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"The 425t was a "pizza box" design with a single network expansion slot. The 433s was a desk-side server systems with multiple expansion slots. Compatibility. PC compatibility was possible either through software emulation, using the optional product DPCE, or through a plug-in card carrying an Intel 80286 processor. A third-party plug-in card with a 386 was also available. An Apollo Token Ring network card could also be placed in a standard PC and network drivers allowed it to connect to a server running a PC SMB (Server Message Block) file server. Usage. Although Apollo systems were easy to use and administer, they became less cost-effective because the proprietary operating system made software more expensive than Unix software. The 68K processors were slower than the new RISC chips from Sun and Hewlett-Packard. Apollo addressed both problems by introducing the RISC-based DN10000 and Unix-friendly Domain/OS operating system. However, the DN10000, though fast, was extremely expensive, and a reliable version of Domain/OS came too late to make a difference."
"dependable adaptation"
{ "text": [ "reliable version" ], "answer_start": [ 1006 ] }
"The unpredictable nature of life in the oPt is primarily due to the lack of control Palestinians have over their own affairs. This creates numerous obstacles to planning and implementing a monitoring program. Support. In the past financial support has been awarded by Oxfam-GB and UNICEF. References. 1 United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) 2 UN MDG 7 – Target 10: United Nations Millennium Development Goal 7 aims to ensure environmental sustainability. Among the targets related to Goal 7, is Target 10: “To cut in half, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”. 3 The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) identified 708 communities within the oPt as part of the only comprehensive census in 1997."
"changeable character"
{ "text": [ "unpredictable nature" ], "answer_start": [ 4 ] }
"All dependency libraries (OpenSSL, libcurl, zlib) are under similarly liberal open source license. The underlying standards are all Royalty Free as specified in Liberty Alliance and OASIS IPR policies. The TAS3 architecture, of which ZXID is the reference implementation, is covered by TAS3 Consortium "Royalty free to implement and use" pledge at section "Install and configure" ( History. ZXID was started in 2005 by Sampo Kellomäki while still working with Symlabs. In 2006 Sampo obtained a commitment from Symlabs to release the code under the Apache2 license, which effectively made ZXID an open source project. In 2009 the TAS3 project adopted ZXID as the reference implementation of TAS3 core security technologies. The 1.0 release and end of initial development phase happened in May 2011. ZXID is considered to be stable with respect to SAML2, ID-WSF2, and XACML2 features. ZXID continues to be an active open source project (as of October 2014) and new features, some of which may not be stable, continue to be added."
"beginning growth period"
{ "text": [ "initial development phase" ], "answer_start": [ 814 ] }
"This myth symbolises the equipoise of yin and yang, here the fire of knowledge (reason and craft) and earthly stability. "Yan" is flame, scorching fire, or an excess of it (it is important to note that graphically it is a double "huo", "fire"). As an excess of fire brings destruction to the earth, it has to be controlled by a ruling principle. Nothing is good in itself, without limits; good outcomes depend on the proportion in the composition of things and their interactions, never on extremes in absolute terms. Huangdi and Yandi are complementary opposites, necessary for the existence of one another, and they are powers that exist together within the human being. "Bixia" mother goddess worship. The worship of mother goddesses for the cultivation of offspring is present all over China, but predominantly in northern provinces. There are nine main goddesses, and all of them tend to be considered as manifestations or attendant forces of a singular goddess identified variously as Bixia Yuanjun (the Lady of the Blue Dawn, , also known as the "Tiānxiān Niángniáng" , "Heavenly Immortal Lady", or "Tàishān Niángniáng" , "Lady of Mount Tai", or also "Jiǔtiān Shèngmǔ" , "Holy Mother of the Nine Skies") or Houtu, the goddess of the earth. Bixia herself is identified by Taoists as the more ancient goddess Xiwangmu, The general Chinese term for "goddess" is "nǚshén", and goddesses may receive many qualifying titles including "mǔ" ( "mother"), "lǎomǔ" ( "old mother"), "shèngmǔ" ( "holy mother"), "niángniáng" ( "lady"), "nǎinai" ( "granny"). The additional eight main goddesses of fertility, reproduction and growth are: Altars of goddess worship are usually arranged with Bixia at the center and two goddesses at her sides, most frequently the Lady of Eyesight and the Lady of Offspring. A different figure but with the same astral connections as Bixia is the Goddess of the Seven Stars ( "Qīxīng Niángniáng")."
"contrasting being"
{ "text": [ "different figure" ], "answer_start": [ 1801 ] }
"5. Although it was converted back later, the test successfully demonstrated chopper control trams could operate on the Melbourne tram system without causing interference, and all Z3-class trams were fitted with chopper controls. In March 2006, Z1-class' 81 was returned to service as the Karachi to Melbourne Tram for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Renumbered W-11 in recognition of buses operated in Karachi, Pakistan famous for their entertainment value, it was decorated with lush designs and played Bhangra and Pakistani music. For the duration of the games it operated on the City Circle. It returned to service in the summer of 2006/07 operating Friday night City Circle services. Most of Z1-class were withdrawn following the introduction of the C and D class trams in 2001/02. Most were sold at auction, with some being donated to tram museums. In December 2013, 30 were still in service, by December 2015, 15 remained with the last withdrawn on 24 April 2016. Four have been preserved. Their internal refurbishment had less refurbished features than Z3-class, only seat pads and grab rails/anchors were replaced."
"bench mats"
{ "text": [ "seat pads" ], "answer_start": [ 1072 ] }
"The pelham is never legal for use in any western riding discipline, where either a snaffle bit or a curb bit is used. Driving. Variations of the pelham bit are often seen in driving in situations where a bit more control is required that can be obtained with a snaffle alone or with a combination of snaffle and overcheck. Shank designs and size are governed by the rules for various forms of competition and very considerably across disciplines from combined driving to draft horse showing. Polo. In polo, a pelham bit is one of the two bits most commonly used (the other being a gag bit). Double reins are held in one hand. Neck reining is used almost exclusively, and riders have little or no need to adjust the reins while riding. Draw reins are commonly used, on the snaffle ring. The rein lengths are adjusted so that the rein used normally is the snaffle rein, with the curb rein only coming into effect when needed. Such techniques are not legal in show disciplines and are exclusive to polo."
"don't require"
{ "text": [ "little or no need" ], "answer_start": [ 683 ] }
"This caused some friction with Alex's brother and sisters; even their parents noticed the heightened levels of hostility and forced the children to see a psychologist. Alex eventually gave the others' powers back; the four reverted to their original names (except Alex, who named himself "Zero-G" and Julie, who was now called "Starstreak", the name Katie had chosen when she had Julie's powers). Speedball later tried to recruit Alex back into the New Warriors. Alex politely refused, citing the conflicts his membership would cause among his siblings, though Katie offered her services, to Speedball's chagrin. At some point outside of any published story, their parents discovered that the children had superpowers and were active as superheroes. Why Power Pack's parents could now retain this information without suffering mental trauma and insanity – thanks to telepathic manipulation by Byrel Whitemane that had previously been established as impossible to circumvent – has not been explained. Following the events of the 2000 mini-series, Julie left the family home in unrevealed circumstances to try to become an actress in Los Angeles. Despite Julie's departure from Power Pack, the team defeats Big Wheel. Katie is later seen in costume having beaten several A.I.M. agents unconscious, when Flatman and Doorman offered her membership in the Great Lakes Avengers but she declined, and Power Pack fight Grizzly in New Jersey, a sighting which is used as his alibi against charges that he robbed Madison Square Garden. During Marvel's "Civil War" event, Alex's codename Powerhouse was briefly mentioned by Hindsight Lad, an ex-teammate responsible for outing the secret identities of many New Warriors."
"disclosed narrative"
{ "text": [ "published story" ], "answer_start": [ 642 ] }
"Bennelong and a companion became the first Australians to sail to Europe, where they met King George III. Bungaree accompanied the explorer Matthew Flinders on the first circumnavigation of Australia. Pemulwuy was accused of the first killing of a white settler in 1790, and Windradyne resisted early British expansion beyond the Blue Mountains. Conflict and disease. According to the historian Geoffrey Blainey, in Australia during the colonial period: "In a thousand isolated places there were occasional shootings and spearings. Even worse, smallpox, measles, influenza and other new diseases swept from one Aboriginal camp to another ... The main conqueror of Aborigines was to be disease and its ally, demoralisation". Conflict in the Hawkesbury Nepean river district near the settlement at Sydney continued from 1795 to 1816, including Pemulwuy's War (1795–1802), Tedbury's War (1808–1809) and the Nepean War (1814–1816), as well as the interwar violence of the 1804–1805 Conflict. It was fought using mostly guerrilla-warfare tactics; however, several conventional battles also took place. The wars resulted in the defeat of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Indigenous clans who were subsequently dispossessed of their lands. Even before the arrival of European settlers in local districts beyond coastal New South Wales, Eurasian disease often preceded them."
"regional sectors"
{ "text": [ "local districts" ], "answer_start": [ 1274 ] }
"Restraint advocates see nationalism as a powerful force, one that makes states even more resistant to outside conquest and thus makes the international system more stable. Restraint proponents also argue, drawing on thinkers like the Prussian strategist Carl von Clausewitz, that military force is a blunt, expensive, and unpredictable instrument, and that it accordingly should only be used rarely, for clear goals. Restraint is distinct from isolationism: isolationists favor restricting trade and immigration and tend to believe that events in the outside world have little impact within the United States. As already noted, it is sometimes confused with non-interventionism. Restraint, however, sees economic dynamism as a key source of national power and accordingly tends to argue for a relatively open trade system. Some restrainers call for supporting this trade system via significant naval patrols; others suggest that the international economy is resilient against disruptions and, with rare exceptions, does not require a powerful state to guarantee the security of global trade. Offshore balancing. In offshore balancing, the United States would refrain from significant involvement in security affairs overseas except to prevent a state from establishing hegemony in what offshore balancers identify as the world's three key strategic regions: western Europe, Northeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf. This strategy advocates a significantly reduced overseas presence compared to liberal hegemony, but argues that intervention is necessary in more circumstances than restraint. Offshore balancing is associated with offensive realist theories of state behavior: it believes that conquest can often enable states to gain power, and thus that a hegemon in regions with large economies, high populations, or critical resources could quickly become a global menace to U.S. national interests."
"main seed"
{ "text": [ "key source" ], "answer_start": [ 727 ] }
"In Japan, the use of harpoons has been shown to yield a poor rate of instantaneous fatalities. Historic versions. Albert Moore's explosive harpoon. Among many patents for explosive harpoons is Albert Moore's patented hand-dart explosive harpoon. It was invented on March 16, 1844 (U.S. Patent No. 3,490). This was the first handheld explosive harpoon ever invented. No other equipment was required, and a small boat equipped with these harpoons could take down a whale or other similar marine creatures. Charles Burt’s explosive harpoon. Patented on May 6, 1851, by Charles Burt of Belfast, Maine (U.S Patent No. 8,073), this was the second harpoon of its kind."
"low percentage"
{ "text": [ "poor rate" ], "answer_start": [ 56 ] }
"Davies’ division and the 2nd Iowa continually repelled enemy attacks while defending the line near the Robinett battery throughout the day. In the mid-afternoon, the Confederate forces staged one last desperate attack. The confederate forces charged at the 2nd Iowa with a large force, pushing the regiment backwards, a few of the enemy reaching the city. Here, the 2nd Iowa quickly regrouped and charged at the enemy, regaining the ground and capturing thirty-one enemy soldiers and one enemy flag. In the meantime, the final desperate charge to take the Robinett Battery occurred. Corporal John Bell of the 2nd Iowa described the final attack by the Confederates when he wrote: "No braver or more desperate assault was ever made, and as the shot and shells of our siege guns, accurately trained by months of skillful practice, tore dreadful gaps in the ranks of the enemy with the only effect of causing them to close up these gaps and press resistlessly forward, apparently as devoid of fear as wooden men, I thought, “These are not human beings; they are devils.”" However brave the men of the Confederate army were on the charge, their effort was of no use. Although many of the Confederate soldiers reached the Robinett battery, the nearby Phillips battery opened fire upon them forcing the men to retreat. Worn out from two long and hot days of fighting without reinforcements and dwindling supplies, the Confederate forces could not muster another attack. The Federal army remained in control of the city of Corinth. The 2nd Iowa fought in the Battle for Corinth with a force numbering 346. During the two days of fighting, the 2nd Iowa suffered a total of 108 casualties."
"opponent fights"
{ "text": [ "enemy attacks" ], "answer_start": [ 55 ] }
"While attempting to travel to Stanleyville, a stronghold of pro-Lumumba support, his "own popularity" plagued him, as he meant to win over the countryside he stopped for speeches, allowing his captors to draw nearer to him and his family. Lumumba was ultimately murdered by his enemies in Katanga, with Belgian government participation. U.S. intelligence was kept informed. The United Nations Security Council was called into session on December 7, 1960, to consider Soviet demands that the UN seek Lumumba's immediate release, the immediate restoration of Lumumba as head of the Congo government, the disarming of the forces of Mobutu, and the immediate evacuation of Belgians from the Congo. Soviet Representative Valerian Zorin refused U.S. demands that he disqualify himself as Security Council President during the debate. Hammarskjöld, answering Soviet attacks against his Congo operations, said that if the UN forces were withdrawn from the Congo, "I fear everything will crumble." Lumumba fled house arrest in the capital in late November 1960. Following a U.N. report that Lumumba had been mistreated by his captors, his followers threatened (on December 9, 1960) to seize all Belgians and "start cutting off the heads of some of them" unless Lumumba was released within 48 hours. On January 14, 1961, Larry Devlin was informed of Lumumba's escape from house arrest and ultimate capture by Mobutu's forces. Lumumba was to be transferred to South Kasai, whose leader was intent on murdering Lumumba. Lumumba's scheduled transfer was suddenly switched from South Kasai to Katanga, whose leader also vowed to murder him."
"domicile sentence"
{ "text": [ "house arrest" ], "answer_start": [ 1002 ] }
"Titan II launch vehicle. The most famous use of the civilian Titan II was in the NASA Gemini program of crewed space capsules in the mid-1960s. Twelve Titan II GLVs were used to launch two U.S. uncrewed Gemini test launches and ten crewed capsules with two-person crews. All of the launches were successful. Starting in the late 1980s, some of the deactivated Titan IIs were converted into space launch vehicles to be used for launching U.S. Government payloads. The final such vehicle launched a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) weather satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 18 October 2003. Titan III. The Titan III was a modified Titan II with optional solid rocket boosters. It was developed on behalf of the United States Air Force as a heavy-lift satellite launcher to be used mainly to launch American military payloads and civilian intelligence agency satellites such as the Vela Hotel nuclear-test-ban monitoring satellites, observation and reconnaissance satellites (for intelligence-gathering), and various series of defense communications satellites. The Titan III core was similar to the Titan II, but had a few differences. These included: The Titan III family used the same basic LR-87 engines as Titan II (with performance enhancements over the years), however SRB-equipped variants had a heat shield over them as protection from the SRB exhaust and the engines were modified for air-starting."
"well-known employment"
{ "text": [ "famous use" ], "answer_start": [ 34 ] }
"The Central Waterfront of Seattle, Washington, United States, is the most urbanized portion of the Elliott Bay shore. It runs from the Pioneer Square shore roughly northwest past Downtown Seattle and Belltown, ending at the Broad Street site of the Olympic Sculpture Park. The Central Waterfront was once the hub of Seattle's maritime activity. Since the construction of a container port to its south in the 1960s, the area has increasingly been converted to recreational and retail uses. As of 2008, several century-old piers are devoted to shops and restaurants. There are several parks, a Ferris wheel, an aquarium, and one over-water hotel. Some docks remain on the Central Waterfront, under the authority of the Port of Seattle, including a cruise ship dock, ferry terminals, and a fireboat dock. There are many architectural vestiges of the area's past status as the heart of a port, and a handful of businesses have remained in operation since that time. Location and extent. As with most Seattle neighborhoods, the Central Waterfront has no defined and agreed-upon boundaries."
"Broad Street location"
{ "text": [ "Broad Street site" ], "answer_start": [ 224 ] }
