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id (string)question (string)choices (json)answerKey (string)explanation (json)relation (json)
f6ed57-en
army:order
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "band:band leader", "tourist:guide", "volunteer:call", "students:tutor" ] }
A
[ "the \"army\" follows \"order\", and \"army\" is a collective concept.", "the \"band\" obeys the \"band leader\", and the \"band\" belongs to the concept of collection.", "the \"tourist\" follows the \"guide\" instead of obeying, and the \"tourist\" can be an individual or a whole, which does not belong to the concept of collection.", "\"volunteers\" respond to \"calls\" instead of obeying. \"volunteers\" can be individuals or a whole, and do not belong to the concept of collection.", "\"student\" obeys \"tutor\", \"student\" can be an individual or a whole, and does not belong to the concept of collection." ]
[ [ [ "army", "order", "R5.1" ] ], [ [ "band", "band leader", "R5.1" ] ], [], [], [] ]
2facf8-en
expedition:drumming:morale
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "competition:scream:confidence", "production:supervision:efficiency", "drinking:negotiation:atmosphere", "propaganda:newspaper:fame" ] }
A
[ "\"drumming\" when going on an \"expedition\" can boost \"morale\".", "\"competing\" during a \"race\" can increase \"confidence\".", "\"supervision\" in \"production\" can ensure quality, not \"efficiency\".", "\"drinking\" in \"negotiations\" can soften the \"atmosphere\", but the word order is inconsistent.", "\"publication in newspapers\" is a way of \"propaganda\", and it does not necessarily increase \"fame\"." ]
[ [ [ "expedition", "drumming", "morale", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "competition", "scream", "confidence", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "propaganda", "newspaper", "R3.10" ] ] ]
f4321a-en
temple:buddha statue:tourist
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "store:commodity:customer", "gallery:exhibits:audience", "city:park:citizen", "school:blackboard:student" ] }
B
[ "\"buddha statues\" are placed in \"temples\" for \"tourists\" to visit, and \"buddha statues\" are objects for sightseeing.", "\"commodities\" are placed in \"stores\" for \"customers\" to purchase, but \"commodities\" are not items for sightseeing.", "\"exhibits\" are placed in the \"gallery\" for the \"viewer\" to enjoy, and \"exhibits\" are items for sightseeing.", "\"parks\" are built in \"cities\" for \"citizens\" to play with, but \"parks\" are not items for sightseeing.", "the \"blackboard\" helps \"student\" to learn, but the \"blackboard\" is not an item for sightseeing." ]
[ [ [ "temple", "buddha statue", "tourist", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "gallery", "exhibits", "audience", "R3.10" ] ], [], [] ]
cd0800-en
experimenter:test tube:utensils
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "driver:bus:transportation", "farmer:rice:crop", "employee:computer:technology", "sculptor:sculpture:artwork" ] }
A
[ "a \"test tube\" is the experimental tool of an \"experimenter\", and the \"test tube\" is a kind of \"utensils\".", "\"bus\" is the work tool of a \"driver\", and \"bus\" is a kind of \"transportation\".", "\"crop\" is the labor object of \"farmers\", and \"crop\" is not the labor tool of \"farmers\".", "\"computer\" is the work tool of the \"employee\", but \"computer\" is a \"technical\" product, not a \"technology\".", "\"sculpture\" is the work of a \"sculptor\", \"sculpture\" is not the tool of a \"sculptor\"." ]
[ [], [], [], [], [] ]
d57f1d-en
customs:habit
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "boy:girl", "youth:man", "jiangsu:taizhou", "jump:action" ] }
D
[ "\"habits\" include \"customs\".", "people include \"boys\" and \"girls\".", "some \"youths\" are \"men\", some \"men\" are \"youths\", and \"men\" does not include \"youth\".", "\"taizhou\" is an integral part of \"jiangsu\".", "\"jump\" belongs to \"action\"." ]
[ [ [ "customs", "habit", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "boy", "girl", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "youth", "man", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "jiangsu", "taizhou", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "jump", "action", "R2.2" ] ] ]
11dd31-en
research:symposium
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "transformation:innovation", "monopoly:franchise", "invention:experimentation", "order:smoothness" ] }
A
[ "\"symposium\" is a way of \"research\"", "\"transformation\" is a way of \"innovation\"", "\"monopoly\" generally refers to control and monopoly, \"franchise\" refers to specialized operation, and there is no obvious logical relationship between \"monopoly\" and \"franchise\".", "\"invention\" refers to a trial operation to understand its performance or results when something is known. \"experimentation\" is the process of creating new things, and there is no obvious logical relationship between \"invention\" and \"testing\".", "\"order\" refers to unobstructed, smooth and fluent passage, \"smoothness\" means the orderly and organized arrangement of various components in order to achieve normal operation or a state of good appearance, \"order\" and \"smoothness\" have no obvious logical relationship ." ]
[ [ [ "symposium", "research", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "innovation", "transformation", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [] ]
4a58b5-en
eagle:branch:sky
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "bee:beehive:flower", "python:mountain stream:forest", "mosquito:ditch:wild", "perch:river:ocean" ] }
A
[ "the perching place of the eagle is the “branch\" and the activity place of the \"eagle\" is the \"sky\".", "the habitat of \"bees\" is \"beehives\", and the activities of \"bees\" are \"flowers\".", "the habitat of \"python\" is \"mountain stream\" or \"forest\".", "\"mosquitoes\" live in \"ditches\" or in the \"wild\".", "the habitat of \"perch\" is \"river\" or \"ocean\"." ]
[ [ [ "branch", "eagle", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "beehive", "bee", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "python", "mountain stream", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "mosquito", "ditch", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "perch", "river", "R3.6" ] ] ]
99620d-en
u disk:cd
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "stairs:elevator", "plug:socket", "chinese painting:brush", "water cup:cup lid" ] }
A
[ "\"u disk\" and \"cd\" are all data storage, except for \"u disk\" and \"cd\" hard disk are also data storage.", "\"stairs\" and \"elevator\" are tools that can reach different floors", "\"plug\" and \"socket\" need to be used together, and \"plug\" and \"socket\" do not belong to the same category.", "to draw a \"chinese painting\", you need to use a tool like a \"brush\"", "\"water cup\" is a component of \"cup lid\", and \"water cup\" and \"cup lid\" do not belong to the same category." ]
[ [ [ "u disk", "cd", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "stairs", "elevator", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "plug", "socket", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "brush", "chinese painting", "R3.8" ] ], [ [ "cup lid", "water cup", "R2.3" ] ] ]
3f9942-en
people:adults:minors
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "door:open:close", "hand:left hand:right hand", "weather:sunny:cloudy", "car crash:survivor:victim" ] }
B
[ "\"adults\" and \"minors\" are both \"human\", and \"adults\" and \"minors\" are the same kind but have opposite meanings.", "\"open the door\" and \"close the door\" are both states of \"door\", and \"open the door\" and \"close the door\" have opposite meanings.", "\"left-hand\" and \"right-hand\" are both \"hands\", and \"left-hand\" and \"right-hand\" are of the same kind but have opposite meanings, which are consistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "\"sunny\" and \"cloudy\" are both \"weather\". \"sunny\" and \"cloudy\" are of the same kind, and there are other things besides \"weather\" and \"sunny\".", "both \"survivors\" and \"victims\" may be the result of a \"car accident\", and \"survivors\" and \"victims\" are the same but have opposite meanings." ]
