ISL instructors were certified as St John’s Ambulance first aid instructors. Communications This 8 hour course focused on using words to deescalate subjects in crisis. Security guards were trained in using key phrases and verbal tactics to illicit compliance in subjects. Basic Self Defence and Handcuffing This 16 hour training course involved in class learning about Criminal Code legislation on powers of arrest, use of force, excessive force, and Trespass to Property Act. Once security staff successfully completed their knowledge exam, they completed Monadnock Pressure Point Control Techniques, basic open hand strikes, take-down techniques, passive handcuffing, and resistant handcuffing. Once they demonstrated the skill, they completed a scenario based assessment where the instructors simulated various scenarios where the guard had to assess the situation and respond appropriately. The training was rigorous and students would fail the course if they could not safely demonstrate the skills. Security guards were required to recertify annually. Advanced Self Defence and Baton This 16 hour course involved more advanced open hand strikes, blocks, take downs, and baton strikes. Initially, students were trained in Monadnock PR-24 side handled baton, however in 2008 they transitioned to the ASP collapsible baton. This training also involved in class review of legislation and examination, physical training and competency exam, and scenario based training.
signal words
{ "text": [ "key phrases" ], "answer_start": [ 206 ] }
This so-called "AAL Joint Programme" also involves the "Austrian Ministry of Traffic, Innovation and Technology", the Austrian Society for Research Funding and several privately owned technology companies. A somewhat more ambitious project is the inclusion of EEG in hearables, making it an example of ear-EEG. Current Developments. Most systems in development are designed for binaural use and share a basic set of desired functionalities. Currently the deployment of hearables is on the agenda of many consumer technology manufacturers. The first hearable product to enter the marketplace was the iriverON Bluetooth headset, launched in late 2013, which integrated biometric sensor technology into a Bluetooth audio headset. Other biometric have since followed in the market, including the Jabra Sport Pulse, the Sony B-Trainer, the LG HR Earphone, and other biometric Bluetooth headsets. The core technology behind these products has been independently validated by Duke University. In the summer of 2014 "Earin", a headphone firm based in Lund (Sweden), started a crowdfunding campaign for their "Minuscule" earbuds, claiming them to become the smallest in ear headphones ever.Earin the Truly Wireless Earbuds</ref></ref> However, the design details known as of today hint at „Minuscule“ being deployed as bluetooth headphones and as such the earbuds will not completely comply with the definition of hearables in a broader sense. If they are to be seen as but an interim stage in the development of a multi-purpose in ear-piece is yet uncertain. A similar approach was chosen by headphone company OwnPhones, which is currently working on wireless, Bluetooth triggered earbuds, which can be fitted individually to the user's ear by a smartphone based measuring application triggering a 3D-printing device.
acting phase
{ "text": [ "interim stage" ], "answer_start": [ 1480 ] }
Historic events. 1972 Iran blizzard. The 1972 Iran blizzard, which caused 4,000 reported deaths, was the deadliest blizzard in recorded history. Dropping as much as of snow, it completely covered 200 villages. After a snowfall lasting nearly a week, an area the size of Wisconsin was entirely buried in snow. The Snow Winter of 1880–1881. The winter of 1880–1881 is widely considered the most severe winter ever known in parts of the United States. Many children—and their parents—learned of "The Snow Winter" through the children's book "The Long Winter" by Laura Ingalls Wilder, in which the author tells of her family's efforts to survive. The snow arrived in October 1880 and blizzard followed blizzard throughout the winter and into March 1881, leaving many areas snowbound throughout the entire winter. Accurate details in Wilder's novel include the blizzards' frequency and the deep cold, the Chicago and North Western Railway stopping trains until the spring thaw because the snow made the tracks impassable, the near-starvation of the townspeople, and the courage of her future husband Almanzo and another man, who ventured out on the open prairie in search of a cache of wheat that no one was even sure existed. The October blizzard brought snowfalls so deep that two-story homes had snow up to the second floor windows.
Opening on level two
{ "text": [ "second floor windows" ], "answer_start": [ 1309 ] }
Individual wheel drive on respective bogies secures perfect use of adhesive conditions and ideal ride both in bends and on straight lines. There are three-phase synchronous motors with permanent magnet excitation on rotor. They are fixed to the bogie framework from the wheels outside. The traction motors don't use a gear box - they drive tram wheels directly through a mechanically disconnectable jaw clutch. While the drive is controlled by two control units connected together by fast serial communication, the safety circuits and functions are hardware-resolved. Brakes. Braking is mainly done by electrodynamic brake enabling recuperation of the braking energy back to the electrical grid. If there is no need of it, the braking energy is being used primarily for feeding the vehicle's auxiliary equipment with the rest depleted in the brake resistors. The electrodynamic brake is able to automatically run even during grid's voltage failure. In case of failure, braking is automatically done by the system of friction disc brake, which will work until the vehicle comes to a complete halt. The friction disc brake is hydraulically controlled with an electric compression unit.
ideal operation
{ "text": [ "perfect use" ], "answer_start": [ 52 ] }
Peasant uprising in 1932. Izalco was a center of the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising. Its native Pipil peasants were led by Feliciano Ama, who was hanged by government troops on January 28. More than one fourth of the population of Izalco was killed. Main sights. Church Dolores de Izalco. It is located in the city of Izalco, in the municipality and district of the same name, in the feet of the volcano of the same name, at 6.5 Kilometers to the northeast of the city of Sonsonate. It has an elevation of 440 meters over sea level. It was built in year previous to 1570, because in this year the parish was very organized, according to the civil documents of Caluco. It is unknown who built it but its benefactor was Don Diego de Guzmán. The church is surrounded by an atrium, the facade is of three bodies, but only two bodies of the church remain, the inferior and the middle one.
25 percent
{ "text": [ "one fourth" ], "answer_start": [ 201 ] }
History. BranchOut launched in June 2010 as a Facebook app. Rick Marini, the founder and CEO of SuperFan, received a call from a friend asking if he knew anyone at a particular company. Marini knew he had a mutual connection, but couldn't remember the person specifically. He was unable to find the connection by searching on Facebook and asked if SuperFan's Director of Engineering could build a widget to accomplish the task. Marini saw potential in the application and pivoted SuperFan's team to begin development on the product. In July 2010, Marini launched BranchOut. In September 2010, BranchOut announced a $6 million Series A round of funding led by Accel Partners, Floodgate, and Norwest Venture Partners, with additional investments from founders and executives at Napster, Facebook, WordPress, and Google. In January 2011, BranchOut's userbase grew by a factor of 25, increasing from 10,000 to 250,000. In May 2011, BranchOut raised $18 million in a Series B round of funding from Redpoint Ventures, Accel Partners, Norwest Venture Partners, and Floodgate. Soon after, BranchOut experienced a period of explosive growth, which Marini attributes to superconnectors joining BranchOut, noting that people began to sign up to the service en masse after people like TechCrunch founder Michael Arrington installed the app.
specific business
{ "text": [ "particular company" ], "answer_start": [ 166 ] }
The Real Football Factories International is a documentary style program about football hooliganism across the world. "The Real Football Factories" was the first series, where presenter and actor Danny Dyer travelled the UK, meeting some of the more notorious football firms. In this spin-off series, Dyer goes international, meeting firms from across the globe. Dyer played the main character of Tommy Johnson, a main member of a fictional Chelsea firm in the 2004 film "The Football Factory". In 'The Real Football Factories International', Dyer visits Turkey, Argentina, Italy, Croatia and Serbia, The Netherlands, Brazil, Poland and Russia. In late 2007, The Score in Canada started to broadcast these episodes along with "The Real Football Factories." But with an altered soundtrack due to copyright issues. It was also shown on CNN and CNN International under the name The Real Soccer Factories International in 2008.
prominent figure
{ "text": [ "main member" ], "answer_start": [ 414 ] }
This enables the person to make changes that will allow more positive use of energy. Another important principle which Heimler introduces is the use of the individual's past experience to dialogue with the present experience and project on to the future. Using a process, called the "Fragmenta Vitae", the person is enabled to become aware of the current emotional triggers and helped to access their early antecedents recalling childhood stories with the same emotional content. By engaging with the child in the past, the individual is encouraged to dialogue between the present and the past and to a projected future. This can help break patterns from the past and provide for an altered future outcome. Heimler understood his theory in a developmental model with three levels. Briefly put: Level 1 (L1) is the infant world of instinctual responses to pleasure or pain; Level 2 (L2) "revolves" around L1 as it were by taking the growing and developed child into social interactions with all the satisfactions and frustrations this can entail; while Level 3 (L3) revolves around life itself, often as a more dominant force in later life, but as well, a creative force than many people tap into from earlier years. All these levels are relatively fluid as development ebbs and flows. Heimler identified that "when a psychiatric or medical history is taken, it is looking at what is wrong or what went wrong" [and he continues:] "... rarely ... will you find ... that which seeks what is right with people". The HSF method sets out the whole of a client's current experience so that positive and negative can be set together and the client can see her/himself as a whole. In this methodology, the individuals stand firmly at the centre of their own world, exerting their will and abilities to change their own situation.
productive utilization
{ "text": [ "positive use" ], "answer_start": [ 61 ] }
Delay box use by motorcycle drag racers lagged far behind those in use by the car racers. These factors contributed to the delay box controversy because some racers felt their chosen equipment was incompatible with the use of delay boxes. This was untrue and educating the bracket racing community took time. A significant reason motorcycle drag racers lagged in implementing delay box electronics is due to the wide variety of driveline configurations on dragbikes. Of the successful bracket racing drag race cars, most had automatic transmissions equipped with transbrakes. Innovation quickly adapted the delay box to cars with dual line locks (devices which locked the brakes on all four wheels electrically), and manual transmissions with the use of a hydraulic throw out bearing to hold the clutch plates apart, and also adapted to dragbikes that used pneumatics or hydraulics to actuate the clutch release, or centrifugal dragbike clutches known as "slider clutches" that engage with the engine's revolutions per minute (RPM) increase. When using a delay box on a motorcycle with a slider clutch, the engine RPM is electronically controlled (capped) by an electronic rev limiter connected to a delay box. When the delay box times out, the engine is allowed to freely rev-up engaging the clutch and launching the motorcycle downtrack. As you can see, delay boxes can be used on both cars and motorcycles. A transmission brake is not required to use a delay box for drag racing. When racers were educated to this, and also shown ways to utilize delay boxes on motorcycles, there was some alleviation of the early controversy.
notable cause
{ "text": [ "significant reason" ], "answer_start": [ 311 ] }
Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. In Berks County, 65% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009. Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, so people who make substantially more than $35,000 may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.
home possessors
{ "text": [ "property owners" ], "answer_start": [ 375 ] }
Shellac should be considered in two different ways. It is used thinned with denatured alcohol as a finish and as a way to manipulate the wood's ability to absorb other finishes. The alcohol evaporates almost immediately to yield a finish that will attach to virtually any surface, even glass, and virtually any other finish can be used over it. "1 accentuates visual properties due to differences in wood grain." Automated wood finishing methods. Manufacturers who mass-produce products implement automated flatline finish systems. These systems consist of a series of processing stations that may include sanding, dust removal, staining, sealer and topcoat applications. As the name suggests, the primary part shapes are flat. Liquid wood finishes are applied via automated spray guns in an enclosed environment or spray cabin. The material then can enter an oven or be sanded again depending on the manufacturer’s setup. The material can also be recycled through the line to apply another coat of finish or continue in a system that adds successive coats depending on the layout of the production line.
refining stops
{ "text": [ "processing stations" ], "answer_start": [ 569 ] }
Neural stem cells. The type of growth factor signaling can effect whether or not NSCs differentiate into motor neurons or not. Priming a media with FGF2 lowers the activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which activates GSK3β. This increases expression of HB9. Directly inhibiting PI3K in NSCs leads to a population of cells that are purely HB9+ and differentiate at an elevated efficiency into motor neurons. Grafting these cells into different parts of rats generates motor neurons regardless of the transplanted cells' microenvironment. Following injury, neural stem cells enter a repair phase and express high levels of PI3K to enhance proliferation. This is better for survival of the neurons as a whole but is at the expense of generating motor neurons. Therefore, it can be difficult for injured motor neurons to recover their ability. It is the purpose of modern research to generate neural stem cells that can proliferate but still differentiate into motor neurons. Lowering the effect of the PI3K pathway and increasing the effect of GSK3β and HB9 in NSCs is a potential way of generating these cells.
feasible method
{ "text": [ "potential way" ], "answer_start": [ 1065 ] }
Gamma-ray bursts, novae and supernovae are examples of systems exceeding their Eddington luminosity by a large factor for very short times, resulting in short and highly intensive mass loss rates. Some X-ray binaries and active galaxies are able to maintain luminosities close to the Eddington limit for very long times. For accretion-powered sources such as accreting neutron stars or cataclysmic variables (accreting white dwarfs), the limit may act to reduce or cut off the accretion flow, imposing an Eddington limit on accretion corresponding to that on luminosity. Super-Eddington accretion onto stellar-mass black holes is one possible model for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). For accreting black holes, not all the energy released by accretion has to appear as outgoing luminosity, since energy can be lost through the event horizon, down the hole. Such sources effectively may not conserve energy. Then the accretion efficiency, or the fraction of energy actually radiated of that theoretically available from the gravitational energy release of accreting material, enters in an essential way. Other factors. The Eddington limit is not a strict limit on the luminosity of a stellar object. The limit does not consider several potentially important factors, and super-Eddington objects have been observed that do not seem to have the predicted high mass-loss rate. Other factors that might affect the maximum luminosity of a star include: Humphreys–Davidson limit.
hard restriction
{ "text": [ "strict limit" ], "answer_start": [ 1152 ] }
Career. He sat in the Irish House of Commons as MP for Dublin University from 1739 to 1776 and then for the city of Armagh from 1776 to his death. He had been elected as member for Armagh in 1768, but chose to continue sitting for the University. In 1742 he was appointed Third Serjeant, then Solicitor-General in 1751 and Attorney-General in 1760. He enjoyed the crucial support of George Stone, Archbishop of Armagh. He was also appointed judge of the Prerogative Court of Ireland, an office he held from 1745 to his death, but failed to become Master of the Rolls in Ireland as he had hoped to on the death of his wife's uncle, Henry Singleton in 1759. In 1763 he became Principal Secretary of State, and on 28 February 1764 he was appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland. For almost 20 years he was a crucial figure in the Irish Government, which relied on him on to manage the Irish House of Commons, a task which he performed with great skill and tact. Tisdall was almost all-powerful until 1767, when George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend arrived as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Townshend had a mandate to restore the direct power of the Crown over Irish affairs and to bypass the Irish political managers like Tisdall. To his credit, Townshend recognised that Tisdall's support was still an asset to the Government, and made great efforts to conciliate him.
unequivocal authority
{ "text": [ "direct power" ], "answer_start": [ 1131 ] }
He earned an overall grade of 93.4 and finished with the second highest grade among all qualified inside/middle linebackers in the league in 2014. 2015. Head coach Andy Reid named Johnson and Josh Mauga the starting inside linebackers to start the 2015 regular season. On December 6, 2015, Johnson collected a season-high 14 combined tackles (13 solo) and a sack during a 34–20 win against the Oakland Raiders. The following week, he made six combined tackles, a pass deflection, and an interception in the Chiefs' 10–3 win against the San Diego Chargers in Week 14. He started all 16 games in 2015 and made 116 combined tackles (95 solo), eight pass deflections, four sacks, two forced fumbles, and two interceptions. The Kansas City Chiefs finished second in the AFC West with an 11–5 record and earned an wildcard berth. On January 9, 2016, Johnson recorded six combined tackles in the Chiefs' 30–0 victory at the Houston Texans in the AFC Wildcard Game. The following week, he made four combined tackles in the Chiefs' 27–20 loss at the New England Patriots in the AFC Divisional Round. On January 25, 2016, Johnson was named to the 2016 Pro Bowl as a late replacement for Carolina Panthers' linebacker Luke Kuechly who was participating in Super Bowl 50. Johnson was ranked 80th by his fellow players on the NFL Top 100 Players of 2016.