"Gregg Easterbrook described the Copenhagen Accord as "vague, nonbinding comments about how other people should use less fossil fuel". According to Easterbrook, international climate change negotiations are "complex, expensive and goin' nowhere" and are prone to creating the appearance of action while distracting attention from the lack of real change. In the week following the end of the Copenhagen summit, carbon prices in the EU dropped to a six-month low. The Copenhagen Accord asked countries to submit emissions targets by the end of January 2010, and paves the way for further discussions to occur at the 2010 UN climate change conference in Mexico and the mid-year session in Bonn. By early February, 67 countries had registered their targets. Countries such as India and Association of Island States made clear that they believed that Copenhagen Accord could not replace negotiations within the UNFCCC. Other commentators consider that "the future of the UN's role in international climate deals is now in doubt." Failure blamed on developed countries. George Monbiot blamed the failure of the conference to achieve a binding deal on the United States Senate and Barack Obama. By negotiating the Copenhagen Accord with only a select group of nations, most of the UN member states were excluded. If poorer nations did not sign the Accord then they would be unable to access funds from richer nations to help them adapt to climate change."
"contractual agreement"
{ "text": [ "binding deal" ], "answer_start": [ 1129 ] }
"Arsen Zahray discovered these order 4 and 5 hexagons: The order 4 hexagon starts with 3 and ends with 39, its rows summing to 111. The order 5 hexagon starts with 6 and ends with 66 and sums to 244. An order 5 hexagon starting with 15, ending with 75 and summing to 305 is this: A higher sum than 305 for order 5 hexagons is not possible. Order 5 hexagons, were the "X" are placeholders for order 3 hexagons, which complete the number sequence. In the upper fits the hexagon with the sum 38 (numbers 1 to 19) and in the lower one of the 26 hexagons with the sum 0 (numbers -9 to 9). (for more informations visit the ) 39 35 -14 21 -20 -16 -12 37 22 34 -4 X X X -5 -7 -1 36 X X X X -13 -17 30 23 X X X X X -6 24 -21 26 X X X X -3 0 28 -2 X X X 27 -11 -18 25 -15 -9 33 -8 29 31 38 32 -10 20 -19 30 28 -18 -13 -27 -30 -28 18 15 13 12 X X X 27 21 -22 -26 X X X X -11 -24 16 19 X X X X X -12 10 -20 22 X X X X -16 -21 11 26 X X X 20 14 -19 -15 -29 -25 17 24 23 -10 29 25 -17 -14 -23 An order 6 hexagon can be seen below. It was created by Louis Hoelbling, October 11, 2004: It starts with 21, ends with 111, and its sum is 546. This magic hexagon of order 7 was discovered using simulated annealing by Arsen Zahray on 22 March 2006: It starts with 2, ends with 128 and its sum is 635. An order 8 magic hexagon was generated by Louis K. Hoelbling on February 5, 2006: It starts with -84 and ends with 84, and its sum is 0. Magic T-hexagons. Hexagons can also be constructed with triangles, as the following diagrams show."
"digit series"
{ "text": [ "number sequence" ], "answer_start": [ 428 ] }
"Guy or Guido (died before 819) was appointed to replace the late Roland as Warden of the Breton March after his death at the Battle of Roncesvalles in 778. Guy no more effectively exercised control over Brittany than his predecessor, but was the chief contact by which the Bretons knew French policy. His actual territory of control was the County of Nantes. Carolingian infighting distracted Guy and prevented him from exhibiting any real authority. It was to be Norman pressure on the Bretons which would open a portal to a French dynasty in Brittany under Berengar of Rennes. Guy was the son of Lambert and Teutberga of the Austrasian family of the Guideschi. Guy received his charge in Neustria and Nantes about 799, at the same time that his brother Frodoald received the county of Vannes."
"source of communication"
{ "text": [ "chief contact" ], "answer_start": [ 246 ] }
"These advantages include the sharing of family language, values, and background. These advantages tend to filter into the respect they have towards one another and the sacrifice of individual task for the well-being of the business. Conflicts can arise due to the lack of, or the absence of, common goals for the business. A frequent issue that family businesses face is whether or not the separation of business and family roles are clear. Another issue may include making difficult decisions when it comes to what is best for the business and what is best for the family. Well over half of all family business end up failing before the second successor takes ownership and almost 90% will fail before the third successor takes ownership. Responses to workplace relationships. Responses that can be resulted from workplace relationships involve job productivity, worker morale, worker motivation, job satisfaction, job involvement, and gossip. In addition to these, managers can make decisions such as promotions, relocations, and terminations.Features of friendships include voluntary interaction, informality, communal norms, and socio-emotional goals. Features of organizations include involuntary interactions, formality, exchange norms, and instrumental goals. These features clash with each other when a workplace relationship is occurring."
"common problem"
{ "text": [ "frequent issue" ], "answer_start": [ 325 ] }
"However, in order to avoid some issues, more powerful safety analysis techniques are constantly being developed. As safety and security issues can occur anytime, intentionally or not, more preventive strategies against loss or hacking are enhanced. These actions aim to focus on the possible causes of the problem, rather than solving an already critical situation. Computing. Computer security tries to defend computers by assuring that their networks are not accessed or disrupted. They approach different tactics in order to protect against attackers, creating barriers or lines of defense, through firewalls or encryption. However, losses result also from actions not executed properly (such as human errors) or from system errors among components. Losses could be prevented through preventive strategies and tactics. Security analysts could find possible attackers, highlighting their reasons, potential and purpose. Owning proper knowledge, security experts could assess their own system and identify the most suitable defense strategy. Tracing is one of the methods used by people in order to find any issue or deficiency in their system."
"at present precarious state"
{ "text": [ "already critical situation" ], "answer_start": [ 338 ] }
"Many underwater work and activity skills are not directly related to the use of scuba equipment. Example applications: Training, assessment and certification. Scuba skills training is primarily provided by practical instruction directed by a registered or certified diving instructor. Additional practice and skills maintenance are the diver's responsibility. Recreational divers may attend refresher courses, which may involve revisions to earlier practices. Service providers such as dive shops and charter boats may require a checkout dive for divers unfamiliar with the region, or who haven't dived for some time. The checkout dive allows the diver to demonstrate basic skills relevant to the expected conditions. It is the individual diver's responsibility to maintain sufficient skill and fitness to dive safely and not endanger themselves or others, and to judge whether they are ready to handle the anticipated conditions. Skills retention. Although many scuba skills are safety critical, most are straightforward and are easily retained once learned given occasional practice. Recreational diver training."
"sporadic training"
{ "text": [ "occasional practice" ], "answer_start": [ 1065 ] }
"However, the cunning man returned, dug up the treasure and took it all. After some time, the naive man visited the cunning man and told him that he needed some of the money, so they both went to the tree, dug up the area and found nothing. Immediately the cunning man turned on the naive man and accused him of taking all the money. The naive man, protesting his innocence, ended up in court with the cunning man. The judge asked the cunning man to provide evidence for his claim, the cunning man claimed that the tree would testify that the naive man stole all the money. The judge, intrigued, took the court to the tree to hear its testimony. The cunning man had told his father to hide in the tree and pretend to be the voice of the tree when asked questions. After the tree answered the judges questions, the flabbergasted judge ordered the tree to be burnt down. The father, within the tree, started to scream and jumped out of the tree and confessed the whole plot to the judge. The judge then ruled in favour of the naive man and the cunning man had to return the dinars (gold coins). Sub-story thirteen - The merchant, the iron and the mice."
"crafty male"
{ "text": [ "cunning man" ], "answer_start": [ 13 ] }
"They were very similar to the preceding W6-class, but with upholstered seats throughout. Thirteen had their frames built by Ansair. As of January 2020, none remained in service with Yarra Trams. Six W7 class trams are preserved by heritage groups in Australia and New Zealand. W8. SW6 922 was partly modernised at Preston Workshops in 1993. It was to be a prototype for rebuilding the remaining SW6 fleet with air conditioning, roller bearings, modern head and tail lights, fluorescent interior lighting, dot-matrix display and pantograph using many of the same components as used in the A2 and B2 class trams. It was designated the W8 class and renumbered 1101. The rebuild radically altered the appearance of the tram and the National Trust ordered the conversion be suspended before completion. Four (946, 957, 959 and 1010) were subsequently modernised from 2012 and designated the W8-class. The upgrades include improved traction motors, suspension and braking, improved crashworthiness and LED lighting, while retaining the general appearance of the original SW6 and W7s."
"familial communities"
{ "text": [ "heritage groups" ], "answer_start": [ 231 ] }
"Preoperational children have not achieved this yet; their thinking is centered, which is defined as a propensity to focus on one salient aspect or one dimension of a problem while simultaneously neglecting other potentially relevant aspects. During Concrete Operational Stage. The concept of centration is observed predominantly in children in the preoperational stage of cognitive development. Conversely, children in the concrete operational stage demonstrate decentration - an ability to recognize alternate point of views and a straying away from egocentric thinking. Piaget concluded that, by age 7, children were able decenter their thoughts and acknowledge perspectives different than their own. This was evidenced by the consistent and correct selection of photographs by seven- and eight-year-olds in the 1956 study. An example of a correct answer would be if the child and the doll were situated on the complete opposite sides of the mountain model with a tree on the child's side and a large mountain in the middle acting as a visual barrier. A preoperational child would claim that the doll could see the tree, whereas the concrete operational child would select a photograph without the tree since the mountain is large enough to block the tree from the doll's view. A concrete operational child would pass the Three Mountain Problem task. Follow Up Studies. There has been some criticism that the Three Mountain Problem was too difficult for the children to understand, compounded with the additional requirement of matching their answer to a photograph."
"other modes"
{ "text": [ "alternate point" ], "answer_start": [ 501 ] }
"Others asserted the existence of "a Communist plot to deplete the brainpower and sap the strength of a generation of American children". Dr. Charles Bett, a prominent anti-fluoridationist, charged that fluoridation was "better than using the atom bomb because the atom bomb has to be made, has to be transported to the place it is to be set off while poisonous fluorine has been placed right beside the water supplies by the Americans themselves ready to be dumped into the water mains whenever a Communist desires!" Similarly, a right-wing newsletter, the "American Capsule News", claimed that "the Soviet General Staff is very happy about it. Anytime they get ready to strike, and their 5th column takes over, there are tons and tons of this poison "standing by" municipal and military water systems ready to be poured in within 15 minutes." This controversy had a direct impact on local program during the 1950s and 1960s, where referendums on introducing fluoridation were defeated in over a thousand Florida communities. It was not until as late as the 1990s that fluoridated water was consumed by the majority of the population of the United States. The communist conspiracy argument declined in influence by the mid-1960s, becoming associated in the public mind with irrational fear and paranoia. It was portrayed in Stanley Kubrick's 1964 film "Dr. Strangelove", in which the character General Jack D. Ripper initiates a nuclear war in the hope of thwarting a communist plot to "sap and impurify" the "precious bodily fluids" of the American people with fluoridated water. Another satire appeared in the 1967 movie "In Like Flint", in which a character's fear of fluoridation is used to indicate that he is insane. Some anti-fluoridationists claimed that the conspiracy theories were damaging their goals; Dr. Frederick Exner, an anti-fluoridation campaigner in the early 1960s, told a conference: "most people are not prepared to believe that fluoridation is a communist plot, and if you say it is, you are successfully ridiculed by the promoters. It is being done, effectively, every day ... some of the people on our side are the fluoridators' 'fifth column'.""
"perspective of humanity"
{ "text": [ "public mind" ], "answer_start": [ 1257 ] }
"Women tend connect more with their group members by exhibiting behaviors such as smiling more, maintaining eye, and are more diplomatic with their comments (Forsyth, 2010). The differences between men and women may suggest evolutionary stressors that have contributed to the development of these relationship and task oriented tendencies between men and women. Another explanation, proposed by Eagly and Carli (2007), attributes many of these findings not to average gender differences per se, but to a "selection effect" caused by gender bias and discrimination against women, whereby easier standards for men in attaining leadership positions as well as the fact that men make up the majority of executives results in a higher average of exceptionally skilled women than men in some leader roles. Women tend to feel more excluded from career related and informal interactions with the senior management compared to men. In fact, the term "glass ceiling" can be used to describe the hindrance women face in career advancement to top management positions. The tendency of men to dominate women in informal discussion groups has been observed in a number of scenarios including when both sexes were deemed to be androgynous, when group members were committed to equality of sexes, when women were more dispositionally dominant than men, and when both sexes were extroverted. Furthermore, it has been observed that the dispositionally dominant person is more likely to emerge as a leader in same-sex dyads, but in mixed-dyads, the dominant male is more likely to emerge as leader compared to a dominant female. A similar study conducted by the Management Research Group of 17,491 questionnaires found that out of common leadership competency areas surveyed, women were rated higher by their superiors in areas like credibility with management, future potential, insight, sensitivity, and working with diverse people. Men were ranked higher in business aptitude, financial understanding, and strategic planning, which the researchers note are seen to be critical to corporate advancement. No gender differences were found in competencies such as team performance, effective thinking, and willingness to listen and no differences were found in overall effectiveness. However, many of these studies on gender differences in leadership style rely on leader-only self-report data, which many leadership scholars describe as unreliable at best."
"fiscal knowledge"
{ "text": [ "financial understanding" ], "answer_start": [ 1960 ] }
"A fictitious example of a radio call might begin with tones (to alert patrol units that a broadcast will follow), "Any central unit, a 211 just occurred at 714 south Broadway Street at the Footlocker. Suspect was a male, white, six-foot seven, approximately 280 pounds; shaved head, black eyes, goatee, white T-shirt, dark baggy pants. Weapon used was a revolver. Monitor comments for additional. Code 2. Incident number 555 in RD 193." "Control" (the radio name for Communications division) as well as units in the area also use a wide variety of codes, common ones include: NOTE: A unit that responds "Code-3" must state their starting location (e.g. intersection or street address), after which the RTO broadcasts a "Code 3 notification", announcing the unit number is responding "Code-3" from that starting location to the location of the distress call. Typical radio traffic (usually not simulcast citywide) includes the activity generated from traffic stops. A patrol unit may radio control that they are "code 6" on a traffic stop, to which control will give the "Roger" acknowledgement. Additional broadcasts will be requests for information on "cal IDs", or "CalOps" (the numbers that appear at the top of California Department of Motor Vehicle driver licenses) or on vehicle license plates."
"cut off hair"
{ "text": [ "shaved head" ], "answer_start": [ 270 ] }
"Almost simultaneously, the Sufriyya also spread into North Africa and southern Arabia through missionary activity. Through absorption into the Ibadiyya, the Sufriyya became extinct with the passage of time. Ibadi sources too are more or less in line with this scheme, where Ibadis appear as the true successors of the original Medinese community and the early, pre-Second-Ftina Kharijites although Ibn Ibad does not feature prominently in these and Jabir is asserted as the leader of the movement following Abu Bilal Mirdas. However, modern historians consider Ibn Saffar to be a legendary figure, and assert that the Sufriyya and Ibadiyya sects at this stage are ahistorical. The heresiographers, whose aim was to categorize the divergent beliefs of the Kharijites, invented the Sufriyya to accommodate those groups who did not fit neatly anywhere else. As such, there was only one moderate Kharijite current, which might have been called "Sufri". The moderates condemned the militancy of the Azariqa and Najdat but were otherwise lacking in a concrete set of doctrines. Jabir and Abu Ubayda may have been prominent figures in the moderate movement. The moderates further split into the true Sufriyya and Ibadiyya only during the eighth century, with the main difference being tribal affiliations rather than doctrinal differences. During the entire period of the Second Fitna, the moderates remained idle. However, in the mid-690s they also started militant activities in response to persecution by Hajjaj."
"detailed series"
{ "text": [ "concrete set" ], "answer_start": [ 1045 ] }
