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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=1976384
Martha Elizabeth Beall Mitchell (September 2, 1918 – May 31, 1976) was the wife of John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General under President Richard Nixon. She became a controversial figure with her outspoken comments about the government at the time of the Watergate scandal. Early education and family life. Martha Elizabeth Beall Jennings Mitchell was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas on September 2, 1918. She grew up the only child of cotton broker George V. Beall and drama teacher Arie Beall (née Ferguson). Living in a rural area, Mitchell's friends lived far away, and she recalled in a "Saturday Evening Post" interview that she mostly grew up playing with the children of her "mammy," or African-American domestic worker, who lived with the family on the farm. As a little girl, she liked to sing, particularly as a member of her church choir. Her mother hoped she would become an opera singer. As a child, she studied singing around the country and, at Northwestern, she studied piano. For the first six years of her education, she attended a private school, switching to a public one during the Great Depression. She graduated from Pine Bluff High School in 1937. Under her high school yearbook picture was the quote, "Love its gentle warble, I love its gentle flow, I love to wind my tongue up, And I love to let it go." Her biographer noted that she was dyslexic, and struggled to read aloud. She attended Stephens College in Columbia, Missouri, with hopes of studying premed; she had wanted to be a pediatrician when she grew up, but blamed her Southern accent for difficulty with learning Greek and Latin. Instead, she became a Red Cross Nurse's Aide in one of the organization's very first chapters, and claimed that, at one time, she had given more hours to the service than anyone else in the country. She eventually transferred to the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville and finally the University of Miami, At college, she joined Chi Omega and was president of Sigma Iota Chi. She was fascinated by the arts, and had dreams of becoming an actress, but her family would not allow it. She ultimately received a BA in history. After graduation, she worked for about a year as a seventh-grade teacher in Mobile, Alabama, before leaving the profession, saying she "despised" it. She returned to Pine Bluff in 1945 and, after World War II, she began work as a secretary at the Pine Bluff Arsenal. She was soon transferred (along with her boss, Brigadier General Augustin Mitchell Prentiss) to Washington, D.C.. In Washington, she met Clyde Jennings, Jr., a US Army officer from Lynchburg, Virginia. They married on October 5, 1946 in Pine Bluff and moved to Rye, New York. Soon after they wed, he was honorably discharged, and he took up work as a traveling handbag salesman. By Jennings, she had a son, Clyde Jay Jennings, on November 2, 1947. Jennings, however, spent a lot of time away from home, and (according to Mitchell) it led to the couple's separation on May 18, 1956 and eventual divorce on August 1, 1957. She once said as soon as she met John N. Mitchell, she was "impressed with his suaveness and intellect," and the couple married on December 30, 1957, settling in Rye, New York. John worked as a lawyer in Manhattan, earning a year, and the couple purchased a home on the grounds of the Apawamis Club. On January 10, 1961, the couple had a daughter, Martha Elizabeth, whom they nicknamed Marty. They enrolled their daughter in Stone Ridge Country Day School in Bethesda, Maryland, despite not being Roman Catholics, because of Mitchell's belief that "the Roman Catholic schools are about the only ones that have discipline." Move to Washington and the Watergate scandal. John Mitchell and Richard Nixon's professional careers converged when, on New Year's Eve 1966, their law offices combined to become Nixon Mudge Rose Guthrie Alexander and Mitchell. Although their status as friends is debated, when Nixon was elected president in 1968, he appointed John Mitchell as his Attorney General. The position necessitated that the family move to Washington DC, and their home in the "fashionable" Watergate complex, at the time, was estimated to be worth . Mitchell first came to national attention after she remarked to a television reporter that Washington DC peace demonstrations held in November 1969 reminded her husband of a Russian revolution. The statement, widely viewed as indiscreet, increased her notoriety and coverage in the media. She had the custom of having an evening drink, and then calling reporters with political gossip or information she had gleaned while rifling through her husband's papers or eavesdropping on his conversations. During this time, Mitchell's renown as an outspoken socialite grew, and she made regular appearances on talk shows and variety shows, such as "Laugh-In". By the following year, in November 1970, a Gallup poll indicated that 76 percent of Americans recognized who she was, and she made the cover of "Time" in an issue about the most influential women of Washington. Her reputation for frank and uncensored talk, generally in support of Republican issues, led to her being nicknamed "Martha the Mouth" or "The Mouth of the South". Nixon selected John to head the Committee to Re-Elect the President (commonly abbreviated to CRP, or deridingly, CREEP) for the 1972 campaign. During the campaign, however, Mitchell had begun to complain to her media contacts that the campaign had engaged in "dirty tricks" to win the election. A week before the 1972 burglary of the DNC headquarters in the Watergate office building, the Mitchells had traveled to Newport Beach, California to attend a series of fundraising events. While there, John received a phone call about the incident and immediately held a press conference denying any CRP involvement. John then returned to Washington DC, encouraging his wife to remain in California to enjoy the sunny weather. Meanwhile, however, he enlisted their security guard Steve King (a former FBI agent) to prevent her from learning about the break-in or contacting reporters. Despite these efforts, the following Monday, Martha acquired a copy of the "Los Angeles Times". Martha learned that James W. McCord Jr., the security director of the CRP and her daughter's bodyguard and driver, was among those arrested. This detail conflicted with the White House's official story that the break-in was unrelated to the CRP, and raised her suspicion. Martha unsuccessfully made attempts to contact her husband by phone, eventually telling one of his aides that her next call would be to the press. June 1972 kidnapping, aftermath and vindication. The following Thursday, on June 22, Mitchell made a late-night phone call to Helen Thomas of the United Press, reportedly Mitchell's favorite reporter. Mitchell informed Thomas of her intention to leave her husband until he resigned from the CRP. The phone call, however, abruptly ended. When Thomas called back, the hotel operator told her that Mitchell was "indisposed" and would not be able to talk. Thomas then called John, who seemed unconcerned and said, "[Martha] gets a little upset about politics, but she loves me and I love her and that’s what counts." In her subsequent report of the incident, Thomas said that it was apparent someone had taken the phone from Mitchell's hand and the woman could be heard saying "You just get away." Thomas's account was widely covered in the news, and many media outlets made efforts to find Mitchell for an interview. A few days later, Marcia Kramer, a veteran crime reporter of the "New York Daily News", tracked Mitchell to the Westchester Country Club in Rye, New York. Kramer found "a beaten woman" who had "incredible" black and blue marks on her arms. In what turned out to be the first of many interviews, Mitchell related how in the week following the Watergate burglary, she had been held captive in that California hotel and that it was King that had pulled the phone cord from the wall. After several attempts to escape from the balcony, she was physically accosted by five men, which had left her needing stitches. Herb Kalmbach, Nixon's personal lawyer, was summoned to the hotel and he decided to call for a doctor to inject her with a tranquilizer. The incident left her fearing for her life. Although the Watergate burglary was the leading story across all news formats, her reports were relegated to human-interest stories in major newspapers, including "The Times", "The Washington Post", and "The New York Daily News". Nixon aides, in an effort to discredit Mitchell, told the press that she had a "drinking problem", which was not entirely untrue. They also suggested that she was convalescing in Silver Hill Hospital, a psychiatric facility in Connecticut. Initially, Mitchell began contacting reporters when her husband's role in the scandal became known in an effort to defend him. She believed him to be a "fall guy" and encouraged him to turn against the President. Soon after the burglary, John resigned, citing his desire to spend more time with his family as the reason. However, the Mitchells separated in September 1973, with John suddenly moving out of the family home with their daughter, Marty. On January 1, 1975, he was convicted of perjury, obstruction of justice, and conspiracy for his involvement in the Watergate break-in; he served 19 months in a federal prison. They never saw each other again. Martha was also outspoken about the corruption in the GOP. In May 1976, she provided sworn testimony in a deposition at the offices of attorney Henry B. Rothblatt in connection with the Democratic party's million civil suit against the CRP. Because of her involvement in the scandal, she was discredited and abandoned by most of her family, except for her son Jay. It was not until February 1975 that McCord, after having been convicted for his role in the Watergate burglary, admitted that Mitchell was, in his words, "basically kidnapped", and corroborated her story. He further asserted that H. R. Haldeman, as well as other top aides of President Nixon, had been "jealous" of her popularity in the media and had sought out ways to embarrass her. Nixon was later to tell interviewer David Frost in 1977 that Martha was a distraction to John Mitchell, such that no one was minding the store, and "If it hadn't been for Martha Mitchell, there'd have been no Watergate." Personal life. Mitchell was Presbyterian and, while in New York, attended Marble Collegiate Church. She began to write her memoirs in 1973, but fearing it would mean she would get no money from her husband, never signed a contract. In April 1974, she got a short-lived job as the guest host of the program "Panorama" on Washington's WTTG; it only lasted a week. In 1975, Mitchell fell sick. As her health declined, she was called on by a small circle of friends that included her reporter friend, and eventual biographer, Winzola McLendon. McLendon reports that Mitchell was suicidal and without any income. Her lawyer, in an ongoing alimony dispute, described her as "desperately ill, without funds and without friends." Even so, her son, who was working as a researcher for the Senate Subcommittee on internal security, was said to have cared for her and served as her occasional spokesperson. In her final days, she subsisted on donations sent by sympathetic supporters. On May 31, 1976, in the advanced stages of multiple myeloma, Mitchell slipped into a coma and died at Memorial Sloan Kettering Hospital in New York City at age 57. Her son, Jay, and her estranged husband and daughter arrived at her funeral in Pine Bluff shortly after it began. The service was held at First Presbyterian Church. An anonymous supporter (a California admiral, according to the family) had sent a floral arrangement of white chrysanthemums that spelled "Martha was right." She is buried in the Bellwood Cemetery in Pine Bluff with her mother and grandparents. Public image. A November 1970 Gallup poll placed the public's opinion of her at 33-percent unfavorable to 43-percent favorable. She was known for her glamorous but "girly" fashion. Despite her fame as an outsized personality, those who knew her said she was often anxious before attending parties or public events, clutching her friend's arm, trembling, or even weeping. She refused to curtsy to Queen Elizabeth II at a garden party in July 1971, saying, "I feel that an American citizen should not bow to foreign monarchs." Scotland's Earl of Lindsay, a member of the Queen's Body Guard for Scotland, wrote Mitchell a letter of reprimand, and in a statement to the press said, "There is always hope she may learn some manners. She is a stupid woman. If she is going to shout her mouth off like that, she is bound to get shouted at." Legacy. Three years after her death, Washington newswoman and Mitchell-collaborator Winzola McLendon released a book called "Martha". The birthplace and childhood home of Martha Beall Mitchell, now the Martha Beall Mitchell Home and Museum, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in January 1978. On the second anniversary of her death, Martha Mitchell Expressway in Pine Bluff was named for her. Three years later to the day, a bust was erected in her honor at the Pine Bluff Civic Center with a plaque that reads "Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." Martha Mitchell was portrayed in the 1995 film "Nixon" by actress Madeline Kahn who, like Mitchell, died at the age of 57 of cancer. In 2004, a three-act play, "This is Martha Speaking...", by Thomas Doran premiered in Pine Bluff, Arkansas starring Lee Anne Moore as Martha Mitchell and Michael Childers as John Mitchell. That same year, a one-woman play about Mitchell, "Dirty Tricks" by John Jeter, appeared off-Broadway. The first episode of the podcast "Slow Burn", entitled "Martha", chronicled her role in the Watergate scandal. Mitchell was portrayed by Vanessa Bayer in the July 16, 2019 episode of the Comedy Central show "Drunk History". The "Martha Mitchell effect", in which a psychiatrist mistakenly or willfully identifies a patient's true but extraordinary claims as delusions, was named after her.
coming appeal
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11932-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=2952949
ipfirewall or ipfw is a FreeBSD IP, stateful firewall, packet filter and traffic accounting facility. Its ruleset logic is similar to many other packet filters except IPFilter. ipfw is authored and maintained by FreeBSD volunteer staff members. Its syntax enables use of sophisticated filtering capabilities and thus enables users to satisfy advanced requirements. It can either be used as a loadable kernel module or incorporated into the kernel; use as a loadable kernel module where possible is highly recommended. ipfw was the built-in firewall of Mac OS X until Mac OS X 10.7 Lion in 2011 when it was replaced with the OpenBSD project's PF. Like FreeBSD, ipfw is open source. It is used in many FreeBSD-based firewall products, including m0n0wall and FreeNAS. A port of an early version of ipfw was used since Linux 1.1 as the first implementation of firewall available for Linux, until it was replaced by ipchains. A modern port of ipfw and the "dummynet" traffic shaper is available for Linux (including a prebuilt package for OpenWrt) and Microsoft Windows. wipfw is a Windows port of an old (2001) version of ipfw.
contemporary interface
{ "text": [ "modern port" ], "answer_start": [ 923 ] }
6324-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=2032384
An intercity bus service (North American English) or intercity coach service (British English and Commonwealth English), also called a long-distance, express, over-the-road, commercial, long-haul, or highway bus or coach service, is a public transport service using coaches to carry passengers significant distances between different cities, towns, or other populated areas. Unlike a transit bus service, which has frequent stops throughout a city or town, an intercity bus service generally has a single stop at one location in or near a city, and travels long distances without stopping at all. Intercity bus services may be operated by government agencies or private industry, for profit and not for profit. Intercity coach travel can serve areas or countries with no train services, or may be set up to compete with trains by providing a more flexible or cheaper alternative. Intercity bus services are of prime importance in lightly populated rural areas that often have little or no public transportation. Intercity bus services are one of four common transport methods between cities, not all of which are available in all places. The others are by airliner, train, and private automobile. History. Stagecoaches. The first intercity scheduled transport service was called the stagecoach and originated in the 17th century. Crude coaches were being built from the 16th century in England, but without suspension, these coaches achieved very low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure was being put in place. The first stagecoach route started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century. The coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They also became widely adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and generally travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were staged at coaching inns such as The George Inn, Southwark. The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches all led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey—from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach". It was advertised with the following announcement: "However incredible it may appear, this coach will actually (barring accidents) arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years later, using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour. Even more dramatic improvements to coach speed were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office, who commissioned a fleet of mail coaches to deliver the post across the country. His experimental coach left Bristol at 4 pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London just 16 hours later. The golden age of the stagecoach was during the Regency period, from 1800 to 1830. The era saw great improvements in the design of the coaches, notably by John Besant in 1792 and 1795. His coach had a greatly improved turning capacity and braking system, and a novel feature that prevented the wheels from falling off while the coach was in motion. Obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle. Each wheel had two durable steel leaf springs on each side and the body of the carriage was fixed directly to the springs attached to the axles. Steady improvements in road construction were also made at this time, most importantly the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up and down the country. Coaches in this period travelled at around 12 miles per hour and greatly increased the level of mobility in the country, both for people and for mail. Each route had an average of four coaches operating on it at one time - two for both directions and a further two spares in case of a breakdown en route. Motorbuses. The development of railways in the 1830s spelt the end for the stagecoaches across Europe and America, with only a few companies surviving to provide services for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century. The first motor coaches were acquired by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles. W. C. Standerwick of Blackpool, England acquired its first motor charabanc in 1911, and Royal Blue from Bournemouth acquired its first motor charabanc in 1913. Motor coaches were initially used only for excursions. In 1919, Royal Blue took advantage of a rail strike to run a coach service from Bournemouth to London. The service was so successful that it expanded rapidly. In 1920 the Minister of Transport Eric Campbell Geddes was quoted in Punch magazine as saying "I think it would be a calamity if we did anything to prevent the economic use of charabancs" and expressed concern at the problems caused to small charabanc and omnibus operators in parliament. In America, Carl Eric Wickman began providing the first service in 1913. Frustrated about being unable to sell a seven-passenger automobile on the showroom floor of the dealership where he worked, he purchased the vehicle himself and started using it to transport miners between Hibbing and Alice, Minnesota. He began providing this service regularly in what would start a new company and industry. The company would one day be known as Greyhound. In 1914, Pennsylvania was the first state to pass regulations for bus service in order to prevent monopolies of the industry from forming. All remaining U.S. states would soon follow. The coach industry expanded rapidly in the 1920s, a period of intense competition. The Road Traffic Act 1930 in the UK introduced a national system of regulation of passenger road transport and authorised local authorities to operate transport services. It also imposed a speed limit of 30 mph for coaches whilst removing any speed limit for private cars. The 1930s to the 1950s saw the development of bus stations for intercity transport. Many expanded from simple stops into major architecturally designed terminals that included shopping and other businesses. Intercity bus transport increased in speed, efficiency and popularity until the 1950s and 1960s, when as the popularity of the private automobile has increased, the use of intercity bus service has declined. For example, in Canada in the 1950s, 120 million passengers boarded intercity bus service each year; in the 1960s, this number declined to 50 million. During the 1990s, it was down to 10 million. Characteristics of intercity buses/coaches. Intercity buses, as they hold passengers for significant periods of time on long journeys, are designed for comfort. A sleeper bus is an example of a vehicle with optimum amenity for the longest travel times. Route and operation. An intercity coach service may depart from a bus station with facilities for travellers or from a simple roadside bus stop. A coachway interchange is a term (in the United Kingdom) for a stopping place on the edge of a town, with connecting local transport. Park and ride facilities allow passengers to begin or complete their journeys by automobile. Intercity bus routes may follow a direct highway or freeway/motorway for shortest journey times, or travel via a scenic route for the enjoyment of passengers. Intercity buses may run less frequently and with fewer stops than a transit bus service. One common arrangement is to have several stops at the beginning of the trip, and several near the end, with the majority of the trip non-stop on a highway. Some stops may have service restrictions, such as "boarding only" (also called "pickup only") and "discharge only" (also called "set-down only"). Routes aimed at commuters may have most or all scheduled trips in the morning heading to an urban central business district, with trips in the evening mainly heading toward suburbs. Intercity coaches may also be used to supplement or replace another transport service, for example when a train or airline route is not in service. Safety. Statistically, intercity bus service is considered to be a very safe mode of transportation. For example, in the United States there are about 0.5 fatalities per 100 million passenger miles traveled according to the National Safety Council. When accidents do occur, the large passenger capacity of buses means accidents are disastrous in their magnitude. For example, the Kempsey bus crash in Australia on 22 December 1989 involved two full tourist coaches, each travelling at 100 km/h, colliding head-on: 35 people died and 41 were injured. Intercity coach travel by country. Canada. Intercity coach service is the only public transit to reach many urban centres in Canada, and Via Rail services are very sporadic outside the Québec City–Windsor Corridor. Coach service is mostly privately owned and operated, and tends to be regionally focused. Greyhound Canada, once Canada's biggest intercity carrier, ceased operations in 2021. Major operators are listed below. China. In relatively developed regions of China where the motorway network is extensive, intercity coach is a common mean of transport between cities. In some cities, for example Shenzhen, nearly every town / district has a coach station. Hong Kong. There are numerous inter-city coach services between Hong Kong and various cities of Guangdong Province, e.g. Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. These kinds of coaches are legally classified as a kind of non-franchised public bus, as "International Passenger Service". In addition, there are some coach services which just carry passengers between the city of Hong Kong and the border crossing at Shenzhen, without entering the city centre in Shenzhen or further. These services are termed 'short-haul cross-boundary coach service' by the Transport Department which nearly the whole journey is within the limits of Hong Kong, as opposed to 'long-haul cross-boundary coach service' which runs between cities. Germany. Intercity coach service in Germany became important in the decades following the Second World War, as the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the German federal post office operated numerous bus routes in major cities and metropolitan areas associated with each other. While rail was quicker and more convenient, the buses were a low-cost alternative. With the increasing prosperity of society and the growing use of the automobile, the demand fell significantly and most of these lines were abolished in the 1970s and 1980s. One exception was traffic from and to (West-)Berlin. A long-distance bus network linking Berlin with Hamburg and several other German locations was created at the time of German division because of the small number of train services between the cities. It still exists today. Until 2012 new long-distance bus lines could only be added in accordance with "Passenger Transportation Act" (PBefG), meaning if they did not compete with existing rail or bus lines. Since Germany - in contrast with many other European countries - has a well-developed rail network to all major cities and metropolitan areas, the domestic marketing of long-distance buses in Germany was much less significant than in many other countries. The existing lines were often international lines as exist in almost all European countries, and for the transportation within Germany, there was a ban. In 2012, the PBefG was amended, essentially allowing intercity bus services. Thus, since 1 January 2013 Coach services have been allowed if they are longer than 50 kilometers, which led to a fast-growing market with companies like Meinfernbus, Deinbus, Flixbus, ADAC Postbus, Berlin Linien Bus GmbH and City2City. Starting shortly after the establishment of the market a consolidation process occurred, which reduced the number of competing companies. ADAC Postbus became Postbus upon the ADAC leaving the cooperation. Meinfernbus and Flixbus fused to create a common company (currently the biggest operator of long-distance buses in Germany) while City2City folded operations. Deinbus came close to bankruptcy but secured an investor in time. Greece. Since Greece's rail network was underdeveloped, intercity bus travel became important in the post-war years. The main bus operator in Greece is KTEL. It was founded in 1952. Ireland. Generally slower than rail travel with refreshment and toilet stops required on longer routes. The main operators in the country are the Bus Éireann and private operators, such as JJ Kavanagh and Sons. The bus service between Dublin and Belfast is provided by Bus Éireann and Ulsterbus providing frequent service, including direct connections to Dublin Airport. Some bus services run overnight. Israel. Because of the weak-developed rail network and the small size of the country and the resulting low domestic air traffic, the long-distance bus cooperative Egged is the main public transport service in the country. Because of the widespread network, Egged is considered one of the largest bus companies in the world, in part because of the long-distance bus lines. However, in recent years Israel railways has expanded and upgraded its route network and other companies have taken over routes previously served by Egged. Netherlands. In the relatively small Netherlands there is a limited number of long-distance routes within the country. In 1994, the Interliner-network started with express buses on connections devoid of rail transport. Owing to high fares, a dense rail network and other reasons, the Interliner network fell apart into several different systems. In 2014, only a limited number of express buses existed as regular public transport usually under the name Qliner. Besides of regular public transport, a number of international bus companies serves Netherlands. Norway. Norway has long-distance bus routes within the country. They operate in barely inhabited areas, including mountains, and affect the construction of a comprehensive railway network. Except in the Oslo area, Norway has only a rather sparse rail network, which extends north of the Arctic Circle to Fauske and Bodø, and to the north of Narvik with a connection to the Swedish rail network. Many of the routes are based on random railways. In addition to this network, they provide public passenger transport by many more companies within Norway than airlines, shipping lines (including the Hurtigruten) and bus lines, including many long-distance bus lines. The buses used in the north of the country (especially in the county of Finnmark) have both a passenger compartment and a freight compartment in the rear: many remote villages are connected to the outside world only by these buses, thus achieving a large part of the cargo by bus to the city. Pakistan. Intercity bus transportation has risen dramatically in Pakistan due to the decline of Pakistan Railways and the unaffordable prices of airplanes for the average Pakistani. Numerous companies have started operating within the country such as Daewoo Express and Niazi Express, Manthar Bus Service and have gained considerable popularity due to their reliability, security and good service. Smaller vans are used for transportation in the mountainous north where narrow and dangerous roads make it impossible for the movement of larger buses. Former Yugoslavia. Intercity bus travel in Serbia, as well as in other countries of former Yugoslavia, is very popular in proportion to travel by rail and air. In some regions, data has shown that intercity bus routes have transported over ten times the number of passengers carried by intercity trains on the same competing routes. It has been a trend around Serbia and the Balkan region that small towns and some villages have their own flagship bus carrier, often branded with the last name of the family whose owner runs that bus company. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, and Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, have very large central bus terminals that operate 24 hours a day. The largest intercity bus operator in the whole region is Lasta Beograd which operates from Serbia to many countries in Europe. Switzerland. Switzerland has an extremely dense network of interconnected rail, bus and ship lines, including some long-distance bus lines. Although Switzerland is a mountainous country, the rail network is denser than Germany's. Switzerland is an exception to the rule that long-distance bus lines are established especially in countries with inadequate railway network, or in areas with low population density. Some of the railway and main bus routes on Italian territory also serve to shorten the distance between Swiss towns. From Germany lines run from Frankfurt am Main, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe to Basel and Lucerne. Long-distance bus services in Switzerland: Taiwan. Most of the time, coaches in Taiwan is driving on Controlled-access highway, so it is mainly called Highway Coach (Chinese name:國道客運). e.g. KBus(國光客運), UBus(統聯客運), HoHsin(和欣客運). Turkey. Turkey has an extensive network of intercity buses. Every part of the country is served. The buses are popular, comfortable and frequent. For example, there are over 150 departures from Istanbul to Ankara each day. The level of onboard service is very high, with free drinks and snacks on long-distance routes. Notable operators including Pamukkale, Kâmil Koç, Metro, and Ulusoy. Tickets can be bought online from all of them. United Kingdom. There is an extensive network of scheduled coach transport in the United Kingdom. However, passenger numbers are a fraction of those travelling by rail. Coach travel companies often require passengers to purchase tickets in advance of travel, that is they may not be bought on board. The distinction between bus and coach services is not absolute, and some coach services, especially in Scotland, operate as local bus services over sections of route where there is no other bus service. National Express Coaches has operated services under that name since 1972. Megabus started in 2004 and Greyhound UK in 2009. There are many other operators. Receipts in 2004 were £1.8 billion (2008 prices) and grew significantly between 1980 and 2010. Ulsterbus connect places in Northern Ireland which are no longer on the railway network. United States. In the mid-1950s more than 2,000 buses operated by Greyhound Lines, Trailways, and other companies connected 15,000 cities and towns. Passenger volume decreased as a result of expanding road and air travel, and urban decay that caused many neighborhoods with bus depots to become more dangerous. In 1960, American intercity buses carried 140 million riders; the rate decreased to 40 million by 1990, and continued to decrease until 2006. By 1997, intercity bus transportation accounted for only 3.6% of travel in the United States. In the late 1990s, however, Chinatown bus lines that connected New York with Boston and Philadelphia's Chinatowns began operating. They became popular with non-Chinese college students and others who wanted inexpensive transportation, and between 1997 and 2007 Greyhound lost 60% of its market share in the northeast United States to the Chinatown buses. During the following decade, new bus lines such as Megabus and BoltBus emulated the Chinatown buses' practices of low prices and curbside stops on a much larger scale, both in the original Northeast Corridor and elsewhere, while introducing yield management techniques to the industry. By 2010 curbside buses' annual passenger volume had risen by 33% and they accounted for more than 20% of all bus trips. One analyst estimated that curbside buses that year carried at least 2.4 billion passenger miles in the Northeast Corridor, compared to 1.7 billion passenger miles for Amtrak trains. Traditional depot-based bus lines also grew, benefiting from what the American Bus Association called "the Megabus effect", akin to the Southwest Effect, and both Greyhound and its subsidiary Yo! Bus, which competed directly with the Chinatown buses, benefited after the federal government shut several Chinatown lines down in June 2012. Between 2006 and 2014, American intercity buses focused on medium-haul trips between 200 and 300 miles; airplanes performed the bulk of longer trips and automobiles shorter ones. For most medium-haul trips curbside bus fares were less than the cost of automobile gasoline, and one tenth that of Amtrak. Buses are also four times more fuel-efficient than automobiles. Their Wi-Fi service is also popular; one study estimated that 92% of Megabus and BoltBus passengers planned to use an electronic device. New lower fares introduced by Greyhound on traditional medium-distance routes and rising gasoline prices have increased ridership across the network and made bus travel cheaper than all alternatives. Effective June 25, 2014, Greyhound reintroduced many much longer bus routes, including New York–Los Angeles, Los Angeles–Vancouver, and others, while increasing frequencies on existing long-distance and ultra-long-distance buses routes. This turned back the tide of shortening bus routes and puts Greyhound back in the position of competing with long-distance road trips, airlines, and trains. Long-distance buses were to have Wi-Fi, power outlets, and extra legroom, sometimes extra recline, and were to be cleaned, refueled, and driver-changed at major stations along the way, coinciding with Greyhound's eradication of overbooking. It also represented Greyhound's traditional bus expansion over the expansion of curbside bus lines. Safety on U.S. intercity buses. On August 4, 1952, Greyhound Lines had its deadliest accident when two Greyhound buses collided head-on along then-U.S. Route 81 near Waco, Texas. The fuel tanks of both buses then ruptured, bursting into flames. Of the 56 persons aboard both coaches, 28 were killed, including both drivers. On May 9, 1980, a freight ship collided with the Sunshine Skyway Bridge, resulting in several vehicles, including a Greyhound bus, falling into the Tampa Bay. All 26 people on the bus perished, along with nine others. This is the largest loss of life on a single Greyhound coach to date. On March 5, 2010, a bus operated by Tierra Santa Inc. crashed on Interstate 10 in Arizona, killing six and injuring sixteen passengers. The bus was not carrying insurance, and had also been operating illegally because the company had applied for authority to operate an interstate bus service, but had failed to respond to requests for additional information. Security on U.S. intercity buses. Though generally rare, various incidents have occurred over time involving both drivers and passengers on intercity buses. Security became a concern following the September 11 attacks. Less than a month later, on October 3, 2001, Damir Igric, a passenger on a Greyhound bus, slit the throat of the driver (who later survived his injuries and was hospitalized) as he tries to take control of the bus, resulting in a crash that killed 7 passengers, including Igric, and injuring six other passengers. It was determined there was no connection between the September 11 attacks and this incident. Nevertheless, this raised concern. On September 30, 2002, another Greyhound driver was assaulted near Fresno, California, resulting in two passenger deaths after the bus then rolled off an embankment and crashed. Following this attack, driver shields were installed on most Greyhound buses that now prevent passengers from directly having contact with the driver while the bus is in motion, even if the shield is forced open. On buses which do not have the shield, the seats directly behind the driver are generally off limits. The growing popularity in the United States of new bus lines such as Megabus and BoltBus that pick up and drop off passengers on the street instead of bus depots has led to a rise in the perceived security of intercity buses. Megabus states that a quarter of its passengers are unaccompanied women. Urban-suburban bus line. Urban-suburban bus line is generally categorized as public transit, especially for large metropolitan transit networks. Usually these routes cover a long distance compared to most transit bus routes, but still short—usually 40 miles in one direction. An urban-suburban bus line generally connects a suburban area to the downtown core. The vehicle can be something as simple as a merely refitted school bus (which sometimes already contains overhead storage racks) or a minibus. Often a suburban coach may be used, which is a standard transit bus modified to have some of the functionality of an interstate coach. An example would be the Suburban line employed by TransLink (Vancouver), typically going from the downtown core of Vancouver to suburban cities such as Delta and White Rock. In such case, the vehicles are modified standard transit bus, but with only one door and air conditioning. The vehicles provide accommodation for the disabled (through a lift or ramp at the front), and thus has a few high-back seats, usually in the front, that can be folded up for wheelchairs. The rest of the seats are reclining upholstered seats and have individual lights and overhead storage bins. Because it is a commuter bus, it has some (but not much) standing room, stop-request devices, and a farebox. This model also has a bike rack at the front to accommodate two bicycles. Some lines use a full-size interstate coach with on board toilet, such as the "TrainBus" service of Vancouver's West Coast Express commuter rail system. Suburban models in the United States are often used in Park-and-Ride services, and are very common in the New York City area, where New Jersey Transit Bus Operations is a major operator serving widespread bedroom communities.
structure to hold bikes
{ "text": [ "bike rack" ], "answer_start": [ 25922 ] }
5293-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=5201337
The Domestic Purposes Benefit (DPB) is a social welfare payment in New Zealand's social security system, primarily given to single parents with dependent children. It, along with all other benefit payments, was managed by Work and Income, under the Ministry of Social Development. Since the Fifth National Government of New Zealand's welfare reforms in July 2013, the main Domestic Purposes Benefit Sole Parent was renamed Sole Parent Support, with the two other DPB benefits, Care of Sick or Infirm and Women Alone, absorbed into other benefits. History. The Domestic Purposes Benefit, or DPB, was first introduced in New Zealand in 1973 by the country's Third Labour Government led by Prime Minister Norman Kirk. The Destitute Persons Act 1910 and the Domestic Proceedings Act 1968 had previously created a statutory means by which a woman could seek a maintenance order against the father of her children. The court could, at its discretion, set the rate that it thought appropriate for the father to pay the mother in respect of the child. This maintenance continued until the child reached the age of sixteen; maintenance would continue to be payable in respect of a child over the age of sixteen if the child was engaged in full-time education. These statutes provided a means by which women could seek maintenance from the putative father, but in the event of any difficulties, women had to resort to the court in order to enforce the maintenance agreement or order. There were also further difficulties; an unmarried mother had to obtain an acknowledgement of paternity from the father or a declaration of paternity from the court in order to be entitled to seek maintenance. The DPB, introduced in statutory form in 1973, mitigated these difficulties. The Act provided State financial support for single mothers, irrespective of whether the father was contributing to maintenance payments. The introduction of the DPB was blamed for "creating a shortage of babies for adoption". However, the extent to which the DPB contributed to the shortage of babies available for adoption is unclear. The number of births outside of marriage fell between 1971 and 1976. The numbers of ex nuptial children being adopted had started to fall in 1962, before the introduction of State financial support. Else notes that a number of other factors were at work, such as a "softening" of attitudes towards illegitimate children and their mothers, the removal of the stigma of illegitimacy by the Status of Children Act 1969, the increasing availability of contraception and delays in the placement of babies. In the 2011 New Zealand general election, the ruling centre-right National Party campaigned on, among other policies, welfare reform. National's Welfare Reform plan, called for the streamlining of the existing 11 benefit categories into three, with extra work obligations and focusing on reducing long-term welfare dependency. Upon winning power in 2011, National's Minister for Social Development and Employment Paula Bennett started implementing the policies. The changes to the welfare system came into effect in July 2013. 7 of the 11 existing benefit categories were replaced with three broad groups - Jobseeker Support (for people who can usually work full-time, only work part-time or can't work at the moment), Sole Parent Support (for solo parents caring for children under 14) and the Supported Living Payment (for those who are unable to work and those caring for someone needing significant care). Response to the reforms have been mixed. A New Zealand Herald article on the reforms states under the heading 'The rationale' that 'New Zealand has among the world's highest rates of sole parenthood, especially among low-income groups for whom the DPB may seem a viable option.' But under the heading 'The risks', it says that '...the risk (of reform) is that it will also cause unintended harm to the majority of women who end up on the DPB through no fault of their own.' Details. Domestic Purposes Benefit - Sole Parent. The Domestic Purposes Benefit - Sole Parent is the main DPB benefit. It is a weekly payment to sole parents with one or more dependent children. It is primarily awarded to a parent who is 19 years old or over, has a dependent child under 18 and who does not have a partner or has lost the support of their partner. A parent whose youngest child is under five years old needs to take practical steps to get ready for work. If their youngest child is aged between five and 13 (five being the earliest age a child can attend school, although it is not compulsory until the child turns six) they are expected to be in, or be actively seeking part-time work of at least 15 hours per week. If their youngest child is aged 14 or older (14 being the minimum legal age which children can be left unattended) they are expected to be in, or be actively seeking full-time work of at least 30 hours per week. If they don’t meet these work obligations and do not have an exemption, their benefit may be reduced or stopped. The benefit is a fixed amount for parents who earn $100 or less in other income per week, which as of 15 July 2013 is $335.18 before tax per week. The benefit amount is reduced by 30c per dollar earned between $100 and $200, and 70c per dollar earned over $200. The gross income cut-out point is $577 per week. As of April 2014, this benefit has been mainly replaced by Sole Parent Support if the child is aged under 14 (a maximum net weekly payment of NZ$299.45 for those earning less than NZ$5200 a year - as well as NZ$20 extra per week if childcare costs are needed - and the gross income cut-out point is NZ$585 a week) or Jobseeker Support if the child is aged over 14 (a maximum net weekly payment of NZ$299.45 for sole parents). Both statistics are as of April 1, 2014. Domestic Purposes Benefit - Care of Sick or Infirm. Domestic Purposes Benefit - Care of Sick or Infirm is a weekly payment which helps people who are caring for someone at home who needs full-time care. As of April 1, 2014, the Domestic Purposes Benefit - Care of Sick or Infirm, has been replaced by the Supported Living Payment. The Supported Living Payment goes from a minimum weekly net payment of NZ$211.46 for single 16- and 17-year-olds to a maximum payment of NZ$435.50 for a married couple, de facto couple or a civil union couple. The maximum gross income cut-off point is NZ$780 per week for couples. Domestic Purposes Benefit - Woman Alone. Domestic Purposes Benefit – Woman Alone is a weekly payment which helps women aged 50 or over (but under the age of New Zealand Superannuation, i.e. 65) who have lost the support of their partner or finished caring for a child or sick relative. As of April 1, 2014, the Domestic Purposes Benefit has been replaced by Jobseeker Support. The maximum net weekly payment for those who was receiving the old DPB before 15 July 2013 is NZ$217.75 with a gross weekly income cut-off point of NZ$469. There is no dedicated category now for single women over 50: those applying after 15 July 2013 will receive the Jobseeker Support payment for those aged 25+, together with the obligations to find work that brings. The net weekly benefit is NZ$209.06 with a gross weekly income cut-off point of NZ$379. Benefit numbers. At the end of December 2012, 109,000 working-age people (aged 18–64 years) were receiving a Domestic Purposes Benefit. This represents around 4% of the working age population of New Zealand.
territory fiscal help
{ "text": [ "State financial support" ], "answer_start": [ 1778 ] }
3148-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=90723