next best
{ "text": [ "second highest grade" ], "answer_start": [ 57 ] }
The Congress reaffirmed Vietnam's strong ties with the Soviet Union and its "special relationships" with the socialist states of Laos and Kampuchea (Cambodia). However, the Congress highlighted the need to strengthen its relationship with countries belonging to Comecon, the international communist trade organization. Yegor Ligachev, the head of the Soviet delegation to the Congress, surprised the Vietnamese and many foreign observers by announcing an economic aid package 8–9 billion rubles (11–13 billion US dollars) at the time, and was about equal per capita of aid given to South Vietnam by the United States before 1975. The Political Report mentioned the importance of Vietnam's relations with India and its continued membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. The Congress announced Vietnam's wishes to improve its relations with the capitalist world, specifically mentioning Sweden, Finland, France, Australia and Japan. Võ Văn Kiệt, a Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, delivered the Economic Report to the 6th National Congress. The political and economic reports stressed Đổi Mới (Renovation), and Vietnam specialist Carlyle Thayer wrote that Võ Văn Kiệt may have been the foremost advocate of this concept. In his speech to the Congress, Võ Văn Kiệt said, "in the economic field, there will be renovation in economic policies and the management system. "Võ Văn Kiệt said that agriculture and not heavy industry would be most important during the 4th Five-Year Plan. During the 4th Five-Year Plan, Võ Văn Kiệt said, "[t]he ... main orientation for heavy industry in this stage is to support agriculture and light industry on a proper scale and at an appropriate technical level." Võ Văn Kiệt stressed the role of exports and the production of grain, food, and consumer goods to revitalize the Vietnamese economy.
ongoing participation
{ "text": [ "continued membership" ], "answer_start": [ 718 ] }
Ancient historians stated that Calauria was the center of an amphictyony, a religious alliance between its city-state and those of Athens, Poros, Aegina, Epidaurus, Hermione, Troezen, Nauplio, Orchomenus, and Prasaiai. Modern archaeology has discovered no evidence for its actual existence, however, and now believe the "Calaurian League" to have been a later Hellenistic invention. An enormous feast was found dating to the Hellenistic period in the ruins of the Calaurian asylum, along with a plaque celebrating the "revival" of its amphictyony. During the 5th century, the Persian Empire annexed the Greek cities of western Anatolia. Athenian help for a revolt then drew them into a general war with mainland Greece and the Greek states on the Aegean islands. At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, Troezen and Calauria offered asylum to an anti-Macedonian politician who eventually became the tyrant of the region. After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the Ptolemies of Egypt occupied Calauria. Around the same time, the Athenian orator Demosthenes came to the island, where some report his suicide. In 273 BC, the last explosion of the Methana volcano dramatically changed the morphology of Poros and the wider region. The Sanctuary of Poseidon has been excavated by Swedish archaeologists. The 1894 field season is considered to be the first Swedish archaeological campaign in Greece.
wide conflict
{ "text": [ "general war" ], "answer_start": [ 686 ] }
Biotech leaders warned of potential damage to the state's $73 billion industry, citing Massachusetts as a top competitor for employees. Many members of the entertainment industry were opposed to Proposition 8. Actor Tom Hanks, a strong supporter of same-sex marriage, was extremely outspoken about his opposition to the bill. Brad Pitt and Steven Spielberg each donated different amounts of money to the opposition campaign "No on 8". In 2010, the documentary film "" premiered to sell-out audiences at the Sundance Film Festival. The Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education voted unanimously for a resolution to oppose Proposition 8. The California Teachers Association donated one million dollars to fight Proposition 8. Chancellor Robert Birgeneau of UC Berkeley urged a vote against the measure, claiming a likely threat to California's academic competitiveness if Proposition 8 is passed. Newspaper editorials. All ten of the state's largest newspapers editorialized against Proposition 8, including the "Los Angeles Times", and the "San Francisco Chronicle". Other papers to have editorialized in opposition include "The New York Times", "La Opinión" (Los Angeles), and "The Bakersfield Californian".
probable menace
{ "text": [ "likely threat" ], "answer_start": [ 826 ] }
There followed a period of stagnation in which the comparative status of the town declined. 20th century. Some 1,200 men of Pembrokeshire lost their lives in World War I, and Haverfordwest was the location chosen for the County of Pembroke War Memorial, unveiled in 1921. Its current location is Picton Place, close by County Hall, and it is Grade II listed. Haverfordwest was bombed for the first time during World War II on 24 September 1940. The City Road and New Road areas were hit, although there had been little preparation and no warning siren sounded. There were no casualties. Haverfordwest today has the air of a typical small country market town, but the centre still conveys the feel of the important mediaeval borough. The once run-down riverside area has been renovated and Bridge Street has been pedestrianised and improved. Haverford Township, Haverford and Havertown in Pennsylvania, United States, are all named after Haverfordwest. Governance.
nearly no setup
{ "text": [ "little preparation" ], "answer_start": [ 512 ] }
Their policy statements are developed by an elected board of directors and implemented by the ALIA National Office. ALIA National Office staff are based in ALIA House in the nation's capital, Canberra. Membership and activities. Membership of ALIA is open to individuals and organisations alike: the only membership requirement is an interest in the sector. Members of ALIA can belong to as many groups as they wish. These groups actively participate in Association activities. ALIA Awards, national and regional, are presented each year to reward members of the library and information community and to celebrate their achievements. Conferences. ALIA hosts a number of conferences which are rotated around Australia:
participant qualifier
{ "text": [ "membership requirement" ], "answer_start": [ 305 ] }
Tournament species are characterized by fierce same-sex fighting. Significantly larger or better-armed individuals in these species have an advantage, but only to the competing sex. Thus, most tournament species have high sexual dimorphism. Examples of tournament species include grouse, peafowl, lions, mountain gorillas and elephant seals. In some species, members of the competing sex come together in special display areas called leks. In other species, competition is more direct, in the form of fighting between males. In a small number of species, females compete for males; these include species of jacana, species of phalarope, and the spotted hyena. In all these cases, the female of the species shows traits that help in same-sex battles: larger bodies, aggressiveness, territorialism. Even maintenance of a multiple-male "harem" is sometimes seen in these animals. Most species fall on a continuum between tournament species and pair-bonding species.
marginal amount
{ "text": [ "small number" ], "answer_start": [ 530 ] }
Mouseover control elements are common in web browsers. For example, hovering over a hyperlink triggers the mouseover control element to display a URL on the status bar. Site designers can define their own mouseover events using JavaScript or Cascading Style Sheets. Mouseover events are frequently used in web design and graphical user interface programming. It is also known as rollover, which refers to a button created by a web developer or web designer, found within a web page, used to provide interactivity between the user and the page itself. The term rollover in this regard originates from the visual process of "rolling the mouse cursor over the button" causing the button to react (usually visually, by replacing the button's source image with another image), and sometimes resulting in a change in the web page itself. The part of the term 'roll' is probably referring to older mice which had a mechanical assembly consisting of a hard rubber ball housed in the base of the mouse (which rolls) contrary to the modern optical mouse, which has no rolling parts. Rollovers can be done by imagery, text or buttons. The user only requires two images/buttons (with the possible addition of "alt" text to these images) to perform this interactive action. Rollover imagery can be done either by a program with a built-in tool or script coding. The user will have to pick a first image and select an alternate secondary image.
probable inclusion
{ "text": [ "possible addition" ], "answer_start": [ 1176 ] }
Raqaoui told the information to Reuters in an interview via Skype from inside Syria. His group also posted witness accounts of the raid on Facebook soon after it took place. The posts, which were viewed by Reuters, have since been taken down. James Foley would later be executed on video and the operation revealed by the Pentagon. SIDENOTE: Roughly a quasi-above average number of Delta operations followed the failed Foley attempt. With their brethren in DEVGRU/SEAL Team 6, and the shadowy ISA/NSA and likely from ground task units used before in previous operations, Delta commanders (entire Squadron-sized assault elements were even considered, it has been rumored) grabbed and consolidated the remaining Delta in the AOR and then hastily put some small Task Forces out on the ground in almost all the most difficult to traverse areas inside Syria. In order to try and catch a track from the SSE of other "dry holes" that may not have yielded much, the primary focus, had to take a back seat, gratefully, to the very least, more than a hundred ISIS fighters, as well as IRGC-influenced proxies in various ACMs (Anti-Coalition Militias) were taken off the battlefield permanently. From everything from targeted strikes by Delta to armed ISR and AC-130s, the CENTCOM SOF made short work of the visible ISIL positions (but only the ones they were cleared to hit, said anonymous insiders who believed and still do, that ISIS could have been nearly 70% wiped out in their part of that battlespace) and still are from their bases in nearby countries like Jordan who are not sending their Special Operations in to not be heavy-handed. The Jordanian assistance in the intervention has been crucial, as likely their GID is the best in the entire region. On the night of May 15, 2015, U.S. special operations forces launched a raid on Deir Ezzor in eastern Syria. The objective of the raid was to capture the head of financial operations of ISIL, Abu Sayyaf.
whole area
{ "text": [ "entire region" ], "answer_start": [ 1735 ] }
Nearly 25% of all ocean life thrives on coral reefs, making these fragile habitats a necessity to ocean ecosystems. Plant and animal life on coral reefs are quickly being destroyed due to pollution, overfishing, and climate change. Animals known as polyps, which create the fundamental structure of a reef, die from ingesting tiny bits of trash floating throughout the ocean called microplastics. Overfishing is also threatening reef fish populations, which feed on the algae that will smother corals. Fluctuating ocean temperatures caused by global warming presents the largest threat to coral reefs. The sudden warming or cooling of the water stresses the corals, causing them to lose their nutrients and turn white, a process known as bleaching. With the destruction of these complex yet fragile ecosystems comes a wide range of global consequences such as extinction of marine species, endangerment to the fishing industries, and severe coastal erosion. In common with coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and the world, the Florida Reef exhibits some signs of stress and deterioration. Precht and Miller state that the numbers of Elkhorn and Staghorn corals ("Acropora" ssp.) are declining to an extent that is unprecedented in several thousand years. Between 1981 and 1986, Staghorn corals declined by 96% at Molasses Reef.
biggest risk
{ "text": [ "largest threat" ], "answer_start": [ 571 ] }
Reasons given for this say skin health may reflect an individual's overall health. Healthy skin can show that someone is free from illness because some illnesses have a bad effect on the look of skin. These features are found attractive because they show that the person has good genes and is therefore a suitable mate to reproduce with. Skin health may also give an indication of socioeconomic status, as rough hands may indicate a low paying laborious job. Low socioeconomic status might show that someone does not have resources to provide for the offspring, therefore this is less attractive. The more fat the hands appear, the less attractive they are. This is because of the co-morbidity associated with obesity. If someone is overfat, they may have another disease, which means they may not be able to produce healthy offspring. The attractiveness of the hands also gives an indication of other features of the individual, people with more attractive hands have been found to be taller and slimmer. In most of these hand attractiveness studies only white, European hands were used and the participants were in the age range between 18-26. So, the attractiveness of non-white hands and of different age groups was not tested.
sickly outcome
{ "text": [ "bad effect" ], "answer_start": [ 169 ] }
'The shoulders [...] shape what others think of us, they reveal our health and emotions, and they assist us in communicating' Similarly to the chest, the posture of the shoulders is an easily observable body language sign. When the shoulders are back with the chest forwards this generally indicates confidence. If the shoulders are positioned forwards with the body hunched then this can be a sign of low confidence or self-esteem; it may also be demonstrative of a feeling of dejection or sadness. Usually if a person is relaxed their shoulders are positioned lower; if they are feeling tense or anxious then they are held in a raised position. A shrugging of the shoulders, a quick up and down movement, is often given as a sign of not knowing something or being unable to help in some manner. Partly due to their prominent position on the body, strong and flexible shoulders can help to communicate a sense of vitality and natural rhythm. Contrarily, if the shoulders are weak and lacking in mobility, perhaps due to the frequent adoption of a slumped posture, then this can convey the impression that the person is depressed. Gestures. Gestures are movements made with body parts (example hands, arms, fingers, head, legs) and they may be voluntary or involuntary. Arm gestures can be interpreted in several ways. In a discussion, when one stands, sits or even walks with folded arms, it is normally not a welcoming gesture.
nice posture
{ "text": [ "welcoming gesture" ], "answer_start": [ 1411 ] }
They pointlessly argue for some time, blaming one another for the current situation; they suspect that the girls are both dead and that Plesidippus will not be happy, since he had paid a deposit for Palaestra. Suddenly, they come across Sceparnio, now leaving the temple, and wondering why two women are there, crying. Hearing this, Labrax interrogates Sceparnio, realising that they are Ampelisca and Palaestra; his continual questioning annoys Sceparnio, who is then cheekily asked by Labrax whether he can provide them with a place to stay. Sceparnio does not oblige, but does offer to dry their clothes — an offer which Charmides refuses. The scene ends as Charmides enters the temple to seek shelter. Shortly after, Daemones emerges from his cottage, explaining a dream he had had about being attacked by a monkey, trying to climb a tree to get to a swallow's nest, because he did not lend the monkey a ladder; like the audience at this stage, he has no idea what the dream meant. He hears a great noise from inside the temple, and then sees Trachalio running out, exclaiming incomprehensible pleas for help. Trachalio hysterically approaches Daemones, begging for help in the same complex way, but still making no sense to the latter. Finally, he explains that two girls and the priestess are being attacked in the temple; he expands on this, explaining that a man (known to the audience as Labrax) is trying to take the girls, clinging to the altar, away. Being a decent man, Daemones calls upon two strong slaves, Turbalio and Sparax, to go into the temple to help them; Palaestra and Ampelisca leave the temple. Having been found by the pimp, from whom she thought she was now safe, Palaestra despairs, asking what will become of herself and Ampelisca now; once again, she states that it would be better for them to die.
convoluted process
{ "text": [ "complex way" ], "answer_start": [ 1187 ] }
Among crocodilians and certain lizards, there is a much greater interaction between members. Young will be guarded and defended for a considerable period of time. Crocodilians of both sexes carry and assist young hatchlings to the water and guard them. The gharial ("Gavialis gangeticus") has to nudge young to the water because their teeth are too sharp to carry them. Sub-adult members of a crocodilian social group will often stand by a female laying eggs or retrieving young from a nest to keep predators away. The female Asian forest tortoise (Manouria emys) has been reported to guard a nest site for a short period after egg laying but this instinct is very short lived. In stump-tailed skinks ("Tiliqua rugosa") and Solomon Islands skinks ("Corucia spp"), long term bonding of pairs with each other and other members has been recorded. In the case of Corucia, orphaned young have been observed being adopted into the circulus. The social bond and parental attention of reptiles appears equal in circulus containing egg-laying reptiles compared to those with live bearing reptiles. Another case of egg-laying lizards with a circulus is the red-eyed crocodile skink ("Tribolonotus gracilis"). The female will sit on the egg and guard the young.
sizable amount
{ "text": [ "considerable period" ], "answer_start": [ 134 ] }