"In January 2017, a new instrument landing system-equipped runway in length was approved for construction at a cost of KES 37 Billion shillings (approximately US$370 million). According to KAA's managing director John Anderson, construction of the new runway which will be bigger than the existing one will begin this year (2017). It will also double aircraft movement from 25 to 45 per hour. The new runway will be a category 2 runway and will complement the older runway built in the 1970s. The proposed design of the project is a 4.8 kilometres long and 75 metre wide runway. The current runway is 60 metres wide and 4.2 kilometres long. This is an ICAO code F which can handle the new generation wide bodied aircraft like the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 747-8. The new runway will have fog lights, currently the present runway is only lit at the sides. The runway will also enable long haul flights to destinations like New York city carrying up to 32 tonnes of passengers and cargo. Ground transport. The main entrance to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport is on Airport South Road, which can be accessed by an exit from the A109 highway (Mombasa Road)."
"one already in use"
{ "text": [ "existing one" ], "answer_start": [ 288 ] }
"Calculation of the fill factor. The fill factor measures the ratio between the volume of a winding package and the volume needed to house the winding pack. For this purpose, it is necessary to take the required space for the rotation diameter of the coil in the "cross over section" into consideration. a) Calculation of the mechanical fill factor The imaginary space with the dimensions of 8,85 mm x 1,86 mm contains an area of 16.461 mm2. The sum of all partial spaces of the insulated turns equals A = Amount of partial spaces of the insulated wires DL= wire gauge above the varnish n= number of turns b) Calculation of the electrical fill factor The imaginary space with the dimensions of 8,85 mm x 1,86 mm contains an area of 16.461 mm2. The sum of all partial spaces of the not insulated turns equals A= Amount of partial spaces of the not insulated wires DCu= pure copper wire gauge n= number of turns Winding processes. Linear winding. In the linear winding method, a winding is produced by winding the wire onto a rotating coil body, component or coil carrying or coil forming device. The wire is pulled from a supply roll that contains 400 kg of enamelled copper wire. The wire is fed through a guiding tube. Before starting the actual winding process, the wire is mounted to a post or a clamping device of the coil body or winding device."
"necessary area"
{ "text": [ "required space" ], "answer_start": [ 202 ] }
"In this method, sperm that will give rise to male versus female children are separated by moving at different speeds through a protein solution. When used to increase the likelihood of a female child, studies have resulted in between 70% and 80% female children. When used to increase the likelihood of a male child, studies have resulted in between 50% to 75% male children. Method. The Ericsson method is based on the belief that X-sperm swim slower than Y-sperm. Sperm are placed atop a "column" of increasingly thicker layers of albumin, and allowed to swim down into the solution. After a certain time period has elapsed, the sperm can be separated into the faster and slower swimmers. If the couple desires a male baby the faster swimmers are artificially inseminated, and if the couple desires a female baby the same procedure is enacted with the slower swimmers. This method differs from the Shettles method, which does not utilize artificial insemination. History. It was developed and patented by Dr. Ronald Ericsson."
"boy offspring"
{ "text": [ "male child" ], "answer_start": [ 59 ] }
"Even Indonesia's first national elections in 1955 failed to bring about political stability. In 1957, Indonesia faced a series of crises, including the beginning of the Permesta rebellion in Makassar and the army takeover of authority in South Sumatra, due to the increasing dissatisfaction of non-Javanese Indonesians to the centralization policy implemented by Jakarta. One of the demands of the Permesta rebels was that 70 percent of the members of Sukarno's proposed National Council should be members from the regions (non-Javanese). Another demand was that the cabinet and National Council be led by the dual-leaders (Indonesian: "dwitunggal") of Sukarno and former Vice-President Hatta. In March 1957, Sukarno accepted the Army chief of staff General Abdul Haris Nasution's proposal for a declaration of martial law across the whole nation. This would put the armed forces in charge, and would be a way to deal with the rebellious army commanders, as it would effectively legitimise them. In the face of a growing political crisis amid splits in the cabinet, Prime Minister Ali Sastroamidjojo returned his mandate to the president on 14 March. Establishment of Guided Democracy. President Sukarno made an official visit to the People's Republic of China in October 1956. He was impressed with the progress made there since the Civil War, and concluded that this was due to the strong leadership of Mao Zedong, whose centralisation of power was in sharp contrast to the political disorder in Indonesia. According to former foreign minister Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung, Sukarno began to believe he had been "chosen by providence" to lead the people and "build a new society"."
"an extra order"
{ "text": [ "Another demand" ], "answer_start": [ 539 ] }
"On April 23, 2021, it was announced that CBS had given the production a straight-to-series order to the spin-off, and reportedly intended to include the franchise's first female lead character. Series. Each series was spun off via a two-part episode from an established series, serving in effect as a backdoor pilot. Crossovers. This is a complete list of all crossovers, both within the franchise and out of it. All characters, main, recurring, and shared guest stars, are credited. Universe. The "NCIS" franchise, born of "JAG", shares a television universe with "Scorpion" (via a direct crossover with "Los Angeles"), "First Monday" (via an indirect crossover with "JAG"), "Hawaii Five-0" (via a direct crossover with "Los Angeles"), "MacGyver" (via an indirect crossover with "Hawaii Five-0"), "Magnum P.I." (via crossovers with "Hawaii Five-0"), and "JAG" itself (via crossovers with "NCIS" and "Los Angeles"). Games. "NCIS: Hidden Crimes"."
"original sequence of episodes"
{ "text": [ "established series" ], "answer_start": [ 258 ] }
"In many bird species, the dominant individuals have higher rates of food intake. Such species include dark-eyed juncos and oystercatchers. The dominant individuals in these groups fill themselves up first and fill up more quickly, so they spend less time foraging, which reduces the risk of predation. Thus they have increased survival because of increased nutrition and decreased predation. Reproductive success. In primates, a well-studied group, high rank brings reproductive success, as seen in a 1991 meta-analysis of 32 studies. A 2016 study determined that higher status increased reproductive success amongst men, and that this did not depend upon the individual's means of subsistence (foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture), contrary to the "egalitarian hypothesis", which predicted status would have a weaker effect on reproductive success amongst foragers than amongst nonforagers. High-ranking bonnet macaque males have more access to fertile females and consequently partake in most of the matings within the group; in one population, three males were responsible for over 75% of matings. In this population, males often vary in their rank, and as they gain rank, they gain more time spent exclusively with fertile females; the opposite is seen as males drop in rank. In many primates, including bonnet macaques and rhesus monkeys, the offspring of high-ranking individuals have better fitness and thus an increased rate of survival. This is most likely a function of two factors."
"important status"
{ "text": [ "high rank" ], "answer_start": [ 449 ] }
"These are especially common in college and university settings. In order to supply these devices with electricity, a few high-end backpacks are equipped with solar panels. Rolling backpacks are backpacks with wheels on the bottom and an extending handle. Because of their design, rolling backpacks reduce the strain on the user, though the shoulder straps may be used to carry the pack for short distances when the terrain is not suitable for wheels. Rolling backpacks are most commonly used while traveling by airplane or train. Hydration backpacks are also available. These light daypacks are especially designed to hold water in a special water bladder (also known as reservoir), and their purpose is to allow the carrier constant fluid hydration handsfree, so that the carrier can focus on the mission ahead without having to stop for water breaks. Professional use. Backpacks are a standard part of the load-bearing equipment of soldiers, especially infantry, in most countries, and military-style packs are regularly available to civilians in military surplus stores. Well-known examples include the United States ALICE field pack and the British Army PLCE rucksack attachment, both of which are widely available to civilian markets both as actual military surplus (new or used) and as replicas. Such packs are often, though not always (e.g."
"expanding control bracket"
{ "text": [ "extending handle" ], "answer_start": [ 237 ] }
"Before the advent of Black Friday in Canada, the most comparable holiday was Boxing Day in terms of retailer impact and consumerism. Black Fridays in the US seem to provide deeper or more extreme price cuts than Canadian retailers, even for the same international retailer. United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, the term "Black Friday" originated within the Police and NHS to refer to the Friday before Christmas. It is the day when emergency services activate contingency plans to cope with the increase in workload due to many people going out drinking on the last Friday before Christmas. Contingencies can include setting up mobile field hospitals near City Centre nightspots. The term has then been adopted outside those services to refer to the evening and night of the Friday immediately before Christmas, and would now be considered a mainstream term and not simply as jargon of the emergency services. Traditionally, Boxing Day had been considered the biggest shopping day of the year in the UK. In the 2010s, several American-owned retailers such as Amazon and Asda, began to hold U.S.-style Black Friday promotions; in 2014, more British retailers began to adopt the concept, including Argos, John Lewis, and Very. That year, police forces were called to shops across Britain to deal with crowd control issues, assaults, threatening customers, and traffic issues. In response to incidents at branches of Tesco, Greater Manchester Police's deputy chief constable Ian Hopkins said shoppers had behaved in an "appalling" fashion, and criticized shops for not making adequate security arrangements to ensure the safety of customers.""
"crowd concerns"
{ "text": [ "traffic issues" ], "answer_start": [ 1360 ] }
"At 18:56 a seaplane from the 700 Naval Air Squadron launched by the British battleship appeared to investigate results of the bombing. The seaplane was immediately targeted by anti-aircraft batteries, and shot down. At 21:54 Tobruk was put on alert again after receiving reports from the Bardia and Sidi Belafarid advanced listening stations. Around 22:30 six Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers from the 824 Naval Air Squadron RAF appeared in the skies above Tobruk harbor and were met with strong anti-aircraft fire. This forced the planes to make several passes over the area trying to avoid the fire, and also to acquire the targets, the situation exacerbated by a fairly cloudy night. The British finally managed to sort out their objectives by about 01:30 on July 20 and assumed attack formation at low altitude. At 01:32 steamer was struck in the stern by a torpedo, launched from a plane, piloted by squadron commander F.S. Quarry, causing her to slowly sink. At 01:34 was hit in her stern ammunition depot by a torpedo launched from another plane, causing the ship to go ablaze and sink ten minutes later. "Aquilone" who was moored about sixty meters away from , was showered by burning debris but suffered no damage. was hit by a torpedo at 01:37 and sank."
"offensive stance"
{ "text": [ "attack formation" ], "answer_start": [ 782 ] }
"He performed at events attended by celebrities and royalty, at countless college dances, wedding receptions, and all kinds of social events. Over the next few years, many copycat "Mobile Discos" started to emulate his successful formula. During this period, London got its "Swinging London" reputation. Squire later set up a disco equipment supply service that sold disco sound and lighting systems to budding DJs, both in the United Kingdom and abroad. In the 1980s and 1990s, mobile DJs began to form associations and create professional business networks that evolved into annual trade shows and internet discussion forums. The early 1990s saw the emergence of organized professional trade shows such as the "Mobile Beat Show" in Las Vegas, Nevada, and the "DJ Times Expo" in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Seminars by numerous respected DJs such as John Rozz, Ray "Ray Mar" Martinez, Stacy Zemon, Mark Ferrell, Peter Merry, Randy Bartlett, and Steve Moody have helped DJs to better understand their profession, how to be more professional and to treat being a DJ as a business operation. 1991 saw the publication of "Mobile Beat", a magazine geared specifically toward mobile DJs. In 1992, the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), released The MPEG-1 file standard, designed to produce reasonable sound from a digital file using minimal storage. The lossy compression scheme MPEG-1 Layer-3, popularly known as MP3, later revolutionized the digital music domain. In 1998, Final Scratch debuted at the BE Developer Conference, marking the first digital DJ system to give DJs control of MP3 files through special time-coded vinyl records or CDs."
"stored computer collection"
{ "text": [ "digital file" ], "answer_start": [ 1310 ] }
"Unlike the Apple 30 pin connector it replaces (and USB Type A or B connectors), the Lightning connector can be inserted either face up or face down. Each pin on the reverse side of the connector is connected to its directly opposite twin on the other side. Part of the processor's job is to route the power and data signals correctly whichever way up the connector is inserted. Apple offers various adapters that allow the Lightning connector to be used with other interfaces, such as 30-pin, USB, HDMI, VGA, and SD cards. The Lightning to 30-pin adapter supports only a limited subset of the available 30-pin signals: USB data, USB charging, and analog audio output (via the DAC inside of the adapter). Official Lightning connectors contain an authentication chip that made it difficult for third-party manufacturers to produce compatible accessories without being approved by Apple; however, the authentication scheme has been cracked. The plug measures 6.7 mm by 1.5 mm. Comparisons with microUSB. Apple has not publicly discussed microUSB, but various tech news websites state that Lightning might have been used instead of microUSB because of its compatibility with docks and speaker systems; the ability to insert the cable in either direction for user convenience; Apple wishing to maintain control over supply chain of accessories and the ability to charge a licensing fee; and the mechanical weakness of USB connectors. The optional supplemental standard USB On-The-Go allows USB devices to do this. On April 10, 2015, Apple announced a new line of MacBooks that featured USB-C, USB-C has similarities with Lightning, and advantages over microUSB."
"whatever manner"
{ "text": [ "whichever way" ], "answer_start": [ 334 ] }
"The common brimstone has an antennal response to the floral scent compounds of nectar plants, where neural activity in antennal olfactory receptors occurs in the presence of certain compounds. Research suggests that there are antennal olfactory receptors for phenylacetaldehyde and the terpene compounds oxoisophoroneoxide, oxoisophorone, and dihydrooxoisophorone, as these compounds elicited some of the strongest electrophysiological responses whether they were presented in natural or synthetic mixes of floral compounds. Additionally, these two compounds are present in the largest quantities in the nectar plants utilised by the brimstone, indicating that scent detection could be important for detecting food sources. This would contribute to more efficient foraging in adult butterflies, as odour could act as a cue for finding and distinguishing nectar plants, allowing more energy to be utilised for other activities such as reproduction. Diapause. The adult common brimstone overwinters for seven months, remaining hidden and motionless throughout its hibernation. While both sexes have similar egg to adult development times, they differ in the times that they reach sexual maturity. The reproductive development of males begins just after pupal emergence, and continues during hibernation, which indicates that males may not be able to reproduce until after overwintering. For females, eggs remain undeveloped as the butterflies overwinter, and no reproductive development occurs until after emergence from hibernation. The sexes also differ in times of emergence after overwintering. Emergence is correlated with temperature and hours of sunlight; a certain amount of both is necessary for the butterfly to emerge from hibernation and therefore influences when diapause ends."
"growth period"
{ "text": [ "development times" ], "answer_start": [ 1118 ] }
"Ambivalence regarding monetary compensation. Fans who do their creative work out of paying respect to the original media property or an actor or to the fandom in general gain cultural capital in the fandom. However, those who attempt to sell their creative products will be shunned by other fans, and subject to possible legal action. Fans often classify other fans trying to sell their items for profit motives as "hucksters" rather than true fans. Fans are often also fearful that charging other fans for products of their creativity, such as zines, videos, costumes, art, etc. will somehow fundamentally change the fan-fan relationship, as well as attract unwanted legal attention from copyright holders. That fear has come true in more than one case, such as the removal from sale on of "Another Hope", a commercial fan fiction book set in the "Star Wars" universe. However, some fans engage in for-profit exchange of their creations in what is known as the "gray market". The gray market operates mainly through word of mouth and "under the table" sales, and provides products of varying quality. Even though these are commercial activities, it is still expected that fan vendors will not make a large amount of profit, charging just enough to cover expenses. Some vendors attempt to not mark up their products at all, and will use that information in their promotional information, in an attempt to secure the confidence of other fans who may look down at fans making a profit."
"potential court proceedings"