[ [ [ "adults", "minors", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "door", "open", "R3.10" ], [ "open", "close", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "left hand", "right hand", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "sunny", "cloudy", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "car crash", "survivor", "R3.10" ], [ "survivor", "victim", "R3.10" ] ] ]
e15df5-en
chang'e 2:lunar exploration
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "cosmetic:beauty", "instant noodle:keep warm", "coffee:sleep", "key:door lock" ] }
A
[ "\"chang'e 2\" can be used for \"lunar exploration\".", "\"cosmetics\" can be used for \"beauty\".", "\"instant noodles\" cannot be used to \"keep warm\".", "\"coffee\" can be used to refresh, not for \"sleep\".", "the \"door lock\" is opened with a \"key\", and the \"key\" cannot be used for the \"door lock\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [] ], [], [], [] ]
6cdc54-en
invention:patent:protection
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "formulation:policy:implementation", "choices:employment:chance", "climb:mountain:map", "driving:travel:condition" ] }
A
[ "\"patent\" will be \"invented\", and the \"invention\" can modify the \"patent\".", "\"policy\" will be \"formulated\", and the \"formulated\" can modify \"policy\".", "\"chance\" will be \"chosen\", \"chance\" does not modify \"choice\".", "\"mountain\" will be \"climbed\", and \"map\" is a tool needed to \"climb the mountain\", which has no obvious logical relationship with the query.", "\"traveling by car\" needs to check \"road condition\", and \"road condition\" does not modify \"driving\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [] ], [], [], [] ]
07c5b4-en
creation:history
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "economy:development", "harmony:society", "develop:advance", "production:accumulation" ] }
A
[ "\"history\" will be \"created\".", "the \"economy\" will be \"developed\".", "the \"society\" is \"harmonious'‘.", "\"develop\" and \"advance\" have similar meanings.", "\"production\" and \"accumulation\" have opposite meanings." ]
[ [ [ "creation", "history", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "economy", "development", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "harmony", "society", "R4.3" ] ], [ [ "develop", "advance", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "production", "accumulation", "R1.2" ] ] ]
40617b-en
conception:writing:revising
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "get on:drive:get off", "treat:go to an appointment:go home", "illness:hospitalized:injection", "washing vegetables:cutting vegetables:cooking vegetables" ] }
D
[ "\"conceiving\", \"writing\" and \"revising\" are the three steps for the same subject to complete a work. the purpose of \"conceiving\", \"writing\" and \"revising\" is the same.", "\"getting on\", \"driving\" and \"getting off\" are actions performed by the same subject in chronological order, and \"getting on\", \"driving\" and \"getting off\" are not intended to complete the work.", "\"treating\", \"going to an appointment\" and \"going home\" represent three steps in chronological order, and the subjects of \"treating\" and \"going to an appointment\" are different.", "\"illness\", \"hospitalization\" and \"injection\" represent three steps in chronological order, and the subjects of \"illness\" and \"injection\" are different.", "\"washing vegetables\", \"cutting vegetables\" and \"cooking vegetables\" are three steps for the same subject to complete dishes." ]
[ [ [ "conception", "writing", "revising", "R5.2" ] ], [], [ [ "treat", "go to an appointment", "go home", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "illness", "hospitalized", "injection", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "washing vegetables", "cutting vegetables", "cooking vegetables", "R5.2" ] ] ]
4002f1-en
car:automobile
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "plant:fruit", "civil law:law", "hospital:nurse", "administrative law:environment law" ] }
B
[ "a \"car\" is a type of \"automobile\".", "\"fruits\" are the fruits of \"plants\"with abundant water and sugar. a \"plant\" is not a \"fruit\".", "\"civil law\" is a kind of \"law\".", "a \"hospital\" is where a \"nurse\" works, and it is not a kind of \"nurse\".", "both \"administrative law\" and \"environment law\" belong to laws, and \"administrative law\" is not a kind of \"environment law\"." ]
[ [ [ "car", "automobile", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "plant", "fruit", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "civil law", "law", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "hospital", "nurse", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "administrative law", "environment law", "R2.4" ] ] ]
02ff74-en
the yangtze river:qinghai
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "the pearl river:yunnan", "hainan:haihe river", "the yellow river:tibet", "xinjiang:liaohe river" ] }
A
[ "the \"yangtze river\" flows through \"qinghai\".", "the \"pearl river\" flows through \"yunnan\".", "\"hainan\" does not flow through \"haihe river\", which is located in the beijing-tianjin-hebei region and has no obvious relationship with \"hainan\".", "the \"yellow river\" does not flow through \"tibet\".", "\"xinjiang\" does not flow through the \"liaohe river\", which flows through hebei province, instead of \"xinjiang\"." ]
[ [ [ "the yangtze river", "qinghai", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "the pearl river", "yunnan", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [] ]
1501d0-en
teacher:student
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "host:movie star", "sales clerk:cashier", "doctor:patient", "manager:secretary" ] }
C
[ "teaching \"students\" is the job of a \"teacher\", and \"student\" is the work object of the \"teacher\"", "both \"host\" and \"movie star\" are occupations, and \"movie star\" is not the work object of \"host\", which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "\"sales clerk\" and \"cashier\" are both occupations. \"cashier\" is not the work object of \"sales clerk\", which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "it is the work of the \"doctor\" to diagnose the \"patient\", and the \"patient\" is the work object of the \"doctor\"", "both \"manager\" and \"secretary\" are workplace identities, and \"secretary\" is not the work object of \"manager\", which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query." ]
[ [ [ "teacher", "student", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "host", "movie star", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "sales clerk", "cashier", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "doctor", "patient", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "manager", "secretary", "R2.4" ] ] ]
0df50d-en
civilized:polite:barbaric
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "honest:practical:hypocritical", "humble:modest:meek", "blindly:recklessly:excited", "harmony:coordination:conflict" ] }
D
[ "\"civilized\" and \"polite\" have similar meanings, and \"civilized\" and \"barbaric\" have opposite meanings.", "\"honest\" and \"practical\" are not close in meaning, and \"honest\" and \"hypocritical\" are opposite.", "\"humble\" and \"modest\" are close in meaning, but \"humble\" is the opposite of arrogance, not \"meek.\"", "\"blindly\" and \"recklessly\" have similar meanings, but \"blindly\" and \"excited\" are not the opposite.", "\"harmony\" and \"coordination\" have similar meanings, and \"harmony\" and \"conflict\" have opposite meanings." ]
[ [ [ "civilized", "polite", "R1.1" ], [ "civilized", "barbaric", "R1.2" ] ], [], [ [ "humble", "modest", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "blindly", "recklessly", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "harmony", "conflict", "R1.2" ] ] ]
297c7b-en
lecturer:associate professor:professor
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "master:phd:teaching assistant", "undergraduate:master:phd", "professor:research institute:academician", "administrator:librarian:research librarian" ] }
B