Polur Subramanya Swamy Temple of Kozhikode, once the capital of Zamorin of India, is one of the area's oldest temples. This Temple is located 12 km away from Kozhikode city in the Indian state of Kerala and 3 km away from Parambil Bazar and Muzhikkal. The exact place is Polor in Kuruvattor Panchayath. History of the temple. Sree Porlathiri King was the dominant king of this place, providing the area's name. Polurappan (Sree Subramanya Swamy) and Ganapathi, Vettakkorumakan, Ayyapan and Devi are worshiped here. Subramanya Swamy faces to the west. Polurappan sits as if he is meditating or writing. Festivals. People celebrate Thaipuyam as the birth day of Subramanya Swamy. It is the main festival of this temple, which takes place in the month of Makaram.
original birthday
{ "text": [ "birth day" ], "answer_start": [ 647 ] }
Reznor stated that he began to fully understand his financial situation after tackling his addiction to drugs and alcohol. Reznor requested a financial statement from Malm in 2003, only to discover that he had only $400,000 in liquid assets. "It was not pleasant discovering you have a 10th as much as you've been told you have," Reznor told the court. Malm's lawyers, however, claimed that Malm had worked for years "pro bono," and that Reznor's inability to release an album or tour and his uninhibited spending were the reasons for his financial situation. After a three-week trial in 2005, jurors sided with Reznor, awarding him upwards of $2.95 million and returning complete control of his trademarks to Reznor. After adjustment for inflation, Reznor's award rose to nearly $5 million.
banking outline
{ "text": [ "financial statement" ], "answer_start": [ 142 ] }
The chemical reactions that govern the Local Oxidation in a metallic substrate (M) are the following: while hydrogen gas is liberated at the AFM tip through the reduction reaction: When the voltage pulse is off the AFM feedback forces the cantilever to recover its original oscillation amplitude withdrawing the tip from the sample and breaking the liquid meniscus. Finally the AFM continues to scan the sample thus allowing to image MOn nanostructure fabricated during the Local Oxidation process with the very same tip used for its fabrication. The method to form liquid bridges is so precise that water meniscus diameters of 20 nm or below are easily obtained. This has led to the reproducible fabrication of sub-10 nm structures in silicon and other metallic surfaces. Experimental setup. Local oxidation experiments can be performed with almost any kind of atomic force microscope. The key requirement is the possibility to apply voltage pulses between the tip and the sample. It is recommendable to enclose the microscope in a chamber where the atmosphere is controlled. In the simplest case, the oxidant is water vapor, which is naturally present in the air. Controlling the relative humidity generally helps to obtain more reproducible results. The size of the fabricated features depends on a number of parameters, such as the distance between the sample and the tip, the amplitude and the duration of the voltage pulse, and the relative humidity of the atmosphere.
primary obligation
{ "text": [ "key requirement" ], "answer_start": [ 891 ] }
It was the first time that divisional teams were selected and this tournament anticipated the National Cricket League which was launched twenty years later. Fortunately, the riot in 1980 did not deter other tourists and MCC returned to Bangladesh in 1980–81, followed by the Calcutta and Hyderabad clubs from India in 1981–82. In the 1982 ICC Trophy, also held in England, Bangladesh reached the semi-finals and lost to the eventual winners, Zimbabwe. This time, there were sixteen teams divided into two groups of eight. Bangladesh were in Group B. Two of their seven matches were abandoned because of bad weather and they had two very narrow wins against Malaysia, by a single run, and Netherlands, by four runs. They had only one defeat and so finished second. The defeat was against group winners Bermuda and it was a heavy one, again exposing Bangladesh's limitations at this stage of their development. Bangladesh were bowled out for only 67 and Bermuda needed just 15.5 overs to win by seven wickets. The limitations were again exposed in the semi-final when Bangladesh's batsmen could only reach 124, Zimbabwe winning easily by eight wickets. Zimbabwe defeated Bermuda in the final and there was another setback for Bangladesh when they lost the third-place playoff match to Papua New Guinea by three wickets despite an innings of 115 by Yousuf Rahman.
hard-hitting thing
{ "text": [ "heavy one" ], "answer_start": [ 822 ] }
Elements and equipment. Waterbag - Waterbags (also known as waterballs) are the primary object required for the sport and is comparable to the ball in golf. While any sort of ball capable of floating will work, balls specifically designed for the water are preferred. The primary products tailored to this game on the market are the WaterRipper(link) and Waboba Ball(link) although a tennis ball would work as well.
chief equipment
{ "text": [ "primary object" ], "answer_start": [ 80 ] }
In this game, the player controls a Formula One race car, and has to complete a time trial lap within a certain amount of time (between 57 and 120 seconds) to qualify for an F1 race at the Fuji Racetrack. After qualifying, the player races against seven other CPU-controlled cars in a championship race (but if they do not qualify, the car will stay on the track until the timer runs out). The player must also avoid going off the road so that they will not crash into the billboards. Play continues until either time runs out in any lap and/or complete four laps of the race, which ends the game. "Pole Position" was the first racing video game to feature a track based on a real racing circuit. It was also the first game to feature a qualifying lap, requiring the player to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races. Once the player has qualified, they must complete the race in the time allowed, avoiding collisions with CPU-controlled opponents and billboards along the sides of the track. The game's publisher, Atari, publicized the game for its "unbelievable driving realism" in providing a Formula 1 experience behind a racing wheel. The game's graphics featured full-colour landscapes with scaling sprites, including race cars and other signs, and a pseudo-3D, third-person, rear perspective view of the track, with its vanishing point swaying side to side as the player approaches corners, accurately simulating forward movement into the distance. While earlier three-dimensional arcade driving games emphasized staying on the road while avoiding crashes, "Pole Position" gives a higher reward for passing rival cars and finishing among the leaders. Cabinet.
the clock, otherwise
{ "text": [ "either time" ], "answer_start": [ 506 ] }
Secretary Island has been identified as a potential "Open Sanctuary" under the Fiordland National Park Draft Management Plan, which means that while it is protected, open access to the public would still be permitted. However, the island may be closed temporarily during the restoration project for stoat and deer control. As with all of New Zealand's offshore conservation islands, visitors are expected to be diligent in ensuring they do not carry unwanted plant or animal pests onto Secretary Island via clothing, bags or equipment. Blanket Bay on the southeast coast of the island has a small island in it with a wharf and a hut used for refuelling and supply by fishermen. A waterfall plunging from Secretary Island into the bay has been used in the past as a handy supply of fresh water. Secretary Island is separated from Bauza Island by the Te Awaatu Channel, only wide at its narrowest point. The waters between the two islands are protected by the Te Awaatu Channel (The Gut) Marine Reserve. Doubtful Sound tour boats routinely travel through this channel, providing the public with an easy way to see this remote island up-close. A radio repeater is located on "Mt Grono", the highest point on the island, to provide communication coverage for boat operators in and around the Fiordland coast. Earthquake. Secretary Island was the epicentre of the 2003 Fiordland earthquake and an earlier earthquake in 1993.
renovation activity
{ "text": [ "restoration project" ], "answer_start": [ 275 ] }
The Army took full control of ground defences in February 1916, and a variety of sub 4-inch (less than 102 mm) calibre guns were converted to anti-aircraft use. Searchlights were introduced, initially manned by police. By mid-1916, there were 271 anti-aircraft guns and 258 searchlights across England. Aerial defences against Zeppelins were divided between the RNAS and the Royal Flying Corps (RFC), with the Navy engaging enemy airships approaching the coast while the RFC took responsibility once the enemy had crossed the coastline. Initially the War Office had believed that the Zeppelins used a layer of inert gas to protect themselves from incendiary bullets, and favoured the use of bombs or devices like the Ranken dart. However, by mid-1916 an effective mixture of explosive, tracer and incendiary rounds had been developed. There were 23 airship raids in 1916, in which 125 tons of bombs were dropped, killing 293 people and injuring 691. The first raid of 1916 was carried out by the German Navy. Nine Zeppelins were sent to Liverpool on the night of 31 January – 1 February. A combination of poor weather and mechanical problems scattered them across the Midlands and several towns were bombed. A total of 61 people were reported killed and 101 injured by the raid.
over 250 persons
{ "text": [ "293 people" ], "answer_start": [ 921 ] }
To maintain handicapped-accessibility, the new plan widened 2nd Street NW and added a lane nearest the memorial for bus and special-needs parking. The range of quotations on the stone wall were now limited only to expressions of loss and the nation's gratitude. Because of the diminution of the screening walls and a more limited number of trees, which reduced traffic noise, the star-shaped basin was now raised to a height of about . A cascade of water high led from the basin to the tree-lined reflecting pool. This cascade, it was hoped, would make white noise which would reduce the intrusiveness of the traffic noises. The reflecting pool was now capable of being drained quickly to be used as a platform for events, rallies, or commemorations. Changes were made to the glass walls as well, which were now scattered in the larger grove of trees on the southern portion of the site. Vergason said that the glass panels (confirmed to be high) would reflect the trees and visitors reading their inscriptions. The bronze panels were reduced in number to four, each one depicting the silhouette of a veteran with missing body parts. Addressing landscape concerns, Vergason said the large, southern grove of trees would consist of ginkgo, with bald cypress along 2nd Street. Disease-resistant American elms would be planted in a double-row along Washington Avenue.
absent extremities
{ "text": [ "missing body parts" ], "answer_start": [ 1114 ] }
High usage of clotting factor concentrate, not HIV, leads to CD4+ T-cell depletion and AIDS in hemophiliacs. This view is contradicted by many studies. For example, among HIV-seronegative patients with hemophilia A enrolled in the Transfusion Safety Study, no significant differences in CD4+ T-cell counts were noted between 79 patients with no or minimal factor treatment and 52 with the largest amount of lifetime treatments. Patients in both groups had CD4+ T-cell-counts within the normal range. In another report from the Transfusion Safety Study, no instances of AIDS-defining illnesses were seen among 402 HIV-seronegative hemophiliacs who had received factortherapy. In a cohort in the United Kingdom, researchers matched 17 HIV-seropositive hemophiliacs with 17 HIV-seronegative hemophiliacs with regard to clotting factor concentrate usage over a ten-year period. During this time, 16 AIDS-defining clinical events occurred in 9 patients, all of whom were HIV-seropositive. No AIDS-defining illnesses occurred among the HIV-negative patients. In each pair, the mean CD4+ T-cell count during follow-up was, on average, 500 cells/µl lower in the HIV-seropositive patient. Among HIV-infected hemophiliacs, Transfusion Safety Study investigators found that neither the purity nor the amount of factor VIII therapy had a deleterious effect on CD4+ T-cell counts. Similarly, the Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study found no association between the cumulative dose of plasma concentrate and incidence of AIDS among HIV-infected hemophiliacs.
excessive dosage
{ "text": [ "High usage" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
*/ (void)setsockopt(fd, SOL_UDPLITE, UDPLITE_RECV_CSCOV, &val, sizeof val); This will allow for packets where at minimum 12 octets of user data are checksummed. Any packet with a smaller coverage will be silently dropped as bad. If a packet has a coverage length of at least 20 octets (including header) and its checksum is correct, it will be delivered to application (whole or part of the payload can still be corrupted, because it could be not covered by checksum or because the checksum was correct incidentally, but the latter is very unlikely.) If the checksum is incorrect the packet will be dropped, because it is actually impossible to know if the error was inside the payload data or in the UDP-Lite header, so the packet could actually be destined for a different program. The smallest possible coverage is 8 octets. Headers need to be included in checksum. Packets with a smaller length of coverage will always be dropped independent of any settings (ignoring sniffers which are interested in all traffic) as not conforming to standard. Support. UDP-Lite is supported by the following operating systems:
lesser inclusion
{ "text": [ "smaller coverage" ], "answer_start": [ 183 ] }
The goal was to reach a projected strength of 9,500 police officers by 2005. By March 2003, the program reached between 6,000 and 7,000 police officers, a number lower than expected due to high attrition rate. The mission focused efforts on recruiting new cadets and expanding the capacity of the Police Training School. By 2005, the police force reached the goal of 9,500 officers with UNAMSIL training some 4,000 in routine field training and other programs including computer literacy, human rights, and policing diamond mining. Hostage Crisis. RUF leaders in the Northern province had displayed prior resistance to the DDR efforts and arrived at a DDR reception center in Makeni on 1 May 2000 demanding ex-combatants be released. When UN personnel refused, the RUF combatants detained 3 UNAMSIL military observers and 4 Kenyans from the peacekeeping force. More RUF engagement the next day attempted to disarm UNAMSIL and sparked similar efforts in other areas. Personnel and materials were intercepted and within days, the RUF had seized nearly 500 UN personnel. British troops were deployed on 7 May to facilitate the evacuation of national, but the additional presence boosted the confidence of UNAMSIL. The former colonial power of Sierra Leone deployed about 900 forces with a combate mandate.
increased occupation
{ "text": [ "additional presence" ], "answer_start": [ 1156 ] }
It is probably the defining difference between established recyclers and emerging zero-wasters. A signature example is a difference between smashing a glass bottle (recovering cheap glass) and refilling the bottle (recovering the entire function of the container). The tension between the literal application of natural processes and the creation of industry-specific more efficient reuse modalities is another tension. Many observers look to nature as an ultimate model for production and innovative materials. Others point out that industrial products are inherently non-natural (such as chemicals and plastics that are mono-molecular) and benefit greatly from industrial methods of reuse, while natural methods requiring degradation and reconstitution are wasteful in that context. Biodegradable plastic is the most prominent example. One side argues that biodegradation of plastic is wasteful because plastic is expensive and environmentally damaging to make. Whether made of starch or petroleum, the manufacturing process expends all the same materials and energy costs. Factories are built, raw materials are procured, investments are made, machinery is built and used, humans labor and make use of all normal human inputs for education, housing, food etc. Even if the plastic is biodegraded after a single use, all of those costs are lost so it is much more important to design plastic parts for multiple reuse or perpetual lives. The other side argues that keeping plastic out of a dump or the sea is the sole benefit of interest.
excellent template
{ "text": [ "ultimate model" ], "answer_start": [ 456 ] }
Partnerships have been developed with West Chester University, Widener University, and Seton Hill University. The following courses will be offered during the spring semester 2011 for those students who qualify: Writing about Popular Culture, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Sociology of the Family, Criminal Justice, Cultural Anthropology, Environmental Science, and Chinese. These courses were chosen from a menu of 13 possibilities by a survey conducted with the 10th and 11th graders – those eligible to take the courses as 11th and 12th graders next year. The Board approved the Concurrent Enrollment Agreements with Seton Hill, West Chester, and Widener Universities for a dual enrollment Grant. For the 2010-11 funding year, the school district received a state grant of $8,648 for the program. Graduation requirements. The Kennett Consolidated School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 25.2 credits to graduate, including: English 4 credits, Social Studies 4 credits, Science 4 credits, Math 4 credits, Physical Education 1 credit, health 0.2 credits, Humanities 2 credits and electives 6 credits. By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district. At Kennett High School community service is a required part of the project. By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating class of 2017, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, English Composition, and Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams.
mandatory element
{ "text": [ "required part" ], "answer_start": [ 1398 ] }
In 1999, Kerry voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Kerry supported eliminating tax incentives for companies that move operations overseas and making efforts to reduce outsourcing. Kerry was against cutbacks in Social Security benefits. He opposed privatizing Social Security accounts. Immigration. Kerry supported cutting the Bureau for Citizenship and Immigration Services' application pending backlog and reducing the lag for the naturalization process. Kerry endorsed benefits to legal immigrants. Kerry supported the DREAM Act. Kerry supported the proposal of legalizing the status of illegal immigrants, pending a certain amount of working time in the US and passing a background check. Kerry proposed border enforcement reformation and an increase of border enforcement funding. Education and science.
citizenship procedure
{ "text": [ "naturalization process" ], "answer_start": [ 455 ] }