Albani Bryggerierne A/S (Eng. : "Albani Breweries") is a brewery located in Odense, Denmark, and the vast majority of its customers live on the island of Funen. The brewery was founded by MPharm Theodor Schiøtz in 1859. In 2000, the brewery merged with "Bryggerigruppen" with the Brewery group (now known as Royal Unibrew), a group of Danish regional breweries. Albani is most known for two of its beers, Odense Pilsner and Odense Classic. Beers. Odense Pilsner. Odense Pilsner is a pilsener. The taste is balanced between malt and fruit. Two different varieties of hops are used, both come from Hallertau in Germany. It has been brewed since 1934 and was originally not part of the Albani Brewery's portfolio, but was introduced to the product line with the acquisition of "Bryggeriet Odense". Alcohol by volume: 4.6% Odense Classic. Odense Classic is a pilsener, though it has a more dark colour than ordinary beers of the same type. The beer has a more rounded, but still powerful taste of malt and hops. It was introduced at the brewery's 140th anniversary in 1999. Alcohol by volume: 4.6% Odense Rød Classic. Odense Rød Classic (Danish for "Odense Red Classic") is a Vienna lager. A mixture of dark caramel malt and Münchener malt is used. The result is a dark beer with a somewhat rounded taste. The colour is dark golden red, which might be the source of the name. Alcohol by volume: 4.6% Giraf Beer. Giraf Beer is a strong pilsener. It was first brewed in 1962, when Odense Zoo's giraffe (Danish: "giraf") Kalle was found dead, as the Albani Breweries had previously used this giraffe in its advertisement, it decided to create a special beer, the profits of which would be spent on purchasing a new giraffe for the zoo. The first year's production raised enough funds to buy two giraffes for the zoo. Alcohol by volume: 7.2% HC Andersen. HC Andersen is a strong ale-type beer, first brewed in 1988 when the Albani Breweries decided to create a special beer to celebrate Odense's 1,000th anniversary. The beer became so popular that Albani decided to keep it as a part of its product range. In 1989, it was marketed under its current name, honouring Hans Christian Andersen. A small batch of HC Andersen is brewed every year, and released on Andersen's birthday, April 2. Each year's labels depict a different paper cutting by Hans Christian Andersen. The bottles are also serial numbered. As a result, the beer has become a collector's item. The beer is bottom fermented and is matured longer than ordinary beer. The result is a beer with a light taste, considering its high alcohol content. Alcohol by volume: 9% Christmas Beers. Albani produces two Christmas beers Blålys (Danish for "Blue light") and Rødhætte (Danish for "Red Riding Hood"). Blålys was introduced in 1960, although it was not Denmark's first Christmas beer, "Blålys" effectively started the tradition of Danish Christmas beers. Denmark's first Christmas beer was produced by the "Carlsminde" brewery and had been introduced the previous year. Albani acquired Carlsminde in 1972. Both "Blålys" and "Rødhætte" are dark lagers. The label depicts the church-like "Gallery Tower" of the brewery cover covered in snow. This is the reason why many people originally referred to the Christmas beer as the "church beer" . This only lasted a few years until other breweries introduced their own Christmas beers. Blålys: Alcohol by volume: 7% Rødhætte: Alcohol by volume: 5.6% Easter beer. Påskebryg (Danish for Easter Brew), is a strong pilsener, and the Albani Breweries' traditional beer for the Easter season. Easter beers were Denmark's first seasonal beers in Denmark, and were introduced by Carlsberg in 1905. The Påskebryg was introduced in the 1950s and is brewed from a mixture of dark and light malt. Alcohol by volume: 5,6% Light beers. Albani also produces two light beers, Odense Light and Odense Extra Light, as light alternatives to its original pilsener. These beers are brewed using light pilsener malt, Münchner malt, and caramel malt. Odense Light: Alcohol by volume: 2.6% Odense Extra Light: Alcohol by volume: 0.05% Mergers and acquisitions. At the turn of the twentieth century there was a large consolidation in the Danish brewing industry, where the larger city breweries typically bought the smaller countryside breweries. Albani was part of this development, buying smaller breweries in Odense and around the island of Funen. Later, when Albani had a near monopoly on beer distribution on Funen, Albani started acquiring breweries in other parts of the country; Sønderborg Bryghus, Bryggeriet Slotsmøllen, Baldur, and Maribo Bryghus, in each case, Albani taking control of the other company. Albani Breweries A/S merged with the Royal Unibrew group in 2000. Other names used by the group are: Hans Christian Andersen. Denmark's best known poet and author, Hans Christian Andersen, was very fond of Albani beers. In a letter to a friend he described Albani beer as: "Jeg kan ikke rose denne øl højt nok. Den er forfriskende, delikat og stærk. Prøv den!" (Danish for "I cannot recommend this beer enough. It is refreshing, savoury and strong. Try it!") This quote is occasionally used in the company's marketing.
pale lagers
{ "text": [ "two light beers" ], "answer_start": [ 3838 ] }
6846-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=3790249
A saltern is an area or installation for making salt. Salterns include modern salt-making works (saltworks), as well as hypersaline waters that usually contain high concentrations of halophilic microorganisms, primarily haloarchaea but also other halophiles including algae and bacteria. Salterns usually begin with seawater as the initial source of brine but may also use natural saltwater springs and streams. The water is evaporated, usually over a series of ponds, to the point where sodium chloride and other salts precipitate out of the saturated brine, allowing pure salts to be harvested. Where complete evaporation in this fashion was not routinely achievable due to weather, salt was produced from the concentrated brine by boiling the brine. Background. Earliest examples of pans used in the solution mining of salt date back to prehistoric times and the pans were made of ceramics known as briquetage. Later examples were made from lead and then iron. The change from lead to iron coincided with a change from wood to coal for the purpose of heating the brine. Brine would be pumped into the pans, and concentrated by the heat of the fire burning underneath. As crystals of salt formed these would be raked out and more brine added. In warmer climates no additional heat would be supplied, the sun's heat being sufficient to evaporate off the brine. One of the earliest salterns for the harvesting of salt is argued to have taken place on Xiechi Lake, Shanxi, China by 6000 BC. Strong archaeological evidence of salt making dating to 2000 BC is found in the ruins of Zhongba at Chongqing.
prime supply
{ "text": [ "initial source" ], "answer_start": [ 332 ] }
10439-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=3044408
Global citizenship is the idea that one's identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are derived from membership in a broader class: "humanity". This does not mean that such a person denounces or waives their nationality or other, more local identities, but that such identities are given "second place" to their membership in a global community. Extended, the idea leads to questions about the state of global society in the age of globalization. In general usage, the term may have much the same meaning as "world citizen" or cosmopolitan, but it also has additional, specialized meanings in differing contexts. Various organizations, such as the World Service Authority, have advocated global citizenship. Usage. Education. In education, the term is most often used to describe a worldview or a set of values toward which education is oriented (see, for example, the priorities of the "Global Education First Initiative" led by the Secretary-General of the United Nations). The term "global society" is sometimes used to indicate a global studies set of learning objectives for students to prepare them for global citizenship (see, for example, the Global Studies Center at the University of Pittsburgh). Global citizenship education. Within the educational system, the concept of global citizenship education (GCED) is beginning to supersede or overarch movements such as multicultural education, peace education, human rights education, Education for Sustainable Development, and international education. Additionally, GCED rapidly incorporates references to the aforementioned movements. The concept of global citizenship has been linked with awards offered for helping humanity. Teachers are being given the responsibility of being social change agents. Audrey Osler, director of the "Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education", the University of Leeds, affirms that "Education for living together in an interdependent world is not an optional extra, but an essential foundation". With GCED gaining attention, scholars are investigating the field and developing perspectives. The following are a few of the more common perspectives: Philosophy. Global citizenship, in some contexts, may refer to a brand of ethics or political philosophy in which it is proposed that the core social, political, economic, and environmental realities of the world today should be addressed at all levels—by individuals, civil society organizations, communities, and nation states—through a global lens. It refers to a broad, culturally and environmentally inclusive worldview that accepts the fundamental interconnectedness of all things. Political, geographic borders become irrelevant and solutions to today's challenges are seen to be beyond the narrow vision of national interests. Proponents of this philosophy often point to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.) as an example, given his reported declaration that "I am a citizen of the world (κοσμοπολίτης, "cosmopolites")" in response to a question about his place of origin. A Tamil term, "Yadhum oore yaavarum kelir", has the meaning of "the world is one family". The statement is not just about peace and harmony among the societies in the world, but also about a truth that somehow the whole world has to live together like a family. Psychological studies. Global pollsters and psychologists have studied individual differences in the sense of global citizenship. Beginning in 2005, the World Values Survey (WVS), administered across almost 100 countries, included the statement, "I see myself as a world citizen". In the WVS Wave 6, conducted from 2010 to 2014, across the globe 29.5% "strongly agreed" and another 41% "agreed" with this statement. However, there were wide national variations, as 71% of citizens of Qatar, 21% of U.S. citizens, 16% of Chinese, and just 11% of Palestinians "strongly agreed." Interpreting these differences is difficult, however, as survey methods varied for different countries, and the connotations of "world citizen" differ in different languages and cultures. For smaller studies, several multi-item scales have been developed, including Sam McFarland and colleagues' Identification with All Humanity scale (e.g., "How much do you identify with (that is, feel a part of, feel love toward, have concern for) . . . all humans everywhere?”), Anna Malsch and Alan Omoto's Psychological Sense of Global Community (e.g., "I feel a sense of connection to people all over the world, even if I don’t know them personally"), Gerhard Reese and colleagues' Global Social Identity scale (e.g. "I feel strongly connected to the world community as a whole"), and Stephen Reysen and Katzarska-Miller's global citizenship identification scale (e.g., "I strongly identify with global citizens"). These measures are strongly related to one another, but they are not fully identical. Studies of the psychological roots of global citizenship have found that persons high in global citizenship are also high on the personality traits of openness to experience and agreeableness from the Big Five personality traits and high in empathy and caring. Oppositely, the authoritarian personality, the social dominance orientation, and psychopathy are all associated with less global human identification. Some of these traits are influenced by heredity as well as by early experiences, which, in turn, likely influence individuals' receptiveness to global human identification. Research has found that those who are high in global human identification are less prejudiced toward many groups, care more about international human rights, worldwide inequality, global poverty and human suffering. They attend more actively to global concerns, value the lives of all human beings more equally, and give more in time and money to international humanitarian causes. They tend to be more politically liberal on both domestic and international issues. They want their countries to do more to alleviate global suffering. Following a social identity approach, Reysen and Katzarska-Miller tested a model showing the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification (i.e., degree of psychological connection with global citizens). Individuals' normative environment (the cultural environment in which one is embedded contains people, artifacts, cultural patterns that promote viewing the self as a global citizen) and global awareness (perceiving oneself as aware, knowledgeable, and connected to others in the world) predict global citizenship identification. Global citizenship identification then predicts six broad categories of prosocial behaviors and values, including: intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act. Subsequent research has examined variables that influence the model such as: participation in a college course with global components, perception of one's global knowledge, college professors' attitudes toward global citizenship, belief in an intentional worlds view of culture, participation in a fan group that promotes the identity, use of global citizen related words when describing one's values, possible self as a global citizen, religiosity and religious orientation, threat to one's nation, interdependent self-construal prime, perception of the university environment, and social media usage. In 2019, a review of all studies of the psychology of global human identification and citizenship through 2018 was published. Aspects. Geography, sovereignty, and citizenship. At the same time that globalization is reducing the importance of nation-states, the idea of global citizenship may require a redefinition of ties between civic engagement and geography. Face-to-face town hall meetings seem increasingly supplanted by electronic "town halls" not limited by space and time. Absentee ballots opened the way for expatriates to vote while living in another country; the Internet may carry this several steps further. Another interpretation given by several scholars of the changing configurations of citizenship due to globalization is the possibility that citizenship becomes a changed institution; even if situated within territorial boundaries that are national, if the meaning of the national itself has changed, then the meaning of being a citizen of that nation changes. Human rights. The lack of a universally recognized world body can put the initiative upon global citizens themselves to create rights and obligations. Rights and obligations as they arose at the formation of nation-states (e.g. the right to vote and obligation to serve in time of war) are being expanded. Thus, new concepts that accord certain "human rights" which arose in the 20th century are increasingly being universalized across nations and governments. This is the result of many factors, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948, the aftermath of World War II and the Holocaust and growing sentiments towards legitimizing marginalized peoples (e.g., pre-industrialized peoples found in the jungles of Brazil and Borneo). Couple this with growing awareness of our impact on the environment, and there is the rising feeling that citizen rights may extend to include the right to dignity and self-determination. If national citizenship does not foster these new rights, then global citizenship may seem more accessible. Global citizenship advocates may confer specific rights and obligations of human beings trapped in conflicts, those incarcerated as part of ethnic cleansing, and pre-industrialized tribes newly discovered by scientists living in the depths of dense jungle UN General Assembly. On 10 December 1948, the UN General Assembly Adopted Resolution 217A (III), also known as "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Article 1 states that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." Article 2 states that "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty." Article 13(2) states that "Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." As evidence in today's modern world, events such as the Trial of Saddam Hussein have proven what British jurist A. V. Dicey said in 1885, when he popularized the phrase "rule of law" in 1885. Dicey emphasized three aspects of the rule of law : US Declaration of Independence. The opening of the United States Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, states as follows: "Global citizenship in the United States" was a term used by former U.S. President Barack Obama in 2008 in a speech in Berlin. Social movements. World citizen. In general, a world citizen is a person who places global citizenship above any nationalistic or local identities and relationships. An early expression of this value is found in Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C. ; mentioned above), a Cynic philosopher in Ancient Greece. Of Diogenes it is said: "Asked where he came from, he answered: 'I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)'". This was a ground-breaking concept because the broadest basis of social identity in Greece at that time was either the individual city-state or the Greeks (Hellenes) as a group. The Tamil poet Kaniyan Poongundran wrote in "Purananuru", "To us all towns are one, all men our kin." In later years, political philosopher Thomas Paine would declare, "my country is the world, and my religion is to do good." Today, the increase in worldwide globalization has led to the formation of a "world citizen" social movement under a proposed world government. In a non-political definition, it has been suggested that a world citizen may provide value to society by using knowledge acquired across cultural contexts. Many people also consider themselves world citizens, as they feel at home wherever they may go. Albert Einstein described himself as a world citizen and supported the idea throughout his life, famously saying "Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind." World citizenship has been promoted by distinguished people including Garry Davis, who lived for 60 years as a citizen of no nation, only the world. Davis founded the World Service Authority in Washington, DC, which sells World Passports, a fantasy passport to world citizens. In 1956 Hugh J. Schonfield founded the Commonwealth of World Citizens, later known by its Esperanto name "Mondcivitana Respubliko", which also issued a world passport; it declined after the 1980s. The Baháʼí Faith promotes the concept through its founder's proclamation (in the late 19th century) that "The Earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens." As a term defined by the Baháʼí International Community in a concept paper shared at the 1st session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, New York, U.S.A. on 14–25 June 1993. "World citizenship begins with an acceptance of the oneness of the human family and the interconnectedness of the nations of 'the earth, our home.' While it encourages a sane and legitimate patriotism, it also insists upon a wider loyalty, a love of humanity as a whole. It does not, however, imply abandonment of legitimate loyalties, the suppression of cultural diversity, the abolition of national autonomy, nor the imposition of uniformity. Its hallmark is 'unity in diversity.' World citizenship encompasses the principles of social and economic justice, both within and between nations; non-adversarial decision making at all levels of society; equality of the sexes; racial, ethnic, national and religious harmony; and the willingness to sacrifice for the common good. Other facets of world citizenship—including the promotion of human honour and dignity, understanding, amity, co-operation, trustworthiness, compassion and the desire to serve—can be deduced from those already mentioned." Mundialization. Philosophically, mundialization (French, "mondialisation") is seen as a response to globalization's "dehumanisation through [despatialised] planetarisation" (Teilhard de Chardin quoted in Capdepuy 2011). An early use of "mondialisation" was to refer to the act of a city or a local authority declaring itself a "world citizen" city, by voting a charter stating its awareness of global problems and its sense of shared responsibility. The concept was promoted by the self-declared World Citizen Garry Davis in 1949, as a logical extension of the idea of individuals declaring themselves world citizens, and promoted by Robert Sarrazac, a former leader of the French Resistance who created the Human Front of World Citizens in 1945. The first city to be officially mundialised was the small French city of Cahors (only 20,000 in 2006), the capital city of the Département of Lot in central France, on 20 July 1949. Hundreds of cities mundialised themselves over a few years, most of them in France, and then it spread internationally, including to many German cities and to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In less than a year, 10 General Councils (the elected councils of the French "Départements"), and hundreds of cities in France covering 3.4 million inhabitants voted mundialisation charters. One of the goals was to elect one delegate per million inhabitants to a People's World Constitutional Convention given the already then historical failure of the United Nations in creating a global institution able to negotiate a final world peace. To date, more than 1000 cities and towns have declared themselves World cities, including Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Toronto, Hiroshima, Tokyo, Nivelles, and Königswinter. As a social movement, mundialization expresses the solidarity of populations of the globe and aims to establish institutions and supranational laws of a federative structure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. The movement advocates for a new political organization governing all humanity, involving the transfer of certain parts of national sovereignty to a Federal World Authority, Federal World Government and Federal World Court. Basing its authority on the will of the people, supporters hope it could develop new systems to draw on the highest and best wisdom of all humanity, and solve major planetary problems like hunger, access to water, war, peace-keeping, pollution and energy. The mundialization movement includes the declaration of specified territory – a city, town, or state, for example – as world territory, with responsibilities and rights on a world scale. Currently, the nation-state system and the United Nations offer no way for the people of the world to vote for world officials or participate in governing our world. International treaties or agreements lack the force of law. Mundialization seeks to address this lack by presenting a way to build, one city at a time, such a system of true World Law based upon the sovereignty of the whole. Earth Anthem. Author-politician Shashi Tharoor feels that an Earth Anthem sung by people across the world can inspire planetary consciousness and global citizenship among people. Criticisms. Not all interpretations of global citizenship are positive. For example, Bhikhu Chotalal Parekh advocates what he calls globally oriented citizenship, and states, "If global citizenship means being a citizen of the world, it is neither practicable nor desirable." He argues that global citizenship, defined as an actual membership of a type of worldwide government system, is impractical and dislocated from one's immediate community. He also notes that such a world state would inevitably be "remote, bureaucratic, oppressive, and culturally bland." Parekh presents his alternative option with the statement: "Since the conditions of life of our fellow human beings in distant parts of the world should be a matter of deep moral and political concern to us, our citizenship has an inescapable global dimension, and we should aim to become what I might call a globally oriented citizen." Parekh's concept of globally oriented citizenship consists of identifying with and strengthening ties towards one's political regional community (whether in its current state or an improved, revised form), while recognizing and acting upon obligations towards others in the rest of the world. Michael Byers, a professor in Political Science at the University of British Columbia, questions the assumption that there is one definition of global citizenship, and unpacks aspects of potential definitions. In the introduction to his public lecture, the UBC Internalization website states, "'Global citizenship' remains undefined. What, if anything, does it really mean? Is global citizenship just the latest buzzword?" Byers notes the existence of stateless persons, whom he remarks ought to be the primary candidates for global citizenship, yet continue to live without access to basic freedoms and citizenship rights. Byers does not oppose the concept of global citizenship, however, he criticizes potential implications of the term depending on one's definition of it, such as ones that provide support for the "ruthlessly capitalist economic system that now dominates the planet." Byers states that global citizenship is a "powerful term" because "people that invoke it do so to provoke and justify action," and encourages the attendees of his lecture to re-appropriate it in order for its meaning to have a positive purpose, based on idealistic values. Neither criticism of global citizenship is anything new. Gouverneur Morris, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention (United States), criticized "citizens of the world" while he was on the floor of the convention; 9 August 1787. "As to those philosophical gentlemen, those Citizens of the World as they call themselves, He owned he did not wish to see any of them in our public Councils. He would not trust them. The men who can shake off their attachments to their own Country can never love any other. These attachments are the wholesome prejudices which uphold all Governments, Admit a Frenchman into your Senate, and he will study to increase the commerce of France: an Englishman, and he will feel an equal bias in favor of that of England."