[ "\"lecturer\", \"associate professor\" and \"professor\" are all in one category.", "\"master\" and \"phd\" are one category, and \"assistant\" is a teacher 's title.", "\"undergraduate\", \"master's\" and \"phd\" are all in one category.", "\"professor\" is a teacher's title, \"research institute\" is an institution, and the person working in the \"research institute\" can be a \"professor\".", "\"administrator\" can be \"librarian\" and \"librarian\" can be \"administrator\"." ]
[ [ [ "professor", "associate professor", "lecturer", "R2.4" ] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [], [] ] ]
79e764-en
matter:consciousness
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "development:movement", "success:hardworking", "rights:obligations", "labor:lazy" ] }
C
[ "concepts in philosophy include \"matter\" and \"consciousness\", and the connotations of the two are interrelated and the unity of opposites.", "\"development\" is a changing process of \"movement\".", "the probable result of \"hardworking\" is \"success\".", "concepts in law include \"rights\" and \"duties\", and the connotations of the two are interrelated and the unity of opposites.", "there is no obvious logical relationship between \"labor\" and \"lazy\"." ]
[ [ [ "matter", "consciousness", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "development", "movement", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "success", "hardworking", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "rights", "obligations", "R2.4" ] ], [] ]
77946e-en
coptis:bitter
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "flowers:bright red", "diamond:hard", "city:prosperous", "class:unity" ] }
B
[ "the taste of \"coptis\" is \"bitter\".", "the color of a \"flower\" is not necessarily \"bright red\", and \"flowers\" have many colors, and \"bright red\" is a probable attribute of a \"flower\".", "\"diamond\" refers to polished diamond, and diamond is the most \"hard\" substance that exists in nature. \"diamond\" must have \"hardness\".", "\"city\" is not necessarily \"prosperous\", it may also be depressed. \"prosperity\" is a probable attribute of a \"city\".", "\"class\" is not necessarily \"unity\", and may not be \"unity\". \"unity\" is a probable attribute of \"class\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [ "flowers", "bright red", "R3.2" ] ], [ [ "diamond", "hard", "R3.1" ] ], [ [ "city", "prosperous", "R3.2" ] ], [ [ "class", "unity", "R3.2" ] ] ]
fbafed-en
china:shanghai
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "america:washington", "russia:moscow", "france:paris", "australia:sydney" ] }
D
[ "\"shanghai\" is an integral part of \"china\", and \"shanghai\" is not the capital of \"china\".", "\"washington\" is the capital of \"america\", and \"washington\" is an integral part of \"america\".", "\"moscow\" is the capital of \"russia\", and \"moscow\" is a component of \"russia\".", "\"paris\" is the capital of \"france\", and \"paris\" is a component of \"france\".", "\"sydney\" is part of \"australia\", \"sydney\" is not the capital of \"australia\"." ]
[ [ [ "shanghai", "china", "R2.3" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "sydney", "australia", "R2.3" ] ] ]
02e06f-en
turpan:grapes
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "beijing:mandarin", "xinjiang:cantaloupe", "people's liberation army:army day", "real estate:developers" ] }
B
[ "\"turpan\" is rich in \"grapes\", and \"turpan\" and \"grapes\" have a certain connection.", "\"mandarin\" is another name for modern standard chinese. it uses the beijing phonetic as the standard pronunciation, the northern mandarin as the basic dialect, and the typical modern vernacular as the grammatical standard language. \"putonghua\" is not a special product of \"beijing\". it is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "\"xinjiang\" is the origin of \"cantaloupe\", and \"xinjiang\" and \"cantaloupe\" have a certain connection.", "\"army day\" is the anniversary of the founding of the chinese people's liberation army, , which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "\"developer\" is the first undertaker of a project, and \"developer\" can develop \"real estate\", which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query." ]
[ [ [ "turpan", "grapes", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "xinjiang", "cantaloupe", "R3.10" ] ], [], [] ]
89f8a6-en
wind energy:nuclear energy:resources
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "earpiece:microphone:music", "nanny:security guard:housekeeping", "firewood:charcoal:fuel", "baozi:zongzi:festival" ] }
C
[ "\"wind energy\" and \"nuclear energy\" are both \"resources\", but in addition to \"wind energy\" and \"nuclear energy\", solar energy is also a \"resource\".", "\"handset\" and \"microphone\" are in the same category. \"handset\" corresponds to \"music\", and \"microphone\" corresponds to \"music\".", "\"nanny\" is a \"housekeeping\" service staff, \"nanny\" and \"security guard\" are in the same category, but in addition to \"nanny\" and \"security guard\", confinement women also belong to this category.", "\"firewood\" and \"charcoal\" are both \"fuel\", but in addition to \"firewood\" and \"charcoal\", coal is also \"fuel\".", "both \"baozi\" and \"zongzi\" are food, but in addition to \"baozi\" and \"zongzi\", moon cakes are also food, \"zongzi\" is a specific \"festival\" food, and \"baozi\" is not a specific \"festival\"." ]
[ [ [ "wind energy", "nuclear energy", "R2.6" ], [] ], [ [ "earpiece", "microphone", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "nanny", "housekeeping", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "firewood", "charcoal", "R2.6" ], [] ], [ [ "baozi", "zongzi", "R2.6" ] ] ]
2f8e59-en
weight:mass
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "subject:predicate", "noun:verb", "pressure:intensity of pressure", "buoyancy:power" ] }
C
[ "\"weight\" refers to a measure of the magnitude of an object's gravity, \"mass\" refers to a physical quantity that measures the magnitude of an object's inertia, and the product of \"mass\" and the acceleration of free fall equals \"weight\".", "both \"subject\" and \"predicate\" belong to sentence components, and neither \"subject\" nor \"predicate\" are physical quantities.", "both \"nouns\" and \"verbs\" belong to content words, and neither \"nouns\" nor \"verbs\" are physical quantities.", "the force that occurs on the contact surface of two objects is called \"pressure\", and the \"pressure\" on the unit area of ​​the object is called \"intensity of pressure\", and \"pressure\" is equal to \"intensity of pressure\" multiplied by the force-bearing area.", "the force that an object immersed in a liquid or gas is held up vertically by the liquid or gas is called \"buoyancy\", and \"power\" refers to the source of all forces. , \"buoyancy\" and \"dynamic\" do not have a product." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [ "subject", "predicate", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "noun", "verb", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "pressure", "intensity of pressure", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "buoyancy", "power", "R2.7" ] ] ]
5caa93-en
real economy:virtual economy
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "electronic currency:metal currency", "intellectual property:industrial property", "business management:administrative management", "natural resources:social resources" ] }
D
[ "the \"virtual economy\" and \"real economy\" are of the same kind and are an inevitable product of economic virtualization. \"virtual economy\" and the \"real economy\" are completely complementary.", "in addition to \"electronic currency\" and \"metal currency\", there are other forms of currency, both \"metal currency\" and \"electronic currency\" belong to currency.", "\"intellectual property\" includes \"industrial property\".", "in addition to \"enterprise management\" and \"administrative management\", there are other management types, both \"administrative management\" and \"enterprise management\" are management categories.", "both \"social resources\" and \"natural resources\" are resources, and \"social resources\" and \"natural resources\" are of the same kind." ]
[ [ [ "virtual economy", "real economy", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "metal currency", "electronic currency", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "intellectual property", "industrial property", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "administrative management", "business management", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "natural resources", "social resources", "R2.5" ] ] ]