The Pecatonica Wetlands Forest Preserve is a park located on the Pecatonica River in western Winnebago County in the U.S. state of Illinois. The nearest municipality is the village of Pecatonica. Description. The Winnebago County Forest Preserve District describes Pecatonica Wetlands as a riverine land parcel of "flood-plain forest, oxbow pond marshes and upland forest." The Forest Preserve District has enhanced the land parcel with fishing access points, of hiking trails, picnic areas with 22 picnic tables, and a 200-seat shelterhouse for reserved meetings and family gatherings. A Forest Preserve District map shows that, in addition, the park has been enriched by tallgrass prairie restoration areas, a snowmobile trail for winter use, and public outhouses. The Wetlands Forest Preserve does not offer overnight campsites, and officially closes 1/2 hour after sunset. The nearest limited-access public way is U.S. Highway 20. The address of the Forest Preserve, for geolocation purposes, is 5750 Best Road, Pecatonica IL 61063.
30 minutes
{ "text": [ "1/2 hour" ], "answer_start": [ 854 ] }
One presumes that the Marcomanni ("border men") took their name from being on the Danubian frontier. The Narisci are stated to be of the Suebi. That is all history tells us. Ptolemy states the names of some towns in the district, but what language they are or whether they were taken over or founded anew he does not say. The towns that might reasonably be interpreted as in the Variscan domain are Bicurgium, Menosgada, Marobudum, Setuacotum, Brodentia, Abilunum and Usbium on the Danube. History records the probable end of the Varisci without giving us anything in between. It was equally bold and sudden as the beginning. On or about the year 167, all the peoples along the Danube, Germanic and other, suddenly attacked the Roman frontier in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Perhaps they mistook goodness for weakness. He rushed to the defense of the realm and after a long series of episodes, called by us the Marcomannic Wars, because the Marcomanni had instigated and coordinated the attack, forced the enemy to terms. During the fight, the chief of the Naristi ...Valao was killed by the Roman General Marcus Valerius Maximianus.
credible demise
{ "text": [ "probable end" ], "answer_start": [ 510 ] }
The ability to find collisions has been greatly aided by the use of off-the-shelf GPUs. On an NVIDIA GeForce 8400GS graphics processor, 16–18 million hashes per second can be computed. An NVIDIA GeForce 8800 Ultra can calculate more than 200 million hashes per second. These hash and collision attacks have been demonstrated in the public in various situations, including colliding document files and digital certificates. As of 2015, MD5 was demonstrated to be still quite widely used, most notably by security research and antivirus companies. As of 2019, one quarter of widely used content management systems were reported to still use MD5 for password hashing. Overview of security issues. In 1996, a flaw was found in the design of MD5. While it was not deemed a fatal weakness at the time, cryptographers began recommending the use of other algorithms, such as SHA-1, which has since been found to be vulnerable as well. In 2004 it was shown that MD5 is not collision-resistant. As such, MD5 is not suitable for applications like SSL certificates or digital signatures that rely on this property for digital security.
online cybersecurity
{ "text": [ "digital security" ], "answer_start": [ 1106 ] }
Many plants have adapted to iodine-deficient terrestrial environment by removing iodine from their metabolism, in fact iodine is essential only for animal cells. An important antiparasitic action is caused by the block of the transport of iodide of animal cells inhibiting sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Many plant pesticides are glycosides (as the cardiac digitoxin) and cyanogenic glycosides which liberate cyanide, which, blocking cytochrome c oxidase and NIS, is poisonous only for a large part of parasites and herbivores and not for the plant cells in which it seems useful in seed dormancy phase. Iodide is not a pesticide, but is oxidized, by vegetable peroxidase, to iodine, which is a strong oxidant, able to kill bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The Cretaceous period saw the appearance of more plant defense mechanisms. The diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) at that time is associated with the sudden burst of speciation in insects. This diversification of insects represented a major selective force in plant evolution, and led to selection of plants that had defensive adaptations. Early insect herbivores were mandibulate and bit or chewed vegetation; but the evolution of vascular plants lead to the co-evolution of other forms of herbivory, such as sap-sucking, leaf mining, gall forming and nectar-feeding. The relative abundance of different species of plants in ecological communities including forests and grasslands may be determined in part by the level of defensive compounds in the different species. Since the cost of replacement of damaged leaves is higher in conditions where resources are scarce, it may also be that plants growing in areas where water and nutrients are scarce may invest more resources into anti-herbivore defenses. Records of herbivores.
rapid onslaught
{ "text": [ "sudden burst" ], "answer_start": [ 919 ] }
The Treasury, fully Department of the Treasury, is the Australian Government ministerial department responsible for economic policy, fiscal policy, market regulation, and the Australian federal budget. The Treasury is one of only two government departments that have existed continuously since Federation in 1901, the other being the Attorney-General's Department. The most senior public servant in the Treasury is the department secretary, currently Steven Kennedy who was appointed in September 2019. Ministerial responsibility for the department lies with the Treasurer, currently Josh Frydenberg who took office in the Morrison Government in August 2018. History.
a couple of administrative units
{ "text": [ "two government departments" ], "answer_start": [ 230 ] }
Today, a common problem associated with wetlands and barrier islands is that once they have been eroded and reclaimed by the Gulf of Mexico, they are likely to permanently remain open water. Wetlands and barrier islands originally formed from sediment deposition from the southern Mississippi River system beginning approximately 5,000 years ago. The river would carry sediment down its path, and seasonal flooding of the river would allow sediment to be deposited in adjacent areas. Additionally, forming distributaries would let the Mississippi River branch off, reaching new areas, and thus form large amounts of wetlands. However, humans have modified the natural paths of rivers. This process, known as channelization, has serious consequences for wetland ecosystems which include drainage of wetlands, degradation of natural habitats, and elimination of natural flow patterns. With levees, canals, and set channels for water to flow through, the river no longer floods and reroutes naturally and seasonally. The river is not able to deposit sediment in diverse areas to help create wetlands. Instead, the river flows through its artificially determined path and deposits the valuable sediment off the edge of the continental shelf. This lack of natural wetland restoration combined with the continued erosion from hurricanes causes a rapid loss in wetland area. Before human channelization of waterways, the river's natural process of sediment deposition was enough to sustain the wetland habitat, but currently wetland area is on a downward trend.
rapid deterioration
{ "text": [ "rapid loss" ], "answer_start": [ 1340 ] }
Consensus within the Council has been described as a "reflex". Statistics from 1994 to 2002 show that 81% of decisions are made by consensus. Indeed actual voting on a legislative proposal rarely takes place, as by the time the proposal has reached its final stages, before submitting it to a vote the Presidency has ensured that it has enough support so that it cannot be blocked. The risk of being perceived of as isolated is a motivating factor for member states to join the consensus. Thus, despite majority voting being possible, unanimity remained the norm within the Council. Predictions that there would be an increased need for majority voting in the Council following the ‘big bang’ enlargement and the inclusion of more homogeneous preferences did not materialised. Tactics. Member states decide whether to support consensus based on the perceived cost and benefits of opposing an agreement. Various tactics are employed that impact on such a cost-benefit analysis. The Presidency of the Council plays a key role in furthering consensus decision-making, employing tactics such as the announcement that a political agreement has been reached in order "to push pivotal player to get behind the proposal", or encouraging opponents to “speak up” so as to increase the cost of “explicit opposition”. As noted, by the time a proposal is submitted for a vote, the Presidency is generally confident that there is at least a qualified majority in support of the position.
considered price
{ "text": [ "perceived cost" ], "answer_start": [ 849 ] }
"The Responsibility of Intellectuals" is an essay by the American academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by "The New York Review of Books" on 23 February 1967. Content. The article was written during the then-ongoing Vietnam War, as news of human rights abuses started to return to the United States, and as the war had increasingly become seen as a quagmire. An attack on the intellectual culture in the U.S., Chomsky argues that it is largely subservient to power. He is particularly critical of social scientists and technocrats, who he believed were providing a pseudo-scientific justification for the crimes of the state in regard to the Vietnam War.
cerebral community
{ "text": [ "intellectual culture" ], "answer_start": [ 404 ] }
In positions where people do a complex job, rather than something simple like a mechanical task, this culture is efficient. Organizations with constructive cultures encourage members to work to their full potential, resulting in high levels of motivation, satisfaction, teamwork, service quality, and sales growth. Constructive norms are evident in environments where quality is valued over quantity, creativity is valued over conformity, cooperation is believed to lead to better results than competition, and effectiveness is judged at the system level rather than the component level. These types of cultural norms are consistent with (and supportive of) the objectives behind empowerment, total quality management, transformational leadership, continuous improvement, re-engineering, and learning organizations. Passive/defensive cultures. Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster. The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are: In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures, members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. Rules, procedures, and orders are more important than personal beliefs, ideas, and judgment. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover, and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction. Aggressive/defensive cultures.
unsettled strife
{ "text": [ "unresolved conflict" ], "answer_start": [ 1470 ] }
music television program. Basic tracks for several songs were recorded during the three-hour session. Producer Chas Chandler recalled: "The 'Red House' on the album ["Are You Experienced"] came about during the last fifteen minutes of [the December 13] session. Noel even played rhythm guitar on the track, playing the bass line. Jimi just winged through one take for reference and we started rolling". Redding added, "I had borrowed a terrible old hollow-body electric guitar from someone at the studio... because I liked to play along on rhythm to familiarise myself with a sequence, not being quite at home on the bass yet". The guitar was tuned down one-half step, with the tone controls set to resemble a bass guitar. Additional takes of the song were recorded at De Lane Lea Studios on December 21, 1966, which closely followed the earlier arrangement. However, both Hendrix and Redding had problems with missed notes and the takes were not used, except for a backing track that Hendrix later overdubbed at the Olympic Studios on March 29 or early April 1967. Releases. When preparing the final mixes for the Experience's debut album, Chandler chose to use the December 13, 1966, track recorded at CBS: "Later when we were scrambling to put the album together, we carted that [December 13 track] out and gave it a listen.
closing moments
{ "text": [ "last fifteen minutes" ], "answer_start": [ 211 ] }
Seasonal summary. The well-above average activity in 2014 was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy index of 160.3 units for the East Pacific and 38.49 units for the Central Pacific, giving a total of 198.79 units. The total ACE for the East Pacific was 43% above the 1981–2010 average and ranked as the seventh-highest since 1971. The season's first named storm, Amanda, developed on May 23, shortly after the official start to the Pacific hurricane season on May 15. On May 24, the system intensified into a hurricane, transcending the climatological average date of June 26 for the first hurricane. The next day, Amanda attained major hurricane status, over a month sooner than the average date of July 19. Owing to Amanda's extreme intensity the ACE value for May was the highest on record in the East Pacific at 18.6 units, eclipsing the previous record of 17.9 units set in 2001. Hurricane Cristina became the second's major hurricane, the system broke the previous record set by Hurricane Darby in 2010 which reached major status on June 25. However, this record was broken by Hurricane Blanca in 2015 which reached major status on June 3. Through June 14, the seasonal ACE reached its highest level since 1971, when reliable records began, for so early in the season. By the end of June, the ACE total remained at 230% of the normal value, before subsiding to near-average levels to end July.
severe conditions
{ "text": [ "major status" ], "answer_start": [ 1029 ] }
Goodling cited McNulty's testimony to the Committee as being "incomplete or inaccurate," and stated that McNulty should have properly disclosed to the committee his: McNulty responded in a press release from the DOJ, the same day as the hearing, stating: I testified truthfully at the Feb. 6, 2007, hearing based on what I knew at that time. Ms. Goodling's characterization of my testimony is wrong and not supported by the extensive record of documents and testimony already provided to Congress. Sara Taylor testimony. On July 11, 2007, Sara Taylor, former top aide to Karl Rove, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee. She was granted the unusual allowance of having her attorney, W. Neil Eggleston, next to her at the witness table to advise her on which questions she could answer and remain in accord with Bush's claim of executive privilege. Throughout Taylor's testimony, she refused to answer many questions, saying "I have a very clear letter from [White House counsel] Mr. [Fred] Fielding. That letter says and has asked me to follow the president's assertion of executive privilege." Chairman Patrick Leahy (D-VT) dismissed the claims and warned Taylor she was "in danger of drawing a criminal contempt of Congress citation". Senator Ben Cardin (D-MD) took issue with the claim as well, telling Taylor You seem to be selective in the use of the presidential privilege. It seems like you're saying that, 'Yes, I'm giving you all the information I can,' when it's self-serving to the White House, but not allowing us to have the information to make independent judgment. Leahy added I do note your answer that you did not discuss these matters with the president and, to the best of your knowledge, he was not involved is going to make some nervous at the White House because it seriously undercuts his claim of executive privilege if he was not involved.
considerable files
{ "text": [ "extensive record" ], "answer_start": [ 424 ] }
As well as a large part of the Surabaya northern and western suburbs, it includes the offshore Bawean Island, some 125 km to the north of Java and Madura. The regency's administrative centre is the town of Gresik, about 25 km to the northwest of Surabaya. Gresik Regency (excluding Bawean Island) is also part of Gerbangkertosusila, the metropolitan region of Surabaya. Etymology. Thomas Stamford Raffles in his book, The History of Java, reveals that the name of Gresik comes from the word "Giri Gisik", which means "mountain near the coast", referring to the hilly topography of the Gresik town center near the coast. History. Since the 11th century, Gresik has become an international trade center visited by many nations such as, Chinese, Arabs, Champa, and Gujarat. Gresik Regency is also the first entry point for Islam in Java, which among others is marked by the existence of ancient Islamic tombs from Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim and Fatimah bint Maimun. Gresik has become one of the main ports and trade cities that are quite important since the 14th century, as well as being a haven for ships from Maluku to Sumatra and mainland Asia (including India and Persia). This continued until the VOC era. The port of Gresik-Djaratan has functioned as an important commercial center since the eleventh century, trading with merchants from as far away as China, India, and Arabia.
urban area
{ "text": [ "metropolitan region" ], "answer_start": [ 337 ] }
A revised version played at several venues, including the Paper Mill Playhouse (New Jersey) (April 11, 2007 - May 11), North Shore Music Theatre (May 29, 2007 - June 17), Theatre Under the Stars (June 26, 2007 - July 1), and Theater of the Stars (Atlanta) (June 26, 2007 - July 1).Under the direction of Scott Schwartz, set design was by Tony Award nominee, Anna Louizos and lighting by Tony Award winner Donald Holder. This production was a hybrid between the literal approach of the Goodspeed production and the slapstick camp of the original film. The Paper Mill Playhouse announced a week prior to "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers"'s scheduled premiere that a million dollar plus shortfall in operating expenses threatened to not only cancel the production but close the theater down indefinitely. Paper Mill would in fact be enabled to fund the production of "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers" throughout its scheduled run, the critical and popular success of the production clinching the 69-year old iconic theater's survival. Subsequent engagements of the production drew weak reviews, with some praise afforded Patti Colombo's acrobatic, athletic, and inventive choreography. The 2007 revival is expected to be the version that will be licensed by Music Theatre International for stock and regional use. The musical toured in the UK during 2008, starring Steven Houghton and Susan McFadden, and played in over thirty cities, including The Liverpool Empire. A new restaged version of the show is currently being produced and will open at The Churchill Theatre Bromley on 13 September 2013 before touring the UK & Ireland. The new re-staged production stars Sam Attwater & Helena Blackman and directed/choreographed by Patti Colombo. With Rachel Kavanaugh directing a cast led by Alex Gaumond as Adam and Laura Pitt-Pulford as Milly, "Seven Brides For Seven Brothers" was mounted at Regent's Park Open Air Theatre 16 July -29 August 2015. The production was critically well-received, as exemplified by the assessment of Michael Billington of "The Guardian": "[if] not tune with modern gender politics [the play] comes off well [mostly] thanks to some exhilarating dancing [there being] several high points...vividly realised in Alistair David's choreography...Laura Pitt-Pulford endows the far-from-modern Milly with the right dogged determination, and Alex Gaumond even manages to find a few redemptive qualities in the Petruchio-like figure of Adam, who seems to think a wife is a domestic slave.