elementary articulation
{ "text": [ "early expression" ], "answer_start": [ 11437 ] }
12306-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=15428941
RASL is a 2013 graphic novel by cartoonist Jeff Smith. A sci-fi noir, it is the story of RASL (Dr. Robert Joseph Johnson), an art thief who jumps to parallel universes in attempts to steal famous paintings, but runs into danger as he is pursued by the government. "RASL" draws influences from real-life events, people, and places, including Nikola Tesla, Southwestern Native American culture, and hardboiled crime fiction. The book's central storyline is narrated extensively through the protagonist's thoughts, aided by the use of flashbacks to tell the story of his past. Smith's art style is high-contrast black-and-white, and is notably more detailed and "human" than his previous work "Bone". "RASL" originally appeared in serial form in an independently published black-and-white comic book published from 2008–2012. Development. Jeff Smith has stated that "RASL" came from a desire to do something completely different from his previous work "Bone". He came up with the idea in 1999 during the process of inking "Bone", inspired by his thoughts of how films like "Blade Runner" and the Bourne film series could come together. Smith then talked to cartoonists Paul Pope and Frank Miller about the idea and gained support. Smith postponed his idea on "RASL" as to complete "Bone", and came back to it in 2007. He developed an idea of how the story would end and what would happen but needed to organize it into a full-fledged story. He flew out to Arizona, as he knew the story would be set in the desert. He found the quiet and heat helped him develop his ideas for the story and characters. Smith was also interested in the visual aspects of film noir, such as intense angles, heavy shadows, and a sense of discomfort. He then spent a year researching the latest in the theories of physics, M-theory, and string theory from the work of Brian Greene, Stephen Hawking, and Carl Sagan to get a feel of what scientists believe is happening with parallel worlds. Publication history. Self-published through Smith's publishing company Cartoon Books, the first issue of "RASL" was released in February 2008. Originally planned for three issues a year at 32 pages, the format was changed as of issue #5 to 24 pages (22 pages of comics, and a two-page letter column titled "RASLetters") for less wait in between. Issue #6 was delayed for an extensively long time, from October 2009 to January 2010. According to creator Jeff Smith's blog, the series was to go bimonthly with issue #7. Earlier in the series' production, it was unclear whether "RASL" was supposed to be a limited series or a standard ongoing series. However, in response to a fan's post on Smith's Facebook page on August 1, 2010, he commented; "I'm not sure how many issues there will be exactly, but you'll probably only have to be collecting "RASL" for about two more years", confirming that it was in fact an ongoing series, and that Smith estimated the series to end somewhere between 2012 and 2013. Smith hinted in the "RASLetters" section of issue #10 that either issue #15 or #16 would be the final issue of the series. Ultimately, the series ended with issue #15 in August 2012. Plot synopsis. The following synopses are cited directly from the collected editions of RASL, respectively. Chapter 1 – The Drift. The story opens to RASL, a dimension-jumping art thief with a tattoo of a woman's name (Maya) on his left arm, wandering in a desert battered and bloody. He recollects his memories on a job where he steals a Picasso painting ("The Old Guitarist"). After tagging the location of the painting, RASL escapes from the police by using an immersion suit (resembling 4 airplane turbines strapped to his shoulders and legs and an African mask) to enter "The Drift", a place where he is able to travel to other dimensions. He comes to a seemingly regular world and hides his suit, then visits a bar where he is the only one present. After some drinks and lighting a cigar, he looks through the songs on the jukebox, noticing that Bob Dylan's "Blonde on Blonde" album is instead credited to Robert Zimmerman, which is Bob Dylan's birthname. He realizes he is in the wrong place. As he is about to leave, an eerie assassin with a lizard like face comes in and shoots at RASL; as he escapes his painting is shot. Outside the assassin chases him and a fight ensues, to which RASL beats and disarms the man. He finds no I.D. and is startled to see a small rectangle block in the man's wrist. Hearing sirens, he decides to go find a quiet place to meditate for a couple of hours (to be put in a more zen-like state of purity so he may enter the Drift again) thinking to himself about how he knew someone could "figure it out eventually". His final lines as he meditates in the light of the moon are "You can fix this. It’s never too late to fix it." The story then cuts back to him one last time wandering in the desert. Chapter 2 – Annie. RASL drives back into town after having returned to the real world. He comes to his client's house (a prostitute named Annie). Inviting him in, she notices RASL is in bad shape, and asks if he was "time traveling again". He corrects her by explaining that he jumps dimensions using "thermo-magnetic engines to bend the space" around him. Annie notices the painting was shot in the foot and she can never show it to anyone. During a conversation RASL asks if Annie has seen the lizard face assassin (mentioning he was from "The Compound.") We also learn that under the assassin's wrist was a security chip. She has not seen the man. RASL is frustrated that "they" are unable to control him, so they sent an assassin. Annie shows him a medallion depicting "The Man in the Maze" (a nickname for the I'itoi) which represents the journey of life and its turning points. During the conversation we see his point of view as he travels dimensions, mentioning while he is in the void, there are portals, and he goes through the one he sees. Annie believes that worlds also choose him. Later the two have sex and fall asleep. RASL wakes up later worried he felt something wrong (nervous he might be in the wrong place). However, Bob Dylan exists in this world and RASL decides to go out to a strip club and drink. He returns later to find that Annie has been murdered, and a heart shape ripped from the painting covered in blood on Annie. RASL knows he must go after the assassin and gets his jeep. As he drives past The Compound he narrates about when he first played with magnets and learned Maxwell's equations to make his immersion suit. He asserts that "nothing is certain in the world of quantum physics." He gives an example of this by stating how electrons are not able to be pinned down in an atom. He narrates: "I can’t remember where I heard the theory that these particles were actually leaking into other dimensions. But I can remember the first time I followed one." He then burns the Picasso painting on a mountain top and uses his immersion suit to enter The Drift in a blast of light. Chapter 3 – Maya. RASL re-enters the world where "Dylan isn't Dylan" on the same abandoned mountain top from Chapter 2 after having counted to 10. With his jeep gone he walks into town. At a bus stop he sees the Man in the Maze symbol used as an ad for a Maze of Life exhibit for a museum. As he contemplates finding a Jeep, he meets a shady character who introduces himself as "The President of the Street". RASL pays him 40 dollars for his help in finding a vehicle. Soon after, RASL begins his drive to the museum (during this we learn that he counts while drifting so he can focus and not black out). Blacking out is how he came to the current dimension the first time. Assuming Annie's killer is following him, he wonders how he got the technology but admits it wouldn't be hard to master. However he mentions that two people saw his (RASL's) complete designs, and that one of them is dead. The story flashes back to when he worked for The Compound (a military base). He works with a man named Miles and his wife Maya. We learn RASL's name is Robert, and that he and his partners are working on a "St. George Array" (based on ideas by Nikola Tesla). According to Miles it's an anti weapon which serves as a barrier against missiles. RASL feels reluctant going through with the plans, but Miles points out that in the past he supported Robert's teleportation suits (t-suits). At this time, however, they do not function properly. The phone rings and Miles answers the call and tells them the project has now been green-lit and the budget doubled. While he gets a bottle of champagne Maya kisses RASL saying "Even if you could leave him, I know you can't leave me" (indicating an affair between them). Maya tells Miles Robert won't back out, leaving Robert himself unsure of the future. In the museum he meets the curator who looks exactly like Maya who in this dimension doesn't know him (instead her name is Uma Giles.) After showing her the silver medallion to examine she says it looks like Hopi silverwork, though his “friend” (Annie) was part Pima. He leaves the museum shortly after making plans to meet her again, reeling from the experience. He decides to visit Annie's house. As RASL is about to leave (after watching a client walk out of her house), the assassin with the lizard like face pulls up in a car to come kill her. RASL enters and sees the man has her hostage and greets him by his first name telling him, "You have something that belongs to us and we want it back." RASL takes the gun and points it at the assassin but is startled when the assassin says that there are infinitely many different Annie's but only one of he and Robert. A brutal fight ensues while Annie picks up the gun and aims it at both of them. The assassin runs outside while RASL makes sure Annie is ok. Outside, the assassin (with his own immersion suit) enters The Drift. RASL prepares to do the same telling Annie to get to safety. She asks where he is going, to which he replies “After him!” He enters the Drift, leaving this dimension's Annie with the gun, in awe and bewildered. Chapter 4 – Opening Doors. The story opens with RASL declaring himself a liar, in a world filled with liars. And that even a liar can find it difficult to tell what is truth and what is legend. During this, a boat spots a life raft holding a dead (and possibly mutated) sailor. We learn that this is 6 days prior to the Philadelphia Experiment, which is narrated as follows: In September 1943, a military convoy is leaving from Casablanca bound for Norfolk Virginia via the Atlantic (waters patrolled by German submarines in this era). As the ships pass within 100 miles from Bermuda, an immense flash is seen on the horizon, followed by the muffled sounds of depth charges. A distress call is picked up yet no ships or German subs are seen. 2 days pass and the calls and noises persist. The next day, the dead sailor is found. On the sixth night, a loud succession of explosions is heard and an unknown ship is seen with its stern on fire. Alarm is issued and the traveling boat goes to rescue the other. As they approach, it is gone and not seen nor detected on radar. Going further, the sailors look down into a trench in the shape of a hull. A loud pop of electricity is heard and the sailors look shocked at what is described as "a man-made horror/a travesty of nature." RASL narrates that this incident is the beginning of a series of lies that leads to the current point in his story. A quiet barrio in Tucson. Re-emerging from the Drift once more in a new dimension with the assassin, another brutal fight ensues at night in the street in a suburb area. The assassin draws his gun and points it at RASL, warning him to stay put. He looks at RASL, stating he looks nothing like his picture (addressing him by his full name, Robert Joseph Johnson). He notices drifting is killing him. The assassin asks if RASL came to "return the stolen property", but RASL has come only because of Annie's murder. The assassin warns RASL that he is meddling with forces he can't control, and that none of the worlds RASL visits are real, which is why he has never met himself. The assassin then reveals his name as Sal, that he is working for the Compound, and that they believe RASL has 2 journals stolen from the navy. He offers a truce for the journals in exchange for not killing RASL's "girlfriends" for 48 hours. RASL tries to make a grab for him but falls on the street, as Sal teleports away. Suddenly, he notices a very eerie and silent little girl who disappears quickly. He goes to a nearby bar to drink and collect his thoughts. We learn through this that Nikola Tesla was working on magnetic fields for ships to detect German ships and repel mines during World War I. The assistant secretary of the navy at the time is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. FDR becomes president and discusses the magnetic project with Albert Einstein during the period of the Manhattan Project during World War II. RASL had seen the data of a full-scale test in which a ship blinked in and out of existence several times over 6 days; the experiment had horrific results, making the navy want to "close that door". However, RASL says he opened it again 2 years ago. He walks out of the bar and sees the eerie girl again, who slaps the ground where he appeared and points to Annie's house. Unsure of what to make of this, RASL puts on his suit and returns once more to the dimension with no Bob Dylan. Checking on Annie, he is worried she doesn't know who he is. She addresses him as Robert, assures him and kisses him. As they do this, RASL slowly shuts the door of her house. Chapter 5 – Uma. The story continues the morning after Anne and RASL have sex with Annie expressing her disbelief and amazement at RASL's explanation of his drifting technology. We learn that his first test was done in a desert of Arizona (where the story takes place) and it took 3 days to realize he was on another world. Knowing that this dimension's Annie saw the suit, Robert plans to leave to pull a new heist to get money while Annie can go somewhere safe. Annie questions RASL about her alternate versions RASL has seen or slept with. Asking why RASL wants to be with her, he simply says it is because they both are there. Keeping in mind that he destroyed The Compound's multibillion-dollar weapons division, he plans to not give the journals to them. Rob leaves, bloody and hurt from Drifting and has a short black out before and during driving. During the second blackout the story flashes back to Robert coming back in the lab looking ill (we see the mask of his immersion suit hanging on the wall amongst other objects). RASL confesses that he tested a t-suit, that it worked, and expresses his want to postpone the St. George Array test (and shut down the Tesla Division) to analyze the calculations of his trip. Miles expresses his frustration and wonders if anything has to do with Robert and Maya's trip to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Afterward, Miles picks up the phone and tells RASL to stick to a story, and that the head of security is arriving. After the blackout, he pulls over and starts walking and sees the strange girl from Chapter 4 holding hands with a woman on the sidewalk (this is the second world he has seen her). Shortly, Maya (the Uma version) drives up to give him a ride to the museum to get his necklace (which Annie gave him). She offers him a private tour. During the drive, the story flashes back to Robert and Maya having sex during the Wright Patt trip (confirming Miles' suspicions). Maya confesses she wishes to be with Robert all the time. They discuss their schedule which includes a research meeting and another meeting with H.A.A.R.P. to discuss Maya's bio-theories on low frequencies. RASL plans to go to the archives to check out U.F.O. conspiracies. The story returns to RASL staring at Maya as she gives a tour, and notices he isn't listening, smiling seductively. The story then flashes back to when RASL meets Alvin Bester, a man who works in the archives. He tells RASL of his reputation he's been building and also reminds him of his desire to shut down the Tesla Division. Bester gives RASL Nikola Tesla's 2 missing journals. RASL has a look of shock and fright upon reading one of the journals. The story flashes back to Maya and RASL embraced, kissing in the museum. Chapter 6 – The Mad Scientist. The story continues after the date with Maya with RASL reflecting on his and Miles' fascination with the life of Nikola Tesla and his "electrification" of the world. His exposition includes Tesla's relationship and rivalry with Thomas Edison, which leads into a further explanation of the war of the currents. Halfway through this, RASL is seen breaking into a parallel version of the penthouse from Chapter 1 to obtain a new Old Guitarist painting. He continues his story of Tesla by emphasizing that he felt electricity was a life force, and made plans to create wireless energy transmissions in a laboratory in the Colorado Rockies. The story then goes back to RASL to show that his job was successful as he receives pay from the owner of a casino (who allows RASL to go and enjoy it). The story jumps back into a further narration of Tesla's competition, specifically Guglielmo Marconi. Meanwhile, the company which Tesla and his partner George Westinghouse ran was in financial trouble, but Tesla temporarily saved it. The story goes to the present in the real world to a scene where RASL brings the painting to his friend Pauly in a casino office. Pauly gives RASL a free pass to enjoy the casino. RASL continues his recollection of Tesla. Ultimately the residents in the area of Tesla's lab grew tired of the thunder being emitted, and he left to go meet J.P. Morgan. After working for Morgan, he is abandoned for Marconi (being that he became the first to transmit signals over the Atlantic Ocean). RASL for a moment sympathizes with Tesla but lets his story serve as a cautionary tale as he sits at a poker table with a drink. Sal approaches him from behind to confront him, questioning him as to why he does not have the journals. After realizing the casino set him up (because security isn't called to his aide), RASL tries to fight Sal drunk, but is smashed over the head with the butt of his gun. Chapter 7 – Brighter Than the Sun. The story continues with RASL narrating The Tunguska Event, expressing his belief that Nikola Tesla's attempt at putting his world system on line was the cause. The story then flashes back to The Compound. Robert and Miles' friendship has fallen apart with Robert having left the St. George project but persistent in advising Miles not to test the weapon. Miles is skeptical at RASL's advisions, seeing that he had, without authorization, taken the t-suit and accidentally discovered other worlds. During an exchange, RASL reveals his knowledge of the existence of Tesla's journals. Miles, infuriated that RASL had kept them secret, throws a laptop through a window. Ranting in an almost madness-driven manner. Maya comes in worried to break up the fight, to which Miles (reading Robert and Maya's faces) realizes their affair. RASL is taken out of the building by security, stating that after seven years of research, his time at The Compound was done. Three days before the St. George test, however, Robert returns to take his t-suit and drifts, conscious of it for the first time (and jamming the array in the process). Because of the electromagnetic effects drifting and a guilty conscience, RASL develops a drinking habit. He wakes up in the present after the confrontation with Sal in the casino office from Chapter 6 (located in Las Vegas). Present in the room is Sal, along with Kalani Adams, the security head of the compound. Sal's full name is revealed as Salvador Crow, and that he has undergone training under the authority of The Department of Homeland Security. Also—that he is part of a "watchdog group" created by the Patriot Act. In conversation with Kalani, it is learned the department considers the new worlds (if real) a potential security risk. RASL expresses that they are real, to which Sal is disgusted by the thought of considering that so. We also learn that the St. George array is being rebuilt. RASL reveals his t-suit works because energy is shared in all the universes and that energy is transferred. In addition he states the barrier is thin and trying to create the St. George weapon is ill-advised, because an energy gusher could be opened up causing devastating consequences. Choosing to see this as a way to convince RASL to bring her the journals, Kalani offers an ultimatum to bring them in 24 hours or be locked away. RASL is taken away by Sal and tossed out on the edge of town, telling him that he is still seeking out Annie. RASL's narration of the past is further revealed as he states that three days after jamming the weapon, he drifted back to Tucson and rented a jeep, knowledgeable of where he hid the journals. After driving out of town, he recalls seeing a flash in the mirror, and witnesses (along with other drivers who had gotten out of their cars) a devastating explosion from The Compound. The story flashes back to the present one last time with RASL standing in the desert where Sal left him, with the eerie girl he'd met earlier right behind him. Chapter 8 – Romance at the Speed of Light. We pick up right from the end of the last chapter with RASL reflecting back on his motto, "It's never too late to fix it." He thinks back to a warning that Annie gave him— That he is an addictive personality and would run back to Maya, even if her motives seemed suspect. We then flash to a new scene in which Robert breaks off the affair with Maya (much to her dismay). We then jump to RASL watching the news after the explosion at the Compound (talked about at the end of Chapter 7). The entire team which includes Miles is rescued, but not Maya. We then cut to a scene in which RASL gets a tattoo in her memory. We jump two years later (to the present) and RASL realizes there is the eerie little girl is standing behind him. RASL tries to communicate with the girl and see if she followed him from a parallel universe. But she motions for RASL to take off his jacket, and then crosses out Maya's name on his arm (to RASL's confusion). She then draws a diagram in the dirt which shocks RASL, as he backs away he bumps into The President of the Street, who recognizes RASL from their last meet (in Chapter 3) despite them not being in the world in which they met. RASL asks if the man knows who the little girl is, and he states that she is God. Chapter 9 – The Warning. RASL contemplates God, existence and the origins of the universe through various Native American myths and stories. Included is a visual reference to the Man in the Maze who is described as "Elder Brother". We then pick up from where we left off, with RASL walking along in the desert to town and The President of the Streets behind him with the little girl (who he claims to be God). The President is recalling a story of how he saw a UFO when RASL stops momentarily to question the man's claim of the little girl being God. When The President makes references to Nikola Tesla and his downfall, RASL suddenly takes hold of the man angrily, and the little girl calms him down. RASL explains to her that the drawing she made in the sand in the previous chapter is from Tesla's journals. The diagram/drawing makes reference to his Unified Field Theory which explains the ideas of dimensions and universes overlapping, along with shared energy. RASL explains that in order to tap into those dimensions, high frequencies of energy are needed, which would crack a hole in reality itself (which he states is what happened in The Philadelphia Experiment). He also worries that that is exactly what will happen if the St. George array is activated. RASL decides to go and get Annie like he planned (after he'd side-tracked in Las Vegas in Chapter 6) and The President and the girl seem to vanish. RASL goes to a parking garage to pick up his Jeep and finds a figure going through his trunk, dressed in a T-Suit. He chases the figure, and is positive it isn't Sal (because of the person's dexterity and height). He almost catches the figure but they drift out of his reach with the T-Suit engines. RASL muses that he'll have to keep his Jeep locked up. Collected editions. RASL has been collected into the following oversized (10" by 12") trade paperbacks: The collection of "The Drift" has been released in a hardcover edition (), limited to 3000 copies. The collection of "The Drift" also features extra story pages along with bonus material. The series is also being released in "Pocket Book" format (measuring 8.9 by 6.4 by 0.6 inches). Due to the release of these, the previous oversized collected editions were renamed the "RASL Giant Artist Editions". It has been confirmed that despite the release of the pocket books, the "RASL Giant Artist Editions" will be kept in print and continued. Smith said in the "RASLetters" of "Issue #10" that there would be either one or two more "RASL Giant Artist Editions" (if one, then the one would contain more pages than usual, while if two, they may contain less pages than usual), while there will be one more "RASL Pocket Book Edition": The entire series was colored and collected as a single 472 page hardcover in September, 2013 (). Film adaptation. "RASL" has been optioned for a film by Lionel Wigram.