f3501b-en
wedding:emcee:guest
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "teaching:student:teacher", "litigation:judge:plaintiff", "news:host:journalist", "match:referee:fans" ] }
D
[ "the \"emcee\" presides over the \"wedding\" and the \"guests\" attend the \"wedding\".", "\"teachers\" are responsible for \"teaching\", and \"students\" are being \"taught\", but the word order is inconsistent with that in the query.", "a \"judge\" presides over a trial, not a \"litigation.\".", "the \"host\" hosts the \"news\" program, not the \"news\".", "the \"referee\" decides the \"match\" and the \"fans\" watch the \"match\"." ]
[ [ [ "wedding", "emcee", "R4.4" ], [ "wedding", "guest", "R4.4" ] ], [ [ "teaching", "teacher", "R4.4" ] ], [], [], [ [ "match", "referee", "R4.4" ], [ "match", "fans", "R4.4" ] ] ]
b84411-en
screen:mobile:delicate
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "date pit:red date:sweet and sour", "lotus:lotus pond:fishing", "issue number:publication:publish", "title page:book:reading" ] }
A
[ "\"screen\" is a part of \"mobile\", \"mobile\" is \"delicate\", and \"delicate\" is an attribute of \"mobile\".", "\"date pit\" is a part of \"red date\", \"red date\" is \"sour and sweet\", and \"sour and sweet\" is an attribute of \"red date\".", "there are \"lotus\" growing in the \"lotus pond\", \"lotus\" is not part of the \"lotus pond\", you can \"fish\" in the \"lotus pond\", \"fishing\" is not an attribute of the \"lotus pond\".", "the \"issue number\" is what the \"publication\" has, but the \"publication\" does not necessarily have the component of \"issue number\".", "\"title page\" is a part of \"book\", and \"book\" can be used for \"reading\", but \"reading\" is not an attribute of \"book\"." ]
[ [ [ "screen", "mobile", "R2.3" ], [ "mobile", "delicate", "R3.1" ] ], [ [ "date pit", "red date", "R2.3" ], [ "red date", "sweet and sour", "R3.1" ] ], [ [ "lotus", "lotus pond", "R3.6" ], [ "lotus pond", "fishing", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "issue number", "publication", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "title page", "book", "R2.3" ], [ "book", "reading", "R4.2" ] ] ]
9d967c-en
listing:suspension:delisting
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "water washing:ironing:dry cleaning", "writing a book:publishing a book:compiling", "listen to questions:rush to answer:score", "compose:sing:dance" ] }
C
[ "first \"listed\", then \"suspended\", and then \"delisted\", these three should follow the time order.", "\"water washing\" and \"dry cleaning\" are different washing methods.", "\"compile\" first, and then \"publish the book\", the word order is inconsistent with the query.", "first \"listen to the question\", then \"rush to answer\", and finally , \"score\", the three belong to the time-dependent correspondence.", "\"singing\" and \"dancing\" can occur at the same time, and there is no obvious chronological order between the two." ]
[ [ [ "listing", "suspension", "delisting", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "water washing", "dry cleaning", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "compiling", "publishing a book", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "listen to questions", "rush to answer", "score", "R5.2" ] ], [] ]
99284e-en
kitchen knife:cutting board
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "train:railway", "aircraft:engine", "computer:operating system", "planet:orbit" ] }
A
[ "\"kitchen knife\" and \"cutting board\" belong to the corresponding relationship of matching use.", "\"train\" and \"railway\" belong to the corresponding relationship of matching use.", "\"engine\" is an integral part of \"aircraft\", and \"engine\" and \"aircraft\" are not used together.", "the \"operating system\" is an integral part of \"computer\", and \"operating system\" and \"computer\" are not used together.", "\"orbit\" is the motion trajectory of a \"planet\", and \"orbit\" and \"planet\" are not used together." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [ "engine", "aircraft", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "operating system", "computer", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "orbit", "planet", "R3.10" ] ] ]
1573a5-en
online shopping:cash
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "high speed ​​railway:steel", "internet songs:cd", "e-government:official documents", "computer games:software" ] }
B
[ "\"online shopping\" uses online banking payment, and \"online shopping\" does not use \"cash\".", "\"steel\" is the raw material of the \"high speed railway\".", "\"internet songs\" generally refers to songs spread on the internet, and \"internet songs\" do not require \"cds\".", "\"e-government\" refers to a brand-new management model that comprehensively applies modern information technology, network technology and office automation technology to conduct office, manage and provide public services to society. \"e-government\" and \"official documents\" have no obvious logical relationship.", "install \"computer games\" through \"softwares\"." ]
[ [ [ "online shopping", "cash", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "high speed ​​railway", "steel", "R3.7" ] ], [ [ "internet songs", "cd", "R3.10" ] ], [], [] ]
8eb973-en
cool down:freeze:hard
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "famine:hunt:extinction", "cutting:metal:forming", "exposure:infection:cough", "count:operation:modeling" ] }
C
[ "the reason for \"freezing\" is \"cooling down\", and the characteristic of \"freezing\" is \"hardness\".", "the causes of \"extinction\" are \"famine\" and \"hunting\".", "\"metal\" will be \"cut\".", "the cause of \"infection\" is \"contact\", and the characteristic of the \"infection\" is \"cough\".", "the basis of \"operation\" is \"counting\". there is \"counting\" first and then \"operation\". the corresponding relationship is inconsistent with the query." ]
[ [ [ "cool down", "freeze", "R5.1" ], [ "freeze", "hard", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "famine", "hunt", "R5.1" ], [ "hunt", "extinction", "R5.1" ] ], [ [ "cutting", "metal", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "exposure", "infection", "R5.1" ], [ "infection", "cough", "R3.10" ] ], [] ]
a975a2-en
bridge:riverbank
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "letter:post office", "stairs:floor", "phone:communication", "train:destination" ] }
B
[ "\"riverbank\" is linked via \"bridge\"", "\"post office\" can mail \"letters\"", "“floors” are linked via “stairs”", "the function of a \"phone\" is to \"communicate\"", "the \"train\" arrives at the \"destination\", not the connection." ]
[ [ [ "bridge", "riverbank", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "letter", "post office", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "stairs", "floor", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "phone", "communication", "R3.3" ] ], [] ]
9f50af-en
tall:small
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "infinity:endless", "spring planting:autumn harvest", "praise:slander", "milk:bread" ] }
C
[ "\"tall\" and \"small\" mean the opposite.", "\"infinity\" and \"endless\" mean the same thing.", "\"spring planting\" and \"autumn harvest\" denote two different stages of agricultural activity.", "\"praise\" is the opposite of \"slander\" and means the opposite.", "both \"milk\" and \"bread\" are foods, of different kinds." ]
[ [ [ "tall", "small", "R1.2" ] ], [ [ "infinity", "endless", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "spring planting", "autumn harvest", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "praise", "slander", "R1.2" ] ], [ [ "milk", "bread", "R2.4" ] ] ]
d2b6cc-en
bait:fishing rod
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "pen:books", "computer:wireless router", "spatula:frying pan", "writing poems:pen" ] }
C
[ "the \"bait\" and the \"fishing rod\" can only work together when used together.", "\"pen\" and \"book\" can be used without matching.", "\"computer\" and \"wireless router\" can also be used without matching, and a \"computer\" does not need to have a \"wireless router\" to access the internet.", "the \"spatula\" and the \"frying pan\" can be used together to function.", "\"writing poetry\" and \"pen\" can be used without matching, and \"writing poetry\" is not a tool." ]