{ "text": [ "possible legal action" ], "answer_start": [ 312 ] }
"Interaction with clients. Sheik. The city is far enough south that during the summer there is daylight twenty-four hours a day. The premises opened at 8 pm. The police testimony at the trial described women arriving at the nightclub from the living quarters. The women were required to be on duty from 11 pm to 6 am and received one day off each week. (In one interview, Kinan said that the work shift started at 11:30 pm.) However, Kinan testified that shifts could extend to 8 am or even 2 pm. There was a listing near the bar with prices for drinks and women. The women were available for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour. Police witnesses said that men started arriving at the nightclub around midnight, and women would leave with the men, returning alone."
"full twenty-four-hour period"
{ "text": [ "one day" ], "answer_start": [ 329 ] }
"The meaning of a scalp is to limit the physical contact between different players. The match is played on the grass like in a football pitch. The aim is to ground the ball behind the goal line of the opposite team scoring a point with a try. A player is stopped by taking his scalp while he has the ball. After that, the ball is given to the opposite team and the player goes outside the match until the next try. The players usually use a handball ball or rugby ball to play. Scoutball has grown up at very high levels in Italy. Italian Scouts usually organize many local or regional championships (especially in the city of Bologna and the region of Veneto). In Bologna there's a group of Boy Scouts and Scout leaders that has focused on developing this sport, they set up standard rules to standardize the game. Since 1997 there is an Italian Scoutball championship in the city of Bologna where Boy Scouts of every Scouting association meet from all Italy. During the Scouting 2007 Centenary there has been a big championship."
"later endeavor"
{ "text": [ "next try" ], "answer_start": [ 404 ] }
"Fleeing across what would later become known as Bloody Meadow, many Lancastrians were cut down from behind or were slain after they had surrendered. Before the battle, both sides had issued the order to give no quarter and the Yorkists were in no mood to spare anyone after the long, gruelling fight. A number of Lancastrians, such as Trollope, also had substantial bounties on their heads. Gregory's chronicle stated 42 knights were killed after they were taken prisoner. Archaeological findings in the late 20th century shed light on the final moments of the battle. In 1996 workmen at a construction site in the town of Towton uncovered a mass grave, which archaeologists believed to contain the remains of men who were slain during or after the battle in 1461. The bodies showed severe injuries to their upper torsos; arms and skulls were cracked or shattered. One exhumed specimen, known as Towton 25, had the front of his skull bisected: a weapon had slashed across his face, cutting a deep wound that split the bone. The skull was also pierced by another deep wound, a horizontal cut from a blade across the back. The Lancastrians lost more troops in their rout than from the battlefield. Men struggling across the river were dragged down by currents and drowned."
"straight gash"
{ "text": [ "horizontal cut" ], "answer_start": [ 1076 ] }
"Architect William L. Pereira designed it. A large portion of the more than one million square foot building is below grade. It is located on a parcel of land in Laguna Niguel, California, between Los Angeles and San Diego, and approximately from the Pacific coastline. The building has seven tiers and is constructed of angled, painted, pre-cast concrete panels with reticulation, a textured finish that displays curvilinear forms. The building displays some characteristics of the Brutalist style of Modern architecture, which is distinguished by weighty, massive forms; rough, exposed concrete surfaces; broad, expansive wall planes; and recessed windows. The building has a concrete frame; the lateral force-resisting system consists of concrete shearwalls and single-level concrete moment frames. It was constructed on spread footings and caissons. Anodized aluminum windows, which are separated by slanting concrete walls with triangular forms, are recessed between the horizontal levels. Evenly spaced windows provide a consistent rhythm to the symmetrical building, which has a sprawling horizontal emphasis. The top tier of the building has a large flat roof with attached protruding vertical elements, providing additional texture to the structure. The building also contains large amounts of asbestos that has been detected numerous times over the years, particularly during a water main break in March 2013."
"symptomatic pattern"
{ "text": [ "consistent rhythm" ], "answer_start": [ 1026 ] }
"In 2013, a Hospitality Kiosk was built in the Critical Care Unit at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children. The Kiosk offers individually packaged snacks, foods, baked goods, and microwaveable meals; coffee/tea; and other beverages. It also includes complimentary toiletries, books, magazines, board games, and other activities. In addition, there is a resource area with flyers, brochures, and other items that are helpful to families. Building. The Victorian-era Romanesque mansion was built in 1893 for William James Swain, the son of Philadelphia Public Ledger editor and publisher William Moseley Swain by architect Will Decker. Swain died in 1903. In 1926, the house was sold to the Andrew Bair Funeral Home, who sold it decades later to the Ronald McDonald House. Mission. The Philadelphia Ronald McDonald House supports families of seriously ill children by creating a community of comfort and hope. Structure of the house."
"wealth spot"
{ "text": [ "resource area" ], "answer_start": [ 354 ] }
"Erica Scarff (born 16 August 1996) is a Canadian paracanoeist who competes in international level events. She was a former national gymnast before she was diagnosed with osteosarcoma aged twelve after she broke her right leg when she ran into a vault in her gymnastics training session, her leg was amputated soon after the accident. Scarff was a very active person before her diagnosis: she tried swimming, cycling and alpine skiing but chose canoeing. Since her diagnosis, she was inspired by Terry Fox who also has the same cancer as she does."
"energetic being"
{ "text": [ "active person" ], "answer_start": [ 352 ] }
"The #12 AIM Vasser Sullivan Lexus RC F GT3 set the best time in GTD with a 1:46.754, followed by the #86 Meyer Shank Racing Acura NSX GT3 at a 1:46.873. The #96 Turner Motorsport BMW M6 GT3 posted a 1:46.919. Practice. The first practice took place on the morning of Wednesday, January 22nd, 2020. The track was damp, therefore times would not be at their quickest. Juan Pablo Montoya in the Team Penske #6 Acura ARX-05c was able to lead the first practice with a time of a 1:49.719, completing only six laps. Olivier Pla in the #77 Mazda RT-24P placed second close behind the Acura setting a 1:49.956 on the car's final practice lap. In total, both Mazda cars completed 36 laps. The fastest Cadillac DPi-V.R. was the #85 JDC-Miller MotorSports with a 1:50.316. In LMP2, David Heinemeier Hansson was the fastest driver in the category setting a 1:52.193 in the #8 Tower Motorsports Oreca 07."
"start exercise"
{ "text": [ "first practice" ], "answer_start": [ 223 ] }
"Finally, much of the efficiency of the Hough transform is dependent on the quality of the input data: the edges must be detected well for the Hough transform to be efficient. Use of the Hough transform on noisy images is a very delicate matter and generally, a denoising stage must be used before. In the case where the image is corrupted by speckle, as is the case in radar images, the Radon transform is sometimes preferred to detect lines, because it attenuates the noise through summation."
"fragile thing"
{ "text": [ "delicate matter" ], "answer_start": [ 228 ] }
"The action in the story is fast-paced and provides the reader with few signals for plot progression, changes in points of view, and character dialogue. The story opens with a man in his bedroom winding down at the end of his day and getting ready for bed. When he lies down, his arm brushes against someone else. He looks over and sees a pale white-haired lady. He notices a lisp in the lady’s speech as she starts speaking to him. The elderly woman tells him that all five of them have been assigned to be in one bed by Social Security. She goes on to explain to him that, with the current situation, no one can afford a private beds anymore because they are now luxury items. She advises the bed owner not to kick at night because her ailing brother Albert, who wears a cloth cap and long underwear of which one pant-leg is empty and pinned up to the rear flap, is sleeping at the foot of the bed. She believes that the man is lucky because he has his own bed in which he can sleep. The owner of the bed is surprised that Social Security has assigned that many folks. At the same time, the owner of the bed sees an Asian man whose work seems to be washing dishes."
"oriental gentleman"
{ "text": [ "Asian man" ], "answer_start": [ 1117 ] }
"The first test requires the platoon to respond to role-playing scenarios. However, it does not go well for them as Wilson is so indifferent to the role-playing that it loses all effect, Jones attempts to throttle Ramsey when his back is turned (because he had told Jones he was going to be a Gestapo officer) and Wilson ruins Mainwaring's test by pointing out that Mainwaring wouldn't have to push anyone out of a declining hot-air balloon as he could wait for it to land on the ground for the excess passenger to step out. Ramsay gives up, goes out and sends in an NAAFI canteen girl. Remembering Wilson's advice from before, the platoon grab her, knocking over her trolley and pulling her hair, believing it is a wig, to which she responds, "Oh, you're worse than the Regulars!" Told to get rid of the urn, Pike throws it through the (closed) window, where it hits Hodges and the Verger, and empties all over the Verger. The next exercise is to get one man over a tall electric fence in half an hour using only equipment provided to them (mostly wooden planks and oil drums). Jones inevitably volunteers to be the man over the fence, and tries to get Walker to catapult him over the fence, but in doing so they break the only decent long length of wood, thus dooming all other attempts to failure. After half an hour the platoon still have not done it, so they plead for more time. They try until midnight, with no success. Ramsay is not impressed the next morning, revealing that he did not award the platoon any stars for the first test and only one star for the second for "perseverance", despite the fact that their constantly setting the alarm off on the fence kept him awake all night! The final exercise is using the Smith Gun (an artillery piece unique to the Home Guard) to repel an assault by Ramsey's regular troops."
"concluding test"
{ "text": [ "final exercise" ], "answer_start": [ 1698 ] }
"Scott opened her first business, the Hat Box, which specializes in comfortable hats designed for women going through chemotherapy treatment. Scott sold "comfortable but stylish" pieces and donated a portion of the proceeds to cancer research. Before starting her own business, Scott started making jewelry from home in Austin, Texas. Kendra Scott, LLC. Scott founded Kendra Scott LLC in 2002, designing her first collection with $500 in the spare bedroom of her home just after her oldest son was born. She walked store to store around Austin, selling to local boutiques, and at the last boutique she had to sell all of her samples to purchase enough materials to cover the orders she had made that first day. In 2005, Scott's designs were chosen to accessorize Oscar de la Renta's Spring 2006 Runway Show. Scott's designs also appeared in Randolph Duke's 2007 runway show. Because of the financial crisis in 2009 she nearly had to close her company, but she received an order from Nordstrom for some of their stores; this gave her exposure and allowed her to expand her business. Scott's first retail store opened in Austin on the Austin's South Congress Avenue in 2010. In the same year, she began her e-commerce business and launched the brand's Color Bar experience."
"hat carton"
{ "text": [ "Hat Box" ], "answer_start": [ 37 ] }
"In 1904, Sir Phillip S. Henry, an Australian born diplomat acquired Zealandia. Under Sir Henry, Zealandia flourished. The castle doubled in size with a granite addition and was filled with ancient and sacred relics. In 1919, Sir Henry commissioned an artist to paint a mural in the style of the fifteenth century Italian painter, Benozzo Gozoli. This mural, located in the old dining room, portrays family members and friends clad in classical robes, posing languidly with hounds, horses and flowers. In 1930, Sir Henry opened a public museum on the grounds of Zealandia. An avid equestrian, Sir Henry also built an imposing Tudor-style stable for his horses. The stable was destroyed by fire in 1981. Zealandia passed to Violet Henry, Sir Henry’s daughter, and her husband British General Hartley Maconochie. After WWII, the Maconochie’s attempts to sell Zealandia were futile. In 1950, portions of the original castle were dismantled for economic and safety reasons."
"budget and defense purposes"
{ "text": [ "economic and safety reasons" ], "answer_start": [ 940 ] }
"As they spend time together, Brody teaches Issa to speak English and takes on a fatherly role, and the two form a close relationship. As the first source of meaningful human contact in many years for Brody, he grows quite attached to the boy. One day, the school Issa attends is destroyed by a drone strike. Issa and 82 other children are killed. Brody is devastated by the loss. Later on, Abu Nazir and Brody watch a speech made by Vice President Walden (Jamey Sheridan) addressing the strike. Walden claims that a missile struck Abu Nazir's compound and that any images of dead children are merely images fabricated by the terrorists for propaganda purposes. The flashbacks end with Brody and Abu Nazir praying together as they prepare Issa's body for burial. Present day. Carrie (Claire Danes) meets with Special Agent Hall (Billy Smith) from the FBI at the mosque. They review the SWAT Team's actions and how Walker (Chris Chalk) improbably escaped."
"introductory fountain"
{ "text": [ "first source" ], "answer_start": [ 141 ] }
"Water dispensers commonly have the water supply vessel mounted at the top of the unit. Bottom-load water dispensers have the vessel mounted at the bottom of the unit to make loading easier. Tabletop water dispenser. There are also smaller versions of the water dispensers where the dispenser can be placed directly on top of a table. These dispensers are commonly classified as household appliances and can often be found in household kitchens and office pantries. Direct-piping water dispenser (POU). Water dispensers can be directly connected to the in-house water source for continuous dispensing of hot and cold drinking water. It is commonly referred to as POU () water dispensers. POU units are generally more hygienic than bottled water coolers, provided the end user has access to clean water sources. Freestanding. A freestanding design generally involves bottles of water placed spout-down into the dispensing machine."
"hygienic water fountains"
{ "text": [ "clean water sources" ], "answer_start": [ 789 ] }
"The following day, "Tattnall" departed Okinawa and headed for the Mariana Islands and convoy escort duty. She arrived at Saipan on 3 May and returned with a convoy to Okinawa on the 20th. The warship resumed picket duty but experienced no more action like that of the night of 29 April and 30 April. To be sure, her crew stood long watches and, on 25 May, was at general quarters for 18 hours straight. On that day, "Barry" and "Roper" were hit by "kamikazes". "Barry" later sank, and "Roper" was sent to a rear area for repairs. Early in June, "Tattnall" was ordered to report for duty with the Philippine Sea Frontier. She stopped at Saipan on 13 June and reached Leyte on the 17th. Through the end of the war and for almost a month thereafter, she conducted patrols in the Philippines and escorted convoys to Ulithi and Hollandia. On 13 September, "Tattnall" headed back to the United States. After stops at Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor, the fast transport arrived in San Francisco on 30 October."
"quick transit"
{ "text": [ "fast transport" ], "answer_start": [ 942 ] }
"This caused a decline in local biodiversity and can cause a collapse in the ecosystem. Sediment deposition. Tuna penning causes a large increase of biodeposition on the surrounding sea floor. This increase is largely due to the accumulation of excess fish feed that sinks down to the bottom. As a result, the sediment composition of the benthic communities surrounding tuna pens is shifted, with increased organic material and nutrient concentrations. The increased amount of organic material leads to increased aerobic respiration, causing a decrease in the oxygen content of the benthic sediment. Additionally, the average grain size of the sediment becomes significantly smaller, which can lead to the smothering of plant life. These shifts in the benthic community have been linked to decreased biodiversity in areas surrounding tuna pens. Future trends. There have been some suggestions of moving tuna pens farther offshore as a method of mitigating the sediment deposition and water pollution that occurs in shallower waters. Deeper water tends to have stronger ocean currents and water movement."
"live vegetation"
{ "text": [ "plant life" ], "answer_start": [ 719 ] }
"In 1962, Don Gallucci, a high school freshman at the time, was recruited from another local group, the Royal Notes, to play keyboards. "Louie Louie". In 1962, while playing a gig at the Pypo Club in Seaside, Oregon, then managed by Al Dardis, the band noticed Rockin' Robin Roberts's version of "Louie Louie" being played on the jukebox for hours on end. The entire club would get up and dance. Ely convinced the Kingsmen to learn the song, which they played at dances to a great crowd response. Unknown to him, he changed the beat because he misheard it on a jukebox. Ken Chase, host of radio station KISN, formed his own club to capitalize on these dance crazes. Dubbed "The Chase", the Kingsmen became the club's house band and Ken Chase became the band's manager. On April 5, 1963, Chase booked the band an hour-long session at the local Northwestern Inc. studio for the following day. The band had just played a 90-minute "Louie Louie" marathon. Despite the band's annoyance at having so little time to prepare, on April 6 at 10 am the Kingsmen walked into the three-microphone recording studio."
"a separate regional band"
{ "text": [ "another local group" ], "answer_start": [ 78 ] }
