,750 test data. For detailed statistics and construction methods of LongBench tasks, please refer here. In addition, we provide LongBench-E, a test set with a more uniform length distribution constructed by uniform sampling, with comparable amounts of data in the 0-4k, 4k-8k, and 8k+ length intervals to provide an analysis of the model's performance variations at different input lengths.

Github Repo for LongBench: https://github.com/THUDM/LongBench Arxiv Paper for LongBench: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2308.14508.pdf

How to use it?

Loading Data

from datasets import load_dataset

datasets = ["narrativeqa", "qasper", "multifieldqa_en", "multifieldqa_zh", "hotpotqa", "2wikimqa", "musique", \
            "dureader", "gov_report", "qmsum", "multi_news", "vcsum", "trec", "triviaqa", "samsum", "lsht", \
            "passage_count", "passage_retrieval_en", "passage_retrieval_zh", "lcc", "repobench-p"]

for dataset in datasets:
    data = load_dataset('THUDM/LongBench', dataset, split='test')

Similarly, you can load the LongBench-E data

from datasets import load_dataset

datasets = ["qasper", "multifieldqa_en", "hotpotqa", "2wikimqa", "gov_report", "multi_news", "trec", \
            "triviaqa", "samsum", "passage_count", "passage_retrieval_en", "lcc", "repobench-p"]

for dataset in datasets:
    data = load_dataset('THUDM/LongBench', f"{dataset}_e", split='test')

Alternatively, you can download the folder from this link to load the data.

Data Format

All data in LongBench (LongBench-E) are standardized to the following format:

{
    "input": "The input/command for the task, usually short, such as questions in QA, queries in Few-shot tasks, etc",
    "context": "The long context required for the task, such as documents, cross-file code, few-shot examples in Few-shot tasks",
    "answers": "A List of all true answers",
    "length": "Total length of the first three items (counted in characters for Chinese and words for English)",
    "dataset": "The name of the dataset to which this piece of data belongs",
    "language": "The language of this piece of data",
    "all_classes": "All categories in classification tasks, null for non-classification tasks",
    "_id": "Random id for each piece of data"
}

Evaluation

This repository provides data download for LongBench. If you wish to use this dataset for automated evaluation, please refer to our github.

Task statistics

Task Task Type Eval metric Avg len Language #Sample
HotpotQA Multi-doc QA F1 9,151 EN 200
2WikiMultihopQA Multi-doc QA F1 4,887 EN 200
MuSiQue Multi-doc QA F1 11,214 EN 200
DuReader Multi-doc QA Rouge-L 15,768 ZH 200
MultiFieldQA-en Single-doc QA F1 4,559 EN 150
MultiFieldQA-zh Single-doc QA F1 6,701 ZH 200
NarrativeQA Single-doc QA F1 18,409 EN 200
Qasper Single-doc QA F1 3,619 EN 200
GovReport Summarization Rouge-L 8,734 EN 200
QMSum Summarization Rouge-L 10,614 EN 200
MultiNews Summarization Rouge-L 2,113 EN 200
VCSUM Summarization Rouge-L 15,380 ZH 200
TriviaQA Few shot F1 8,209 EN 200
SAMSum Few shot Rouge-L 6,258 EN 200
TREC Few shot Accuracy 5,177 EN 200
LSHT Few shot Accuracy 22,337 ZH 200
PassageRetrieval-en Synthetic Accuracy 9,289 EN 200
PassageCount Synthetic Accuracy 11,141 EN 200
PassageRetrieval-zh Synthetic Accuracy 6,745 ZH 200
LCC Code Edit Sim 1,235 Python/C#/Java 500
RepoBench-P Code Edit Sim 4,206 Python/Java 500

Note: In order to avoid discrepancies caused by different tokenizers, we use the word count (using Python's split function) to calculate the average length of English datasets and code datasets, and use the character count to calculate the average length of Chinese datasets.