[ [ [ "bait", "fishing rod", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "spatula", "frying pan", "R3.10" ] ], [] ]
86335f-en
primary school students:college students
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "metal:non-metal", "odd:integer", "teenager:middle-aged", "party member:teacher" ] }
C
[ "\"primary school students\" and \"college students\" are both students, and \"primary school students\" and \"college students\" are one category, but in addition to \"primary school students\" and \"college students\", there are also junior high school students.", "\"metal\" and \"non-metal\" conflict.", "an \"odd number\" is a type of \"whole number\".", "both \"juvenile\" and \"middle-aged\" refer to age stages, and \"juvenile\" and \"middle-aged\" are one category, but in addition to \"juvenile\" and \"middle-aged\", there is also old age.", "\"party member\" can be a \"teacher\" and a \"teacher\" can be a \"party member\"." ]
[ [ [ "primary school students", "college students", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "metal", "non-metal", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "odd", "integer", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "teenager", "middle-aged", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "party member", "teacher", "R2.7" ] ] ]
c7f979-en
movement:watch
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "host:computer", "bottle cap:wine bottle", "compressor:air conditioner", "axles:tires" ] }
C
[ "the \"movement\" is part of the \"watch\" and is the core component.", "\"host\" is a part of \"computer\", \"host\" is not the core part of \"computer\".", "\"bottle cap\" and \"wine bottle\" are used together, \"botle cap\" is not part of \"wine bottle\".", "the \"compressor\" is part of the \"air conditioner\" and is the core component.", "both \"axles\" and \"tires\" are part of the car, \"axles\" are not part of \"tires\"." ]
[ [ [ "movement", "watch", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "host", "computer", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "bottle cap", "wine bottle", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "compressor", "air conditioner", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "axles", "tires", "R2.4" ] ] ]
7b90fd-en
peasant:land:cultivate
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "student:read:exam", "worker:factory:production", "teacher:prepar lessons:teach", "doctor:diagnosis:surgery" ] }
B
[ "on the \"land\", the \"peasant\" can \"cultivate\", the \"peasant\" is the character, and the \"land\" is the place.", "\"students\" will \"read\".", "in the \"factory\", the \"worker\" does the \"production\" work, the \"worker\" is the character, and the \"factory\" is the location.", "\"teachers\" will \"prepare lessons\".", "a \"doctor\" would \"diagnose\"." ]
[ [ [ "peasant", "land", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "student", "read", "R4.1" ] ], [ [ "worker", "factory", "R3.6" ] ], [ [] ], [ [ "doctor", "diagnosis", "R4.1" ] ] ]
406be1-en
alcohol:liquor
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "power:tv", "bread:cake", "nitrogen:air", "camera:mobile phone" ] }
C
[ "\"alcohol\" is part of \"liquor\".", "\"power\" is turned on to watch \"tv\".", "\"bread\" and \"cake\" are desserts, a category.", "\"nitrogen\" is part of \"air\".", "a \"camera\" is part of a \"phone\", but not all \"phones\" have a \"camera\"." ]
[ [ [ "alcohol", "liquor", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "tv", "power", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "bread", "cake", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "nitrogen", "air", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "camera", "mobile phone", "R2.3" ] ] ]
030105-en
nation:totem
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "country:country flag", "people:spirit", "porcelain:texture", "gunpowder:nitric acid" ] }
A
[ "the symbol of \"nation\" is the \"totem\".", "the symbol of the \"country\" is the \"country flag\".", "the inner psychological state of \"people\" is \"spirit\", and the symbol of \"people\" is not \"spirit\".", "one of the evaluation criteria of \"porcelain\" is \"texture\", and the symbol of \"porcelain\" is not \"texture\".", "the main component of \"gunpowder\" is potassium nitrate, not \"nitric acid\", and there is no obvious logical relationship between \"gunpowder\" and \"nitric acid\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [] ], [], [], [] ]
dad425-en
spring, summer, autumn and winter:four seasons
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "joy, anger, sadness and happiness:emotions", "red orange yellow green:color", "morning, noon and evening:one day", "east, west, south and north:the four directions" ] }
D
[ "\"spring, summer, autumn and winter\" and \"four seasons\" are the same thing.", "\"joy, anger, sadness and happiness\" are a kind of \"emotion\", but \"emotions\" also include feelings such as grief, fear and shock, and \"joy, anger, sadness and happiness\" and \"emotions\" are not the same thing.", "\"red orange yellow green\" is a kind of \"color\", but \"color\" also has colors such as blue, blue and purple, \"red orange yellow green\" and \"color\" are not the same thing.", "\"morning, noon and evening\" is a kind of \"one day\", but \"one day\" also has \"afternoon\", \"morning, noon and evening\" and \"one day\" are not the same thing.", "\"east, west, south and north\" and \"the four directions\" are the same thing." ]
[ [ [ "spring, summer, autumn and winter", "four seasons", "R2.1" ] ], [ [ "joy, anger, sadness and happiness", "emotions", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "red orange yellow green", "color", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "morning, noon and evening", "one day", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "east, west, south and north", "the four directions", "R2.1" ] ] ]
10cf1f-en
art:life
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "fountain:park", "profit:enterprise", "dream:brain", "war:plunder" ] }
C
[ "to have \"art\" there must be \"life\".", "a \"park\" is not the prerequisite for a \"fountain\". .", "owning an \"enterprise\" is not the prerequisite for gaining \"profits\".", "to have a \"dream\" there must be a \"brain\".", "without \"plunder\", there could be \"wars\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [], [], [ [] ], [] ]
aa6bd8-en
tea:coffee:drinks
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "misunderstanding:misinterpretation:understanding", "lie:slander:remark", "examination:assessment:test", "shanxi merchants:hui merchants:merchants" ] }
D
[ "\"tea\" and \"coffee\" are both \"drinks\", \"tea\" and \"coffee\" are in the same category, but in addition to \"tea\" and \"coffee\", milk tea also belongs to \"drinks\", \"drinks\" includes \"tea\" and \"coffee\" \"coffee\".", "\"misunderstanding\" refers to incorrect understanding, \"misinterpretation\" refers to misinterpreting objective facts or the original intention of others (mostly intentionally), \"misunderstanding\" and \"distortion\" have similar meanings, and \"understanding\" is similar to \"misunderstanding\" and \"distortion\" \" means the opposite.", "\"lie\" refers to words that are different from the truth for the purpose of deception, \"slander\" refers to slandering others, some \"lie\" are \"slander\", some \"slander\" are \"lie\", \"lie\" and \"slander\" are \"remarks\".", "\"examination\" is a method to check knowledge level or skill level. \"exam\" and \"assessment\" have similar meanings, and \"test\" has no obvious logical relationship with \"examination\" and \"assessment\".", "\"shanxi merchants\" and \"hui merchants\" are both \"merchants\", \"shanxi merchants\" and \"hui merchants\" are in the same category, but there are also zhejiang merchants who also belong to \"merchants\", \"merchants\" include \"shanxi merchants\" and \"hui merchants\" anhui merchants\"." ]