dousing wear
{ "text": [ "immersion suit" ], "answer_start": [ 3616 ] }
9434-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=43445856
Primus & the Chocolate Factory with the Fungi Ensemble is the eighth studio album by American rock group Primus. The album is a re-imagining of the soundtrack of the 1971 film "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory". The album was released on October 21, 2014. It is the first full-length album with Tim "Herb" Alexander since 1995's "Tales from the Punchbowl". Background. Lead singer and bassist Les Claypool told "Rolling Stone" of his fascination with "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory", the 1971 film adaptation of Roald Dahl's novel "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory": "I don't think it was until "Jaws" came along that I was more obsessed with a film, when I started drawing sharks all over my binders and notebooks. Prior to that it was everything Wonka." During an interview at The Greene Space, Les Claypool explained that one idea for his next record was a cover of The Beatles' "Magical Mystery Tour". Although this project never came to fruition, he stated that he was glad it didn't work out since he later found out that The Flaming Lips were producing their cover of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" around the same time. Music. The track "I Want It Now" is the first Primus song to feature guitarist Larry "Ler" Lalonde on lead vocals. Drummer Tim Alexander used an intentionally unusual drum kit throughout the album, which contained various rototoms, frying pans, a HAPI UFO drum, and more in addition to his already-large drum kit. About the odd choice of percussion, Alexander explains "It went back to the original meaning of a contraption, which is what a drum set initially was when they were first being put together in the early 1900s. Putting all these things together, I just had all these different sounds to work with them. It made me have to think about what I’m doing to create rhythms using all this stuff." Promotion. To tie in with the album's "Wonka" theme, Primus began selling exclusive chocolate "Primus Bars" at live performances. The varieties are named after Primus songs: "Mr. Krinkle Bars" and "Pork Soda Bars" (from "Pork Soda"), "Professor Nutbutter Bars" (from "Tales from the Punchbowl"), and "Bastard Bars". "The tour and the album are solely a marketing tool just so we can sell candy bars," jokes Claypool. "That's the whole impetus of this entire project. Because the fucking recording industry rolled over and let this Internet shit all over us. So we had to come up with another income stream, so we're making chocolate bars because you can’t digitize a chocolate bar — yet." On Hollywood, limited edition 'Pork Soda' bars were available. The last live performance of the album, September 19, 2015, was a live Pay-Per-View event on TourGigs.com Deluxe Edition. In early 2015, Primus' official website announced Primus and the Chocolate Factory with the Fungi Ensemble Deluxe Edition to be released on April 28, 2015. This update reformats the album into Dolby 5.1 Surround Sound, and also includes a bonus live CD that features Primus' signature extended live jams. This was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Immersive Audio Album. Shortly after the last live performance of the album, it was announced on Primus' official website that the Deluxe Edition's release date had been delayed until November 20, 2015, and that pre-orders will now include a limited edition box of chocolates. The live CD was replaced with a DVD of custom visuals for each song.
a different way to make profit
{ "text": [ "another income stream" ], "answer_start": [ 2446 ] }
5715-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=36918398
The 2012 Harvard cheating scandal involved approximately 125 Harvard University students who were investigated for cheating on the take-home final examination of the spring 2012 edition of Government 1310: "Introduction to Congress". Harvard announced the investigation publicly on August 30, 2012. Dean of Undergraduate Education Jay M. Harris described the case as "unprecedented in its scope and magnitude". "The Harvard Crimson" ranked the scandal as the news story most important to Harvard in 2012. A teaching fellow noticed similarities between a small number of exams during grading in May 2012. The course's professor brought the case to the Harvard College Administrative Board, which reviewed all final exams, leading to individual cases against nearly half of the 279 students enrolled in the class, almost two percent of the undergraduate student body. The administrative board completed its investigation in December 2012. On February 1, 2013 Harvard revealed that "somewhat more than half" of the investigated students, estimated at 70%, were forced to withdraw. Government 1310: "Introduction to Congress" was led by assistant professor Matthew B. Platt in Spring 2010, 2011, and 2012. The course was offered to students of Harvard College and Harvard Extension School. It developed a reputation as an easy course, receiving a high proportion of "easy" or "very easy" ratings in the "Q Guide", Harvard's collection of course evaluations. According to some Spring 2012 students, Platt immediately confirmed this reputation by promising 120 A's and stating that attendance was optional. Students who attended could share their notes. Grades were determined by four take-home exams. In 2010 and 2011, the take-home exams were essays, but in 2012 they were changed to a short answer format. The change corresponded with a spike in difficulty and a drop in overall score, according to the "Q Guide". Students said the short answer format facilitated collaboration. Some guessed that the changes were forced from above. Spring 2012 final exam. The spring 2012 final exam was assigned April 26 and due May 3 at 5:00 p.m. Its first page contained the instructions: "The exam is completely open book, open note, open internet, etc. However, in all other regards, this should fall under similar guidelines that apply to in-class exams. More specifically, students may not discuss the exam with others—this includes resident tutors, writing centers, etc." The use of "etc." has been questioned. Students complained about confusing questions on the final exam. Due to "some good questions" from students, Platt clarified three exam questions by email on April 30. Platt cancelled his office hours on the May 3 due date on short notice. Many students received assistance from the teaching fellows. Spring 2013 – present. Government 1310 had its spring 2013 Harvard College course listing removed as of October 7, 2012. Platt taught the course through the Harvard Extension School only for spring 2013 and spring 2014. Grading was based on two essay exams, ten quizzes and the final. The collaboration policy forbade any collaboration. Investigation. A teaching fellow noticed similarities between a small number of exams during grading in May 2012. Platt reported the suspected plagiarism in a letter to administrative board secretary John "Jay" L. Ellison on May 14. The similarities were first noticed in answers for the bonus short answer question "Describe two developments in the history of Congress that ostensibly gave individual MCs [members of Congress] in the House greater freedom and/or control but ultimately centralized power in the hands of party leadership." Some students picked the "somewhat obscure" pair of the Cannon Revolt of 1910 and Henry Clay and "all the answers use the same (incorrect) reading of the course material in arguments that are identically structured." Additional comparisons revealed possible collaboration on the other questions. The administrative board reviewed all exams over the summer and flagged roughly 125 for suspected collaboration. The suspects constitute nearly half of the 279 students enrolled in the class and almost two percent of Harvard College's undergraduate student body. Harris said the similarities include "answers that look quite alike to answers that appear to have been lifted in their entirety." Harvard enlisted "supplemental fact finders" to deal with the load. Peter F. Lake, a Stetson University College of Law professor approximated fifty hours per student totaling "essentially one administrator’s entire year of energy." Harvard announced the investigation publicly on August 30, 2012. Dean of undergraduate education Jay M. Harris justified the announcement as a springboard to raise awareness and a teachable moment. A senior under investigation dismissed this explanation, writing, "Harvard chose to go public with this story to first and foremost save their own asses." On the same day as the announcement, Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences dean Michael D. Smith sent an email to all faculty members informing them of the investigation and suggesting that they clarify their collaboration policies. Each student was given copies of their exams and similar ones, then had to submit a written explanation. The student met with an administrative board subcommittee and was shown the other students' statements. Some students named the classmates they collaborated with. The subcommittee recommended an action to the full board. Cases were finalized in September and December 2012. Students forced to withdraw vanished from campus as verdicts were issued every Tuesday. The administrative board completed its investigation in December 2012. Discipline. Potential discipline for academic dishonesty includes a year's forced withdrawal. In May 2010 the administrative board gained the ability to "exclude" students and fail them. IvyGate published rumors that the administrative board developed a "tiered punishment scheme" based on general classes of collaboration but Faculty of Arts and Sciences spokesperson Jeff Neal stated that each case would be evaluated individually. Students could withdraw voluntarily before their cases were closed, according to an email sent by Ellison to resident deans. If convicted and sentenced to a required withdrawal, the leave of absence would be credited as time served. A forced withdrawal includes a permanent notation on the student's transcript. Harvard biology professor Richard Losick calls the note "a severe punishment" and one suspected student describes it as "almost the kiss of death in the academic realm." During their absence, students must "hold a full-time, paid, non-academic job in a non-family situation, for at least six consecutive months" before becoming eligible for readmittance. On February 1, 2013, Smith revealed that "somewhat more than half" of the students were forced to withdraw "for a period of time" and "roughly half" of the remainder were put on disciplinary probation. Smith's e-mail covers all administrative board cases for the past term without mentioning Government 1310 or the scandal, but a Harvard official said they were from one course. For the majority of cases, the "period of time" is two semesters according to students. Athletes. Harvard Crimson varsity team athletes will lose a year of Ivy League eligibility if they play any games and are forced to withdraw. If they register and attend classes before withdrawing, the "Harvard Department of Athletics Student-Athlete Handbook" says "In nearly all circumstances, [they] will be ineligible to compete in the first year [they] return to Harvard." According to estimates by students, over half the class and up to half of those suspected are athletes. The Harvard Crimson football team was expected to lose players, but it won its season opener. None of the starters left the team. "Sports Illustrated" reported that Kyle Casey, current co-captain and leading scorer of last year's 2011–12 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team withdrew from Harvard ahead of the registration deadline. "The Boston Herald" reported that co-captain Brandyn Curry was expected to withdraw also. On October 9, 2012 a team spokesperson confirmed that they "are not playing this season." Platt highlighted a group of baseball players in his letter to the Ad Board. One athlete told "The Boston Globe" that his teammates combined notes while travelling on their team bus. Four ice hockey players left the team. In a telephone interview with the Associated Press, Harvard president Drew Faust said that athletes should not be set apart or given special treatment. Faust said "It is not about one student group. It’s not confined to any one student group." Athletes and non-athletes withdrew voluntarily. Reaction. Students. Students claimed that collaboration like note-sharing and consulting teaching fellows was widespread. One student produced shared lecture notes and argued successfully that they were the source. Students under investigation complained about uncertainty stemming from the length of the investigation and the Administrative Board's hiatus over the summer. One 2012 graduate now working on Wall Street told "Bloomberg Businessweek" "Dragging us into this investigation now, when we have financial obligations and jobs, seems very unfair." Current students expressed concerns about pro-rated tuition costs where students forced to withdraw later would pay more. Some students did not receive their verdicts until shortly before finals. In the interest of "financial equity," Harvard calculated tuition refunds for all required withdrawals based on September 30, 2012. Harvard Extension School students wrote to "The Boston Globe" and GovLoop to debunk claims that Platt encouraged collaborating on exams. A number of students responded to Harvard's announcement by going to the media themselves and "trying to present the other side" of the story. A senior reached out to "The New York Observer" and "Salon". He told "Salon" "we’re being scapegoated" and that many students are ready to file lawsuits. One student who had contacted a lawyer told "The Harvard Crimson" "Harvard has created this war between the students and the fricking school, and this is a war that I am willing and very eager to fight." Experts said that Harvard can be sued for procedural errors, lost employment opportunities or intentional or negligent infliction of emotional distress. After the final announcement, lawyers said that lawsuits would be difficult and unlikely. Harvey A. Silverglate said "Schaer vs. Brandeis makes Harvard very close to invulnerable." One lawyer said students may be waiting to graduate and avoid retribution. The statute of limitations for breach of contract is six years in Massachusetts. Implicated students and parents were disappointed by Smith's e-mail and blamed Platt. Other students thought the punishment was fair. Robert Peabody, an attorney for two students said the process was too slow and calling it "death by a thousand nicks", "living torture", "basically hell" and "twisting in the wind." He said his clients "emotionally deteriorated over the course of the semester." "Harvard Crimson"'s survey of graduating seniors of the class of 2013 estimated that 32.0% of students cheated on "papers or take-home tests" but 7.0% self-reported cheating. Harvard. An honor code was drafted by Harvard's Committee on Academic Integrity and adopted on May 6, 2014 by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences by "overwhelmingly" positive vote. Colin Diver, former president of Reed College writes that an "Honor Principle" must be the basis of a culture of academic integrity. Some professors defended the take-home exam format. Erika Christakis and Nicholas A. Christakis write that there is a "national crisis of academic dishonesty." Harry R. Lewis entreats Harvard to "Know thyself." Howard Gardner writes that the case exposes "ethical rot" at Harvard. Gardner contemplates the scandal "as a play in four acts." Faust, Smith and Harris made statements regarding the investigation at the first Faculty of Arts and Sciences meeting of Fall 2012 on October 2. Faust also granted an interview with "The Harvard Crimson". She refused comment on student athletes saying the investigation "includes a wide spectrum of students." The instructors of Harvard's Expository Writing Program are using the scandal to accentuate the anti-plagiarism principles they have already been teaching. Thomas G. Stemberg. Thomas G. Stemberg, prominent Harvard alumnus and Staples Inc. founder, wrote a heavily critical letter addressed to Faust dated January 6, 2013. Stemberg was co-chair of the Friends of Harvard Basketball fundraising group. The 2012–13 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team lost two stars to the scandal. Stemberg criticized Harvard for punishing students who used collaborative notes alongside those who copied answers. He alleged that students had escaped punishment by lying in their testimony. He called Platt and other undergraduate instructors "clearly not qualified." Stemberg said to "Bloomberg News" "Those students who cut and pasted exam answers deserved to get kicked out. The rest of them should have been vindicated, and the faculty member fired." The other co-chair Thomas W. Mannix disapproved of how the media focused on the basketball team and individual players. Commentary. Editorials by "The Harvard Crimson" call out widespread confusion over the acceptability of collaboration as the scandal's root cause and focus on extracurricular activity. An editorial by "The Cavalier Daily" blames the "poorly worded exam instructions" and the phrase "open Internet". According to an editorial by "The Boston Globe", the cheating exposes a lack of quality in Government 1310. An editorial by "The Christian Science Monitor" examines the challenges of teaching integrity. Naomi Schaefer Riley writes in "Bloomberg View" that the scandal highlights problems in the college admissions process. Farhad Manjoo, writing for "Slate", believes "The students should be celebrated for collaborating" as they would in the real world. Sarah Green writes in "Harvard Business Review" that a developed love of learning would prevent cheating. "Forbes" contributor Richard Levick blames Harvard for drawing out the investigation and failing to maintain confidentiality. Alexandra Petri writes in "The Washington Post" that cheating is caused by an aversion to failure. In "The Boston Globe", Lauren Stiller Rikleen blames the Millennial Generation's inexperience on a lack of structure. A number of student newspapers published opinion pieces on cheating inspired by the event. Jonathan Zimmerman of the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University writes in "The Christian Science Monitor" that "poor teaching" encourages cheating. On February 11, 2013 "The Daily Show" did a segment on the scandal. Yale. The Yale Freshman Class Council designed a shirt for the Harvard-Yale football game replacing "Veritas" in the Harvard logo with "Cheaters" or "Cheatas" but the Yale Licensing Office rejected the design. The approved shirt has "Try cheating your way out of this one" on its back. Harvard won the game. Yale College Dean Mary Miller discouraged instructors from using take-home finals in direct response to the scandal. Administrative Board. On October 23–26, 2012 "The Harvard Crimson" published a four-part series about the Administrative Board and the changes made in 2009–2010. "The Harvard Crimson" followed up with a critical editorial. One criticism is resident deans are normally trusted advisors but communications with them are not protected by privilege. Collaboration policies. On August 30, 2012, the same day as the announcement, Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences Dean Michael D. Smith sent an email to all faculty members informing them of the investigation and suggesting that they clarify their collaboration policies. Harris reminded instructors that course syllabi must contain explicit collaboration policies before the Spring 2013 semester. Some classes also went over their policies in their first lecture. Search of deans' email accounts. On March 9, 2013 "The Boston Globe" reported that Harvard searched 16 resident deans' email accounts seeking the source of a leaked email shortly after the scandal broke. On March 11 Smith and Evelynn Hammonds confirmed the search in an official statement. One dean had forwarded the email to two students in their role as an advisor and it was redistributed, reaching "The Harvard Crimson". In light of a second leak of an Administrative Board meeting and with no explanations forthcoming, administrators approved the email search. Information technology staff searched the subject lines of the deans' staff email accounts. Only the dean responsible was notified about the search. The statement said Senior Resident Dean Sharon Howell was also informed but she and an anonymous Harvard official said she was not. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences privacy policy requires members to be "notified at the earliest possible opportunity." The policy was partially due to suspected snooping by Harvard President Lawrence Summers. It was not clear if resident deans are faculty or merely staff. The search breaks the faculty policy but not the staff policy. Faculty members reacted negatively to the search. Resident deans have separate administrative and personal email accounts. The first search examined only the administrative account. On April 2, 2013 Hammonds disclosed that additional searches were run on the deans' two email accounts seeking communication with reporters for "The Harvard Crimson". In April, Hammonds announced that her earlier statement had not been complete as she had failed to recollect a second email search, this time of the accounts of Allston Burr Resident Deans, academics who live in Harvard's undergraduate housing and advise students. Hammonds did not inform Smith of this second search, violating the Faculty of Arts and Sciences' email privacy policy. "The Harvard Crimson" called on Hammonds to resign, stating: "Since Hammonds provided misinformation regarding the highly sensitive issue of email searches, and since she violated clear policy regarding those searches, her presence at the helm of the College stands as a roadblock to rebuilding trust between students, faculty, and the administration." On May 28, Hammonds announced that she would resign to lead a new Harvard research program on race and gender in science. Hammonds said that her decision to resign was unrelated to the email search incident. An outside investigation run by Michael B. Keating of Foley Hoag found that the searches were done in good faith.
greater than 1/2
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12763-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=123407
