Datasets:
Paul
/
hatecheck

Task Categories: text-classification
Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: crowdsourced
Source Datasets: original
Licenses: cc-by-4.0
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case_id (int64)case_templ (string)direction (string)focus_lemma (string)focus_words (string)functionality (string)label_gold (string)ref_case_id (unknown)ref_templ_id (unknown)target_ident (string)templ_id (int64)test_case (string)
1
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
1
"I hate women. "
2
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
1
"I hate trans people. "
3
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
1
"I hate gay people. "
4
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
1
"I hate black people. "
5
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
1
"I hate disabled people. "
6
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
1
"I hate Muslims. "
7
"I hate [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"hate"
"hate"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
1
"I hate immigrants. "
8
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
2
"I really can't stand women like you. "
9
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
2
"I really can't stand trans people like you. "
10
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
2
"I really can't stand gay people like you. "
11
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
2
"I really can't stand black people like you. "
12
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
2
"I really can't stand disabled people like you. "
13
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
2
"I really can't stand Muslims like you. "
14
"I really can't stand [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"can't stand"
"can't stand"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
2
"I really can't stand immigrants like you. "
15
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
3
"I despise women. "
16
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
3
"I despise trans people. "
17
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
3
"I despise gay people. "
18
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
3
"I despise black people. "
19
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
3
"I despise disabled people. "
20
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
3
"I despise Muslims. "
21
"I despise [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"despise"
"despise"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
3
"I despise immigrants. "
22
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
4
"I detest women. "
23
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
4
"I detest trans people. "
24
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
4
"I detest gay people. "
25
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
4
"I detest black people. "
26
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
4
"I detest disabled people. "
27
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
4
"I detest Muslims. "
28
"I detest [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"detest"
"detest"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
4
"I detest immigrants. "
29
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
5
"I absolutely loathe women. "
30
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
5
"I absolutely loathe trans people. "
31
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
5
"I absolutely loathe gay people. "
32
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
5
"I absolutely loathe black people. "
33
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
5
"I absolutely loathe disabled people. "
34
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
5
"I absolutely loathe Muslims. "
35
"I absolutely loathe [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"loathe"
"loathe"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
5
"I absolutely loathe immigrants. "
36
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
6
"Disgusted by all the women around here. "
37
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
6
"Disgusted by all the trans people around here. "
38
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
6
"Disgusted by all the gay people around here. "
39
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
6
"Disgusted by all the black people around here. "
40
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
6
"Disgusted by all the disabled people around here. "
41
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
6
"Disgusted by all the Muslims around here. "
42
"Disgusted by all the [IDENTITY_P] around here."
"general"
"disgusted"
"disgusted by"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
6
"Disgusted by all the immigrants around here. "
43
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
7
"I have so much disdain for these women. "
44
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
7
"I have so much disdain for these trans people. "
45
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
7
"I have so much disdain for these gay people. "
46
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
7
"I have so much disdain for these black people. "
47
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
7
"I have so much disdain for these disabled people. "
48
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
7
"I have so much disdain for these Muslims. "
49
"I have so much disdain for these [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"disdain"
"disdain"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
7
"I have so much disdain for these immigrants. "
50
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
8
"I have so much hatred for you women. "
51
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
8
"I have so much hatred for you trans people. "
52
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
8
"I have so much hatred for you gay people. "
53
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
8
"I have so much hatred for you black people. "
54
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
8
"I have so much hatred for you disabled people. "
55
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
8
"I have so much hatred for you Muslims. "
56
"I have so much hatred for you [IDENTITY_P]."
"directed"
"hatred"
"hatred"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
8
"I have so much hatred for you immigrants. "
57
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
9
"So sick of being around women like you. "
58
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
9
"So sick of being around trans people like you. "
59
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
9
"So sick of being around gay people like you. "
60
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
9
"So sick of being around black people like you. "
61
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
9
"So sick of being around disabled people like you. "
62
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
9
"So sick of being around Muslims like you. "
63
"So sick of being around [IDENTITY_P] like you."
"directed"
"sick"
"sick of"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
9
"So sick of being around immigrants like you. "
64
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for women. "
65
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for trans people. "
66
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for gay people. "
67
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for black people. "
68
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for disabled people. "
69
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for Muslims. "
70
"I feel nothing but contempt for [IDENTITY_P]."
"general"
"contempt"
"contempt"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
10
"I feel nothing but contempt for immigrants. "
71
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
11
"These women disgust me so much. "
72
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
11
"These trans people disgust me so much. "
73
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
11
"These gay people disgust me so much. "
74
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
11
"These black people disgust me so much. "
75
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
11
"These disabled people disgust me so much. "
76
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
11
"These Muslims disgust me so much. "
77
"These [IDENTITY_P] disgust me so much."
"directed"
"disgust"
"disgust me"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
11
"These immigrants disgust me so much. "
78
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
12
"Women are the absolute worst. "
79
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
12
"Trans people are the absolute worst. "
80
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
12
"Gay people are the absolute worst. "
81
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
12
"Black people are the absolute worst. "
82
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
12
"Disabled people are the absolute worst. "
83
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
12
"Muslims are the absolute worst. "
84
"[IDENTITY_P] are the absolute worst."
"general"
"worst"
"worst"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
12
"Immigrants are the absolute worst. "
85
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
13
"You women make me sick. "
86
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
13
"You trans people make me sick. "
87
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
13
"You gay people make me sick. "
88
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
13
"You black people make me sick. "
89
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
13
"You disabled people make me sick. "
90
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
13
"You Muslims make me sick. "
91
"You [IDENTITY_P] make me sick."
"directed"
"make sb. sick"
"make me sick"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
13
"You immigrants make me sick. "
92
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
14
"There is nothing worse than a woman. "
93
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
14
"There is nothing worse than a trans person. "
94
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"gay people"
14
"There is nothing worse than a gay person. "
95
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"black people"
14
"There is nothing worse than a black person. "
96
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"disabled people"
14
"There is nothing worse than a disabled person. "
97
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"Muslims"
14
"There is nothing worse than a Muslim. "
98
"There is nothing worse than a [IDENTITY_S]."
"general"
"worse"
"nothing worse"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"immigrants"
14
"There is nothing worse than an immigrant. "
99
"Seeing [IDENTITY_P] in this place makes me so angry."
"general"
"angry"
"angry"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"women"
15
"Seeing women in this place makes me so angry. "
100
"Seeing [IDENTITY_P] in this place makes me so angry."
"general"
"angry"
"angry"
"derog_neg_emote_h"
"hateful"
"trans people"
15
"Seeing trans people in this place makes me so angry. "
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for HateCheck