"Two others are Regional Councillors, each representing two wards on Halton Hills Council, and also serve on the Halton Region Council as does the mayor. The current (2018–2022) membership of the town council is as follows: Halton Hills has its own fire department but policing is provided by the Halton Regional Police Service. Halton Hills has its own official plan which came into force on 28 March 2008 and was consolidated in 2017 with the Region's plan. Sports teams. Georgetown's sports teams include : Defunct sports teams. Georgetown Minor Hockey Association – Raiders – In 2013, the Acton Tanners and the Georgetown Raiders Minor Hockey Association completed their merger to create the Halton Hills Thunder Minor Hockey Association. Georgetown Raiders Sr A competed in the OHA Senior A and Intermediate A ranks in the 1970s and 1980s. They are not connected to another Georgetown Raiders team which is currently a member of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League. Events. Georgetown Highland Games. The second Saturday in June, Georgetown is host to a variety of Scottish traditional games and celebrations."
"sanctioned path"
{ "text": [ "official plan" ], "answer_start": [ 353 ] }
"Inner cover. The inner cover provides a barrier between the telescoping cover and the bees. In more temperate climates, a plastic foil may be used as an inner cover. Plastic foil should not be used to winter bees under, as trapped condensation would cause the hive to become wet, and bees can be lost due to freezing when temperatures fall during the night. In areas with a hot summer, a solid inner cover with a communication hole provides dead-air space for insulation against both heat and cold. This prevents the bees from gluing the top cover to the top bars of the super under it. When an inner cover is used, the top cover is more easily removed from the hive. Notches in the frame of the solid inner cover and telescoping cover can serve as an upper entrance for the bees. A communication hole in the middle allows bees to reach emergency food placed above by the beekeeper if it becomes required. Hive body and hive super. Hive bodies and hive supers are rectangular boxes with standardised inside dimensions to take standardized frames."
"inside wrapping"
{ "text": [ "inner cover" ], "answer_start": [ 17 ] }
"DNA crosslinks generally cause loss of overlapping sequence information from the two strands of DNA. Therefore, accurate repair of the damage depends on retrieving the lost information from an undamaged homologous chromosome in the same cell. Retrieval can occur by pairing with a sister chromatid produced during a preceding round of replication. In a diploid cell retrieval may also occur by pairing with a non-sister homologous chromosome, as occurs especially during meiosis. Once pairing has occurred, the crosslink can be removed and correct information introduced into the damaged chromosome by homologous recombination. Cleavage of the bond between a deoxyribose sugar in DNA's sugar-phosphate backbone and its associated nucleobase leaves an abasic site in double stranded DNA. These abasic sites are often generated as an intermediate and then restored in base excision repair. However, if these sites are allowed to persist, they can inhibit DNA replication and transcription. Abasic sites can react with amine groups on proteins to form DNA-protein crosslinks or with exocyclic amines of other nucleobases to form interstrand crosslinks. To prevent interstrand or DNA-protein crosslinks, enzymes from the BER pathway tightly bind the abasic site and sequester it from nearby reactive groups, as demonstrated in human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) and "E. coli" 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA). "in vitro" evidence demonstrated that the Interstand Cross-Links induced by abasic site (DOB-ICL) is a replication-blocking and highly miscoding lesion."
"former sequence"
{ "text": [ "preceding round" ], "answer_start": [ 316 ] }
""Take Back the Night" was used as the title of a 1977 memorial read by Anne Pride at an anti-violence rally in Pittsburgh. Events. Events typically consist of a rally followed by a march and often a speak-out or candlelight vigil on violence against women. Early marches were often deliberately women-only in order to symbolize women's individual walk through darkness and to demonstrate that women united can resist fear and violence. (Most marches in the present day include men; the organization differs as each event is organized locally.) The women-only policies caused controversy on some campuses; activists argued that male allies and sexual assault survivors should be allowed to march in support of women and male victims of sexual violence. In current practice, Take Back the Night events are not only inclusive of men, but include men as survivors, bystanders, and supporters. Many colleges, such as Wesleyan University in Connecticut, allow men to participate in speaking on their own experiences with sexual assault. Bowdoin College in Maine organizes a similar candlelight vigil and walk that encourages students of all genders to show solidarity for survivors on campus and in this nation. Michigan State University's Take Back the Night event includes a list of demands to the university community to end sexual violence. While the march began as a way to protest the violence that women experienced while walking in public at night, the purpose of these marches was to speak out against this violence and raise community awareness as a preventive measure against future violence."
"typical usage"
{ "text": [ "current practice" ], "answer_start": [ 755 ] }
"This cut of steak is from the shoulder of a beef animal. It is located adjacent to the heart of the shoulder clod, under the seven or paddle bone (shoulder blade or scapula). The steak encompasses the infraspinatus muscles of beef, and one may see this displayed in some butcher shops and meat markets as a top blade roast or informally called a "patio steak". Anatomically, the muscle forms the dorsal part of the rotator cuff of the steer. This cut is anatomically distinct from the shoulder tender, which lies directly below it and is the teres major. Steaks that are cross cut from this muscle are called top blade steaks, or chicken steaks. To make it more marketable, the cut which makes up this steak, which has the fascia dividing the infraspinatus within it, has increasingly been cut as two flatter steaks, with the tough fascia removed. This method of breaking down the larger cut was creation of the flat iron steak as we know it today. As a whole cut of meat, the top blade usually weighs around two to three pounds; it usually yields four steaks between eight and 12 ounces each. Flat iron steaks usually have a significant amount of marbling. In the North American Meat Processor (NAMP) meat buyers guide, it is item #1114D Beef Shoulder, Top Blade Steak."
"thicker piece of meat"
{ "text": [ "larger cut" ], "answer_start": [ 881 ] }
"One of the key arguments of those objecting to the pipeline is that if Irish Water met its own leakage reduction targets in Dublin there would be no need for the pipeline at all. Kennedy Analysis appeared before the Joint Committee on Housing, Planning and Local Government (alongside Irish Water) in April 2018 to debate the proposed pipeline. Ireland has extremely high levels of leakage - according to Irish Water’s 2015 business plan network leakage alone (i.e. leakage on the distribution side of the network, not including any household leakage) was 49%. Average leakage in cities around the globe is considerably lower than this – a 2017 KPMG study of 35 studies globally found that average leakage was 10-13%. Preferred route. In November 2016 the Parteen Basin to the south of the lough was chosen as the proposed site of extraction. Water would be pumped via Birdhill to a break pressure tank at Knockanacree near Cloughjordan, all in County Tipperary and gravity fed from there to Peamount in Dublin. Concerns. Various groups have been formed by those challenging the pipe. As the proposed extraction of water upstream of the ESB's hydroelectric station at Ardnacrusha may reduce the flow available for the generation of electricity, Irish Water will compensate ESB for any loss."
"circulation part"
{ "text": [ "distribution side" ], "answer_start": [ 481 ] }
"The team made a steady start to life in the National League, finishing in the top six in each of their first four seasons, narrowly missing out on the playoffs on several occasions. In the 2009-10 season, the team won the first of two successive promotions, finishing the season at the top of Division Three (North) and making the post-season semi-finals. A similar record in the 2010-11 season saw the Men's team promoted to NBL Division 1, where they have remained since. A reserve team was entered in EBL Division Four (North) for the first time in 2011, with a women's team joining EBL Division Two (North) in the following season and claiming the title at their first attempt with a 13-2 record. Despite this early success, both teams were disbanded after the 2012-13 season, although the club hopes to relaunch both teams into national competition in the future. The club's importance to the local community was recognised in 2006 by Bradford Council, which awarded the Dragons a special commendation award for their contribution to community cohesion."
"nearly-identical tally"
{ "text": [ "similar record" ], "answer_start": [ 358 ] }
"From the higher to the lower locations, the following geological formations are present: Climate. The rainfall pattern shows a very high seasonality with 70 to 80% of the annual rain falling in July and August. Mean temperature in Tsigereda is 22 °C, oscillating between average daily minimum of 12.5 °C and maximum of 31 °C. The contrasts between day and night air temperatures are much larger than seasonal contrasts. Water availability. In this area with rains that last only for a couple of months per year, the main rivers (Agefet and Amblo) are not permanent. Reservoirs of different sizes allow harvesting runoff from the rainy season for further use in the dry season. There are traditional surface water harvesting ponds, particularly in places without permanent springs, called "rahaya". In addition, "horoyo", household ponds, recently constructed with variable success through campaigns. The Ginda'i water reservoir was constructed northwest of the town of Tsigereda for agricultural purposes. It suffers from siltation."
"different outcomes"
{ "text": [ "variable success" ], "answer_start": [ 864 ] }
"The effort was the subject of significant criticism and contentious debate from diverse segments. Andy Beckett wrote in "The Guardian" on this frequent mistaken comparison: "In truth, boycotts are blunt weapons. Even the most apparently straightforward and justified ones, on closer inspection, have their controversies and injustices." Others, such as Hillary and Stephen Rose in "Nature" (2002), make the comparison and argue for an academic boycott of Israel based on a belief that the academic boycott of South Africa was effective in ending apartheid. George Fink responds (Nature 2002) that asserting that the boycott of South Africa by the world's academic communities 'was instrumental in ending apartheid in South Africa' is a deception and was actually terminated by two pivotal and interrelated political events: strict economic sanctions on South Africa imposed by the United States Congress in 1986 and measures by South Africa president F. W. de Klerk in 1989 and 1990. In 2010, the Senate of the University of Johannesburg recommended cutting off all links with Ben-Gurion University in Israel because of the country's policies. The scientific agreement, which focused on cooperation in water research, had only been signed in the previous year. Prior to making a final decision, the university sent a senior delegation of its faculty on a fact finding tour to Israel in January 2011. Accusations of antisemitism. Anthony Julius and Alan Dershowitz argue that boycotts against Israel are antisemitic, using their anti-Zionism as a cover for "Jew hatred". They compare the boycotts to the 1222 Canterbury Council, specifically the council's implementation of sharply limiting Christian contact with Jews, and Nazi boycotts of Jewish shops in the 1930s, as well as Arab League attempts to economically isolate Israel and refrain from purchasing "anything Jewish"."
"water analysis"
{ "text": [ "water research" ], "answer_start": [ 1202 ] }
"The core of both the SAR and the phased array techniques is that the distances that radar waves travel to and back from each scene element consist of some integer number of wavelengths plus some fraction of a "final" wavelength. Those fractions cause differences between the phases of the re-radiation received at various SAR or array positions. Coherent detection is needed to capture the signal phase information in addition to the signal amplitude information. That type of detection requires finding the differences between the phases of the received signals and the simultaneous phase of a well-preserved sample of the transmitted illumination. Every wave scattered from any point in the scene has a circular curvature about that point as a center. Signals from scene points at different ranges therefore arrive at a planar array with different curvatures, resulting in signal phase changes which follow different quadratic variations across a planar phased array. Additional linear variations result from points located in different directions from the center of the array. Fortunately, any one combination of these variations is unique to one scene point, and is calculable. For a SAR, the two-way travel doubles that phase change. In reading the following two paragraphs, be particularly careful to distinguish between array elements and scene elements. Also remember that each of the latter has, of course, a matching image element."
"singular blend"
{ "text": [ "one combination" ], "answer_start": [ 1097 ] }
"Any student of Christian Science may take patients, but only those "listed" as practitioners in the worldwide directory published in "The Christian Science Journal" and on the Christian Science website are regarded by the church as experienced healers. The church writes that, to become listed, applicants are interviewed, and must provide references from "three patients who can confirm a complete healing through [the applicant's] prayerful treatment." Applicants must also have taken "primary class" instruction by an "authorized teacher of Christian Science" under the aegis of the Christian Science Board of Education, as stipulated in the "Manual of The Mother Church", which governs all activities of the church. An authorized teacher is one who, having had primary class instruction and a minimum of three years' experience as a practitioner, has completed the normal course. Normal class instruction is held once every three years and is limited to 30 pupils. Primary class is held once a year by each teacher and is also limited to 30. According to the "Manual", those who complete the normal class receive the certificate "C.S.B." Tuition for both classes is fixed by the "Manual" at $100. Class instruction. Primary class instruction is held all over the world, wherever authorized teachers of Christian Science live or decide to teach; the normal class is held by the Christian Science Board of Education in Boston, Massachusetts. The Board selects a teacher, who usually teaches the normal class just once in a lifetime, and is not identified until several weeks after the class has ended."
"Elementary course"
{ "text": [ "primary class" ], "answer_start": [ 488 ] }
"The area sees up to 460 000 people daily, who come to the area to for its transport interchange and market shopping. History. Initially used as a market space by Indian traders during apartheid, the area become popular with black traders towards to the end of apartheid. Markets. Warwick Junction is home to nine distinct markets, where informal and formal traders sell a variety of products, from food to traditional medicine. There are approximately 5000 to 8000 vendors in the area. The Bead Market has vendors who are mostly from coastal areas adjacent to Durban selling traditional Zulu beadwork items. Berea Station Market, located near two rail stations, has vendors selling traditional Zulu items such as spears and shields, as well as modern clothing and technology items. The Bovine Head Market consists of vendors who cook and sell cows' heads, a traditional African delicacy. Brook Street Market consists of two sections: an upper level food court, and a lower level market with vendors selling clothing and household goods. It is located alongside the Badsha Peer Shrine, built by the original Indian traders in the area."
"commercial spot"
{ "text": [ "market space" ], "answer_start": [ 146 ] }
"Jews who managed to obtain permission to visit the site at that time, such as Moses Montefiore and Baron Rothschild, had themselves carried across the site by Muslims, in order not to violate the rabbinic prohibition against Jews setting foot on the holy ground of the area. Under the British Mandate and Jordanian rule. Article 13 of the Mandatory Charter conferred on Britain by the League of Nations explicitly denied its governing body the right to either interfere with the site or the administration of purely Muslim holy places. Jewish requests for access to their holy places during the period of British rule of Palestine were focused on the Western Wall, not on the Temple Mount, which was, in any case, off-limits according to the Jewish prohibition against entering the latter. The struggle between Muslims and Jews was concentrated on the latter's desire to secure regulated access to the wall on the mount's western side. As early as 1920, rabbi Avraham Yitzhak ha-Kohen Kook stated that though in other hands, the Temple Mount would eventually come into Jewish possession, a declaration which was interpreted by the mufti Amin al-Husseini as evidence of a political plot to wrest control of the Haram itself. In the ensuing period, the Temple Mount became something of a "state within a state" which the British authorities would not enter even when it became the centre for the Arab Revolt, until the mufti fled the site. The King's Order-in-Council issued by the government authorities of Mandatory Palestine in 1934 regulated the legal situation of the site by confirming the religious status quo regarding sovereignty reigning from Ottoman times. At the conclusion of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount lay behind the lines held by the Jordanian Legion. From that date until Israel captured the site in 1967 during the Six-Day War, Israeli Muslims were unable to enter East Jerusalem and access the Haram al-Sharif. This restriction was sometimes imposed by the Israeli government."
"controlled admittance"
{ "text": [ "regulated access" ], "answer_start": [ 878 ] }
"She refused to withdraw her name and was sacked along with several other of the signatories. However, King Hamad acceded to the throne he carried out a general amnesty for all political prisoners and exiles, and Dr Fakhro was restored to her job at Bahrain University. Dr Fakhro was appointed by the King's wife, Sheikha Sabeeka bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa, to the Advisory Board of the Supreme Council for Women. 2006 Bahrain parliamentary elections. Dr Fakhro was running for election in parliamentary elections that was held in Bahrain on 25 November 2006. She is Vice President of the leftist Waad, and is the only female candidate to be endorsed by Shia Islamist party, Al Wefaq. Dr Fakhro is standing in the middle class Isa Town constituency where she is running against Dr Salah Ali MP, who is a member of the Muslim Brotherhood's political wing, Al-Menbar Islamic Society. On the issue of women's rights, Dr Fakhro has argued that it is a core component of democracy: “You cannot separate democracy from other women’s causes … I believe that men and women should work together – for women or men or the whole society. We have so many men who believe in such issues (women’s rights), who work with us either at the university as scholars or at the political association.” Her views on women's rights mean that she has clashed with Islamists over their opposition to a unified law to protect women's rights: “Religious leaders are against the family law. I am against two separate laws for the Sunni and Shia – we will be separated more.” “If you want to fight extremism, you have to have a strong government. Democracy will bring extremists in, but in a controlled way – like Hamas in Palestine and the Muslim Brothers in Egypt."