local application
{ "text": [ "regional use" ], "answer_start": [ 1297 ] }
CBO outlined several scenarios that result in a range of outcomes. The "Extended Baseline" scenario and "Extended Alternative Fiscal" scenario both result in a much higher level of debt relative to the size of the economy (GDP) as the country ages and healthcare costs rise faster than the rate of economic growth. CBO also identified scenarios involving significant austerity measures, which maintain or reduce the debt relative to GDP over time. CBO estimated the size of changes that would be needed to achieve a chosen goal for federal debt. For example, if lawmakers wanted to reduce the amount of debt in 2048 to 41 percent of GDP (its average over the past 50 years), they might cut noninterest spending, increase revenues, or take a combination of both approaches to make changes that equaled 3.0 percent of GDP each year starting in 2019. (In dollar terms, that amount would total about $630 billion in 2019.) If, instead, policymakers wanted debt in 2048 to equal its current share of GDP (78 percent), the necessary changes would be smaller (although still substantial), totaling 1.9 percent of GDP per year (or about $400 billion in 2019). The longer lawmakers waited to act, the larger the policy changes would need to be to reach any particular goal for federal debt. Major receipt categories. During FY2018, the federal government collected approximately $3.33 trillion in tax revenue, up $14 billion or less than 1% versus FY2017. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,684B or 51% of total receipts), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($1,171B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($205B or 6%).
specific objective
{ "text": [ "particular goal" ], "answer_start": [ 1248 ] }
Famous for its salmon and brown trout it has given satisfaction to anglers over the years. Many of the local houses were built of stones from the river bed. The riverside walks are at all times pleasant and sometimes spectacular. Walkers on St Cuthbert's Way through the village on pilgrimage from Melrose to Lindisfarne see the same view of the Eildon Hills as was seen by such men as Modan who established a religious cell at Dryburgh; Aidan who brought twelve young monks from Lindisfarne to Old Melrose as missionaries; Cuthbert who became prior and bishop and Boisil who, after a life of holiness and healing gave his name to the village and parish of St Boswells. Sports. St Boswells is one of the Borders' more active villages regarding organised sport. Perhaps unusually for Scotland, part of the Green was given over to cricket. The present Club was constituted in 1895 and the current pitch, a gift from the Duke of Buccleuch used since the 1920s. About the same time the Curling Club was also formed. Using water from the Laret Burn, a pond was constructed just beyond the Green just about where the tennis courts now stand. Perhaps the winters really were more severe in days gone past because ice did form and games went ahead.
official exercise
{ "text": [ "organised sport" ], "answer_start": [ 744 ] }
A priest participates in the Eucharistic Celebration as an icon of Christ. The Holy Office has forbidden reference to Mary as a priestess. Mary “merits for us "de congruo"”, i.e. by way of a fitting reward not binding upon God, “what Jesus Christ merits for us "de condigno"”, i.e. by God binding himself to give the reward. It is uncertain whether Pope Pius X meant "for us” to mean all humankind except Christ's human nature and Mary, or only those living after Mary's merits, since the former could potentially break the general rule that the effect comes after the cause. Where it concerns post-Assumption graces, it is a pious opinion that the entirety of them come through the "intercession" of Mary, a concept that is in itself in need of clarification. The Roman Catholic view of the title "Co-Redemptrix" does not imply that Mary participates as equal part in the redemption of the human race, since Christ is the only redeemer. Mary herself needed redemption and was redeemed by Jesus Christ. Being redeemed by Christ, implies that she cannot be his equal part in the redemption process. Similarly, if Mary is described as the "mediatrix" of all graces, it “is to be so understood that it neither takes away from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficaciousness of Christ the one Mediator”.
equivalent partner
{ "text": [ "equal part" ], "answer_start": [ 855 ] }
Under the direction of Executive Director Jihad T. Muhammad and Board Chairman Donald Thompson, the GUEA evolved into “promoting existing business and attract(ing) new industry to diversify the City of Gary’s economy.” In addition to these activities, Director Muhammad and the GUEA Board established “prime examples of creating economic prosperity for citizens of Gary” through programs such as “the Kids Enrichment Program. Business Loans, Christmas Toys Program, Environmental Job Training and Affiliate Programs: the Incubator/Fifth Avenue Mall and Main Street.” Moreover, under the State Enterprise Zone Program, the GUEA was chartered to work with qualified businesses located within the enterprise zone and to direct fiscal collection or the capture of certain tax abatements, tax credits, and tax exemptions. Programs or tax incentives that funded zone activities included 1.) the Inventory Tax Abatement Program (no property tax on business inventory in the zone), 2.) the Gross Income Tax Exemption Program (exemption from gross income tax in increase in receipts from zone operations). 3.) the Investment Cost Credit Program (State income tax credit for individuals purchasing an ownership interest in zone businesses), 4.) Loan Interest Credit Program (state income tax credit on lender interest income), 5.) Employment Expense Credit Program (State income tax credit based on wages paid to qualified zone employees), and 6.) Employee Tax Deduction Program (qualified employee wages being exempted from State income taxes). According to a Post-Tribune article dated July 22, 1992, Board Chairman Thompson and Director Muhammad clashed over board governance and agency policies.
organization procedures
{ "text": [ "agency policies" ], "answer_start": [ 1673 ] }
Illuminance and CCT has been examined in many studies of interior lighting and these studies consistently demonstrate a different relationship to that suggested by Kruithof. Rather than having upper and lower boundaries, these studies do not suggest CCT to have significant effect and for illuminance suggest only to avoid levels below 300 lux. Current studies have not explored the main critical part that is the low illumination regime or the low CCT range beneath 3000K in general, though some of the studies above reached down to 2850K. This lacunae in the data is particularly important as it relates to almost all "lifestyle" environments in which lighting designers operate - hotels, restaurants and residential settings. Further evaluation of these areas would serve well, given the implications for recent learning on the health implications of light on the circadian rhythm. Further studies. The Kruithof curve, as presented, does not contain experimental data points and serves as an approximation for desirable lighting conditions. Therefore, its scientific accuracy has been reassessed. Color rendering index is a metric for describing the appearance of a source and whether or not it is considered pleasing. The color rendering index of a given source is a measure of that source's ability to faithfully reproduce colors of an object. Light sources, like candles or incandescent light bulbs produce spectrums of electromagnetic energy that closely resemble Planckian black bodies; they look much like natural sources.
specified origin
{ "text": [ "given source" ], "answer_start": [ 1253 ] }
Wolfe was the youngest race winner in the 65-year history of Williams Grove Speedway. He won again at Williams Grove Speedway (the Jack Gunn Memorial race) on September 5, 2004, and at the Clinton County Speedway on October 10, 2004. Wolfe was selected as one of “ten promising young American racers” in the Red Bull Driver Search. On June 29, 2005, Wolfe set a track record for a single lap at the Silver Spring Speedway. From 2005 to 2007, he won 14 feature events and several championships. Wolfe started racing part-time in the WoO Series in 2007 and earned three awards for fastest qualifying time. 2008–2012. World of Outlaws. In 2008, Wolfe began racing full-time in the World of Outlaws. On June 9, 2008, Wolfe crashed while running a preliminary heat at Tri-County Speedway in Illinois. He suffered cracked vertebrae in his upper back, an injury that would force Wolfe to sit out much of the 2008 season.
higher lumbar
{ "text": [ "upper back" ], "answer_start": [ 833 ] }
The name means "Stupa of Love from the Two Nations". The ancient kingdoms of Lan Xang and Ayutthaya enjoyed a strong amount of common bond, and faced a common enemy: (the Burmese). In c. 1556 the kings of the two provinces, King Say Setthathirath of Lan Xang and King Maha Chakkraphat of Ayutthaya, decided to build a great temple celebrating a pact of mutual respect and defense between the two kingdoms. Phra That Sri Songrak was built on the border. A stone inscription at the stupa reads: When the French annexed Dan Sai district as part of colonial Laos, the inscription was taken to Vientiane. At some point it was shattered into fragments, and the remnants are maintained at Haw Phra Kaew Museum. A replica of the tablet now exists at Phra That Si Song Rak. The stupa is roughly tall and wide at the base on each side. Locals have held an annual offertory ritual and celebration at That Sri Songrak every May 15 for centuries. The celebration is a major Loei attraction. Loei province uses the image of the stupa's tower in its provincial seal.
high level
{ "text": [ "strong amount" ], "answer_start": [ 110 ] }
One important difference to traditional epistemology is that Bayesian epistemology focuses not on the notion of simple belief but on the notion of degrees of belief, so-called "credences". This approach tries to capture the idea of certainty: we believe in all kinds of claims but we are more certain about some, like that the earth is round, than about others, like that Plato was the author of the First Alcibiades. These degrees come in values between 0 and 1. 0 corresponds to full disbelief, 1 corresponds to full belief and 0.5 corresponds to suspension of belief. According to the Bayesian interpretation of probability, credences stand for subjective probabilities. Following Frank P. Ramsey, they are interpreted in terms of the willingness to bet money on a claim. So having a credence of 0.8 (i.e. 80 %) that your favorite soccer team will win the next game would mean being willing to bet up to four dollars for the chance to make one dollar profit. This account draws a tight connection between Bayesian epistemology and decision theory. It might seem that betting-behavior is only one special area and as such not suited for defining such a general notion as credences. But, as Ramsey argues, we bet all the time when understood in the widest sense.
secure link
{ "text": [ "tight connection" ], "answer_start": [ 983 ] }
Kish reports that "The sense of imagery is very rich for an experienced user. One can get a sense of beauty or starkness or whatever—from sound as well as echo." He is able to distinguish a metal fence from a wooden one by the information returned by the echoes on the arrangement of the fence structures; in extremely quiet conditions, he can also hear the warmer and duller quality of the echoes from wood compared to metal. Thomas Tajo. Thomas Tajo was born in the remote Himalayan village of Chayang Tajo in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in the north-east India and became blind around the age of 7 or 8 due to optic nerve atrophy. Tajo taught himself to echolocate. Today he lives in Belgium and works with Visioneers or World Access to impart independent navigational skills to blind individuals across the world. Tajo is also an independent researcher. He researches the cultural and biological evolutionary history of the senses and presents his findings to the scientific conferences around the world. Ben Underwood. Ben Underwood was a blind American who was born on January 26, 1992 in Riverside, California.
people who can't see
{ "text": [ "blind individuals" ], "answer_start": [ 785 ] }
At the new year, the ropes of the ungranted wishes are cut by the temple priest. Kṣitigarbha as Lord of the Six Ways. Another category of iconographic depiction is Kṣitigarbha as the Lord of the Six Ways, an allegorical representation of the Six Paths of Rebirth of the Desire realm (rebirth into hell, or as pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas). The Six Paths are often depicted as six rays or beams radiating from the bodhisattva and accompanied by figurative representations of the Six Paths. Many of these depictions in China can be found in Shaanxi province, perhaps a result of Sanjiejiao teachings in the area. A Japanese variation of this depiction is the Six Kṣitigarbhas, six full sculptural manifestations of the bodhisattva. An example of this can be found in Konjikidō, the ‘Hall of Gold,’ in the Chūson-ji temple. In Buddhist traditions. Chinese traditions. Mount Jiuhua in Anhui is regarded as Kṣitigarbha's bodhimaṇḍa. It is one of the Four Sacred Buddhism Mountains in China, and at one time housed more than 300 temples.
maybe an effect
{ "text": [ "perhaps a result" ], "answer_start": [ 568 ] }
Tour operators are expected to comply with KINAPA guide and porter regulations. A typical climbing group of 2 trekkers will have one guide, one assistant guide, 6 porters (3 for each climber) and one cook. Porters are responsible for carrying a trekkers gear as well as key items like tents, water and cooking supplies. It is customary to tip guides and porters at the last meal on the mountain or at the end of the trip. The tipping value varies depending on the number of days spent on the mountain and the number of climbers in a group. Summit attempts are generally begun at midnight so that trekkers can reach the rim of the crater to view the sunrise. Walking overnight also means the ground (loose gravel) is frozen, making the going significantly easier. Trekkers on the Marangu route first encounter Gilman's Point on the rim of the crater, which is roughly a 1.5 hour hike from Uhuru Peak. Trekkers who follow the Southern Circuit will reach the summit via Stella Point which is about an hour from the summit. Both these compare with the Rongai route where the trip to the summit can be over two hours making for a very long summit day. Another route is the Western Breach, which includes short sections of scrambling (where hands are required for balance and support).
important parts
{ "text": [ "key items" ], "answer_start": [ 270 ] }
As a result, from 2010-2012 a 20 million lira (US$3.5 million) renovation campaign was conducted by FOM group architects. The most severe issue of the complex was one of water. The leaking domes were resealed with a close-to-original lead coating and applied in traditional fashion, the drainage systems were cleared of rubble and revamped, and the basements were renovated. The walls of the mosque had been heavily blackened, required sand blasting and pressure washing. Other components of the mosque such as marble, timber, iron, and glass were cut and replaced if severely deteriorated. During the restoration campaign, several discoveries were made that further the status of the mosque as an architectural achievement and historic site: Current role. A historic site and notable landmark in Istanbul tourism, the mosque is used daily as a place of worship. In 2018 the Yeditepe Biennial art exhibition, organized under the administration of Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, utilized the cistern of the complex to display works of art that showcased both traditional and modern Turkish art.
power cleaning
{ "text": [ "pressure washing" ], "answer_start": [ 454 ] }
According to the theology of the Roman Catholic Church, suicide is objectively a sin which violates the commandment "Thou shalt not kill". However, the gravity and culpability for that sin changes based on the circumstances surrounding that sin. The "Catechism of the Catholic Church", Paragraph 2283 states: "We should not despair of the eternal salvation of persons who have taken their own lives. By ways known to him alone, God can provide the opportunity for salutary repentance. The Church prays for persons who have taken their own lives." Paragraph 2282 also points out that "Grave psychological disturbances, anguish, or grave fear of hardship, suffering, or torture can diminish the responsibility of the one committing suicide." The Catholic Church used to deny suicides a Catholic funeral mass and burial. However, the Church has since changed this practice. Conservative Protestants (Evangelicals, Charismatics, Pentecostals, and other denominations) have often argued that suicide is self-murder, and so anyone who commits it is sinning and it is the same as if the person murdered another human being. An additional view concerns the act of asking for salvation and accepting Jesus Christ as personal savior, which must be done prior to death. This is an important aspect of many Protestant denominations, and the problem with suicide is that once dead the individual is unable to accept salvation.
extra perspective
{ "text": [ "additional view" ], "answer_start": [ 1120 ] }
History. The term "topochemistry" was first introduced by Kohlschütter in 1919, referring to the chemical reactions driven by the molecular alignments within the crystal. The prefix "topo" came from the Greek word "topos", which means "site". These reactions quickly draw people's attention because of their high conversion as well as solvent/catalyst-free nature. However, the early studies were usually serendipitous. In the 1960s, Schmidt's work on [2+2] photodimerization of cinnamic acids established the systematic approach to study the topochemical reactions. They proposed that only double bonds adopting coplanar and parallel orientation within a distance of 3.5-4.2 Å could react with each other in the crystal lattice. This empirical rule was later referred to as Schmidt's criteria. [2+2] cycle addition and diacetylene polymerization are among the early examples of topochemical polymerization. As shown in the figure, the formation of 1,3-diphenyl substituted cyclobutane derivatives was first studied in detail by Hasegawa and his coworkers in 1967. A series of similar monomers had also been studied by them.
the public's consciousness
{ "text": [ "people's attention" ], "answer_start": [ 272 ] }