Task description

Task Task Description
HotpotQA Answer related questions based on multiple given documents
2WikiMultihopQA Answer related questions based on multiple given documents
MuSiQue Answer related questions based on multiple given documents
DuReader Answer related Chinese questions based on multiple retrieved documents
MultiFieldQA-en Answer English questions based on a long article, which comes from a relatively diverse field
MultiFieldQA-zh Answer Chinese questions based on a long article, which comes from a relatively diverse field
NarrativeQA Answer questions based on stories or scripts, including understanding of important elements such as characters, plots, themes, etc.
Qasper Answer questions based on a NLP research paper, questions proposed and answered by NLP practitioners
GovReport A summarization task that requires summarizing government work reports
MultiNews A multi-doc summarization that requires summarizing over multiple news
QMSum A summarization task that requires summarizing meeting records based on user queries
VCSUM A summarization task that requires summarizing Chinese meeting records
SAMSum A dialogue summarization task, providing several few-shot examples
TriviaQA Single document question answering task, providing several few-shot examples
NQ Single document question answering task, providing several few-shot examples
TREC A classification task that requires categorizing questions, includes 50 categories in total
LSHT A Chinese classification task that requires categorizing news, includes 24 categories in total
PassageRetrieval-en Given 30 English Wikipedia paragraphs, determine which paragraph the given summary corresponds to
PassageCount Determine the total number of different paragraphs in a given repetitive article
PassageRetrieval-zh Given several Chinese paragraphs from the C4 data set, determine which paragraph the given abstract corresponds to
LCC Given a long piece of code, predict the next line of code
RepoBench-P Given code in multiple files within a GitHub repository (including cross-file dependencies), predict the next line of code

Task construction

Note: For all tasks constructed from existing datasets, we use data from the validation or test set of the existing dataset (except for VCSUM).

  • The tasks of HotpotQA, 2WikiMultihopQA, MuSiQue, and DuReader are built based on the original datasets and processed to be suitable for long context evaluation. Specifically, for questions in the validation set, we select the evidence passage that contains the answer and several distracting articles. These articles together with the original question constitute the input of the tasks.
  • The tasks of MultiFiedQA-zh and MultiFieldQA-en consist of long artical data from about 10 sources, including Latex papers, judicial documents, government work reports, and PDF documents indexed by Google. For each long artical, we invite several PhD and master students to annotate, i.e., to ask questions based on the long artical and give the correct answers. To better automate evaluation, we ask the annotators to propose questions with definitive answers as much as possible.
  • The tasks of NarrativeQA, Qasper, GovReport, QMSum and MultiNews directly use the data provided by the original papers. In the specific construction, we use the template provided by ZeroSCROLLS to convert the corresponding data into pure text input.
  • The VCSUM task is built based on the original dataset, and we design a corresponding template to convert the corresponding data into pure text input.
  • The TriviaQA task is constructed in the manner of CoLT5, which provides several examples of question and answering based on documents, and requires the language model to answer related questions based on new documents.
  • The tasks of SAMSum, TREC and LSHT are built based on the original datasets. For each question in the validation set, we sample several data from the training set to form few-shot examples. These examples together with the questions in the validation set constitute the input for this task.
  • The PassageRetrieval-en task is constructed based on English Wikipedia. For each piece of data, we randomly sample 30 paragraphs from English Wikipedia and select one for summarization (using GPT-3.5-Turbo). This task requires the model to give the original paragraph name to which the summary corresponds.
  • The PassageCount task is constructed based on the English wiki. For each piece of data, we randomly sample several passages from English Wikipedia, repeat each paragraph at random several times, and finally shuffle the paragraphs. This task requires the model to determine the total number of different paragraphs in the given context.
  • The PasskeyRetrieval-zh task is constructed based on C4. For each piece of data, we randomly sample several Chinese paragraphs from C4 and select one of them for summarization (using GPT-3.5-Turbo). This task requires the model to give the original paragraph name to which the summary corresponds.
  • For the LCC task, we sample from the original code completion dataset. In the RepoBench-P task, we select the most challenging XF-F (Cross-File-First) setting from the original dataset and refer to the Oracle-Filled scenario in the paper. For each original piece of data, we randomly extract multiple cross-file code snippets, including the gold cross-file code snippet, and concatenate them as input, requiring the model to effectively use cross-file code for completion.

LongBench-E statistics

Task Task Type #data in 0-4k #data in 4-8k #data in 8k+
HotpotQA Multi-doc QA 100 100 100
2WikiMultihopQA Multi-doc QA 100 100 100
MultiFieldQA-en Single-doc QA 67 70 13
Qasper Single-doc QA 100 100 24
GovReport Summarization 100 100 100
MultiNews Summarization 100 100 94
TriviaQA Few shot 100 100 100
SAMSum Few shot 100 100 100
TREC Few shot 100 100 100
PassageRetrieval-en Synthetic 100 100 100
PassageCount Synthetic 100 100 100
LCC Code 100 100 100
RepoBench-P Code 100 100 100

Citation

@misc{bai2023longbench,
      title={LongBench: A Bilingual, Multitask Benchmark for Long Context Understanding}, 
      author={Yushi Bai and Xin Lv and Jiajie Zhang and Hongchang Lyu and Jiankai Tang and Zhidian Huang and Zhengxiao Du and Xiao Liu and Aohan Zeng and Lei Hou and Yuxiao Dong and Jie Tang and Juanzi Li},
      year={2023},
      eprint={2308.14508},
      archivePrefix={arXiv},
      primaryClass={cs.CL}
}
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