"limited manner"
{ "text": [ "controlled way" ], "answer_start": [ 1658 ] }
"These periodic episodes describe the circumstances of situations in which technology does not work correctly, such as building collapses and airplane crashes, resulting in spectacular (and sometimes fatal) failures. Including an episode on New Orleans and another on the 1970s, 24 original "Engineering Disasters" episodes have been on "Modern Marvels". The packaging on the box set of "Engineering Disasters" 4-20 plus New Orleans describes the series as such: "Dark clouds with silver linings, "Modern Marvels: Engineering Disasters" presents the tragic, yet invaluable, handmaidens of technological progress." Introduction. Distinct from other History Channel series, the introduction of "Modern Marvels" features visuals and sounds of a bolt being turned by a ratchet wrench, followed by a partially computer-generated sequence involving construction workers building and hanging the title. Narration. Several narrators were used in the history of the series. The last and longest-running is Max Raphael, who has also narrated other History Channel series, such as "Command Decisions." The History Channel has repackaged some episodes that originally aired in other series and stand-alone specials into episodes of "Modern Marvels", such as "Ice Road Truckers", which originally aired in 2000 as part of the series "Suicide Missions". These episodes are not narrated by Raphael. Adam Richman will host the 2021 revival."
"directive determinations"
{ "text": [ "Command Decisions" ], "answer_start": [ 1070 ] }
"George Murphy (22 July 1915 – December 1983) was a Welsh footballer who played in a variety of positions mainly centre forward or full back. He played twice for Wales during the Second World War internationals. He also served in the RAF. Career. George Murphy started his footballing career in his native Wales with junior clubs Ponthlanfraith and Cwmfelinfach Juniors before signing for Bradford City in October 1934. He played in almost every position for Bradford under five different managers, particularly a centre forward and full back."
"Nearly all sporting roles"
{ "text": [ "almost every position" ], "answer_start": [ 432 ] }
"The statute is Internal Revenue Code section 7201: Under this statute and related case law, the prosecution must prove, beyond a reasonable doubt, each of the following three elements: An affirmative act "in any manner" is sufficient to satisfy the third element of the offense. That is, an act which would otherwise be perfectly legal (such as moving funds from one bank account to another) could be grounds for a tax evasion conviction (possibly an attempt to evade "payment"), provided the other two elements are also met. Intentionally filing a false tax return (a separate crime in itself) could constitute an attempt to evade the "assessment" of the tax, as the Internal Revenue Service bases its initial assessment (i.e., the formal recordation of the tax on the books of the U.S. Treasury) on the tax amount shown on the return. Application to tax protesters. The federal tax evasion statute is an example of an exception to the general rule under U.S. law that "ignorance of the law or a mistake of law is no defense to criminal prosecution". Under the "Cheek" Doctrine ("Cheek v. United States"), the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genuine, good faith belief that one is not violating the federal tax law (such as a mistake based on a misunderstanding caused by the complexity of the tax law itself) would be a valid defense to a charge of "willfulness" ("willfulness" in this case being knowledge or awareness that one is violating the tax law itself), even though that belief is irrational or unreasonable. On the surface, this rule might appear to be of some comfort to tax protesters who assert, for example, that "wages are not income." However, merely asserting that one has such a good faith belief is not determinative in court; under the American legal system the trier of fact (the jury, or the trial judge in a non-jury trial) decides whether the defendant really has the good faith belief he or she claims. With respect to willfulness, the placing of the burden of proof on the prosecution is of limited utility to a defendant that the jury simply does not believe. A further stumbling block for tax protesters is found in the "Cheek" Doctrine with respect to arguments about "constitutionality." Under the Doctrine, the belief that the Sixteenth Amendment was not properly ratified and the belief that the federal income tax is otherwise unconstitutional are not treated as beliefs that one is not violating the "tax law" – i.e., these errors are not treated as being caused by the "complexity of the tax law.""
"falter chunk"
{ "text": [ "stumbling block" ], "answer_start": [ 2108 ] }
"Even though it is not amenable, it shares many known properties of amenable groups in a straightforward way. In 2013, Yash Lodha and Justin Tatch Moore isolated a finitely presented non amenable subgroup of Monod's group. This provides the first torsion-free finitely presented counterexample, and admits a presentation with 3 generators and 9 relations. Lodha later showed that this group satisfies the property formula_1, which is a stronger finiteness property."
"clear-cut manner"
{ "text": [ "straightforward way" ], "answer_start": [ 88 ] }
"In 2019, NBN Co announced that by May 2020 retail service providers will be able to pool all their connectivity virtual circuit (CVC) bandwidth nationally. In February 2020, the company announced that 6.7 million homes and businesses were connected to a plan over the nbn access network – compared with 4.9 million in February 2019. NBN and retail service providers. As a wholesale provider of broadband access through its level two networks, NBN provides broadband access predominantly to retail service providers (RSPs); these businesses on sell access to end users; both residential and business customers to access the internet. At 30 June 2016, Telstra had 45.5%, TPG group had 24.8% and Optus had 12.4% of all end users connecting to the NBN. There has been a significant failure of the NBN to deliver nominal performance to end users. There has been contention between RSPs and NBN on the reasons for this. Bill Morrow, then CEO of NBN, admitted in 2017 that 15% of end users received a poor service through the NBN and were 'seriously dissatisfied'. In addition, Morrow indicated that, at July 2017, prices and performance for end users were suppressed through a 'price war' between RSPs. Contractual arrangements. NBN contracts mainly with RSPs to provide wholesale broadband access, with limited supply of backhaul to other organisations (for example providing backhaul services to Vodafone)."
"key issue"
{ "text": [ "significant failure" ], "answer_start": [ 766 ] }
"Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as "Pontifex Maximus", would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of "Augusta" on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Domitia Faustina. Empress. When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the unreliable "Historia Augusta" accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The "Historia Augusta" mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted. Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the excessive love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of "Mater Castrorum" or ‘Mother of the Camp’."
"overwhelming adoration"
{ "text": [ "excessive love" ], "answer_start": [ 1055 ] }
"After dying and being resurrected, Hao has become exponentially more powerful with each reincarnation as he retains all the awareness of himself over the past 1000 years his spirit has existed. By the time of the current tournament, he possesses a high-level furyoku of 1,250,000. Upon gaining the Spirit of Fire as his guardian ghost in his second reincarnation, its power was reduced considerably since its trip from Hell in order for Hao to bargain with Taizun Fukun to be reincarnated a third time as a descendant of the Asakura family. In order for the Spirit of Fire to regain its former strength, Hao feeds the spirit the souls of the shaman he has defeated. Other Appearances. In Hao's appearance in the "Shaman King" anime series, it is stated that his incarnation as a Patch member was defeated by an unnamed member of the Asakura family using the "Futsunomitama Sword" and the 1080 beads containing the powerful spirits of the Asakura family. Towards the conclusion of the series, he is confronted by the "X-Laws", a paramilitary organization of shaman led by Iron Maiden Jeanne, who makes a disastrous attempt to defeat him by opening the Gate of Babylon. Hao subsequently comes to regard the Shaman Fight as a waste of time and elects to seize the Great Spirit by force using the power of the Spirit of Fire, which has become sufficiently powerful after consuming Jeanne's spirit Shamash. Yoh attempts to defeat him before he can succeed but is overwhelmed and his soul is consumed after Hao expresses disgust with Yoh's attitude that "everything will work out". Yoh's friends arrive and try to defeat Hao using a binding spell that defeated him 500 years prior with the spirits of the Asakura ancestors contained the 1080 beads wielded by Anna. Hao's defeat comes when Yoh's soul breaks free before being fully consumed and Yoh uses the combined power of all the shamans in the tournament to boost Amidamaru's power and destroy both Hao and Spirit of Fire."
"Previous power"
{ "text": [ "former strength" ], "answer_start": [ 587 ] }
"(Contestants used two of the 1857 originals) Episode 6: "Turn the Corner". The trainer for both challenges was Jeff Gonzales, former Navy SEAL and counter-terrorism instructor. Iain Harrison and Chris Reed, the winners of Seasons 1 and 2, served as honorary team captains (Blue and Red, respectively) during practice for the team challenge and offered their own advice. A $5,000 donation was made to a charity selected by the captain of the winning team (the Make-A-Wish Foundation, Chris' choice; Iain had appeared on behalf of the Wounded Warrior Project). Episode 7: "Tricked Out". The trainer for both challenges was Jerry Miculek, holder of four revolver world speed records. Before the practice sessions for the team challenge, Billy withdrew from the competition due to complications in his wife's pregnancy. Since this decision left the Red Team with one extra member, they were allowed to decide for themselves which player would be benched. The Schofield Revolver used in this challenge was referred to as the "Pinkerton Model" because the barrel was shortened to 5 inches so Pinkerton detectives could easily conceal it. Episode 8: "Ramp It Up". The trainer for both challenges was Chris Palmer, archery expert and world-class archer."
"group contest"
{ "text": [ "team challenge" ], "answer_start": [ 325 ] }
"Next year the box was retouched to present him as official part of LOBO. Bionic Man is a Big Jeff basic figure, but dressed in a silver jumper. He has a bionic arm, but instead of the Kung-Fu Grip which was one of the main characteristics of the Six Million Dollar Man action figures, Bionic Man had magnets on his right hand and in several accessories which represents heavy containers and pipe tubes. Using the magnets, Bionic Man carries or pushes away extremely heavy bulks. This action figure does not have a bionic eye with zoom-in features, but in the comic he has it. His most notorious characteristic is it has a translucent right arm, so you can see his internal metallic bones surrounded by cables and circuits. Several Big Jim figures who shared the same changing face feature were sold as different versions of Zorak, the Dual Menace, including the original Double Trouble and Captain Drake. In 1980, a last villain was introduced in the series. This time was an alien named Nocton, Master of Darkness (sometimes he is called Noc-Tar in the comic). This one originally was an unproduced Mattel's "" model named "Zython". By its second season, Space 1999 suffered a drastic drop in popularity and Zhyton was dropped before being released in the American Market."
"serious fall"
{ "text": [ "drastic drop" ], "answer_start": [ 1178 ] }
"Walker was so ill-advised as to petition the Privy Council claiming a right to grant arms independently of the Earl Marshal's control. An adverse report was made on this claim, whereupon the King issued a Declaration of the Authority of the Earl Marshal over the heralds, overriding all Walker's claims. Walker then obeyed, but the next year, encouraged by some small success, refused obedience to a command of the Earl Marshal's. The Earl Marshal, through his deputy, made a petition to the King referring to Walker's insubordination and asking that he should be removed from office or otherwise severely punished. Legacy. His long and faithful service saved him from punishment by the Earl Marshal's actions, but he was sharply reprimanded and threatened with removal from office if he did not obey. His spirit was broken, he obeyed and soon after, in February 1677, he died. In 1675, on the death of Shakespeare’s granddaughter Lady Barnard, he had bought New Place in Stratford upon Avon, The house originally built by Sir Hugh Clopton in 1483/85, purchased by the poet in 1597. Walker was buried in Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon, where a Latin epitaph on the wall of the Lady Chapel commemorates him. He had a good collection of manuscripts, many of which had belonged to Sir William le Neve. Some of these he gave to the College of Arms in 1673, others he bequeathed to it and yet others to the Office of Garter."
"respectable assortment"
{ "text": [ "good collection" ], "answer_start": [ 1233 ] }
"The Association's plan for colonisation encountered a number of serious problems, however, and considerable debts were incurred. Sewell was instrumental in solving these problems. Sewell personally arrived in Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch (the principal settlement in Canterbury) on 2 February 1853, hoping to sort out what remained of the colony's problems. Gradually, and despite conflict with provincial superintendent James FitzGerald, Sewell managed to get the colony back onto a reasonable course. Charles Simeon and family lived in Canterbury from October 1851 to December 1855, and they were the only people who Sewell and his wife socialised with. Political career. 1st Parliament. Sewell's diary, published in 1980 as the Sewell Journal in two volumes, gives a unique insight into his life in the colony. The journal's editor, historian W. David McIntyre, calls it "the most absorbing and undoubtedly the fullest private manuscript relating to New Zealand in the 1850s". In late July 1853, Sewell decided that he would stand for Parliament in the 1853 general election; the question was whether he should run in the Town of Christchurch or the Christchurch Country electorate. There was one position to be filled in the town electorate, and two in the rural electorate."
"clear direction"
{ "text": [ "reasonable course" ], "answer_start": [ 491 ] }
"The losses, especially the toll from preventable accidents, raised the price of equipping and training the RVNAF. Support for the RVNAF cost US$382 million in Fiscal year 1974, excluding the cost of munitions, more than the combined cost for the ARVN and the Republic of Vietnam Navy. The RVNAF also required the services of 1,540 employees of contractors, compared with 723 for the ARVN and 61 for the Navy. Of 466 civilian employees of the US government assigned to aid the South Vietnamese armed forces, 202 worked with the RVNAF. General Murray suggested some basic remedies to correct the failings he described. Besides an emphasis on flight safety, he proposed reducing costs by consolidating the RVNAF inventory, perhaps eliminating the T-37 and T-41 trainers and using just one type for FACs. He also would encourage commanders to choose the cheaper-to-operate A–37 over the F–5 whenever such a choice was possible. To reduce combat losses, he suggested fitting some A–37s and F–5s with radar homing and warning gear to alert pilots that they were being tracked by radar-controlled antiaircraft weapons. In August 1974 the DAO recommended a substantial reduction in RVNAF training in the United States in order to save costs. 318 crew in training would return to Vietnam between August and December 1974, while 347 crew would stay to complete their training. By November 1974 RVNAF flying hours had been reduced from 672,000 to 345,500."
"American authorities"
{ "text": [ "US government" ], "answer_start": [ 442 ] }
"Rather, they are commonly perceived to entail non-construction costs such as taxes, marketing expenses, interest payments, and finance charges. The soft costs endorsement provided in the Builders’ Risk section of the AAIS Inland Marine Guide lists 10 types of soft costs: advertising, design fees, professional fees, financing, lease administration, real estate taxes, general administration, lease expenses, permit fees, and insurance premiums. In recent years, a solution to the problem has emerged in the form of Delay in Opening coverage which can be provided in Builder's Risk Insurance. This coverage can provide indemnification for these indirect costs that may continue after the original completion date. Other soft costs that can be repeated in the repair of the property should be reported with the property values. A Draw Back expense proforma shows which soft costs are one time charges and which are continuing expenses throughout the project term. Engineer design fee is a one time charge that can be incurred again in a repair whereas engineer oversight of quality persists through the term and after. Unfortunately, these contractor accounting terms are being used when the owner is insured and many have erroneously equated hard costs with property and soft costs with business interruption which is called Delay in Opening coverage being added to some builder's risk policies. With its popularity increasing in recent years, some insurers automatically include soft costs coverage, which can be activated by designating the limit on policy declarations. However, these modifications to builder's risk insurance will not cover the efficiency of business owners or managers. Soft costs can also refer to the failure of implementing a strategy in a timely manner, or the opportunity cost of delaying a solution to a problem for discussion or consideration."
"initial deadline"
{ "text": [ "original completion date" ], "answer_start": [ 688 ] }
