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The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because _ feared violence.
the demonstrators
The city councilmen
2
The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because _ advocated violence.
The city councilmen
the demonstrators
2
The trophy doesn't fit into the brown suitcase because _ is too large.
The trophy
suitcase
1
The trophy doesn't fit into the brown suitcase because _ is too small.
suitcase
The trophy
1
Joan made sure to thank Susan for all the help _ had recieved.
Joan
Susan
1
Joan made sure to thank Susan for all the help _ had given.
Susan
Joan
1
Paul tried to call George on the phone, but _ wasn't successful.
Paul
George
1
Paul tried to call George on the phone, but _ wasn't available.
George
Paul
1
The lawyer asked the witness a question, but _ was reluctant to repeat it.
The lawyer
the witness
1
The lawyer asked the witness a question, but _ was reluctant to answer it.
The lawyer
the witness
2
The delivery truck zoomed by the school bus because _ was going so fast.
the school bus
The delivery truck
2
The delivery truck zoomed by the school bus because _ was going so slow.
The delivery truck
the school bus
2
Frank felt vindicated when his longtime rival Bill revealed that _ was the winner of the competition.
Frank
Bill
1
Frank felt crushed when his longtime rival Bill revealed that _ was the winner of the competition.
Bill
Frank
1
The man couldn't lift his son because _ was so weak.
The man
son
1
The man couldn't lift his son because _ was so heavy.
The man
son
2
The large ball crashed right through the table because _ was made of steel.
the table
The large ball
2
The large ball crashed right through the table because _ was made of styrofoam.
the table
The large ball
1
John couldn't see the stage with Billy in front of him because _ is so short.
Billy
John
2
John couldn't see the stage with Billy in front of him because _ is so tall.
Billy
John
1
Tom threw his schoolbag down to Ray after _ reached the top of the stairs.
Ray
Tom
2
Tom threw his schoolbag down to Ray after _ reached the bottom of the stairs.
Ray
Tom
1
Although they ran at about the same speed, Sue beat Sally because _ had such a good start.
Sally
Sue
2
Although they ran at about the same speed, Sue beat Sally because _ had such a bad start.
Sue
Sally
2
The sculpture rolled off the shelf because _ wasn't anchored.
The sculpture
the shelf
1
The sculpture rolled off the shelf because _ wasn't level.
the shelf
The sculpture
1
Sam's drawing was hung just above Tina's and _ did look much better with another one below it.
Sam's drawing
Tina's
1
Sam's drawing was hung just above Tina's and _ did look much better with another one above it.
Sam's drawing
Tina's
2
Anna did a lot better than her good friend Lucy on the test because _ had studied so hard.
Lucy
Anna
2
Anna did a lot worse than her good friend Lucy on the test because _ had studied so hard.
Lucy
Anna
1
The firemen arrived after the police because _ were coming from so far away.
The firemen
the police
1
The firemen arrived before the police because _ were coming from so far away.
The firemen
the police
2
Frank was upset with Tom because the toaster _ had bought from him didn't work.
Tom
Frank
2
Frank was upset with Tom because the toaster _ had sold him didn't work.
Tom
Frank
1
Jim yelled at Kevin because _ was so upset.
Kevin
Jim
2
Jim comforted Kevin because _ was so upset.
Kevin
Jim
1
The sack of potatoes had been placed above the bag of flour, so _ had to be moved first.
The sack of potatoes
the bag of flour
1
The sack of potatoes had been placed below the bag of flour, so _ had to be moved first.
the bag of flour
The sack of potatoes
1
Pete envies Martin although _ is very successful.
Pete
Martin
1
Pete envies Martin because _ is very successful.
Martin
Pete
1
The older students were bullying the younger ones, so we punished _.
The older students
the younger ones
1
The older students were bullying the younger ones, so we rescued _.
The older students
the younger ones
2
I poured water from the bottle into the cup until _ was empty.
the cup
the bottle
2
I poured water from the bottle into the cup until _ was full.
the cup
the bottle
1
Susan knows all about Ann's personal problems because _ is nosy.
Susan
Ann
1
Susan knows all about Ann's personal problems because _ is indiscreet.
Ann
Susan
1
Sid explained his theory to Mark but _ couldn't convince him.
Mark
Sid
2
Sid explained his theory to Mark but _ couldn't understand him.
Mark
Sid
1
Susan knew that Ann's son had been in a car accident, so _ told her about it.
Susan
Ann
1
Susan knew that Ann's son had been in a car accident, because _ told her about it.
Susan
Ann
2
Joe's uncle can still beat him at tennis, even though _ is 30 years younger.
Joe's uncle
Joe
2
Joe's uncle can still beat him at tennis, even though _ is 30 years older.
Joe's uncle
Joe
1