[ [ [ "tea", "coffee", "R2.6" ], [ "tea", "coffee", "drinks", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "misunderstanding", "misinterpretation", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "lie", "slander", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "examination", "assessment", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "shanxi merchants", "hui merchants", "R2.6" ], [ "shanxi merchants", "hui merchants", "merchants", "R2.2" ] ] ]
bef257-en
america:coca-cola
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "chinese:pottery", "australia:kangaroo", "japan:sushi", "iran:oil" ] }
C
[ "the representative food of \"america\" ​​is \"coca-cola\".", "the representative vessel of \"china\" is \"pottery\", and \"pottery\" is not food.", "the representative animal of \"australia\" is the \"kangaroo\", and \"kangaroo\" is not food.", "the representative food of \"japan\" is \"sushi\".", "the representative resource of \"iran\" is \"oil\", and \"oil\" is not food." ]
[ [ [ "america", "coca-cola", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "chinese", "pottery", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "australia", "kangaroo", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "japan", "sushi", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "iran", "oil", "R3.10" ] ] ]
92302b-en
jammer:electromagnetic waves
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "night vision goggles:infrared ray", "money detector:sonic wave", "remote control:light wave", "sunlight:ultraviolet ray" ] }
A
[ "interfering with \"electromagnetic waves\" is the function of a \"jammer\".", "it is the \"night vision goggles\" that convert \"infrared rays\" into visible light.", "the \"money detector\" that uses ultraviolet rays has no obvious logical relationship with \"sonic waves\".", "the \"remote control\" that uses infrared rays has no obvious logical relationship with the \"light wave\".", "\"ultraviolet rays\" are components of \"sunlight\"." ]
[ [ [ "jammer", "electromagnetic waves", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "night vision goggles", "infrared ray", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "sunlight", "ultraviolet ray", "R2.3" ] ] ]
5caef8-en
inch:foot
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "wind:rain", "frost:frozen", "big:small", "electricity:magnetism" ] }
C
[ "\"inch\", \"foot\" are all units of length, and both \"inch\" and \"foot\" can be compared in size", "\"wind\" and \"rain\" are both natural phenomena, but \"wind\" and \"rain\" cannot be compared in size.", "the necessary condition for the formation of \"frost\" is \"frozen\", and \"frost\" and \"frozen\" cannot be compared in size", "\"big\" and \"small\" can measure objects, and both \"big\" and \"small\" can be compared in size.", "both \"electricity\" and \"magnetism\" are a kind of physical phenomena, but \"electricity\" and \"magnetism\" cannot be compared in size." ]
[ [], [], [], [], [] ]
714088-en
procedure:meeting:host
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "rules:competition:referee", "mentoring:communication:leadership", "scenario:job:situation", "platform:event:expert" ] }
A
[ "the \"host\" will preside over the \"meeting\" according to the \"program\".", "the \"referee\" maintains the \"game\" according to the \"rules\".", "\"leadership\" unfolds \"communication\", not according to \"guidance\".", "a \"situation\" is not a person's identity.", "\"experts\" organize \"events\", not based on \"platforms\"." ]
[ [ [ "procedure", "meeting", "host", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "rules", "competition", "referee", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [] ]
fa7393-en
sympathy:pity
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "of course:actually", "forgiveness:pardon", "fortuity:necessity", "all:some" ] }
B
[ "\"pity\" refers to being \"sympathetic\" to the less fortunate. “sympathy\" and \"pity\" have similar meanings.", "\"of course\" refers to the affirmation of a certain behavior, which has no obvious logical relationship with \"actually\".", "\"forgiveness\" means to tolerate and \"pardon\" others. \"pardon\" means not to be caught up with faults. \"forgiveness\" and \"pardon\" have similar meanings.", "\"fortunity\" refers to things unexpected, and \"necessity\" refers to certain facts. \"fortuity\" and \"necessity\" mean the opposite.", "\"all\" and \"some\" are not similar in their meanings." ]
[ [ [ "sympathy", "pity", "R1.1" ] ], [], [ [ "forgiveness", "pardon", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "fortuity", "necessity", "R1.2" ] ], [ [ "all", "some", "R1.1" ] ] ]
9028e8-en
winner:loser
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "snowstorm disaster:black frost", "soft weapons:hard weapons", "data:non-data", "long range:short range" ] }
C
[ "in the pairs of gains and losses, the \"winner\" and the \"loser\" are not in an either-or relationship.", "both \"snowstorm disaster\" and \"black frost\" are disasters on grassland. there are other grassland disasters besides \"snowstorm disaster\" and \"black frost\".", "both \"soft weapons\" and \"hard weapons\" belong to weapons. in addition to these two, there are also soft-and-hard-combined weapons.", "in a pair of data relationship,sssss \"data\" and \"non-data\" are in an either-or relationship.", "\"long-range\" and \"short-range\" refer to the distance or range of fire. in addition to these two, there is medium range." ]
[ [ [ "winner", "loser", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "snowstorm disaster", "black frost", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "soft weapons", "hard weapons", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "data", "non-data", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "long range", "short range", "R2.6" ] ] ]
d4b16d-en
schedule:planning
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "score:achievement", "system:bearing", "specialty:especially", "monograph:thesis" ] }
A
[ "\"schedule\" refers to the specific content and steps prepared before work or action, and \"planning\" is a more comprehensive long-term development plan formulated by an individual or organization. the two have similar meanings.", "\"score\" refers to a successful performance or an appetite test result, and \"achievement\" refers to accomplishment in a career or completion of a certain career. the two have similar meanings.", "\"system\" is a work procedure or code of conduct that everyone is required to abide by, and \"bearing\" is a manifestation of a person's psychological quality. there is no obvious logical relationship between the two.", "\"specialty\" refers to the skill, interest and research field that a person is good at, and \"especially\" means quite, very or special . there is no obvious logical relationship between the two.", "\"monograph\" refers to a special work that studies and discusses a certain aspect, and \"thesis\" refers to an article discussing or studying a certain issue. the logical relationship is inconsistent with that in the query." ]
[ [ [ "schedule", "planning", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "score", "achievement", "R1.1" ] ], [], [], [ [ "monograph", "thesis", "R2.7" ] ] ]
2da794-en
buttons:suits:pants
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "mouse:computer:keyboard", "student:youth:artist", "curtains:windows:house", "steering wheel:sedan:commercial vehicle" ] }
D
[ "\"buttons\" are part of \"suits\" and \"pants\".", "both \"mouse\" and \"keyboard\" belong to the \"computer\" input device, and \"mouse\" and \"keyboard\" belong to the same category.", "some \"students\" are \"youth\", and some \"youth\" are \"students\".", "the \"curtain\" hangs on the \"window\", and the \"curtain\" corresponds to the \"window\".", "the \"steering wheel\" is an integral part of the \"sedan\" and \"commercial vehicle\"." ]
[ [ [ "buttons", "suits", "pants", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "mouse", "keyboard", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "student", "youth", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "curtains", "windows", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "steering wheel", "sedan", "commercial vehicle", "R2.3" ] ] ]
b5d8d6-en
stroll:walk:scoot
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "battle:campaign:war", "imagination:dream:fantasy", "leisure:boredom:emptiness", "favor:like:love" ] }
D