It is a common misconception that "P. phalangioides" is incapable of biting humans due to an inability of their fangs to penetrate the human epidermis. These spiders can bite humans since their fangs are roughly 0.25 mm long while the thickness of the human epidermis is less, around 0.1 mm long, however there are hardly any reports on bites. Venom. Although these spiders are capable of hunting and killing some of the most venomous spiders in the world such as the redback spider, they are not dangerous to humans. According to researchers Greta Binford and Pamela Zobel-Thropp, the effects of "P. phalangioides" venom on humans and other mammals are negligible. In humans, the skull spider bite simply results in a mild stinging sensation that has no long-term health consequences. A recent study has even shown that Pholcidae venom has a relatively weak effect, even on insects. Reproduction. Male genitalia. Overall genital system structure. The genital system of an adult male "P. phalangioides" is located in the ventral portion of the opisthosoma and can be characterized by a large pair of testes and thin, twisted vasa deferentia which become thicker upon nearing the genital opening of the male pedipalp.
somewhat feeble impact
{ "text": [ "relatively weak effect" ], "answer_start": [ 843 ] }
In 2011 Llwyneinion won a Silver Gilt award in the small villages category of the Wales in Bloom awards. Llwyneinion acid tar lagoon. The industrial site in the village later became a brickworks and clay pit, which operated between about 1820 and 1964. After the closure of the clay pits the site was used until 1972 for dumping of highly toxic industrial waste, mostly from the Burmah-Castrol company at Ellesmere Port, comprising around 94000 tons of sulphuric acid mixed with tar-like hydrocarbons, 7500 tons of spent bentonite containing absorbed heavy oil, and over 1000 metal drums with unknown contents, comprising one of the largest instances of such dumping in the UK. The waste was tipped into the unlined quarry, creating a 1.3 hectare lagoon containing a layer of 75mm of volatile hydrocarbon floating on 0.5m of water, itself overlaying perhaps 10m of tar waste and three possibly uncapped mine shafts. The site, along with an adjacent tip used for dumping of chemical waste from the Monsanto works in Cefn Mawr, was purchased in 1980 from the landowners for £1 by the then local authority Clwyd County Council, as the latter was concerned about environmental contamination. In August 1980 the lagoon site caught fire, resulting in the temporary evacuation of nearby Rhosllanerchrugog. The lagoon site, which is now surrounded by woodland, is yet to be cleared and is still considered the most problematic and hazardous waste site in North Wales. In 2007 the Environment Agency Wales ruled that the site did not represent a significant risk to human health as access was restricted and the majority of volatiles had burnt off. A variety of plans have been put forward for decontamination, though none have yet been implemented due to the high estimated cost of the remediation work.
manufacturing area
{ "text": [ "industrial site" ], "answer_start": [ 138 ] }
Jalisco. Jalisco and Colima were placed under the "high risk" category for floods and landslides due to expected rains of up to 8.8 cubic feet (250 liters) per square meter. Recorded peaks of rainfall in Jalisco were reported at 23.24 in (590.3 mm) in Cihuatlán and 20.16 in (512 mm) in Apazulco. It was reported that at least 19,968 people were impacted and in need of support in the state following Hernan. Heavy rains from Hernan left 30 communities in Jalisco without power. 630 houses and nine schools experienced severe damage throughout the state. The hard-hit municipality of Cihuatlan saw 250 homes damaged, while La Huerta experienced 228 damaged houses. A man died in La Huerta when he fell from his roof checking damages from Hernan, and a woman in Cabo Corrientes suffered burns on her arms and legs due to an oven fire, presumably from a short circuit during the storm. 400 people were evacuated prior to Hernan's passing, while 18 people stuck on their roofs were rescued as well. Rescues were required for people trapped in houses where rainfall reached up to 2 meters (6.5 feet). Landslides and mudslisdes covered parts of Mexican federal highways 80 and 200 and were cleared by agency workers.
department staff
{ "text": [ "agency workers" ], "answer_start": [ 1196 ] }
While important to varying degrees, turbocharger lag is most problematic in applications that require rapid changes in power output. Engine designs reduce lag in a number of ways: Sometimes turbo lag is mistaken for engine speeds that are below boost threshold. If engine speed is below a turbocharger's boost threshold rpm then the time needed for the vehicle to build speed and rpm could be considerable, maybe even tens of seconds for a heavy vehicle starting at low vehicle speed in a high gear. This wait for vehicle speed increase is not turbo lag, it is improper gear selection for boost demand. Once the vehicle reaches sufficient speed to provide the required rpm to reach boost threshold, there will be a far shorter delay while the turbo itself builds rotational energy and transitions to positive boost, only this last part of the delay in achieving positive boost is the turbo lag. Boost threshold. The "boost threshold" of a turbocharger system is the lower bound of the region within which the compressor operates. Below a certain rate of flow, a compressor produces insignificant boost. This limits boost at a particular RPM, regardless of exhaust gas pressure. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have steadily reduced boost thresholds. Electrical boosting ("E-boosting") is a new technology under development.
particular number
{ "text": [ "certain rate" ], "answer_start": [ 1038 ] }
Jannali is a suburb in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Jannali is located 28 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the Sutherland Shire. The majority of land use in Jannali is residential and bushland reserve, while the suburb is bisected by the north–south railway line. The majority of Jannali's enterprises are located close to the suburb's railway station. History. Jannali is an Aboriginal word, meaning "the Place of the Moon", originating from an unknown language as recorded by George Thornton. The Dharug language word for the Moon is 'yanada', and Jannali may be an alternative Anglicization of this.
meridional train
{ "text": [ "south railway line" ], "answer_start": [ 332 ] }
Hyperautomation requires a combination of tools to help support replicating pieces of where the human is involved in a task." Outsourcing. Back office clerical processes outsourced by large organisations - particularly those sent offshore - tend to be simple and transactional in nature, requiring little (if any) analysis or subjective judgement. This would seem to make an ideal starting point for organizations beginning to adopt robotic automation for the back office. Whether client organisations choose to take outsourced processes back "in house" from their Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) providers, thus representing a threat to the future of the BPO business, or whether the BPOs implement such automations on their clients' behalf may well depend on a number of factors. Conversely however, a BPO provider may seek to effect some form of client lock-in by means of automation. By removing cost from a business operation, where the BPO provider is considered to be the owner of the intellectual property and physical implementation of a robotic automation solution (perhaps in terms of hardware, ownership of software licences, etc. ), the provider can make it very difficult for the client to take a process back "in house" or elect a new BPO provider. This effect occurs as the associated cost savings made through automation would - temporarily at least - have to be reintroduced to the business whilst the technical solution is reimplemented in the new operational context. The geographically agnostic nature of software means that new business opportunities may arise for those organisations who have a political or regulatory impediment to offshoring or outsourcing. A robotised automation can be hosted in a data centre in any jurisdiction and this has two major consequences for BPO providers.
exemplary jumping-off position
{ "text": [ "ideal starting point" ], "answer_start": [ 375 ] }
With a 32-game unbeaten streak, the school had one of the top high school football programs in the nation. Lombardi attended coaching clinics during this time, where he continued to develop a better understanding of the sweep, especially the techniques of pulling offensive linemen and having the ball carriers cut back towards openings in the line. He moved on from high school to college football as an assistant under Earl "Red" Blaik at West Point in 1948. For five seasons Lombardi served as an assistant coach and further developed his coaching abilities. Blaik's emphasis on players executing their job and the military discipline of West Point greatly influenced Lombardi's future coaching style. Lombardi's first NFL coaching job came in 1954, when he accepted an assistant coaching job (now known as an offensive coordinator) for the New York Giants. It was with the Giants that Lombardi first implemented the principles that became the Packers sweep. He started to run the sweep using the T formation and positioned his linemen with greater space between each other. He also had offensive tackles pull from the line and implemented an early variant of zone blocking (blockers are expected to block a "zone" instead of an individual defender); this required the ball carrier to run the football wherever there was space. The phrase "running to daylight" was later coined to describe the freedom the ball carrier had to choose where to run the play. Under his offensive leadership and assisted by his defensive counterpart Tom Landry, Lombardi helped guide the Giants to an NFL Championship in 1956.
more distance
{ "text": [ "greater space" ], "answer_start": [ 1044 ] }
These arrangements would prevent a future husband from taking over the rights to the land. Indentured Servant. Twenty African, indentured servants were brought over in a Portuguese ship in 1619 Anyone who was considered an indentured servant before this were white. Blacks were not enslaved until the case of Anthony Johnson v. John Casor in 1654. Being an indentured servant meant that one had to work for a particular time frame to pay for their transportation to the New World. They were also not allowed to be married while being an indentured servant. After they had served their time, the indentured servants were free. In the 1620s, indentured servants became the main contribution to Virginia's economy and society. Servants were a big part of maintaining the economy because without the servants and slaves Virginia would have had major economy problems. The original settlers had a hard time keeping up with all the work that needed to be done. It was common for servants and slaves to become overwhelmed with the work load that some considered running away to live life with the Indians.
specific amount
{ "text": [ "particular time frame" ], "answer_start": [ 409 ] }
Relations between Jews and Christians. "Messianic Jews" who are members of Messianic congregations, and separately evangelical Christians, are among the most active missionary movements in Israel. Their proselytizing has faced demonstrations and intermittent protests by the Haredi anti-missionary group "Yad L'Achim", which infiltrates those movements, as well as other proselytizing groups, including Hare Krishna and Scientology, and maintains extensive records on their activities. Attempts by "Messianic Jews" to evangelize Jews are seen by religious Jews as incitement to "avodah zarah" (foreign worship or idolatry). Over the years, there have been several arson attempts of messianic congregations. There have also been attacks on Messianic Jews and hundreds of New Testaments distributed in Or Yehuda were burned. While missionary activity is legal, it is illegal to offer money or other material inducements, and legislation banning missionary work outright has been attempted in the past. Orthodox Jewish communities in Israel have come under scrutiny for the negative stereotyping and scapegoating of Christian minorities in the region, including violent acts against Christian missionaries and communities. A frequent complaint of Christian clergy in Israel is being spat at by Jews, often Haredi yeshiva students. The Anti-Defamation League has called on the chief Rabbis to speak out against the interfaith assaults. In January 2010, Christian leaders, Israeli Foreign ministry staff, representatives of the Jerusalem municipality and the Haredi community met to discuss the problem.
constant criticism
{ "text": [ "frequent complaint" ], "answer_start": [ 1222 ] }
lawn signs, bumper stickers, buttons, and other such materials. Communications department. The communications department oversees both the press relations and advertising involved in promoting the campaign in the media. They are responsible for the campaign's message and image among the electorate. Press releases, advertisements, phone scripts, and other forms of communication must be approved by this department before they can be released to the public. The staffers within this office vary widely from campaign to campaign. However, they generally include: Political/field department. Researching and developing a set of policies requires a large team to research and write each plank. Researchers also provide information to the campaign on issues and the backgrounds of candidates (including the candidate they work for) in order to be aware of skeletons in the various candidates' closets. The latter practice is known as opposition research. On smaller campaigns this is often folded into the communications department.
last procedure
{ "text": [ "latter practice" ], "answer_start": [ 903 ] }
With their tensions rising, Barney and fellow housewife Vicki Gunvalson set Rossi up at a premium tequila tasting at Barney's formal dinner. Rossi ends up disappearing from the dinner with Barney's son Ryan, leaving the other ladies worried. Barney supports her mom after she continues to mourn her break-up, so Tamra helps her mom get a face lift to jumpstart her dating life. Barney's son Ryan continues to struggle with work commitment, with new career aspirations Barney is left surprised. Curtin is introduced to the series, along with her two daughters Raquel and Alexa. The eldest, Raquel, convinces Curtin to allow her to have a huge 18th birthday celebration at the house. Curtin struggles with her daughter's behavior, which leaves her feeling unappreciated and worried. After meeting the ladies, Curtin begins being on the outs with the ladies due to being friends with Rossi, Curtin befriends Jeana at the races. Away from the group, Curtin pursues her business endeavors of designing jewelry, however Gunvalson insists Curtin doesn't know how to work which later leaves the two feuding. Keough balances her family when her daughter returns home after a tough year in college, also at the house is Keough's husband, Matt, who she has been separated from for a year. Away from family, Keough continues to make money, despite the real estate market being in the dumps in Orange County.
duty obligations
{ "text": [ "work commitment" ], "answer_start": [ 423 ] }
The tower collapsed, along with part of the side wall and vaults, and most of the interior furnishings were either destroyed or looted. The famous Hochberg Chapel was burned in a raid on Easter Sunday of 1945. After the war, the choir stalls, which had survived in good condition, were transferred to the Cathedral. The rebuilt church (whose lantern and cupola were only rebuilt in the 1980s), for a time temporarily served as the Garrison Church after a fire gutted St. Elizabeth's in the 1970s. In 1997 Pope John Paul II and Cardinal Henryk Gulbinowicz donated the church as the seat of the Greek Catholic Eparchate of Wrocław-Gdańsk. In 1999 basic reconstruction work on the church was finally finished. The ruined Hochberg Chapel was restored from 2012-2013. The peal of the church, consisting of three bells, was removed during the Second World War and brought to Hamburg to serve as resource for war production. However it wasn't melt down until the end of the war and is now used by the St. Antonius church in Lippstadt. Two additional smaller bells were also brought to Hamburg and are now part of the "Memorial of the German East" in Burg Castle, North Rhine-Westphalia.
border barrier
{ "text": [ "side wall" ], "answer_start": [ 44 ] }
is a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is situated in the historic barony of Dungannon Middle and the civil parish of Pomeroy and covers an area of 894 acres. The town of Pomeroy itself is situated in Cavanakeeran. The area comprising Cavanakeeran is countryside with an agricultural population largely involved in raising livestock. One main feature is the Church of the Assumption situated in Pomeroy. Cavanakeeran is bordered by Limehill and Gortnagarn. The population of the townland declined during the 19th century: In 1891, the town of Pomeroy which stands in Cavanakeeran townland, was estimated to have an area of 21 acres.
a major attraction
{ "text": [ "One main feature" ], "answer_start": [ 348 ] }
He was instead hoping to rely on the defence of automatism, a narrow category of its own class distinct from insanity. Lord Goddard CJ ruled sometimes "the driver would be in such a state of unconsciousness that he could not be said to be driving." This is in effect a denial of actus reus. However, he found that the accused had simply fallen part-asleep. As this was something he had substantial control over, being presumed to have been aware that he was tired, he found that he was reckless in continuing to drive, he then quoted Humphreys in "Kay v Butterworth" (1945) and resurrected the now-famous analogy of a swarm of bees attacking the driver, in which case the driver would not have been held liable. Pearson J. agreed on all relevant points of law, but disagreed as to why he should be convicted. He held that as the man had driven a substantial distance without incident nor any recollection, he was clearly "driving with skill", and therefore must have been driving. The panel held that the jury or magistrates should be advised only a voluntary act or omission can qualify as an actus reus, however driving a substantial distance during the time of alleged transience of mind or consciousness would tend towards a finding of fact of some form of voluntary act, even if simply ignoring the signs of tiredness so being unfit to drive. Outcome. The prosecution's appeal was allowed, for a retrial whereby the magistrates could have a fuller understanding of the law. The defendant was then found guilty.
more comprehension
{ "text": [ "fuller understanding" ], "answer_start": [ 1446 ] }