Philipsburg is a town in and the county seat of Granite County, Montana, United States. The population was 820 at the 2010 census. The town was named after the famous mining engineer Philip Deidesheimer, who designed and supervised the construction of the ore smelter around which the town originally formed. He platted the townsite in 1867. Geography. Philipsburg is located at (46.333108, -113.296564). Montana Highway 1 passes through town. Granite Ghost Town State Park is nearby. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , all land. Demographics. 2010 census. As of the census of 2010, there were 820 people, 413 households, and 217 families residing in the town. The population density was . There were 547 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the town was 96.8% White, 0.1% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 413 households, of which 16.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 47.5% were non-families. 40.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 17.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92 and the average family size was 2.53. The median age in the town was 54.4 years. 14.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 4.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 17.2% were from 25 to 44; 34.2% were from 45 to 64; and 29.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. Economy. Since the closure of local mines and sawmills in the 1980s the town's future was uncertain. The surrounding county is home to more than 24 ghost towns of former mining and timber towns. However the 1990s saw a wave of newcomers purchasing and restoring the numerous buildings in the town's historic district. These included several retailers who expanded on the popularity of sapphire hunting in gravel from the nearby Sapphire Mountain range. The Sweet Palace candy store opened in 1998 and became a regional tourist destination. In 2003 the historic Broadway Hotel was reopened by filmmaker Jim Jenner and numerous other lodging operations followed. Jenner's award-winning 2017 film, "Saving the Burg" captured the story of the town's rebirth and aired on PBS more than a dozen times. Major industries in Philipsburg are Accommodation and Food Service, Educational Services, Healthcare and Social Assistance. The main job fields are Service, Management, Business, Science and Arts, Sales and Office. The Ranch at Rock Creek is Granite County's largest private employer. It is a luxury ranch, opened in 2007 and located 15 minutes from town, for celebrities and the well-to-do. Other major employers are Discovery Basin Ski Area, Granite County Medical Center and Rest Home and the Philipsburg School District. Philipsburg Brewing Company opened 2012 in the historical Sayrs Building, and expanded in 2015 to the historic Silver Springs Brewery on the eastern edge of town. The brewery sells bottled and keg beer throughout Montana and recently expanded to sell drinking water in recyclable aluminum bottles. The environmentally friendly packaging has led to contracts to provide bottled water to both Yellowstone and Glacier National Park concessionaires. Project Vote Smart was located approximately 25 miles from Philipsburg for 16 years. It annually attracted interns to work on its elected official database and many of the organization's employees lived in Philipsburg. After the 2016 presidential election, Vote Smart relocated to Des Moines, Iowa. Climate. Philipsburg's climate transitions between semi-arid (Köppen "BSk") and humid continental (Köppen "Dfb"). Winters are long and dry, but relatively mild, while summers are warm and distinctly wetter. Infrastructure. Riddick Field is a public use airport located 1 mile southeast of town. Education. Philipsburg Public Schools educates students from kindergarten through 12th grade. Granite High School's team name is the Prospectors. Philipsburg Public Library serves the area. Cultural references. Philipsburg is notable for being the setting and subject of the poem "Degrees of Gray in Philipsburg" by celebrated Northwest poet Richard Hugo. Actress Kate Bosworth married American director Michael Polish in Philipsburg on August 31, 2013. Actress Scarlett Johansson married boyfriend French journalist Romain Dauriac in Philipsburg on October 1, 2014. Kate Bosworth and Scarlett Johansson appeared together in the 1998 film "The Horse Whisperer", much of which was shot in Montana. Philipsburg won the 2015 Sunset Magazine Award for "Best Municipal Makeover," beating out entrants that included Reno, Nevada and Sacramento, California.
packaged liquid
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5682-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=4377304
"To Heart" is a 1999 Japanese anime television series based on the visual novel "To Heart" by the Japanese software company Leaf. The episodes, produced by the animation studio Oriental Light and Magic, are directed by Naohito Takahashi and aired in Japan between April 1 and June 24, 1999 compiling thirteen episodes. Six short bonus broadcasts were produced and aired after selected episodes. They lasted around five minutes and followed the general style of the main anime, although the characters are drawn super deformed. The overall story centers on Akari Kamigishi's blossoming relationship with the protagonist Hiroyuki. Three pieces of theme music were used for the episode; one opening theme and two ending themes. The opening theme is "Feeling Heart" by Masami Nakatsukasa; the first ending theme is "Yell" by Ayako Kawasumi, and the second ending theme is "Access" by Spy. Different ending themes were used depending on the location of the broadcast. The DVD and VHS releases used "Yell" as the ending theme. A set of six DVDs, videotapes and laserdiscs were sold in Japan for the "To Heart" anime. "To Heart" was licensed for North American release by The Right Stuf International at Anime Expo 2004 on July 3, 2004 at their panel. Volume one was scheduled for late 2005, but the master copies Right Stuf received from Japan were in bad shape, delaying the release. Because "To Heart" was animated in the process of cel animation, it was captured onto film prior to conversion to video, and the video master showed dirt, glue marks, and other artifacts as a result of the process. Normally the original film would be restored to create a new master, but in this case the original film had been destroyed. As a result, the only choice was to digitally restore and remaster the video. All thirteen episodes and the six bonus extra was released on four DVD volumes between March 27 and August 28, 2007. A sequel anime series entitled "To Heart: Remember My Memories" is set a year after the conclusion of the first anime and completes the anime's storyline (deviating from the visual novel). The future of Akari, Hiroyuki, and Multi are also shown. The Himeyuri twins from "To Heart 2" make their debut appearances in "To Heart: Remember My Memories" as speaking cameos. The anime, which was produced by AIC and Oriental Light and Magic, and directed by Keitaro Motonaga, aired in Japan between October 2 and December 25, 2004 compiling thirteen episodes. The episodes were released on seven DVD compilation volumes in Japan. Seven short omake episodes titled "Heart Fighters" were released with the consumer DVD versions of "To Heart: Remember My Memories"; they are not available on rental DVDs. Unlike the bonus shorts of the first season, the characters are not drawn super deformed and there is an overall arching mini-story. The humor comes from its parodies of popular Japanese culture. An anime television series for "To Heart 2" was produced by Oriental Light and Magic and directed by Norihiko Sudō. Conisch and Kei Haneoka provided the soundtrack for the series. The episodes aired between October 3, 2005 and January 2, 2006 consisting of thirteen episodes. A three-episode original video animation series was produced by Aquaplus and Chaos Project with a new, original story. It was released on three DVDs between February 28 and September 28, 2007. A second OVA series titled "To Heart 2: Another Days", was released on two DVDs, each containing an episode, between March 26 and August 8, 2008.
horrible condition
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5688-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=1258023
Minh Mạng (, , lit. "the bright favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was the fourth son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh, had died in 1801. He was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam and his rigid Confucian orthodoxy. Early years. Born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm at Gia Định in the middle of the Second Tây Sơn – Nguyễn Civil War, Minh Mạng was the fourth son of lord Nguyễn Phúc Ánh – future Emperor Gia Long. His mother was Gia Long's second wife Trần Thị Đang (historically known as Empress Thuận Thiên). At the age of three, under the effect of a written agreement made by Gia Long with his first wife Tống Thị Lan (Empress Thừa Thiên), he was taken in and raised by the lord consort as her own son. Following Thừa Thiên's death in 1814, it was supposed that her grandson, Crown Prince Cảnh's eldest son Mỹ Đường, would be responsible for conducting the funeral. Gia Long however, brought out the agreement to insist that Phúc Đảm, as Thừa Thiên's son, should be the one fulfilling the duty. Despite opposition from mandarins such as Nguyễn Văn Thành, Gia Long was decisive with his selection. In 1816, Gia Long appointed Đảm as his heir apparent. After the ceremony, Crown Prince Đảm moved to Thanh Hòa Palace and started assisting his father in processing documents and discussing country issues. Gia Long's death coincided with the re-establishment of the Paris Missionary Society's operations in Vietnam, which had closed in 1792 during the chaos of the power struggle between Gia Long and the Tây Sơn brothers before Vietnam was unified. In the early years of Minh Mạng's government, the most serious challenge came from one of his father's most trusted lieutenants and a national hero in Vietnam, Lê Văn Duyệt, who had led the Nguyễn forces to victory at Qui Nhơn in 1801 against the Tây Sơn dynasty and was made regent in the south by Gia Long with full freedom to rule and deal with foreign powers. Policy towards missionaries. In February 1825, Minh Mạng banned missionaries from entering Vietnam. French vessels entering Vietnamese harbours were ordered to be searched with extra care. All entries were to be watched "lest some masters of the European religion enter furtively, mix with the people and spread darkness in the kingdom." In an imperial edict, Christianity was described as the "perverse European" (practice) and accused of "corrupting the hearts of men". Between 1833 and 1838, seven missionaries were sentenced to death, amongst them Pierre Borie, Joseph Marchand, and Jean-Charles Cornay. He first attempted to stifle the spread of Christianity by attempting to isolate Catholic priests and missionaries from the populace. He asserted that he had no French interpreters after Chaigneau's departure and summoned the French clergy to Hue and appointed them as mandarins of high rank to woo them from their proselytising. This worked until a priest, Father Regereau, entered the country and began missionary work. Following the edict which forbade further entry of missionaries into Vietnam, arrests of clerics began. After strong lobbying by Duyệt, the governor of Cochin China, and a close confidant of Gia Long and Pigneau de Behaine, Minh Mạng agreed to release the priests on the condition that they congregate at Đà Nẵng and return to France. Some of them obeyed the orders, but others disobeyed the order upon being released, and returned to their parishes and resumed preaching. Isolationist foreign policy. Minh Mạng continued and intensified his father's isolationist and conservative Confucian policies. His father had rebuffed a British delegation in 1804 proposing that Vietnam be opened to trade; the delegation's gifts were not accepted and turned away. At the time, Vietnam was of no interest to the European powers, since most of the continent was engaged in the Napoleonic Wars. Nevertheless, Napoleon had seen Vietnam as a strategically important objective in the Anglo-French power struggle in Asia, as he felt that it would make an ideal base from which to contest the East India Company's foothold in the Indian subcontinent. With the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the final exile of Napoleon in 1815, the military scene in Europe quieted and French interest in Vietnam was revived. Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau, one of the volunteers of Pigneau de Behaine who had helped Gia Long in his quest for power, had become a mandarin and continued to serve Minh Mạng, upon whose ascension, Chaigneau and his colleagues were treated more distantly. He eventually left in November 1824. In 1825, he was appointed as French consul to Vietnam after returning to his homeland to visit his family after more than a quarter of a century in Asia. Upon his return, Minh Mạng received him coldly. The policy of isolationism soon saw Vietnam fall further behind the pace of technology and become more vulnerable to outside encroachment as political stability returned to continental Europe, allowing European powers free hand to once again direct their attention towards increasing their influence in Asia. With his Confucian orthodoxy, Minh Mạng shunned all western influence and ideas as hostile and avoided all contact. In 1819, Lieutenant John White of the United States Navy was the first American to make contact with Vietnam, arriving in Saigon. Minh Mạng was willing to sign a contract, but only to purchase artillery, firearms, uniforms and books. White was of the opinion that the deal was not sufficiently advantageous and nothing was implemented. In 1821, a trade agreement from Louis XVIII was turned away, with Minh Mạng indicating that no special deal would be offered to any country. That same year, East India Company agent John Crawfurd made another attempt at contact, but was only allowed to disembark in the northern ports of Tonkin; he gained no agreements, but concluded relations with France posed no threat to Company trade. In 1822, the French frigate "La Cleopatre" visited Tourane (present day Đà Nẵng). Her captain was to pay his respects to Minh Mạng, but was greeted with a symbolic dispatch of troops as though an invasion had been expected. In 1824 Minh Mạng rejected the offer of an alliance from Burma against Siam, a common enemy of both countries. In 1824 Henri Baron de Bougainville was sent by Louis XVIII to Vietnam with the stated mission "of peace and protection of commerce. Upon arriving in Tourane in 1825, it was not allowed ashore. The royal message was turned away on the pretext that there was nobody able to translate it. It was assumed that the snub was related to an attempt by Bougainville to smuggle ashore a Catholic missionary from the Missions étrangères de Paris. Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau's nephew, Eugène Chaigneau, was sent to Vietnam in 1826 as the intended consul but was forced to leave the country without taking up his position. Further fruitless attempts to start a commercial deal were led by de Kergariou in 1827 and Admiral Laplace in 1831. Another effort by Chaigneau in 1829 also failed. In 1831 another French envoy was turned away. Vietnam under Minh Mạng was the first East Asian country with whom the United States sought foreign relations. President Andrew Jackson tried twice to contact Minh Mạng, sending Edmund Roberts in 1832, and Consul Joseph Balestier in 1836, to no avail. In 1837 and 1838, "La bonite" and "L'Artémise" were ordered to land in Tourane to attempt to gauge the situation in Vietnam with respect to missionary work. Both were met with hostility and communication was prevented. Later, in 1833 and 1834, a war with Siam was fought over control of Cambodia which for the preceding century had been reduced to impotence and had fallen under the control of its two neighbours. After Vietnam under Gia Long gained control over Cambodia in the early 19th century, a Vietnamese-approved monarch was installed. Minh Mạng was forced to put down a Siamese attempt to regain control of the vassal as well as an invasion of southern Vietnam which coincided with rebellion by Lê Văn Khôi. The Siamese planned the invasion to coincide with the rebellion, putting enormous strain on the Nguyễn armies. Eventually, Minh Mạng's forces were able to repel the invasion as well as the revolt in Saigon, and he reacted to Western encroachment by blaming Christianity and showing hostility, leading to the European powers asserting that intervention was needed to protect their missionaries. This resulted in missed opportunities to avert the colonisation of Vietnam through having friendly relations, since strong opposition was raised in France against an invasion, due to the costs of such a venture. After the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839, Minh Mạng attempted to build an alliance with European powers by sending a delegation of two lower rank mandarins and two interpreters in 1840. They were received in Paris by Prime Minister Marshal Soult and the Commerce Minister, but they were shunned by King Louis-Philippe. This came after the Society of Foreign Missions and the Holy See had urged a rebuke for an "enemy of the religion". The delegation went on to London, with no success. Domestic program. On the domestic front, Minh Mạng continued his father's national policies of reorganising the administrative structure of the government. These included the construction of highways, a postal service, public storehouses for food, monetary and agrarian reforms. He continued to redistribute land periodically and forbade all other sales of land to prevent wealthy citizens from reacquiring excessive amounts of land with their money. In 1840 it was decreed that rich landowners had to return a third of their holdings to the community. Calls for basic industrialisation and diversification of the economy into fields such as mining and forestry were ignored. He further centralised the administration, introduced the definition of three levels of performance in the triennial examinations for recruiting mandarins. In 1839, Minh Mạng introduced a program of salaries and pensions for princes and mandarins to replace the traditional assignment of fief estates. Conquests and ethnic minority policy. Minh Mạng enacted the final conquest of the Champa Kingdom after the centuries long Cham–Vietnamese wars. The Cham Muslim leader Katip Suma was educated in Kelantan and came back to Champa to declare a Jihad against the Vietnamese after Emperor Minh Mạng's annexation of Champa. The Vietnamese coercively fed lizard and pig meat to Cham Muslims and cow meat to Cham Hindus against their will to punish them and assimilate them to Vietnamese culture. Rebellions. Minh Mạng was regarded as being in touch with the concerns of the populace. Frequent local rebellions reminded him of their plight. Descendants of the old Lê dynasty fomented dissent in the north, appealing not only to the peasantry but to the Catholic minority. They attempted to enlist foreign help by promising to open up to missionaries. Local leaders in the south were upset with the loss of the relative political autonomy they enjoyed under Duyệt. With Duyệt's death in 1832, a strong defender of Christianity passed. Catholics had traditionally been inclined to side with rebel movements against the monarchy more than most Vietnamese and this erupted after Duyệt's death. Minh Mạng ordered Duyệt posthumously indicted and one hundred lashes were applied to his grave. This caused indignation against southerners who respected Duyệt. In July 1833, a revolt broke out under the leadership of his adopted son, Lê Văn Khôi. Historical opinion is divided with scholars contesting whether the grave desecration or the loss of southern autonomy after Duyệt's death was the main catalyst. Khôi's rebels brought Cochinchina under their control and proposed to replace Minh Mạng with a son of Prince Cảnh. Khôi took into hostage French missionary Joseph Marchand within the citadel, thinking that his presence would win over Catholic support. Khôi enlisted Siamese support, which was forthcoming and helped put Minh Mạng on the defense for a period. Eventually, however, the Siamese were defeated and the south was recaptured by royalist forces, who besieged Saigon. Khôi died during the siege in December 1834 and Saigon fell nine months later in September 1835 and the rebel commanders put to death. In all the estimates of the captured rebels was put between 500 and 2000, who were executed. The missionaries were rounded up and ordered out of the country. The first French missionary executed was Gagelin in October 1833, the second was Marchand, who was put to death along with the other leaders of the Saigon citadel which surrendered in September 1835. From then until 1838 five more missionaries were put to death. The missionaries began seeking protection from their home countries and the use of force against Asians. Minh Mạng pursued a policy of cultural assimilation of non-Viet ethnic groups which from 1841, through 1845, led to southern Vietnam experiencing a series of ethnic revolts. Ruling style. Minh Mạng was known for his firmness of character, which guided his instincts in his policy making. This accentuated his unwillingness to break with orthodoxy in dealing with Vietnam's problems. His biographer, Marcel Gaultier, asserted that Minh Mạng had expressed his opinions about national policy before Gia Long's death, proposing a policy of greater isolationism and shunning westerners, and that Long tacitly approved of this. Minh Mạng was regarded as more nuanced and gentle than his father, with less forced labour and an increased perceptiveness towards the sentiment of the peasantry. His strict belief in Confucian society enabled him to neutralize rebellions incited by Christian missionaries and their Vietnamese converts. This affirmation of Vietnam's cultural and religious sovereignty angered France, which had territorial designs on Vietnam. France then furthered its policy of undermining Vietnam and, in 1858, after Minh Mạng's death, French troops would briefly occupy Tourane, demanding that the so-called "persecutions" stop. This was the beginning of the French campaign to occupy and colonize Vietnam. Although he disagreed with European culture and thinking, he studied it closely and was known for his scholarly nature. Ming Mạng was keen in Western technologies, namely mechanics, weaponry and navigation which he attempted to introduce into Vietnam. Upon hearing of the vaccination against smallpox, he organised for a French surgeon to live in a palatial residence and vaccinate the royal family against the disease. He was learned in Eastern philosophy and was regarded as an intellectually oriented monarch. He was also known for his writings as a poet. He was known for his attention to detail and micromanagement of state affairs, to a level that "astonished his contemporaries". As a result, he was held in high-regard for his devotion to running the country. When Minh Mạng died, he left the throne to his son, Emperor Thiệu Trị, who was more rigidly Confucianist and anti-imperialist than his father. During Thiệu Trị's reign, diplomatic standoffs precipitated by aspiring European imperial powers on the pretext of the "treatment" of Catholic priests gave them an excuse to use gunboat diplomacy on Vietnam, and led to increasing raids and the eventual colonisation of Vietnam by France. Nevertheless, during his reign Minh Mạng had established a more efficient government, stopped a Siamese invasion and built many national monuments in the imperial city of Huế. Successions. Minh Mạng had a large number of wives and concubines. He is reported to have fathered 142 children from 43 wives. His sons included: Miên Tông (Emperor Thiệu Trị), Miên Định (Prince of Thọ Xuân), Miên Thẩm (Prince of Tùng Thiện), Miên Trinh (Prince of Tuy Lý), Miên Bửu (Prince of Tương An), Miên Lâm (Prince of Hoài Đức), Miên Triện (Prince of Hoằng Hóa), Miên Lịch (Yên Thành). Three of his daughters, Nguyệt Đình, Mai Am and Huệ Phố, were famous poets. Minh Mạng's sons also had a remarkable number of offspring: Prince of Thọ Xuân fathered 144 children, including 78 sons and 66 daughters, Prince of Tuy Lý, another son, had 77 sons and 37 daughters. He is succeeded by Emperor Thiệu Trị, who himself fathered 29 princes and 35 princesses. He decided to name his descendants (Nguyễn Phước or Nguyễn Phúc: all members of the Nguyễn dynasty) by choosing the Generation name following the words of the "Imperial succession poem" to avoid confusion. For boys, the following poem is shown in Chữ Quốc Ngữ (modern Vietnamese script) and in chữ nôm: Note: Hường = Hồng // Thoại = Thụy "They replaced Hồng with Hường and Thụy with Thoại because they're the forbidden names of the passed emperors or fathers." The meaning of each name is roughly given as follows: Girls receive also a different name on each generation, for example: "Công-chúa", "Công-nữ", "Công Tôn-nữ", "Công-tằng Tôn-nữ", "Công-huyền Tôn-nữ", "Lai-huyền Tôn-nữ", or shorten to "Tôn-nữ" for all generations afterward. References.
unique offering
{ "text": [ "special deal" ], "answer_start": [ 5824 ] }
6359-1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=271195
Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere. As a form of electromagnetic radiation, like light waves, radio waves are affected by the phenomena of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, polarization, and scattering. Understanding the effects of varying conditions on radio propagation has many practical applications, from choosing frequencies for international shortwave broadcasters, to designing reliable mobile telephone systems, to radio navigation, to operation of radar systems. Several different types of propagation are used in practical radio transmission systems. "Line-of-sight propagation" means radio waves which travel in a straight line from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Line of sight transmission is used for medium-distance radio transmission, such as cell phones, cordless phones, walkie-talkies, wireless networks, FM radio, television broadcasting, radar, and satellite communication (such as satellite television). Line-of-sight transmission on the surface of the Earth is limited to the distance to the visual horizon, which depends on the height of transmitting and receiving antennas. It is the only propagation method possible at microwave frequencies and above. At lower frequencies in the MF, LF, and VLF bands, diffraction allows radio waves to bend over hills and other obstacles, and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. These are called "surface waves" or "ground wave propagation". AM broadcast stations use ground waves to cover their listening areas. As the frequency gets lower, the attenuation with distance decreases, so very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) ground waves can be used to communicate worldwide. VLF and ELF waves can penetrate significant distances through water and earth, and these frequencies are used for mine communication and military communication with submerged submarines. At medium wave and shortwave frequencies (MF and HF bands) radio waves can refract from the ionosphere. This means that medium and short radio waves transmitted at an angle into the sky can be refracted back to Earth at great distances beyond the horizon – even transcontinental distances. This is called "skywave propagation". It is used by amateur radio operators to communicate with operators in distant countries, and by shortwave broadcast stations to transmit internationally. In addition, there are several less common radio propagation mechanisms, such as "tropospheric scattering" (troposcatter), "tropospheric ducting" (ducting), and "near vertical incidence skywave" (NVIS) which are used in specialized communication systems. Frequency dependence. At different frequencies, radio waves travel through the atmosphere by different mechanisms or modes: Free space propagation. In free space, all electromagnetic waves (radio, light, X-rays, etc.) obey the inverse-square law which states that the power density formula_1 of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance formula_2 from a point source or: At typical communication distances from a transmitter, the transmitting antenna usually can be approximated by a point source. Doubling the distance of a receiver from a transmitter means that the power density of the radiated wave at that new location is reduced to one-quarter of its previous value. The power density per surface unit is proportional to the product of the electric and magnetic field strengths. Thus, doubling the propagation path distance from the transmitter reduces each of these received field strengths over a free-space path by one-half. Radio waves in vacuum travel at the speed of light. The Earth's atmosphere is thin enough that radio waves in the atmosphere travel very close to the speed of light, but variations in density and temperature can cause some slight refraction (bending) of waves over distances. Direct modes (line-of-sight). Line-of-sight refers to radio waves which travel directly in a line from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. It does not necessarily require a cleared sight path; at lower frequencies radio waves can pass through buildings, foliage and other obstructions. This is the most common propagation mode at VHF and above, and the only possible mode at microwave frequencies and above. On the surface of the Earth, line of sight propagation is limited by the visual horizon to about . This is the method used by cell phones, cordless phones, walkie-talkies, wireless networks, point-to-point microwave radio relay links, FM and television broadcasting and radar. Satellite communication uses longer line-of-sight paths; for example home satellite dishes receive signals from communication satellites above the Earth, and ground stations can communicate with spacecraft billions of miles from Earth. Ground plane reflection effects are an important factor in VHF line-of-sight propagation. The interference between the direct beam line-of-sight and the ground reflected beam often leads to an effective inverse-fourth-power law for ground-plane limited radiation. Surface modes (groundwave). Lower frequency (between 30 and 3,000 kHz) vertically polarized radio waves can travel as surface waves following the contour of the Earth; this is called "ground wave" propagation. In this mode the radio wave propagates by interacting with the conductive surface of the Earth. The wave "clings" to the surface and thus follows the curvature of the Earth, so ground waves can travel over mountains and beyond the horizon. Ground waves propagate in vertical polarization so vertical antennas (monopoles) are required. Since the ground is not a perfect electrical conductor, ground waves are attenuated as they follow the Earth's surface. Attenuation is proportional to frequency, so ground waves are the main mode of propagation at lower frequencies, in the MF, LF and VLF bands. Ground waves are used by radio broadcasting stations in the MF and LF bands, and for time signals and radio navigation systems. At even lower frequencies, in the VLF to ELF bands, an Earth-ionosphere waveguide mechanism allows even longer range transmission. These frequencies are used for secure military communications. They can also penetrate to a significant depth into seawater, and so are used for one-way military communication to submerged submarines. Early long-distance radio communication (wireless telegraphy) before the mid-1920s used low frequencies in the longwave bands and relied exclusively on ground-wave propagation. Frequencies above 3 MHz were regarded as useless and were given to hobbyists (radio amateurs). The discovery around 1920 of the ionospheric reflection or skywave mechanism made the medium wave and short wave frequencies useful for long-distance communication and they were allocated to commercial and military users. Non-line-of-sight modes. Ionospheric modes (skywave). Skywave propagation, also referred to as skip, is any of the modes that rely on reflection and refraction of radio waves from the ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of the atmosphere from about that contains layers of charged particles (ions) which can refract a radio wave back toward the Earth. A radio wave directed at an angle into the sky can be reflected back to Earth beyond the horizon by these layers, allowing long-distance radio transmission. The F2 layer is the most important ionospheric layer for long-distance, multiple-hop HF propagation, though F1, E, and D-layers also play significant roles. The D-layer, when present during sunlight periods, causes significant amount of signal loss, as does the E-layer whose maximum usable frequency can rise to 4 MHz and above and thus block higher frequency signals from reaching the F2-layer. The layers, or more appropriately "regions", are directly affected by the sun on a daily diurnal cycle, a seasonal cycle and the 11-year sunspot cycle and determine the utility of these modes. During solar maxima, or sunspot highs and peaks, the whole HF range up to 30 MHz can be used usually around the clock and F2 propagation up to 50 MHz is observed frequently depending upon daily solar flux values. During solar minima, or minimum sunspot counts down to zero, propagation of frequencies above 15 MHz is generally unavailable. Although the claim is commonly made that two-way HF propagation along a given path is reciprocal, that is, if the signal from location A reaches location B at a good strength, the signal from location B will be similar at station A because the same path is traversed in both directions. However, the ionosphere is far too complex and constantly changing to support the reciprocity theorem. The path is never exactly the same in both directions. In brief, conditions at the two end-points of a path generally cause dissimilar polarization shifts, hence dissimilar splits into ordinary rays and extraordinary rays ("Pedersen rays") which have different propagation characteristics due to differences in ionization density, shifting zenith angles, effects of the Earth's magnetic dipole contours, antenna radiation patterns, ground conditions, and other variables. Forecasting of skywave modes is of considerable interest to amateur radio operators and commercial marine and aircraft communications, and also to shortwave broadcasters. Real-time propagation can be assessed by listening for transmissions from specific beacon transmitters. Meteor scattering. Meteor scattering relies on reflecting radio waves off the intensely ionized columns of air generated by meteors. While this mode is very short duration, often only from a fraction of second to couple of seconds per event, digital Meteor burst communications allows remote stations to communicate to a station that may be hundreds of miles up to over away, without the expense required for a satellite link. This mode is most generally useful on VHF frequencies between 30 and 250 MHz. Auroral backscatter. Intense columns of Auroral ionization at 100 km altitudes within the auroral oval backscatter radio waves, including those on HF and VHF. Backscatter is angle-sensitive—incident ray vs. magnetic field line of the column must be very close to right-angle. Random motions of electrons spiraling around the field lines create a Doppler-spread that broadens the spectra of the emission to more or less noise-like – depending on how high radio frequency is used. The radio-auroras are observed mostly at high latitudes and rarely extend down to middle latitudes. The occurrence of radio-auroras depends on solar activity (flares, coronal holes, CMEs) and annually the events are more numerous during solar cycle maxima. Radio aurora includes the so-called afternoon radio aurora which produces stronger but more distorted signals and after the Harang-minima, the late-night radio aurora (sub-storming phase) returns with variable signal strength and lesser doppler spread. The propagation range for this predominantly back-scatter mode extends up to about 2000 km in east–west plane, but strongest signals are observed most frequently from the north at nearby sites on same latitudes. Rarely, a strong radio-aurora is followed by Auroral-E, which resembles both propagation types in some ways. Sporadic-E propagation. Sporadic E (Es) propagation occurs on HF and VHF bands. It must not be confused with ordinary HF E-layer propagation. Sporadic-E at mid-latitudes occurs mostly during summer season, from May to August in the northern hemisphere and from November to February in the southern hemisphere. There is no single cause for this mysterious propagation mode. The reflection takes place in a thin sheet of ionization around 90 km height. The ionization patches drift westwards at speeds of few hundred km per hour. There is a weak periodicity noted during the season and typically Es is observed on 1 to 3 successive days and remains absent for a few days to reoccur again. Es do not occur during small hours; the events usually begin at dawn, and there is a peak in the afternoon and a second peak in the evening. Es propagation is usually gone by local midnight. Observation of radio propagation beacons operating around 28.2 MHz, 50 MHz and 70 MHz, indicates that maximum observed frequency (MOF) for Es is found to be lurking around 30 MHz on most days during the summer season, but sometimes MOF may shoot up to 100 MHz or even more in ten minutes to decline slowly during the next few hours. The peak-phase includes oscillation of MOF with periodicity of approximately 5...10 minutes. The propagation range for Es single-hop is typically 1000 to 2000 km, but with multi-hop, double range is observed. The signals are very strong but also with slow deep fading. Tropospheric modes. Radio waves in the VHF and UHF bands can travel somewhat beyond the visual horizon due to refraction in the troposphere, the bottom layer of the atmosphere below 20 km. This is due to changes in the refractive index of air with temperature and pressure. Tropospheric delay is a source of error in radio ranging techniques, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, unusual conditions can sometimes allow propagation at greater distances: Tropospheric ducting. Sudden changes in the atmosphere's vertical moisture content and temperature profiles can on random occasions make UHF, VHF and microwave signals propagate hundreds of kilometers up to about —and for ducting mode even farther—beyond the normal radio-horizon. The inversion layer is mostly observed over high pressure regions, but there are several tropospheric weather conditions which create these randomly occurring propagation modes. Inversion layer's altitude for non-ducting is typically found between and for ducting about , and the duration of the events are typically from several hours up to several days. Higher frequencies experience the most dramatic increase of signal strengths, while on low-VHF and HF the effect is negligible. Propagation path attenuation may be below free-space loss. Some of the lesser inversion types related to warm ground and cooler air moisture content occur regularly at certain times of the year and time of day. A typical example could be the late summer, early morning tropospheric enhancements that bring in signals from distances up to few hundred kilometers for a couple of hours, until undone by the Sun's warming effect. Tropospheric scattering (troposcatter). At VHF and higher frequencies, small variations (turbulence) in the density of the atmosphere at a height of around can scatter some of the normally line-of-sight beam of radio frequency energy back toward the ground. In tropospheric scatter (troposcatter) communication systems a powerful beam of microwaves is aimed above the horizon, and a high gain antenna over the horizon aimed at the section of the troposphere though which the beam passes receives the tiny scattered signal. Troposcatter systems can achieve over-the-horizon communication between stations apart, and the military developed networks such as the White Alice Communications System covering all of Alaska before the 1960s, when communication satellites largely replaced them. Rain scattering. Rain scattering is purely a microwave propagation mode and is best observed around 10 GHz, but extends down to a few gigahertz—the limit being the size of the scattering particle size vs. wavelength. This mode scatters signals mostly forwards and backwards when using horizontal polarization and side-scattering with vertical polarization. Forward-scattering typically yields propagation ranges of 800 km. Scattering from snowflakes and ice pellets also occurs, but scattering from ice without watery surface is less effective. The most common application for this phenomenon is microwave rain radar, but rain scatter propagation can be a nuisance causing unwanted signals to intermittently propagate where they are not anticipated or desired. Similar reflections may also occur from insects though at lower altitudes and shorter range. Rain also causes attenuation of point-to-point and satellite microwave links. Attenuation values up to 30 dB have been observed on 30 GHz during heavy tropical rain. Airplane scattering. Airplane scattering (or most often reflection) is observed on VHF through microwaves and, besides back-scattering, yields momentary propagation up to 500 km even in mountainous terrain. The most common back-scatter applications are air-traffic radar, bistatic forward-scatter guided-missile and airplane-detecting trip-wire radar, and the US space radar. Lightning scattering. Lightning scattering has sometimes been observed on VHF and UHF over distances of about 500 km. The hot lightning channel scatters radio-waves for a fraction of a second. The RF noise burst from the lightning makes the initial part of the open channel unusable and the ionization disappears quickly because of recombination at low altitude and high atmospheric pressure. Although the hot lightning channel is briefly observable with microwave radar, no practical use for this mode has been found in communications. Other effects. Diffraction. Knife-edge diffraction is the propagation mode where radio waves are bent around sharp edges. For example, this mode is used to send radio signals over a mountain range when a line-of-sight path is not available. However, the angle cannot be too sharp or the signal will not diffract. The diffraction mode requires increased signal strength, so higher power or better antennas will be needed than for an equivalent line-of-sight path. Diffraction depends on the relationship between the wavelength and the size of the obstacle. In other words, the size of the obstacle in wavelengths. Lower frequencies diffract around large smooth obstacles such as hills more easily. For example, in many cases where VHF (or higher frequency) communication is not possible due to shadowing by a hill, it is still possible to communicate using the upper part of the HF band where the surface wave is of little use. Diffraction phenomena by small obstacles are also important at high frequencies. Signals for urban cellular telephony tend to be dominated by ground-plane effects as they travel over the rooftops of the urban environment. They then diffract over roof edges into the street, where multipath propagation, absorption and diffraction phenomena dominate. Absorption. Low-frequency radio waves travel easily through brick and stone and VLF even penetrates sea-water. As the frequency rises, absorption effects become more important. At microwave or higher frequencies, absorption by molecular resonances in the atmosphere (mostly from water, H2O and oxygen, O2) is a major factor in radio propagation. For example, in the 58–60 GHz band, there is a major absorption peak which makes this band useless for long-distance use. This phenomenon was first discovered during radar research in World War II. Above about 400 GHz, the Earth's atmosphere blocks most of the spectrum while still passing some - up to UV light, which is blocked by ozone - but visible light and some of the near-infrared is transmitted. Heavy rain and falling snow also affect microwave absorption. Measuring HF propagation. HF propagation conditions can be simulated using radio propagation models, such as the Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program, and realtime measurements can be done using chirp transmitters. For radio amateurs the WSPR mode provides maps with real time propagation conditions between a network of transmitters and receivers. Even without special beacons the realtime propagation conditions can be measured: A worldwide network of receivers decodes morse code signals on amateur radio frequencies in realtime and provides sophisticated search functions and propagation maps for every station received. Practical effects. The average person can notice the effects of changes in radio propagation in several ways. In AM broadcasting, the dramatic ionospheric changes that occur overnight in the mediumwave band drive a unique broadcast license scheme, with entirely different transmitter power output levels and directional antenna patterns to cope with skywave propagation at night. Very few stations are allowed to run without modifications during dark hours, typically only those on clear channels in North America. Many stations have no authorization to run at all outside of daylight hours. Otherwise, there would be nothing but interference on the entire broadcast band from dusk until dawn without these modifications. For FM broadcasting (and the few remaining low-band TV stations), weather is the primary cause for changes in VHF propagation, along with some diurnal changes when the sky is mostly without cloud cover. These changes are most obvious during temperature inversions, such as in the late-night and early-morning hours when it is clear, allowing the ground and the air near it to cool more rapidly. This not only causes dew, frost, or fog, but also causes a slight "drag" on the bottom of the radio waves, bending the signals down such that they can follow the Earth's curvature over the normal radio horizon. The result is typically several stations being heard from another media market – usually a neighboring one, but sometimes ones from a few hundred kilometers away. Ice storms are also the result of inversions, but these normally cause more scattered omnidirection propagation, resulting mainly in interference, often among weather radio stations. In late spring and early summer, a combination of other atmospheric factors can occasionally cause skips that duct high-power signals to places well over 1000 km away. Non-broadcast signals are also affected. Mobile phone signals are in the UHF band, ranging from 700 to over 2600 MHz, a range which makes them even more prone to weather-induced propagation changes. In urban (and to some extent suburban) areas with a high population density, this is partly offset by the use of smaller cells, which use lower effective radiated power and beam tilt to reduce interference, and therefore increase frequency reuse and user capacity. However, since this would not be very cost-effective in more rural areas, these cells are larger and so more likely to cause interference over longer distances when propagation conditions allow. While this is generally transparent to the user thanks to the way that cellular networks handle cell-to-cell handoffs, when cross-border signals are involved, unexpected charges for international roaming may occur despite not having left the country at all. This often occurs between southern San Diego and northern Tijuana at the western end of the U.S./Mexico border, and between eastern Detroit and western Windsor along the U.S./Canada border. Since signals can travel unobstructed over a body of water far larger than the Detroit River, and cool water temperatures also cause inversions in surface air, this "fringe roaming" sometimes occurs across the Great Lakes, and between islands in the Caribbean. Signals can skip from the Dominican Republic to a mountainside in Puerto Rico and vice versa, or between the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, among others. While unintended cross-border roaming is often automatically removed by mobile phone company billing systems, inter-island roaming is typically not. Empirical models. A radio propagation model, also known as the radio wave propagation model or the radio frequency propagation model, is an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions. A single model is usually developed to predict the behavior of propagation for all similar links under similar constraints. Created with the goal of formalizing the way radio waves are propagated from one place to another, such models typically predict the path loss along a link or the effective coverage area of a transmitter. As the path loss encountered along any radio link serves as the dominant factor for characterization of propagation for the link, radio propagation models typically focus on realization of the path loss with the auxiliary task of predicting the area of coverage for a transmitter or modeling the distribution of signals over different regions Because each individual telecommunication link has to encounter different terrain, path, obstructions, atmospheric conditions and other phenomena, it is intractable to formulate the exact loss for all telecommunication systems in a single mathematical equation. As a result, different models exist for different types of radio links under different conditions. The models rely on computing the median path loss for a link under a certain probability that the considered conditions will occur. Radio propagation models are empirical in nature, which means, they are developed based on large collections of data collected for the specific scenario. For any model, the collection of data has to be sufficiently large to provide enough likeliness (or enough scope) to all kind of situations that can happen in that specific scenario. Like all empirical models, radio propagation models do not point out the exact behavior of a link, rather, they predict the most likely behavior the link may exhibit under the specified conditions. Different models have been developed to meet the needs of realizing the propagation behavior in different conditions. Types of models for radio propagation include:
rather impressive deepness
{ "text": [ "significant depth" ], "answer_start": [ 6371 ] }