[ "\"strolling\", \"walking\" and \"scooting\" indicate different walking states, and the speed of the three gradually increase.", "a \"campaign\" is part of a \"war\", and a \"battle\" is part of a \"campaign\". the three are not in the same category.", "\"imagination\" includes \"dream\" and \"fantasy\", and the three do not belong to the same category.", "\"leisure\" is a way of relaxing, which has no obvious logical relationship with \"boredom\" and \"emptiness\".", "\"favor\", \"like\" and \"love\" can all be used to express enjoyment, and the degree of preference gradually increases." ]
[ [ [ "stroll", "walk", "scoot", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "campaign", "war", "R2.3" ], [ "battle", "campaign", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "dream", "fantasy", "R2.4" ] ], [], [ [ "favor", "like", "love", "R2.4" ] ] ]
aaa301-en
cell theory:schleiden
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "relativity:hawking", "methodology:bacon", "discovery of radium:madame curie", "theory of evolution:darwin" ] }
D
[ "\"schleiden's\" research result is the \"cell theory\", which is a theory.", "\"relativity\" is not the research result of \"hawking's\", but einstein's.", "\"methodology\" is not \"bacon's\" research result, but descartes'.", "the research result of \"madame curie's\" is \"the discovery of radium\", but radium is not a theory, but a real object.", "the research result of \"darwin's\" is the \"theory of evolution\", which is a theory." ]
[ [ [ "cell theory", "schleiden", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "theory of evolution", "darwin", "R3.10" ] ] ]
8701bb-en
related:irrelevant
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "normal:incorrect", "son:unfilial son", "teacher:student", "stop:endless" ] }
D
[ "\"related\" and \"irrelevant\" conflict.", "\"normal\" refers to the general situation, and \"incorrect\" refers to the fact that it does not conform to the facts or the point of view is wrong, and there is no obvious logical relationship between the two.", "some \"sons\" are \"unfilial sons\", and some \"unfilial sons\" are \"sons\".", "the \"teacher\" teaches the \"student\".", "\"stop\" and \"endless\" conflict." ]
[ [ [ "related", "irrelevant", "R2.5" ] ], [], [ [ "son", "unfilial son", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "teacher", "student", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "stop", "endless", "R2.5" ] ] ]
e071c5-en
vigilante:police
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "thief:model", "lion:lamb", "portraits:decoration", "death penalty:punishement" ] }
C
[ "\"vigilante\" does not belong to \"police\", and the function of \"police\" includes that of \"vigilante\".", "a \"thief\" does not belong to a \"model\", and the function of a \"police\" does not include that of a \"thief\".", "\"lions\" and \"lambs\" both animals, and \"lions\" do not belong to \"lambs\".", "\"portraits\" do not belong to \"decoration\". the function of \"decoration\" includes that of a \"portrait\".", "the \"death penalty\" is a kind of \"punishment\". \"death penalty\" is not punishment\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ] ]
9a2525-en
youth:civil service:serving the people
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "contemporary history:revolutionary history:research of history", "going to the countryside:entering the factory:labor training", "entrepreneur:laborer:market struggle", "college students:volunteers:contribute to society" ] }
D
[ "\"young people\" can be \"civil servants\"; \"civil servants\" can be \"young people\", and the main responsibilities of \"civil servants\" are \"serving the people\".", "\"contemporary history\" is mainly the history after the founding of the people's republic of china. \"revolutionary history\" mainly refers to a science that studies and expounds the historical laws of the occurrence, development and victory of revolutions in china since modern times.\"research of history\" means making a study of history. they do not correspond to each other the same way as in the query.", "\"working out\" includes \"going to the countryside\" and \"entering the factory\".", "\"labor\" includes \"entrepreneurs\", and \"market struggle\" includes \"entrepreneurs\" and \"laborers\".", "a \"college student\" can be a \"volunteer\", a \"volunteer\" can be a \"college student\", and the responsibility of a \"volunteer\" is to \"contribute to society\"." ]
[ [ [ "youth", "civil service", "R2.7" ], [ "civil service", "serving the people", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "going to the countryside", "entering the factory", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "entrepreneur", "laborer", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "college students", "volunteers", "R2.7" ], [ "volunteers", "contribute to society", "R3.10" ] ] ]
f6f401-en
language:communication
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "smile:express", "singing:happy", "text:record", "foraging:satisfying hunger" ] }
C
[ "\"language\" is a tool for \"communication\".", "\"smile\" is used to \"express\" kindness, but \"smile\" is not a tool and does not match the query.", "\"singing\" can express \"happy\", but \"singing\" is not a tool.", "\"text\" is a tool for \"recording\".", "\"foraging\" refers to birds and beasts searching for food everywhere, and \"foraging\" is to \"satisfy hunger\"." ]
[ [ [ "language", "communication", "R3.8" ] ], [], [], [ [ "text", "record", "R3.8" ] ], [ [ "foraging", "satisfying hunger", "R3.9" ] ] ]
b28511-en
taxi software:didi taxi
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "capital markets:interest rates", "real estate:intermediary", "assets:liabilities", "listed company:securities company" ] }
C
[ "\"didi taxi\" is a \"taxi software\"", "the \"capital market\", also known as the long-term capital market, has no obvious logical relationship with the \"interest rate\".", "\"real estate\" and \"intermediary\" belong to a positive relationship, and \"intermediary\" is not a kind of \"real estate\"", "\"liabilities\" and owners' equity constitute \"assets\", and \"liabilities\" are a kind of \"assets\"", "\"listed company\" can be a \"securities company\", \"securities company\" can also be a \"listed company\", \"securities company\" is not a \"listed company\"" ]
[ [ [] ], [], [ [ "real estate", "intermediary", "R4.3" ] ], [ [] ], [ [ "listed company", "securities company", "R2.7" ] ] ]
c676a6-en
diplomats:college students
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "food:crops", "cannons:toys", "the eiffle tower:glazed tiles", "vegetables:green plants" ] }
A
[ "a \"college student\" may become a \"diplomat\" after graduation.", "a \"crop\" may become \"food\" when it matures.", "the shape of a \"toy\" may be derived from a \"cannon\", and \"toy\" does not necessarily become \"cannon\"", "there is no obvious logical relationship between \"the eiffle tower\" and \"glazed tiles\".", "\"vegetables\" can be \"green plants\", \"green plants\" can also be \"vegetables\", \"vegetables\" include fungi, and \"green plants\" do not include fungi." ]
[ [ [ "college students", "diplomats", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "crops", "food", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "green plants", "vegetables", "R2.7" ] ] ]
1fa82b-en
sichuan opera:mask-changing
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "burlesque:amusing", "xihe big drum:playing a three-stringed plucked instrument", "a song-and-dance duet:spin handkerchief", "peking opera:face painting" ] }
C
[ "\"mask-changing\" is a unique performance stunt used in \"sichuan opera\", and it is a unique skill.", "the purpose of \"burlesque\" is to \"amuse\", and \"amusement\" is not unique to \"burlesque\".", "in the performance of \"xihe big drum\", \"a three-stringed plucked instrument\" is played as the accompaniment. but \"a three-stringed plucked instrument\" is the accompaniment, not the specific performance stunt.", "\"spinning the handkerchief\" is a very distinctive performance skill in \"a song-and-dance duet\", and it is a unique skill.", "\"face painting\" is a painting on the faces of traditional chinese opera actors. it is make-up and plastic arts used during stage performances. it not only appears in \"peking opera\", but also belongs to plastic arts rather than performance techniques." ]