The painting in Mark's living room shows an oak tree. _ is to the right of the bookcase.
The painting
oak tree
1
The painting in Mark's living room shows an oak tree. _ is to the right of a house.
The painting
oak tree
2
There is a gap in the wall. You can see the garden through _.
the wall
gap
2
There is a gap in the wall. You can see the garden behind _.
gap
the wall
2
The drain is clogged with hair. _ has to be cleaned.
hair
The drain
2
The drain is clogged with hair. _ has to be removed.
The drain
hair
2
My meeting started at 4:00 and I needed to catch the train at 4:30, so there wasn't much time. Luckily, _ was short, so it worked out.
the train
meeting
2
My meeting started at 4:00 and I needed to catch the train at 4:30, so there wasn't much time. Luckily, _ was delayed, so it worked out.
the train
meeting
1
There is a pillar between me and the stage, and I can't see around _.
pillar
the stage
1
There is a pillar between me and the stage, and I can't see _.
pillar
the stage
2
They broadcast an announcement, but a subway came into the station and I couldn't hear _.
announcement
subway
1
They broadcast an announcement, but a subway came into the station and I couldn't hear over _.
announcement
subway
2
In the middle of the outdoor concert, the rain started falling, but _ continued until 10.
the rain
concert
2
In the middle of the outdoor concert, the rain started falling, and _ continued until 10.
concert
the rain
2
I used an old rag to clean the knife, and then I put _ in the trash.
rag
the knife
1
I used an old rag to clean the knife, and then I put _ in the drawer.
rag
the knife
2
Ann asked Mary what time the library closes, because _ had forgotten.
Ann
Mary
1
Ann asked Mary what time the library closes, but _ had forgotten.
Mary
Ann
1
I took the water bottle out of the backpack so that _ would be handy.
the backpack
the water bottle
2
I took the water bottle out of the backpack so that _ would be lighter.
the water bottle
the backpack
2
I couldn't put the pot on the shelf because _ was too tall.
the shelf
the pot
2
I couldn't put the pot on the shelf because _ was too high.
the shelf
the pot
1
I'm sure that my map will show this building; _ is very good.
map
building
1
I'm sure that my map will show this building; _ is very famous.
map
building
2
Bob paid for Charlie's college education. _ is very generous.
Charlie
Bob
2
Bob paid for Charlie's college education. _ is very grateful.
Charlie
Bob
1
Bob paid for Charlie's college education, but now Charlie acts as though it never happened. _ is very hurt.
Bob
Charlie
1
Bob paid for Charlie's college education, but now Charlie acts as though it never happened. _ is very ungrateful.
Charlie
Bob
1
Bob was playing cards with Adam and was way ahead. If Adam hadn't had a sudden run of good luck, _ would have won.
Bob
Adam
1
Bob was playing cards with Adam and was way ahead. If Adam hadn't had a sudden run of good luck, _ would have lost.
Bob
Adam
2
Adam can't leave work here until Bob arrives to replace him. If Bob had left home for work on time, _ would be gone by this time.
Adam
Bob
1
Adam can't leave work here until Bob arrives to replace him. If Bob had left home for work on time, _ would be here by this time.
Bob
Adam
1
If the con artist has succeeded in fooling Sam, _ would have gotten a lot of money.
Sam
the con artist
2
If the con artist has succeeded in fooling Sam, _ would have lost a lot of money.
the con artist
Sam
2
The cat was lying by the mouse hole waiting for the mouse, but _ was too impatient.
The cat
the mouse
1
The cat was lying by the mouse hole waiting for the mouse, but _ was too cautious.
the mouse
The cat
1
Anne gave birth to a daughter last month. _ is a very charming woman.
Anne
daughter
1
Anne gave birth to a daughter last month. _ is a very charming baby.
daughter
Anne
1
Alice tried frantically to stop her daughter from chatting at the party, leaving us to wonder why _ was behaving so strangely.
Alice
daughter
1
Alice tried frantically to stop her daughter from barking at the party, leaving us to wonder why _ was behaving so strangely.
daughter
Alice
1
I saw Jim yelling at some guy in a military uniform with a huge red beard. I don't know why _ was, but he looked very unhappy.
some guy
Jim
2
I saw Jim yelling at some guy in a military uniform with a huge red beard. I don't know who _ was, but he looked very unhappy.
some guy
Jim
1
The fish ate the worm. _ was hungry.
The fish
the worm
1
The fish ate the worm. _ was tasty.
the worm
The fish
1
I was trying to open the lock with the key, but someone had filled the keyhole with chewing gum, and I couldn't get _ in.
the key
chewing gum
1
I was trying to open the lock with the key, but someone had filled the keyhole with chewing gum, and I couldn't get _ out.
the key
chewing gum
2
The dog chased the cat, which ran up a tree. _ waited at the bottom.
the cat
The dog
2
The dog chased the cat, which ran up a tree. _ waited at the top.
The dog
the cat
2