The General law of Education and Financing of the Educational Reform of 1970 provided greater opportunities to women, regardless of their social class across all levels of Spanish education. With the new Spanish Constitution of 1978, education was guaranteed as a right for all Spaniards. The end of the Franco period saw a demand in many new services from the state as a result of previous suppression of these needs by the regime. This included areas of education. Literacy. During the early 1900s, women's literacy rates tended to be more constant and unchanging compared to men because literate men were much more likely to leave the rural countryside for the big city, depleting smaller rural settlements and lowering male literacy rates. Women were much less likely to migrate to other parts of Spain in this period. Economic demands for an increase in women's literacy rates improvement were also not present in the period between 1860 and 1910 in industries such as education, railways, religion, capital markets and the mining industry. Only in 1910 and only in the railway industry would there be an economic model that necessitated or influenced more women becoming literate. The inverse was true for men, with multiple industries having needs for a literate male population, which resulted in marked increased in male literacy over the same period. Following the end of the Second Republic and the Spanish Civil War, there was a stagnation in matriculation and literacy rates for Spanish women.
economic framework
{ "text": [ "economic model" ], "answer_start": [ 1110 ] }
In yarn, it is the moisture present in the yarn as a percentage of the total weight of yarn and moisture. Moisture content is one of the important test.Textile materials pass through several manufacturing stages. For instance, during yarn manufacturing, the moisture content in yarn becomes lowered that may create several negative impacts on various yarn properties. Moisture affects the physical properties of the material; hence it is crucial to maintain the moisture percentages. Yarn conditioning after manufacturing ensures the moisture regain before commercially selling the materials, and it adds flexibility and better characteristics for further manufacturing stages such as fewer breakages of yarn, and knots. Moisture regain of different textiles. Importance of moisture. The presence of water plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of natural fibers. Hydrated, biopolymers generally have enhanced ductility and toughness. Water plays the role of a plasticizer, a small molecule easing passage of polymer chains and in doing so increasing ductility and toughness. When using natural fibers in applications outside of their native use, the original level of hydration must be taken into account.
initial volume
{ "text": [ "original level" ], "answer_start": [ 1160 ] }
RPN2 regulates the glycosylation of multi-drug resistance, and thus its interference could decrease the membrane localization of P-glycoprotein by reducing its glycosylation status and restored the sensitivity to docetaxel. Clinical significance. RPN2 has been demonstrated to be a prognostic marker of human cancer. RPN2 is highly expressed in breast cancer stem cells and is associated with tumor metastasis. Recent study has shown that its expression is correlated with clinically aggressive features of breast cancer, implying a possible application in personalized medicine. RPN2 silencing has been reported to repress tumorigenicity and to sensitize the tumors to cisplatin treatment, which led to the longer survival of NSCLC-bearing mice, suggesting that RPN2 may represent a promising new target for RNAi-based medicine against NSCLC. Similar potential application has also been shown in osteosarcoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer. RPN2 is also reported to be one of the prothrombin-binding proteins on monocyte surfaces, suggesting that its involvement in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APS. Interactions. P53 tetraspanin CD63 prothrombin Model organisms. Model organisms have been used in the study of RPN2 function.
feasible operation
{ "text": [ "possible application" ], "answer_start": [ 533 ] }
A recent inquiry by the Royal Society of Edinburgh found fishing to be of much greater social, economic and cultural importance to Scotland than it is relative to the rest of the UK. Scotland has just 8.4 per cent of the UK population but lands at its ports over 60 per cent of the total catch in the UK. Many of these are ports in relatively remote communities such as Kinlochbervie and Lerwick, which are scattered along an extensive coastline and which, for centuries, have looked to fishing as the main source of employment. Restrictions imposed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) affect all European fishing fleets, but they have proved particularly severe in recent years for the demersal fish or whitefish sector (boats mainly fishing for cod, haddock and whiting) of the Scottish fishing industry. Fishing areas. The main fishing areas are the North Sea and the seas west of Scotland. Historical development. Fish have been recognised as a major food source from the earliest times. Fishing was important to the earliest settlers in Scotland, around 7000 BC. At this stage, fishing was a subsistence activity, undertaken only to feed the fisher and their immediate community. By the medieval period, salmon and herring were important resources and were exported to continental Europe, and the towns of the Hanseatic League in particular.
local commune
{ "text": [ "immediate community" ], "answer_start": [ 1168 ] }
These coactivator molecules can then perform functions necessary for beginning transcription in place of the activators themselves, such as chromatin modifications. DNA is much more condensed in eukaryotes; thus, activators tend to recruit proteins that are able to restructure the chromatin so the promoter is more easily accessible by the transcription machinery. Some proteins will rearrange the layout of nucleosomes along the DNA in order to expose the promoter site (ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes). Other proteins affect the binding between histones and DNA via post-translational histone modifications, allowing the DNA tightly wrapped into nucleosomes to loosen. All of these recruited molecules work together in order to ultimately recruit the RNA polymerase to the promoter site. Release of RNA polymerase. Activators can promote gene transcription by signaling the RNA polymerase to move beyond the promoter and proceed along the DNA, initiating the beginning of transcription. The RNA polymerase can sometimes pause shortly after beginning transcription, and activators are required to release RNA polymerase from this “stalled” state. Multiple mechanisms exist for releasing these “stalled” RNA polymerases. Activators may act simply as a signal to trigger the continued movement of the RNA polymerase. If the DNA is too condensed to allow RNA polymerase to continue transcription, activators may recruit proteins that can restructure the DNA so any blocks are removed.
ceaseless motion
{ "text": [ "continued movement" ], "answer_start": [ 1289 ] }
"Hilduin was concerned with the accurate production of manuscripts", and oversaw the scriptorium at Saint-Denis. The Abbey had a substantial library. Upon the death of Hildebold of Cologne in September 818, Louis the Pious appointed Hilduin his archchaplain in 819, or, more probably, not until 822. He was one of the King's valued counselors, and became both wealthy, and influential regarding royal patronage. He was instrumental in the appointment of Walafrid Strabo of Reichenau as tutor to Louis's son Charles the Bald. In the war between Emperor Louis and his sons (830) Hilduin took the side of the latter. Thereby he lost his abbeys and was banished, first to Paderborn and then to the Abbey of Corvey (near Höxter on the Weser). Abbot Warin of that monastery received him kindly, in return for which Hilduin presented him with the relics of St. Vitus, which thereafter were profoundly venerated in Corvey. No later than 831, however, Hilduin regained Louis's favour. By 832 he was reinstated in the Abbey of Saint-Denis, whereupon he apparently withdrew from politics and successfully undertook a reform of that monastery according to the Benedictine rule. When the King's sons again rebelled the following year, Louis and his young son Charles were brought from Soissons and held at Saint-Denis for a few weeks.
correct reproduction
{ "text": [ "accurate production" ], "answer_start": [ 32 ] }
Likewise Moerdijk's thousand years monument with Amarna sun symbol at its centre, became Afrikaner nationalists' centre show piece of their capital Pretoria. Round floor opening. Looking from the sky dome downwards, a chevron pattern on the floor of the Hall of Heroes, radiates outwards like 32 sun rays. In Moerdijk's architecture, the natural sun forms the 33rd ray through the floor opening. Moerdijk said the chevron pattern on the floor depicts water, as does the double chevron hieroglyph from the civilization of ancient Egypt. Moerdijk stated that all roads on the terrain of building art lead back to ancient Egypt. Based on Moerdijk's reference to the watery floor of the Hall of Heroes, as well as his statements about ancient Egypt, the floor opening may be identified with the watery abyss, as in the creation theology of ancient African civilization. Rising out of this watery abyss, was the primeval mound, the Benben stone, to symbolize a new creation. Religious sun ray. Gerard Moerdijk was the chief architect of 80 Protestant churches in South Africa. Moerdijk adhered to Reformed church tradition and thus his Renaissance trademark, the Greek-cross floorplan, always focused on the pulpit and preacher.
geometric design
{ "text": [ "chevron pattern" ], "answer_start": [ 218 ] }
A gamergate ( ) is a mated worker ant that can reproduce sexually, i.e., lay fertilized eggs that will develop as females. Gamergates are restricted to taxa where the workers have a functional sperm reservoir ('spermatheca'). In various species, gamergates reproduce in addition to winged queens (usually upon the death of the original foundress), while in other species the queen caste has been completely replaced by gamergates. In gamergate species, all workers in a colony have similar reproductive potentials, but as a result of physical interactions, a dominance hierarchy is formed and only one or a few top-ranking workers can mate (usually with foreign males) and produce eggs. Subsequently however, aggression is no longer needed as gamergates secrete chemical signals that inform the other workers of their reproductive status in the colony. Depending on the species, there can be one gamergate per colony (monogyny) or several gamergates (polygyny). Most gamergate species have colonies with a few hundred or fewer workers. Etymology. "Gamergate" derives from the Greek words ("gámos") and ("ergátēs") and means "married worker". It was coined in 1983 by geneticist William Louis Brown and was first used in scientific literature by entomologists Christian Peeters and Robin Crewe in a 1984 paper published in "Naturwissenschaften". The definition typically found in entomological dictionaries is "mated, egg-laying worker", and is drawn from the glossary of Bert Hölldobler and E. O. Wilson's 1990 book, "The Ants".
wedded laborer
{ "text": [ "married worker" ], "answer_start": [ 1125 ] }
This marked the first attendance of a South Korean vessel since the 2002 review. Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe served as Chief Inspector of the 2015 Fleet Review and led the battle line from the bridge of the Japanese destroyer JDS "Kurama". Following the review, Abe helicoptered to USS "Ronald Reagan" to become the first serving Japanese prime minister to board a United States Navy aircraft carrier. 2019 Fleet Review. The Fleet Review of 2019 was scheduled for October 14 and was to mark the first-ever participation of a Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy vessel. Participation from the United States Navy, the Indian Navy, and the Royal Australian Navy was also planned. South Korea was not invited to participate in the 2019 Fleet Review, a decision Admiral Hiroshi Yamamura said was intentional and due to the deteriorating state of Korean-Japanese relations. The previous year, Japan declined an invitation to attend South Korea's own review since it was contingent on a JMSDF warship not raising the "Kyokujitsu-ki" during the review, a condition with which Japan said it could not comply. In the hours prior to the landfall of Typhoon Hagibis, American naval forces in Japan were ordered to sortie. The JMSDF ultimately canceled the 2019 Fleet Review due to widespread damage and flooding in the Tokyo area.
02 assessment
{ "text": [ "2002 review" ], "answer_start": [ 68 ] }
This narrative technique, which fuses the narrator very closely with the consciousness and point of view of the central characters, was original for its period. Frank notes that Dostoevsky's use of time shifts of memory and manipulation of temporal sequence begins to approach the later experiments of Henry James, Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf, and James Joyce. A late nineteenth-century reader was, however, accustomed to more orderly and linear types of expository narration. This led to the persistence of the legend that Dostoevsky was an untidy and negligent craftsman, and to observations like the following by Melchior de Vogüé: "A word ... one does not even notice, a small fact that takes up only a line, have their reverberations fifty pages later ... [so that] the continuity becomes unintelligible if one skips a couple of pages". Dostoevsky uses different speech mannerisms and sentences of different length for different characters. Those who use artificial language—Luzhin, for example—are identified as unattractive people. Mrs. Marmeladov's disintegrating mind is reflected in her language. In the original Russian text, the names of the major characters have something of a double meaning, but in translation the subtlety of the Russian language is predominantly lost due to differences in language structure and culture. For example, the original Russian title ("Преступление и наказание") is not the direct equivalent to the English "Crime and Punishment". "Преступление" ("Prestupléniye") is literally translated as 'a stepping across'. The physical image of crime as crossing over a barrier or a boundary is lost in translation, as is the religious implication of transgression.
lineal parallel
{ "text": [ "direct equivalent" ], "answer_start": [ 1421 ] }
Student Association of the Norwegian School of Economics () or NHHS is the student union of the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in Bergen, Norway. All students at the school are members of NHHS, which is divided into 28 groups with another 37 associated groups. The student union is among the most active in the country, and also among the wealthiest. The most prominent activities are the two biannual events UKEN, a festival, and NHH Symposiet, a business conference. Both provide large revenue that finance the rest of the student activities, even though Uken in 2006 lost largest sums of money. It also publishes the biweekly newspaper "K7 Bulletin".
commerce meeting
{ "text": [ "business conference" ], "answer_start": [ 453 ] }
The problem was eventually traced back to oversized holes in splices on the cast-iron columns. Each new story added to the cage permitted additional movement, and the force of the wind was sufficient to cause the whole structure to tilt. To resolve the problem, the builders were forced to install "knee braces" at the ceiling line of each story, converting the original unbraced cage to a braced design. In 1904 the same flaw led to the collapse of the eleven-story Darlington Hotel, also in New York, which killed 25 construction workers. Construction was completed in 1894 and the building was occupied by jewelers and diamond dealers. The ground floor, decorated in polished granite, was leased to retail tenants; in 1915 it became home to Tessaro's, a dealer in rare books. One year after it was completed, the developers sold the building for $375,000 (it had cost approximately $275,000 to build). While many early skyscrapers have been demolished or dwarfed by modern neighbors, the Diamond Exchange, , still stands above the adjacent buildings. In 1920, the buildings to the east were destroyed in a fire which killed several people. The buildings to the west were demolished in 2015 to make way for a planned hotel.
further motion
{ "text": [ "additional movement" ], "answer_start": [ 138 ] }
Domestic consumption of electric power in 2002 is reported to total 3.109 TWh. Compangnie Ivoirienne d’Electriciti (CIE) is the sole supplier of power, and manages, not only the government-owned generating plants, but also the transmission and distribution of power. Although official estimates place the percentage of people living in urban areas that have access to electricity at 77%, less than 15% of those living in rural areas have such access. Rural electrification has become a major priority with the government. Solar energy. Ivory Coast aims to reach 400 MW in generating capacity from solar power by 2030. The country is building the Boundiali solar power plant, which will have a capacity of 37.5 megawatt-peak (MWp).
dominant prerogative
{ "text": [ "major priority" ], "answer_start": [ 486 ] }
There are active citizens who use community development techniques on a voluntary basis, and there are also other professions and agencies which use a community development approach or some aspects of it. Community Development Exchange defines community development as: both an occupation (such as a community development worker in a local authority) and a way of working with communities. Its key purpose is to build communities based on justice, equality and mutual respect. Community development involves changing the relationships between ordinary people and people in positions of power, so that everyone can take part in the issues that affect their lives. It starts from the principle that within any community there is a wealth of knowledge and experience which, if used in creative ways, can be channeled into collective action to achieve the communities' desired goals. Community development practitioners work alongside people in communities to help build relationships with key people and organizations and to identify common concerns. They create opportunities for :the community to learn new skills and, by enabling people to act together, community development practitioners help to foster social inclusion and equality. Different approaches. There are numerous overlapping approaches to community development. Some focus on the processes, some on the outcomes/ objectives. They include: There are a myriad of job titles for community development workers and their employers include public authorities and voluntary or non-governmental organisations, funded by the state and by independent grant making bodies.
main goal
{ "text": [ "key purpose" ], "answer_start": [ 394 ] }
In late April 1957, during the Great Lent's Holy Week, he was transferred to the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian in Khreshchatyk, Chernivtsi Oblast. Three years later, the Chernivtsi convent was closed; the nuns were transferred to the monastery, and the monks were sent to the Pochayiv Lavra. Kuksha was transferred to the Holy Dormition Monastery in Odessa on 19 July 1960, where he spent the last four years of his life. Death and canonization. In October 1964, Kuksha fell and broke his hip. Lying on the cold ground, he caught a cold and developed pneumonia. Refusing to take medicine, Kuksha died on 24 December 1964 and was buried in the cemetery of the Holy Dormition Monastery in Odessa. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, he was glorified as venerable by the Holy Synod of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in 1995.
bleak terrain
{ "text": [ "cold ground" ], "answer_start": [ 516 ] }