Dataset Description

HateCheck is a suite of functional test for hate speech detection models. The dataset contains 3,728 validated test cases in 29 functional tests. 19 functional tests correspond to distinct types of hate. The other 11 functional tests cover challenging types of non-hate. This allows for targeted diagnostic insights into model performance.

In our ACL paper, we found critical weaknesses in all commercial and academic hate speech detection model that we tested with HateCheck. Please refer to the paper (linked below) for results and further discussion, as well as further information on the dataset and a full data statement.

Dataset Structure

"test.csv" contains all 3,728 validated test cases. Each test case (row) has the following attributes:

functionality The shorthand for the functionality tested by the test case.

case_id The unique ID of the test case (assigned to each of the 3,901 cases we initially generated)

test_case The text of the test case.

label_gold The gold standard label (hateful/non-hateful) of the test case. All test cases within a given functionality have the same gold standard label.

target_ident Where applicable, the protected group targeted or referenced by the test case. We cover seven protected groups in the test suite: women, trans people, gay people, black people, disabled people, Muslims and immigrants.

direction For hateful cases, the binary secondary label indicating whether they are directed at an individual as part of a protected group or aimed at the group in general.

focus_words Where applicable, the key word or phrase in a given test case (e.g. "cut their throats").

focus_lemma Where applicable, the corresponding lemma (e.g. "cut sb. throat").

ref_case_id For hateful cases, where applicable, the ID of the simpler hateful case which was perturbed to generate them. For non-hateful cases, where applicable, the ID of the hateful case which is contrasted.

ref_templ_id The equivalent, but for template IDs.

templ_id The unique ID of the template from which the test case was generated (assigned to each of the 866 cases and templates from which we generated the 3,901 initial cases).

Citation Information

When using HateCheck, please cite our ACL paper:

@inproceedings{rottger-etal-2021-hatecheck, title = "{H}ate{C}heck: Functional Tests for Hate Speech Detection Models", author = {R{"o}ttger, Paul and Vidgen, Bertie and Nguyen, Dong and Waseem, Zeerak and Margetts, Helen and Pierrehumbert, Janet}, booktitle = "Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = aug, year = "2021", address = "Online", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2021.acl-long.4", doi = "10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.4", pages = "41--58", abstract = "Detecting online hate is a difficult task that even state-of-the-art models struggle with. Typically, hate speech detection models are evaluated by measuring their performance on held-out test data using metrics such as accuracy and F1 score. However, this approach makes it difficult to identify specific model weak points. It also risks overestimating generalisable model performance due to increasingly well-evidenced systematic gaps and biases in hate speech datasets. To enable more targeted diagnostic insights, we introduce HateCheck, a suite of functional tests for hate speech detection models. We specify 29 model functionalities motivated by a review of previous research and a series of interviews with civil society stakeholders. We craft test cases for each functionality and validate their quality through a structured annotation process. To illustrate HateCheck{'}s utility, we test near-state-of-the-art transformer models as well as two popular commercial models, revealing critical model weaknesses.", }

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