XWinograd

Multilingual winograd schema challenge as used in Crosslingual Generalization through Multitask Finetuning.

Languages & Samples

  • "en": 2325
  • "fr": 83
  • "jp": 959
  • "pt": 263
  • "ru": 315
  • "zh": 504

Dataset creation

The Winograd schema challenges in this dataset combine winograd schemas from the XWinograd dataset introduced in Tikhonov et al and as it only contains 16 Chinese schemas, we add 488 Chinese schemas from clue/cluewsc2020.

If you only want the original xwinograd chinese schemas only, do:

load_dataset("Muennighoff/xwinograd", "zh")["test"][0][:16]

Additional Information

Citation Information

@misc{muennighoff2022crosslingual,
      title={Crosslingual Generalization through Multitask Finetuning}, 
      author={Niklas Muennighoff and Thomas Wang and Lintang Sutawika and Adam Roberts and Stella Biderman and Teven Le Scao and M Saiful Bari and Sheng Shen and Zheng-Xin Yong and Hailey Schoelkopf and Xiangru Tang and Dragomir Radev and Alham Fikri Aji and Khalid Almubarak and Samuel Albanie and Zaid Alyafeai and Albert Webson and Edward Raff and Colin Raffel},
      year={2022},
      eprint={2211.01786},
      archivePrefix={arXiv},
      primaryClass={cs.CL}
}
@misc{tikhonov2021heads,
    title={It's All in the Heads: Using Attention Heads as a Baseline for Cross-Lingual Transfer in Commonsense Reasoning},
    author={Alexey Tikhonov and Max Ryabinin},
    year={2021},
    eprint={2106.12066},
    archivePrefix={arXiv},
    primaryClass={cs.CL}
}

License

Like the original English winograd schema challenge, this dataset is licensed under CC BY 4.0. I.e. you can use it for commercial purposes etc. :)

Contributions

Thanks to Jordan Clive, @yongzx & @khalidalt for support on adding Chinese.

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