Dataset Card for "PiC: Phrase Sense Disambiguation"

Dataset Summary

PSD is a phrase retrieval task like PR-pass and PR-page but more challenging since each example contains two short paragraphs (~11 sentences each) which trigger different senses of the same phrase. The goal is to find the instance of the target phrase t that is semantically similar to a paraphrase q. The dataset is split into 5,150/3,000/20,002 for test/dev/train, respectively.

PSD sample

Given document D, trained Longformer-large model correctly retrieves massive figure in the second paragraph for the query Q2 "giant number" but fails to retrieve the answer when the query Q1 is "huge model". The correct answer for Q1 should be massive figure in the first passage since this phrase relates to a model rather than a number.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]



Dataset Structure

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 49.95 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 43.26 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 93.20 MB

An example of 'test' looks as follows.

  "id": "297-1",
  "title": ",",
  "context": "In addition, the results from the study did not support the idea of females preferring complexity over simplicity in song sequences. These findings differ from past examinations, like the 2008 Morisake et al. study that suggested evidence of female Bengalese finches preferring complex songs over simple ones. Evolutionary adaptations of specifically complex song production in relation to female preference in Bengalese finches continues to be a topic worth examining. Comparison with zebra finches. Bengalese finches and zebra finches are members of the estrildiae family and are age-limited learners when it comes to song learning and the acoustic characteristics of their songs (Peng et al., 2012). Both of these species have been widely used in song learning based animal behavior research and although they share many characteristics researchers have been able to determine stark differences between the two. Previous to research done in 1987, it was thought that song learning in Bengalese finches was similar to zebra finches but there was no research to support this idea. Both species require learning from an adult during a sensitive juvenile phase in order to learn the species specific and sexually dimorphic songs. This tutor can be the father of the young or other adult males that are present around the juvenile. Clayton aimed to directly compare the song learning ability of both of these species to determine if they have separate learning behaviors. Many students find they can not possibly complete all the work assigned them; they learn to neglect some of it. Some student groups maintain files of past examinations which only worsen this situation. The difference between the formal and real requirements produced considerable dissonance among the students and resulted in cynicism, scorn, and hypocrisy among students, and particular difficulty for minority students. No part of the university community, writes Snyder, neither the professors, the administration nor the students, desires the end result created by this process. The \"Saturday Review\" said the book \"will gain recognition as one of the more cogent 'college unrest' books\" and that it presents a \"most provocative thesis.\" The book has been cited many times in studies. References. [[Category:Curricula]] [[Category:Philosophy of education]] [[Category:Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] [[Category:Books about social psychology]] [[Category:Student culture]] [[Category:Books about education]] [[Category:1970 non-fiction books]]",
  "query": "previous exams",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["past examinations"], 
    "answer_start": [1621] 

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all subsets and splits.

  • id: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • context: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • answers: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a list of string features.
    • answer_start: a list of int32 features.

Data Splits

name train validation test
PSD 20002 3000 5000

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The source passages + answers are from Wikipedia and the source of queries were produced by our hired linguistic experts from

Who are the source language producers?

We hired 13 linguistic experts from for annotation and more than 1000 human annotators on Mechanical Turk along with another set of 5 Upwork experts for 2-round verification.


Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

13 linguistic experts from

Personal and Sensitive Information

No annotator identifying details are provided.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset is a joint work between Adobe Research and Auburn University. Creators: Thang M. Pham, David Seunghyun Yoon, Trung Bui, and Anh Nguyen.

@PMThangXAI added this dataset to HuggingFace.

Licensing Information

This dataset is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC 4.0)

Citation Information

  title={PiC: A Phrase-in-Context Dataset for Phrase Understanding and Semantic Search},
  author={Pham, Thang M and Yoon, Seunghyun and Bui, Trung and Nguyen, Anh},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.09068},
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