Dataset Card for "PiC: Phrase Retrieval"

Dataset Summary

PR is a phrase retrieval task with the goal of finding a phrase t in a given document d such that t is semantically similar to the query phrase, which is the paraphrase q1 provided by annotators. We release two versions of PR: PR-pass and PR-page, i.e., datasets of 3-tuples (query q1, target phrase t, document d) where d is a random 11-sentence passage that contains t or an entire Wikipedia page. While PR-pass contains 28,147 examples, PR-page contains slightly fewer examples (28,098) as we remove those trivial examples whose Wikipedia pages contain exactly the query phrase (in addition to the target phrase). Both datasets are split into 5K/3K/~20K for test/dev/train, respectively.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]

Languages

English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

PR-pass

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 43.61 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 36.98 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 80.59 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
  "id": "3478-1",
  "title": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=181261",
  "context": "The 425t was a 'pizza box' design with a single network expansion slot. The 433s was a desk-side server systems with multiple expansion slots. Compatibility. PC compatibility was possible either through software emulation, using the optional product DPCE, or through a plug-in card carrying an Intel 80286 processor. A third-party plug-in card with a 386 was also available. An Apollo Token Ring network card could also be placed in a standard PC and network drivers allowed it to connect to a server running a PC SMB (Server Message Block) file server. Usage. Although Apollo systems were easy to use and administer, they became less cost-effective because the proprietary operating system made software more expensive than Unix software. The 68K processors were slower than the new RISC chips from Sun and Hewlett-Packard. Apollo addressed both problems by introducing the RISC-based DN10000 and Unix-friendly Domain/OS operating system. However, the DN10000, though fast, was extremely expensive, and a reliable version of Domain/OS came too late to make a difference.",
  "query": "dependable adaptation",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["reliable version"], 
    "answer_start": [1006] 
  }
}

PR-page

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 421.56 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 412.17 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 833.73 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
  "id": "5961-2",
  "title": "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=354711",
  "context": "Joseph Locke FRSA (9 August 1805 – 18 September 1860) was a notable English civil engineer of the nineteenth century, particularly associated with railway projects. Locke ranked alongside Robert Stephenson and Isambard Kingdom Brunel as one of the major pioneers of railway development. Early life and career. Locke was born in Attercliffe, Sheffield in Yorkshire, moving to nearby Barnsley when he was five. By the age of 17, Joseph had already served an apprenticeship under William Stobart at Pelaw, on the south bank of the Tyne, and under his own father, William. He was an experienced mining engineer, able to survey, sink shafts, to construct railways, tunnels and stationary engines. Joseph's father had been a manager at Wallbottle colliery on Tyneside when George Stephenson was a fireman there. In 1823, when Joseph was 17, Stephenson was involved with planning the Stockton and Darlington Railway. He and his son Robert Stephenson visited William Locke and his son at Barnsley and it was arranged that Joseph would go to work for the Stephensons. The Stephensons established a locomotive works near Forth Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, to manufacture locomotives for the new railway. Joseph Locke, despite his youth, soon established a position of authority. He and Robert Stephenson became close friends, but their friendship was interrupted, in 1824, by Robert leaving to work in Colombia for three years. Liverpool and Manchester Railway. George Stephenson carried out the original survey of the line of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, but this was found to be flawed, and the line was re-surveyed by a talented young engineer, Charles Vignoles. Joseph Locke was asked by the directors to carry out another survey of the proposed tunnel works and produce a report. The report was highly critical of the work already done, which reflected badly on Stephenson. Stephenson was furious and henceforth relations between the two men were strained, although Locke continued to be employed by Stephenson, probably because the latter recognised his worth. Despite the many criticisms of Stephenson's work, when the bill for the new line was finally passed, in 1826, Stephenson was appointed as engineer and he appointed Joseph Locke as his assistant to work alongside Vignoles, who was the other assistant. However, a clash of personalities between Stephenson and Vignoles led to the latter resigning, leaving Locke as the sole assistant engineer. Locke took over responsibility for the western half of the line. One of the major obstacles to be overcome was Chat Moss, a large bog that had to be crossed. Although, Stephenson usually gets the credit for this feat, it is believed that it was Locke who suggested the correct method for crossing the bog. Whilst the line was being built, the directors were trying to decide whether to use standing engines or locomotives to propel the trains. Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke were convinced that locomotives were vastly superior, and in March 1829 the two men wrote a report demonstrating the superiority of locomotives when used on a busy railway. The report led to the decision by the directors to hold an open trial to find the best locomotive. This was the Rainhill Trials, which were run in October 1829, and were won by \"Rocket\". When the line was finally opened in 1830, it was planned for a procession of eight trains to travel from Liverpool to Manchester and back. George Stephenson drove the leading locomotive \"Northumbrian\" and Joseph Locke drove \"Rocket\". The day was marred by the death of William Huskisson, the Member of Parliament for Liverpool, who was struck and killed by \"Rocket\". Grand Junction Railway. In 1829 Locke was George Stephenson's assistant, given the job of surveying the route for the Grand Junction Railway. This new railway was to join Newton-le-Willows on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with Warrington and then on to Birmingham via Crewe, Stafford and Wolverhampton, a total of 80 miles. Locke is credited with choosing the location for Crewe and recommending the establishment there of shops required for the building and repairs of carriages and wagons as well as engines. During the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Stephenson had shown a lack of ability in organising major civil engineering projects. On the other hand, Locke's ability to manage complex projects was well known. The directors of the new railway decided on a compromise whereby Locke was made responsible for the northern half of the line and Stephenson was made responsible for the southern half. However Stephenson's administrative inefficiency soon became apparent, whereas Locke estimated the costs for his section of the line so meticulously and speedily, that he had all of the contracts signed for his section of the line before a single one had been signed for Stephenson's section. The railway company lost patience with Stephenson, but tried to compromise by making both men joint-engineers. Stephenson's pride would not let him accept this, and so he resigned from the project. By autumn of 1835 Locke had become chief engineer for the whole of the line. This caused a rift between the two men, and strained relations between Locke and Robert Stephenson. Up to this point, Locke had always been under George Stephenson's shadow. From then on, he would be his own man, and stand or fall by his own achievements. The line was opened on 4 July 1837. New methods. Locke's route avoided as far as possible major civil engineering works. The main one was the Dutton Viaduct which crosses the River Weaver and the Weaver Navigation between the villages of Dutton and Acton Bridge in Cheshire. The viaduct consists of 20 arches with spans of 20 yards. An important feature of the new railway was the use of double-headed (dumb-bell) wrought-iron rail supported on timber sleepers at 2 ft 6 in intervals. It was intended that when the rails became worn they could be turned over to use the other surface, but in practice it was found that the chairs into which the rails were keyed caused wear to the bottom surface so that it became uneven. However this was still an improvement on the fish-bellied, wrought-iron rails still being used by Robert Stephenson on the London and Birmingham Railway. Locke was more careful than Stephenson to get value for his employers' money. For the Penkridge Viaduct Stephenson had obtained a tender of £26,000. After Locke took over, he gave the potential contractor better information and agreed a price of only £6,000. Locke also tried to avoid tunnels because in those days tunnels often took longer and cost more than planned. The Stephensons regarded 1 in 330 as the maximum slope that an engine could manage and Robert Stephenson achieved this on the London and Birmingham Railway by using seven tunnels which added both cost and delay. Locke avoided tunnels almost completely on the Grand Junction but exceeded the slope limit for six miles south of Crewe. Proof of Locke's ability to estimate costs accurately is given by the fact that the construction of the Grand Junction line cost £18,846 per mile as against Locke's estimate of £17,000. This is amazingly accurate compared with the estimated costs for the London and Birmingham Railway (Robert Stephenson) and the Great Western Railway (Brunel). Locke also divided the project into a few large sections rather than many small ones. This allowed him to work closely with his contractors to develop the best methods, overcome problems and personally gain practical experience of the building process and of the contractors themselves. He used the contractors who worked well with him, especially Thomas Brassey and William Mackenzie, on many other projects. Everyone gained from this cooperative approach whereas Brunel's more adversarial approach eventually made it hard for him to get anyone to work for him. Marriage. In 1834 Locke married Phoebe McCreery, with whom he adopted a child. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1838. Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. A significant difference in philosophy between George Stephenson and Joseph Locke and the surveying methods they employed was more than a mere difference of opinion. Stephenson had started his career at a time when locomotives had little power to overcome excessive gradients. Both George and Robert Stephenson were prepared to go to great lengths to avoid steep gradients that would tax the locomotives of the day, even if this meant choosing a circuitous path that added on extra miles to the line of the route. Locke had more confidence in the ability of modern locomotives to climb these gradients. An example of this was the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, which had to cope with the barrier of the Lake District mountains. In 1839 Stephenson proposed a circuitous route that avoided the Lake District altogether by going all the way round Morecambe Bay and West Cumberland, claiming: 'This is the only practicable line from Liverpool to Carlisle. The making of a railway across Shap Fell is out of the question.' The directors rejected his route and chose the one proposed by Joseph Locke, one that used steep gradients and passed over Shap Fell. The line was completed by Locke and was a success. Locke's reasoned that by avoiding long routes and tunnelling, the line could be finished more quickly, with less capital costs, and could start earning revenue sooner. This became known as the 'up and over' school of engineering (referred to by Rolt as 'Up and Down,' or Rollercoaster). Locke took a similar approach in planning the Caledonian Railway, from Carlisle to Glasgow. In both railways he introduced gradients of 1 in 75, which severely taxed fully laden locomotives, for even as more powerful locomotives were introduced, the trains that they pulled became heavier. It may therefore be argued that Locke, although his philosophy carried the day, was not entirely correct in his reasoning. Even today, Shap Fell is a severe test of any locomotive. Manchester and Sheffield Railway. Locke was subsequently appointed to build a railway line from Manchester to Sheffield, replacing Charles Vignoles as chief engineer, after the latter had been beset by misfortunes and financial difficulties. The project included the three-mile Woodhead Tunnel, and the line opened, after many delays, on 23 December 1845. The building of the line required over a thousand navvies and cost the lives of thirty-two of them, seriously injuring 140 others. The Woodhead Tunnel was such a difficult undertaking that George Stephenson claimed that it could not be done, declaring that he would eat the first locomotive that got through the tunnel. Subsequent commissions. In the north, Locke also designed the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway; the Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Railway; and the Caledonian Railway from Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh. In the south, he worked on the London and Southampton Railway, later called the London and South Western Railway, designing, among other structures, Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct, Richmond Railway Bridge (1848, since replaced), and Barnes Bridge (1849), both across the River Thames, tunnels at Micheldever, and the 12-arch Quay Street viaduct and the 16-arch Cams Hill viaduct, both in Fareham (1848). He was actively involved in planning and building many railways in Europe (assisted by John Milroy), including the Le Havre, Rouen, Paris rail link, the Barcelona to Mataró line and the Dutch Rhenish Railway. He was present in Paris when the Versailles train crash occurred in 1842, and produced a statement concerning the facts for General Charles Pasley of the Railway Inspectorate. He also experienced a catastrophic failure of one of his viaducts built on the new Paris-Le Havre link. . The viaduct was of stone and brick at Barentin near Rouen, and was the longest and highest on the line. It was 108 feet high, and consisted of 27 arches, each 50 feet wide, with a total length of over 1600 feet. A boy hauling ballast for the line up an adjoining hillside early that morning (about 6.00 am) saw one arch (the fifth on the Rouen side) collapse, and the rest followed suit. Fortunately, no one was killed, although several workmen were injured in a mill below the structure. Locke attributed the catastrophic failure to frost action on the new lime cement, and premature off-centre loading of the viaduct with ballast. It was rebuilt at Thomas Brassey's cost, and survives to the present. Having pioneered many new lines in France, Locke also helped establish the first locomotive works in the country. Distinctive features of Locke's railway works were economy, the use of masonry bridges wherever possible and the absence of tunnels. An illustration of this is that there is no tunnel between Birmingham and Glasgow. Relationship with Robert Stephenson. Locke and Robert Stephenson had been good friends at the beginning of their careers, but their friendship had been marred by Locke's falling out with Robert's father. It seems that Robert felt loyalty to his father required that he should take his side. It is significant that after the death of George Stephenson in August 1848, the friendship of the two men was revived. When Robert Stephenson died in October 1859, Joseph Locke was a pallbearer at his funeral. Locke is reported to have referred to Robert as 'the friend of my youth, the companion of my ripening years, and a competitor in the race of life'. Locke was also on friendly terms with his other engineering rival, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. In 1845, Locke and Stephenson were both called to give evidence before two committees. In April a House of Commons Select Committee was investigating the atmospheric railway system proposed by Brunel. Brunel and Vignoles spoke in support of the system, whilst Locke and Stephenson spoke against it. The latter two were to be proved right in the long run. In August the two gave evidence before the Gauge Commissioners who were trying to arrive at a standard gauge for the whole country. Brunel spoke in favour of the 7 ft gauge he was using on the Great Western Railway. Locke and Stephenson spoke in favour of the 4 ft 8½in gauge that they had used on several lines. The latter two won the day and their gauge was adopted as the standard. Later life and legacy. Locke served as President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in between December 1857 and December 1859. He also served as Member of Parliament for Honiton in Devon from 1847 until his death. Joseph Locke died on 18 September 1860, apparently from appendicitis, whilst on a shooting holiday. He is buried in London's Kensal Green Cemetery. He outlived his friends/rivals Robert Stephenson and Isambard Brunel by less than a year; all three engineers died between 53 and 56 years of age, a circumstance attributed by Rolt to sheer overwork, accomplishing more in their brief lives than many achieve in a full three score and ten. Locke Park in Barnsley was dedicated to his memory by his widow Phoebe in 1862. It features a statue of Locke plus a folly, 'Locke Tower'. Locke's greatest legacy is the modern day West Coast Main Line (WCML), which was formed by the joining of the Caledonian, Lancaster & Carlisle, Grand Junction railways to Robert Stephenson's London & Birmingham Railway. As a result, around three-quarters of the WCML's route was planned and engineered by Locke.",
  "query": "accurate approach",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["correct method"], 
    "answer_start": [2727] 
  }
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all subsets and splits.

  • id: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • context: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • answers: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a list of string features.
    • answer_start: a list of int32 features.

Data Splits

name train validation test
PR-pass 20147 3000 5000
PR-page 20098 3000 5000

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The source passages + answers are from Wikipedia and the source of queries were produced by our hired linguistic experts from Upwork.com.

Who are the source language producers?

We hired 13 linguistic experts from Upwork.com for annotation and more than 1000 human annotators on Mechanical Turk along with another set of 5 Upwork experts for 2-round verification.

Annotations

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

13 linguistic experts from Upwork.com.

Personal and Sensitive Information

No annotator identifying details are provided.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset is a joint work between Adobe Research and Auburn University. Creators: Thang M. Pham, David Seunghyun Yoon, Trung Bui, and Anh Nguyen.

@PMThangXAI added this dataset to HuggingFace.

Licensing Information

This dataset is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC 4.0)

Citation Information

@article{pham2022PiC,
  title={PiC: A Phrase-in-Context Dataset for Phrase Understanding and Semantic Search},
  author={Pham, Thang M and Yoon, Seunghyun and Bui, Trung and Nguyen, Anh},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.09068},
  year={2022}
}
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