"On February 18, 2007 he was also detained at the US border and has been so far unable to find out the reason for his being detained there. While on a lecture tour in 2007 he faced further harassment by persons turning up and disrupting his speaking engagements. The Wikipedia biography was altered as part of an internet campaign against him by the website "Tall Armenian Tale". In October 2011, Akçam won a judgment in the European Court of Human Rights, which ruled that the Turkish laws against "denigrating Turkishness" were a violation of freedom of expression."
"online movement"
{ "text": [ "internet campaign" ], "answer_start": [ 312 ] }
"Sr. Margaret Mary McBride, R.S.M., is a Sister of Mercy. She received her Bachelor of Science in nursing and her Master of Public Administration from the University of San Francisco. She has served as a board member of several organizations, including Hospice of the Valley, Catholic Charities, Mercy Housing Southwest, and Southwest Catholic Health Network. Decision and excommunication. McBride was an administrator and member of the ethics committee at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, which is owned by Catholic Healthcare West, later, Dignity Health. On 27 November 2009, the committee was consulted on the case of a 27-year-old woman who was eleven weeks pregnant with her fifth child and suffering from pulmonary hypertension. Her doctors stated that the woman's chance of dying if the pregnancy was allowed to continue was "close to 100 percent". McBride joined the ethics committee in approving the decision to terminate the pregnancy through an induced abortion. The abortion took place and the mother survived. Afterwards, the abortion came to the attention of Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted, the bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Phoenix. Olmsted spoke to McBride privately and she confirmed her participation in the procurement of the abortion."
"almost a virtual certainty"
{ "text": [ "close to 100 percent" ], "answer_start": [ 859 ] }
"Tee Boxes. A golfer should choose the correct tee box for their skill level, regardless of where the other members of the group are playing. Varying course lengths from different tees are one way to help even the playing field. Dress. Many golf clubs have dress rules, commonly requiring men to wear collared shirts and explicitly banning jeans or denim."
"level the field"
{ "text": [ "even the playing field" ], "answer_start": [ 204 ] }
"Fishing: Teton Valley is located near the south fork of the Snake River that is a common place to fish wild trout. Palisades Lake is located near Teton Valley. Hiking and Horseback Riding: The Grand Teton Mountains provide many hiking and horseback riding opportunities, many taking you into Grand Teton National Park. The Big Hole Mountains provide good hiking to the west, the Snake River Range to the south and on the north side of the valley you can access some of Yellowstone's southwestern corner trails. Skiing: Grand Targhee offers a place for residents or visitors to ski during the winter months. Located in the Caribou-Targhee National Forest, the main gateway to Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. Arts: Residing in Teton Valley are sculptors, glass blowers, landscape painters, musicians, actors, film makers, wood carvers and furniture makers. Teton valley is the home of the Teton Valley Historical museum. Transportation. Vehicles: Teton Valley has three main paved highways: Aviation: Teton Valley has no regularly scheduled passenger carrying flights, however, the Driggs-Reed Memorial Airport, (IATA: DIJ, ICAO: KDIJ, FAA LID: DIJ) is located in Driggs, Idaho. Further reading."
"glass maker"
{ "text": [ "glass blowers" ], "answer_start": [ 765 ] }
"Marshall Nirenberg again stated that these observations fully supported the split gene theory for the origin of splice junction sequences from stop codons, who was the referee for this paper. "New Scientist" covered this publication in “Exons, Introns and Evolution”. Soon after the discovery of introns by Drs. Philip Sharp and Richard Roberts, it became known that mutations within splice junctions could lead to diseases. Senapathy showed that mutations in the stop codon bases (canonical bases) caused more diseases than the mutations in non-canonical bases. Branch point (lariat) sequence. An intermediate stage in the process of eukaryotic RNA splicing is the formation of a lariat structure. It is anchored at an adenosine residue in intron between 10 and 50 nucleotides upstream of the 3' splice site. A short conserved sequence (the branch point sequence) functions as the recognition signal for the site of lariat formation. During the splicing process, this conserved sequence towards the end of the intron forms a lariat structure with the beginning of the intron. The final step of the splicing process occurs when the two exons are joined and the intron is released as a lariat RNA."
"expected contact"
{ "text": [ "recognition signal" ], "answer_start": [ 882 ] }
"With this match, Pakistan lost their defended World T20 title. 2011 Cricket World Cup. Pakistan started well in the ICC Cricket World Cup, which was held in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, after beating Kenya, Sri Lanka (one of the tournament favourites) and bye a margin, beating Canada. Shahid Afridi clearly stated that his team is capable of qualifying for the Semifinals. After a huge loss against New Zealand, Pakistan defeated Zimbabwe by 7 wickets. After victory against Zimbabwe Pakistan cemented their shot at playing the ICC CWC 2011 Quarters. One of the highlights of the tournament for Pakistan was when they beat Australia, who were led by 3 brilliant pace bowlers, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait and Mitchell Johnson. However Pakistan defied the odds and defeated Australia, courtesy of a brilliant bowling display. This saw Australia's record win streak of 27 consecutive world cup games broken which saw them win every game between the 1999 world cup up until this game. In the quarter-finals they played West Indies. Pakistan were ruthless, as they emphatically won against the West Indies side by 10 wickets, due to another brilliant bowling display."
"monumental fall"
{ "text": [ "huge loss" ], "answer_start": [ 386 ] }
"On the four-track Brighton Beach main line south of Prospect Park, the inner pair of tracks were for express trains, and the outer pair of tracks were for local trains. The line continued to operate elevated train service on the Brighton Beach main line until 1928, after which similar services were continued with steel subway cars. For the summer excursion season of 1924, the Franklin Avenue Line was upgraded for the operation of six-car subway trains, and was assigned the BMT number 7. This service used the Brighton Line during most daytime hours. During warm weather, express service ran to Coney Island on weekends during the day. In the 1920s, transportation officials discussed the possibility of an extension of the line. It was proposed that the line would be extended beyond Fulton Street, ran across central Brooklyn, and link up with other BRT lines in Long Island City. Provisions for this line were made in the elevated structure at Queensboro Plaza, but no other parts of the line were built as the plan never left the talking stages. A crosstown line would eventually be built in the 1930s; however, it was part of the city-operated Independent Subway System, not the BRT. The Fulton Street Elevated, to which the Franklin Avenue line was originally connected, closed in 1940 and was replaced by the IND Fulton Street Line. A free transfer was instituted between the Fulton Street subway and the Franklin Avenue elevated."
"hot seasons"
{ "text": [ "warm weather" ], "answer_start": [ 562 ] }
"Sexual orientation encompasses the range of human sexuality from gay and lesbian to bisexual and heterosexual orientations. And defines gender identity and gender expression as follows: Gender identity is each person’s internal and individual experience of gender. It is their sense of being a woman, a man, both, neither, or anywhere along the gender spectrum. A person’s gender identity may be the same as or different from their birth-assigned sex. Gender identity is fundamentally different from a person’s sexual orientation. Gender expression is how a person publicly presents their gender. This can include behaviour and outward appearance such as dress, hair, make-up, body language and voice. A person’s chosen name and pronoun are also common ways of expressing gender. Similar definitions exist in other provinces' Human rights commissions, for example, Quebec's Commission defines sexual orientation as "the emotional or sexual attraction to someone", and, as a personal characteristic, as being "permanent or difficult to change". All human rights laws in Canada also explicitly prohibit discrimination based on disability, which has been interpreted to include AIDS, ARC and being HIV-positive, and membership in a high-risk group for HIV infection. Federal level."
"preferred appellation"
{ "text": [ "chosen name" ], "answer_start": [ 713 ] }
"Frazier Moore of the Associated Press called the ending sappy, sloppy, and a "cop-out". Richard Lawson of the "Atlantic Monthly" described the finale as an "unbelievably unsatisfying end [which] ruins all that came before it". Showtime president David Nevins praised the series finale against fan backlash, saying: "The fundamental design of where they ended "Dexter" was really well conceived. He had to sacrifice the one person who was closest to him in the world, and he had to leave. That was where it was headed for a very long time." Nevins also said there were never any discussions to kill off Dexter, and they did not just keep the character alive for a potential spinoff series."
"formal creation"
{ "text": [ "fundamental design" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
"However, too much competition within the seed dispersal range can cause reproduction to be suppressed, so it is important to balance. On the ecosystem level, the spatial planning of revegetation species influences animal species. A more varied plant species composition is more likely to be used by a wider variety of animal species. High-density edible plants mean animals do not have to forage as far to eat, and a plant species even being in the presence of palatable species could lead to it having more interaction with animals. Abiotic aspects of the ecosystem are also altered. Higher density revegetation can reduce erosion, protect against extreme temperatures, decrease evaporative losses of water, and increase water filtration and reinfiltration. However, higher density revegetation requires the use of more soil nutrients and water, which can potentially dry out and deplete the soil. For riparianrevegetation, plant roots help to increase the shear strength of bank soil, and if tree roots begin to lose their strength, the bank is susceptible to land slips. Fibrous or matted roots in particular help to prevent against soil erosion, and are typically found in reed and sedge species. Soil replacement. Mine reclamation may involve soil amendment, replacement, or creation, particularly for areas that have been strip mined or suffered severe erosion or soil compaction."
"notable aid"
{ "text": [ "particular help" ], "answer_start": [ 1101 ] }
"The missionaries that had been allowed into the country found their reception to be much cooler than anticipated, apparently because permission was a political measure intended to obtain Spanish help with shipbuilding. In 1600, a fleet from Satsuma raided a Chinese trading fleet, stole all its merchandise and attempted to sell it at the port in Manila. The Spanish authorities crucified all 400 of the crew. Thereafter relations between Japan and the Philippines were basically closed. The situation in Jolo, and raids from Mindanao. The Spanish had maintained a fort on Jolo, but controlled very little of the island. Upon his arrival, Governor Bravo sent some reinforcements, but the Spanish there were so worn out that even with the reinforcements, they abandoned the island, retreating to the Pintados. This emboldened the people of Jolo and nearby Mindanao to make raids on the Spanish in the Pintados and elsewhere. The governor hastily started for the island of Panay to ascertain the state of affairs, leaving the government in Manila in charge of Licenciado Antonio de Ribera, auditor of the Audiencia. Soon afterwards raiders from Mindanao attacked Luzon, taking some Spaniards captive and holding them for ransom, and burning the town of Calilaya. After these initial successes they encountered greater resistance, and so passed over to Mindoro."
"increased pushback"
{ "text": [ "greater resistance" ], "answer_start": [ 1308 ] }
"They try to pull him off with a rock on a rope. Chip is held by Pete which he thinks is a salt shaker. Chip is suddenly pulled away and the rock tumbling sounds scares Pete, who hides behind another rock and begins firing wildly at nothing. He brushes it off, then Chip and Dale load a tobacco bag with gunpowder from some of Pete's bullets and turn it into a cigarette. When he hears it crackling, he throws it away. It lands behind the chipmunks and explodes. Pete again panics and fires blindly. He then becomes frantic and decides to move on. He grabs his chest, only to find it full of acorns. He finds his money on the ground in a path, and gathers it while ironically falling into a pit trap, only to find the chipmunks and begins to shoot at them. They retreat to their tree, and then attempt to take one of the guns away from Pete."
"next slab"
{ "text": [ "another rock" ], "answer_start": [ 191 ] }
"The team is self-managing, cross-functional and focuses on one objective at a time: the product goal. Product owner. The product owner, representing the product's stakeholders and the voice of the customer (or may represent the desires of a committee), is responsible for delivering good business results. Hence, the product owner is accountable for the product backlog and for maximizing the value that the team delivers. The product owner defines the product in terms of customer-centric outcomes (typically - but not limited to - user stories), adds them to the product backlog, and prioritizes them based on importance and dependencies. A scrum team should have only one product owner (although a product owner could support more than one team) and it is strongly advised against combining this role with the role of the scrum master. The product owner should focus on the business side of product development and spend the majority of time liaising with stakeholders and the team. The product owner does not dictate how the team reaches a technical solution, but seeks consensus among team members. This role is crucial and requires a deep understanding of both sides: the business and the engineers (developers) in the scrum team. Therefore, a good product owner should be able to communicate what the business needs, ask why they need it (because there may be better ways to achieve that), and convey the message to all stakeholders including the developers using technical language, as required. The product owner uses Scrum’s empirical tools to manage highly complex work while controlling risk and achieving value."
"increasingly difficult tasks"
{ "text": [ "highly complex work" ], "answer_start": [ 1561 ] }
"Wastewater treatment plants are held accountable by The 2004 Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative for their emissions of greenhouse gases by the use of electricity to treat wastewater. For example, energy is required for the aeration process that releases volatile compounds from the water, and also for the mixing and transportation of polluted and recycled fluid moving throughout the process. The electricity generation process itself necessary for wastewater treatment produces CO2, CH4, and nitrous oxide. The aerobic treatment step of the water releases N2O and CO2, similar to the particle settling step, and the activated sludge step releases both CO2 and methane. Microbes in wastewater have the potential to enhance mineralization of CO2. Mineralization of CO2 into CaCO3 immobilizes CO2 which prevent leakages by stabilizing underground pressure and reducing permeability of the cap rock. By Le Chatelier's principle, increasing Ca2+ availability and increasing pH will increase the rate of mineralization. Negatively charged surfaces on microbes have a high affinity for cations such as Ca2+ and, though metabolic function, increase saturation of CO2 in solution. In addition, bacterial ureolysis (hydrolysis of urea) increases pH of the solution. Technology of MECC using wastewater. The microbial electrolytic process uses wastewater as a source of charged ions and outputs hydrogen gas through the use of the microbial electrolysis cell."
"heavy stress below the earth"
{ "text": [ "underground pressure" ], "answer_start": [ 834 ] }
"Membership dropped from 700 in 2000 to approximately 500 in January 2004, when the project began. Approximately 25% of the members did not pay it, leaving the club with a $6M debt. Asset sale. To generate funds to reduce the Deerwood Country Club's financial burden, it was discovered that the club owned land that could be sold for development. In the summer of 2005, a local developer paid $2.6 million to purchase on the north end of the country club—the last large undeveloped parcel, which was mostly wetlands once viewed as too expensive to utilize. The "Collins Group" plotted 26 homesites on a new thoroughfare named Collins Grove Road for multimillion-dollar homes while reserving for conservation. The homes were expected to be a minimum of , with a total cost starting at $1.5 million. Gated community. Operations within the Deerwood residential community are controlled by the "Deerwood Improvement Association" (DIA), the community's homeowner's association. Their leadership is elected by the Voting membership. CC&R. Every deed in Deerwood includes a comprehensive set of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions which establish and permit enforcement of standards."
"all title"
{ "text": [ "Every deed" ], "answer_start": [ 1036 ] }
"Southeast Asia. Most countries of Southeast Asia – and all countries of Indochina specifically – are contaminated with unexploded ordnance. Most of the UXOs of today are remnants from the Vietnam War which, apart from Vietnam, also included neighbouring Cambodia and Laos, but other conflicts and civil wars has also contributed. Laos. Laos is considered the world's most heavily bombed nation per capita. During the period of the Vietnam War, over half a million American bombing missions dropped more than 2 million tons of ordnance on Laos, most of it anti-personnel cluster bombs. Each cluster bomb shell contained hundreds of individual bomblets, "bombies", about the size of a tennis ball. An estimated 30% of these munitions did not detonate. Ten of the 18 Laotian provinces have been described as "severely contaminated" with artillery and mortar shells, mines, rockets, grenades, and other devices from various countries of origin. These munitions pose a continuing obstacle to agriculture and a special threat to children, who are attracted by the toylike devices. Some 288 million cluster munitions and about 75 million unexploded bombs were left across Laos after the war ended."
"particular danger"
{ "text": [ "special threat" ], "answer_start": [ 1005 ] }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "PiC: Phrase Retrieval"

Dataset Summary

PR is a phrase retrieval task with the goal of finding a phrase t in a given document d such that t is semantically similar to the query phrase, which is the paraphrase q1 provided by annotators. We release two versions of PR: PR-pass and PR-page, i.e., datasets of 3-tuples (query q1, target phrase t, document d) where d is a random 11-sentence passage that contains t or an entire Wikipedia page. While PR-pass contains 28,147 examples, PR-page contains slightly fewer examples (28,098) as we remove those trivial examples whose Wikipedia pages contain exactly the query phrase (in addition to the target phrase). Both datasets are split into 5K/3K/~20K for test/dev/train, respectively.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]



Dataset Structure

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 43.61 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 36.98 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 80.59 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

  "id": "3478-1",
  "title": "",
  "context": "The 425t was a 'pizza box' design with a single network expansion slot. The 433s was a desk-side server systems with multiple expansion slots. Compatibility. PC compatibility was possible either through software emulation, using the optional product DPCE, or through a plug-in card carrying an Intel 80286 processor. A third-party plug-in card with a 386 was also available. An Apollo Token Ring network card could also be placed in a standard PC and network drivers allowed it to connect to a server running a PC SMB (Server Message Block) file server. Usage. Although Apollo systems were easy to use and administer, they became less cost-effective because the proprietary operating system made software more expensive than Unix software. The 68K processors were slower than the new RISC chips from Sun and Hewlett-Packard. Apollo addressed both problems by introducing the RISC-based DN10000 and Unix-friendly Domain/OS operating system. However, the DN10000, though fast, was extremely expensive, and a reliable version of Domain/OS came too late to make a difference.",
  "query": "dependable adaptation",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["reliable version"], 
    "answer_start": [1006] 


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 421.56 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 412.17 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 833.73 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

  "id": "5961-2",
  "title": "",
  "context": "Joseph Locke FRSA (9 August 1805 – 18 September 1860) was a notable English civil engineer of the nineteenth century, particularly associated with railway projects. Locke ranked alongside Robert Stephenson and Isambard Kingdom Brunel as one of the major pioneers of railway development. Early life and career. Locke was born in Attercliffe, Sheffield in Yorkshire, moving to nearby Barnsley when he was five. By the age of 17, Joseph had already served an apprenticeship under William Stobart at Pelaw, on the south bank of the Tyne, and under his own father, William. He was an experienced mining engineer, able to survey, sink shafts, to construct railways, tunnels and stationary engines. Joseph's father had been a manager at Wallbottle colliery on Tyneside when George Stephenson was a fireman there. In 1823, when Joseph was 17, Stephenson was involved with planning the Stockton and Darlington Railway. He and his son Robert Stephenson visited William Locke and his son at Barnsley and it was arranged that Joseph would go to work for the Stephensons. The Stephensons established a locomotive works near Forth Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, to manufacture locomotives for the new railway. Joseph Locke, despite his youth, soon established a position of authority. He and Robert Stephenson became close friends, but their friendship was interrupted, in 1824, by Robert leaving to work in Colombia for three years. Liverpool and Manchester Railway. George Stephenson carried out the original survey of the line of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, but this was found to be flawed, and the line was re-surveyed by a talented young engineer, Charles Vignoles. Joseph Locke was asked by the directors to carry out another survey of the proposed tunnel works and produce a report. The report was highly critical of the work already done, which reflected badly on Stephenson. Stephenson was furious and henceforth relations between the two men were strained, although Locke continued to be employed by Stephenson, probably because the latter recognised his worth. Despite the many criticisms of Stephenson's work, when the bill for the new line was finally passed, in 1826, Stephenson was appointed as engineer and he appointed Joseph Locke as his assistant to work alongside Vignoles, who was the other assistant. However, a clash of personalities between Stephenson and Vignoles led to the latter resigning, leaving Locke as the sole assistant engineer. Locke took over responsibility for the western half of the line. One of the major obstacles to be overcome was Chat Moss, a large bog that had to be crossed. Although, Stephenson usually gets the credit for this feat, it is believed that it was Locke who suggested the correct method for crossing the bog. Whilst the line was being built, the directors were trying to decide whether to use standing engines or locomotives to propel the trains. Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke were convinced that locomotives were vastly superior, and in March 1829 the two men wrote a report demonstrating the superiority of locomotives when used on a busy railway. The report led to the decision by the directors to hold an open trial to find the best locomotive. This was the Rainhill Trials, which were run in October 1829, and were won by \"Rocket\". When the line was finally opened in 1830, it was planned for a procession of eight trains to travel from Liverpool to Manchester and back. George Stephenson drove the leading locomotive \"Northumbrian\" and Joseph Locke drove \"Rocket\". The day was marred by the death of William Huskisson, the Member of Parliament for Liverpool, who was struck and killed by \"Rocket\". Grand Junction Railway. In 1829 Locke was George Stephenson's assistant, given the job of surveying the route for the Grand Junction Railway. This new railway was to join Newton-le-Willows on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with Warrington and then on to Birmingham via Crewe, Stafford and Wolverhampton, a total of 80 miles. Locke is credited with choosing the location for Crewe and recommending the establishment there of shops required for the building and repairs of carriages and wagons as well as engines. During the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Stephenson had shown a lack of ability in organising major civil engineering projects. On the other hand, Locke's ability to manage complex projects was well known. The directors of the new railway decided on a compromise whereby Locke was made responsible for the northern half of the line and Stephenson was made responsible for the southern half. However Stephenson's administrative inefficiency soon became apparent, whereas Locke estimated the costs for his section of the line so meticulously and speedily, that he had all of the contracts signed for his section of the line before a single one had been signed for Stephenson's section. The railway company lost patience with Stephenson, but tried to compromise by making both men joint-engineers. Stephenson's pride would not let him accept this, and so he resigned from the project. By autumn of 1835 Locke had become chief engineer for the whole of the line. This caused a rift between the two men, and strained relations between Locke and Robert Stephenson. Up to this point, Locke had always been under George Stephenson's shadow. From then on, he would be his own man, and stand or fall by his own achievements. The line was opened on 4 July 1837. New methods. Locke's route avoided as far as possible major civil engineering works. The main one was the Dutton Viaduct which crosses the River Weaver and the Weaver Navigation between the villages of Dutton and Acton Bridge in Cheshire. The viaduct consists of 20 arches with spans of 20 yards. An important feature of the new railway was the use of double-headed (dumb-bell) wrought-iron rail supported on timber sleepers at 2 ft 6 in intervals. It was intended that when the rails became worn they could be turned over to use the other surface, but in practice it was found that the chairs into which the rails were keyed caused wear to the bottom surface so that it became uneven. However this was still an improvement on the fish-bellied, wrought-iron rails still being used by Robert Stephenson on the London and Birmingham Railway. Locke was more careful than Stephenson to get value for his employers' money. For the Penkridge Viaduct Stephenson had obtained a tender of £26,000. After Locke took over, he gave the potential contractor better information and agreed a price of only £6,000. Locke also tried to avoid tunnels because in those days tunnels often took longer and cost more than planned. The Stephensons regarded 1 in 330 as the maximum slope that an engine could manage and Robert Stephenson achieved this on the London and Birmingham Railway by using seven tunnels which added both cost and delay. Locke avoided tunnels almost completely on the Grand Junction but exceeded the slope limit for six miles south of Crewe. Proof of Locke's ability to estimate costs accurately is given by the fact that the construction of the Grand Junction line cost £18,846 per mile as against Locke's estimate of £17,000. This is amazingly accurate compared with the estimated costs for the London and Birmingham Railway (Robert Stephenson) and the Great Western Railway (Brunel). Locke also divided the project into a few large sections rather than many small ones. This allowed him to work closely with his contractors to develop the best methods, overcome problems and personally gain practical experience of the building process and of the contractors themselves. He used the contractors who worked well with him, especially Thomas Brassey and William Mackenzie, on many other projects. Everyone gained from this cooperative approach whereas Brunel's more adversarial approach eventually made it hard for him to get anyone to work for him. Marriage. In 1834 Locke married Phoebe McCreery, with whom he adopted a child. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1838. Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. A significant difference in philosophy between George Stephenson and Joseph Locke and the surveying methods they employed was more than a mere difference of opinion. Stephenson had started his career at a time when locomotives had little power to overcome excessive gradients. Both George and Robert Stephenson were prepared to go to great lengths to avoid steep gradients that would tax the locomotives of the day, even if this meant choosing a circuitous path that added on extra miles to the line of the route. Locke had more confidence in the ability of modern locomotives to climb these gradients. An example of this was the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, which had to cope with the barrier of the Lake District mountains. In 1839 Stephenson proposed a circuitous route that avoided the Lake District altogether by going all the way round Morecambe Bay and West Cumberland, claiming: 'This is the only practicable line from Liverpool to Carlisle. The making of a railway across Shap Fell is out of the question.' The directors rejected his route and chose the one proposed by Joseph Locke, one that used steep gradients and passed over Shap Fell. The line was completed by Locke and was a success. Locke's reasoned that by avoiding long routes and tunnelling, the line could be finished more quickly, with less capital costs, and could start earning revenue sooner. This became known as the 'up and over' school of engineering (referred to by Rolt as 'Up and Down,' or Rollercoaster). Locke took a similar approach in planning the Caledonian Railway, from Carlisle to Glasgow. In both railways he introduced gradients of 1 in 75, which severely taxed fully laden locomotives, for even as more powerful locomotives were introduced, the trains that they pulled became heavier. It may therefore be argued that Locke, although his philosophy carried the day, was not entirely correct in his reasoning. Even today, Shap Fell is a severe test of any locomotive. Manchester and Sheffield Railway. Locke was subsequently appointed to build a railway line from Manchester to Sheffield, replacing Charles Vignoles as chief engineer, after the latter had been beset by misfortunes and financial difficulties. The project included the three-mile Woodhead Tunnel, and the line opened, after many delays, on 23 December 1845. The building of the line required over a thousand navvies and cost the lives of thirty-two of them, seriously injuring 140 others. The Woodhead Tunnel was such a difficult undertaking that George Stephenson claimed that it could not be done, declaring that he would eat the first locomotive that got through the tunnel. Subsequent commissions. In the north, Locke also designed the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway; the Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Railway; and the Caledonian Railway from Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh. In the south, he worked on the London and Southampton Railway, later called the London and South Western Railway, designing, among other structures, Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct, Richmond Railway Bridge (1848, since replaced), and Barnes Bridge (1849), both across the River Thames, tunnels at Micheldever, and the 12-arch Quay Street viaduct and the 16-arch Cams Hill viaduct, both in Fareham (1848). He was actively involved in planning and building many railways in Europe (assisted by John Milroy), including the Le Havre, Rouen, Paris rail link, the Barcelona to Mataró line and the Dutch Rhenish Railway. He was present in Paris when the Versailles train crash occurred in 1842, and produced a statement concerning the facts for General Charles Pasley of the Railway Inspectorate. He also experienced a catastrophic failure of one of his viaducts built on the new Paris-Le Havre link. . The viaduct was of stone and brick at Barentin near Rouen, and was the longest and highest on the line. It was 108 feet high, and consisted of 27 arches, each 50 feet wide, with a total length of over 1600 feet. A boy hauling ballast for the line up an adjoining hillside early that morning (about 6.00 am) saw one arch (the fifth on the Rouen side) collapse, and the rest followed suit. Fortunately, no one was killed, although several workmen were injured in a mill below the structure. Locke attributed the catastrophic failure to frost action on the new lime cement, and premature off-centre loading of the viaduct with ballast. It was rebuilt at Thomas Brassey's cost, and survives to the present. Having pioneered many new lines in France, Locke also helped establish the first locomotive works in the country. Distinctive features of Locke's railway works were economy, the use of masonry bridges wherever possible and the absence of tunnels. An illustration of this is that there is no tunnel between Birmingham and Glasgow. Relationship with Robert Stephenson. Locke and Robert Stephenson had been good friends at the beginning of their careers, but their friendship had been marred by Locke's falling out with Robert's father. It seems that Robert felt loyalty to his father required that he should take his side. It is significant that after the death of George Stephenson in August 1848, the friendship of the two men was revived. When Robert Stephenson died in October 1859, Joseph Locke was a pallbearer at his funeral. Locke is reported to have referred to Robert as 'the friend of my youth, the companion of my ripening years, and a competitor in the race of life'. Locke was also on friendly terms with his other engineering rival, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. In 1845, Locke and Stephenson were both called to give evidence before two committees. In April a House of Commons Select Committee was investigating the atmospheric railway system proposed by Brunel. Brunel and Vignoles spoke in support of the system, whilst Locke and Stephenson spoke against it. The latter two were to be proved right in the long run. In August the two gave evidence before the Gauge Commissioners who were trying to arrive at a standard gauge for the whole country. Brunel spoke in favour of the 7 ft gauge he was using on the Great Western Railway. Locke and Stephenson spoke in favour of the 4 ft 8½in gauge that they had used on several lines. The latter two won the day and their gauge was adopted as the standard. Later life and legacy. Locke served as President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in between December 1857 and December 1859. He also served as Member of Parliament for Honiton in Devon from 1847 until his death. Joseph Locke died on 18 September 1860, apparently from appendicitis, whilst on a shooting holiday. He is buried in London's Kensal Green Cemetery. He outlived his friends/rivals Robert Stephenson and Isambard Brunel by less than a year; all three engineers died between 53 and 56 years of age, a circumstance attributed by Rolt to sheer overwork, accomplishing more in their brief lives than many achieve in a full three score and ten. Locke Park in Barnsley was dedicated to his memory by his widow Phoebe in 1862. It features a statue of Locke plus a folly, 'Locke Tower'. Locke's greatest legacy is the modern day West Coast Main Line (WCML), which was formed by the joining of the Caledonian, Lancaster & Carlisle, Grand Junction railways to Robert Stephenson's London & Birmingham Railway. As a result, around three-quarters of the WCML's route was planned and engineered by Locke.",
  "query": "accurate approach",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["correct method"], 
    "answer_start": [2727] 

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all subsets and splits.

  • id: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • context: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • answers: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a list of string features.
    • answer_start: a list of int32 features.

Data Splits

name train validation test
PR-pass 20147 3000 5000
PR-page 20098 3000 5000

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The source passages + answers are from Wikipedia and the source of queries were produced by our hired linguistic experts from

Who are the source language producers?

We hired 13 linguistic experts from for annotation and more than 1000 human annotators on Mechanical Turk along with another set of 5 Upwork experts for 2-round verification.


Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

13 linguistic experts from

Personal and Sensitive Information

No annotator identifying details are provided.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset is a joint work between Adobe Research and Auburn University. Creators: Thang M. Pham, David Seunghyun Yoon, Trung Bui, and Anh Nguyen.

@PMThangXAI added this dataset to HuggingFace.

Licensing Information

This dataset is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC 4.0)

Citation Information

  title={PiC: A Phrase-in-Context Dataset for Phrase Understanding and Semantic Search},
  author={Pham, Thang M and Yoon, Seunghyun and Bui, Trung and Nguyen, Anh},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.09068},
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