[ [ [ "sichuan opera", "mask-changing", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "mask-changing", "amusing", "R3.9" ] ], [ [ "mask-changing", "playing a three-stringed plucked instrument", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "a song-and-dance duet", "mask-changing", "R3.10" ] ], [] ]
03bac5-en
king lear:shakespeare
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "othello:dickens", "the inspector general:gogol", "toilers of the sea:gorky", "intrigue and love:goethe" ] }
B
[ "\"shakespeare\" is the author of \"king lear\".", "shakespeare, not \"dickens\", is the author of \"othello\".", "\"gogol\" is the author of \"the inspector general\".", "hugo, not \"gorky\", is the author of \"toilers of the sea\".", "schiller, not \"goethe\", is the author of \"conspiracy and love\"." ]
[ [ [ "king lear", "shakespeare", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "the inspector general", "gogol", "R3.10" ] ], [], [] ]
8dda05-en
enterprise:research and develop:production:sales
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "doctor:diagnosis:treatment:comfort", "farmer:sow:weed:harvest", "student:take class:exam:graduate", "writer:concept:writ:submit" ] }
D
[ "\"enterprise\" must first \"research and develop\", then \"produce\", and finally \"sell\". \"enterprise\" is the main body, \"research and develop\" belongs to the exploratory stage, \"production\" belongs to the implementation stage, and \"selling\" belongs to the ultimate goal.", "\"doctor\" first \"diagnoses\" and then \"treats\". there is no obvious time sequence between \"treatment\" and \"comfort\", and \"comfort\" is not the ultimate goal.", "\"farmers\" first \"sow\" and then \"weed\" and finally \"harvest\", \"sowing\" is the implementation stage, not the exploration stage.", "\"students\" first \"take classes\" and then \"exams\" and finally \"graduate\", \"taking class\" is the implementation stage, not the exploration stage.", "\"writer\" first \"concept\" then \"write\" and finally \"submit\", \"writer\" belongs to the main body, \"conception\" belongs to the exploration stage, \"writing\" belongs to the implementation stage, and \"submission\" belongs to the final purpose." ]
[ [ [ "enterprise", "research and develop", "production", "sales", "R3.10" ], [ "research and develop", "production", "sales", "R5.2" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "writer", "concept", "writ", "submit", "R3.10" ], [ "concept", "writ", "submit", "R5.2" ] ] ]
16f1bb-en
mobile:wechat:payment
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "car:driving:navigation", "high speed ​​rail:transportation:fast", "computer:internet:watching movies", "satellite:positioning:convenient" ] }
C
[ "\"wechat\" is a type of \"mobile phone\" software. \"wechat\" corresponds to \"mobile phone\", and \"wechat\" can be used for \"payment\", and \"wechat\" corresponds to \"payment\".", "\"cars\" will be \"driven\".", "\"high-speed rail\" has the function of \"transportation\".", "\"accessing the internet\" is the way to use \"computer\". \"internet access\" corresponds to \"computer\". after \"accessing the internet\", you can \"watch movies\", and \"internet access\" corresponds to \"watch movies\".", "\"satellite\" can be used for \"positioning\", and \"convenience\" is its attribute." ]
[ [ [ "wechat", "mobile", "R3.10" ], [ "wechat", "payment", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "driving", "car", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "high speed ​​rail", "transportation", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "internet", "computer", "R3.10" ], [ "internet", "watching movies", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "satellite", "positioning", "R3.10" ], [ "satellite", "convenient", "R3.1" ] ] ]
343c2c-en
awake:insomnia
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "health:recovering from illness", "kill:bloody", "reproduction:reproduction", "explore:inventions" ] }
A
[ "when you are \"insomnia\", you are \"awake\".", "it is \"healthy\" when \"recovering from illness\".", "\"killing\" is \"bloody\", but the word order is inconsistent with the query.", "both \"reproduction\" and \"reproduction\" mean the reproduction of offspring, \"reproduction\" and \"reproduction\" have similar meanings, but the logic is inconsistent.", "both \"exploration\" and \"invention\" are methods of scientific research, and their meanings are not similar." ]
[ [ [ "awake", "insomnia", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "health", "recovering from illness", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "reproduction", "reproduction", "R1.1" ] ], [ [ "explore", "inventions", "R2.4" ] ] ]
cac9ce-en
harbour:mooring
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "gene:hereditary", "court:lawsuit", "cable:power generation", "road:transport" ] }
D
[ "a \"harbour\" is a place where a ship is \"mooring\".", "a \"gene\" is a piece of dna that carries information about \"hereditary\".", "the \"court\" is the place of the trial, not the place of a \"lawsuit\".", "a \"cable\" is not a place for \"power generation", "a \"road\" is where the car \"transports\"." ]
[ [ [ "harbour", "mooring", "R3.6" ] ], [ [ "gene", "hereditary", "R3.10" ] ], [ [] ], [], [ [ "road", "transport", "R3.6" ] ] ]
b86d05-en
proofreading:printing:publishing
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "negotiation:signing:abrogation", "robbery:be put into jail:sentence", "election:form the cabinet:take office", "r&d:transfer:investment" ] }
C
[ "in chronological order, \"proofreading\" comes first, \"printing\" second, and \"publishing\" last. \"proofreading\" is a necessary procedure for \"printing\", and \"printing\" is a necessary procedure for \"publishing\".", "\"signing\" does not necessarily need a \"negotiation\" in advance. \"negotiation\" is not a necessary procedure for \"signing\". there is no necessary connection and no obvious logical relationshipbetween \"signing\" and \"abrogation\".", "the necessary procedure for being \"put into jail\" is not \"robbery\". fraud, gambling, etc. will also cause being \"put into jail\".", "according to the chronological order, \"election\" comes first, \"forming the cabinet\" second, and \"taking office\" last. \"election\" is a necessary procedure for \"forming the cabinet\", which is a necessary procedure for \"taking office\".", "\"investment\" happens first, and then comes \"r&d\"." ]
[ [ [ "proofreading", "printing", "publishing", "R5.2" ] ], [], [], [ [ "election", "form the cabinet", "take office", "R5.2" ] ], [] ]
921e57-en
mountain:mountain range
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "student union:students", "capitalist:worker", "landlord:tenant", "trees:forest" ] }
D
[ "a \"mountain\" is part of a \"mountain range\".", "\"students\" are part of the \"student union\". \"student union\" is not part of \"students\".", "a \"capitalist\" refers to a person who owns the factors of production and obtains profits by running enterprises, hiring workers. \"capitalists\" are the opposite to \"workers\", and \"capitalists\" are not part of the \"workers\".", "in the old days, farmers who rented land from \"landlords\" were \"tenants\", and \"landlords\" were not part of the \"tenants\".", "\"trees\" are part of a \"forest\"." ]
[ [ [ "mountain", "mountain range", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "students", "student union", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "capitalist", "worker", "R2.4" ] ], [], [ [ "trees", "forest", "R2.3" ] ] ]
efbf6c-en
pupa:butterfly
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "ugly duckling:white swan", "embryo:baby", "seed:flower", "tadpole:frog" ] }
D
[ "the life of a \"butterfly\" goes through four developmental stages: egg, larva, \"pupa\" and adult, which is called complete metamorphosis. \"chrysalis\" belongs to a stage of metamorphosis of \"butterfly\".", "both \"ugly duckling\" and \"white swan\" belong to animals, \"ugly duckling\" and \"white swan\" are two different animals, and \"ugly duckling\" is not a stage of the growth of \"white swan\".", "the \"embryo\" belongs to one of the entire developmental stages of the \"baby\", and the life of the \"baby\" is not a metamorphosis.", "\"seed\" is one of the growth stages of a \"flower\", but \"seed\" is not metamorphosis.", "the development process of a \"frog\" generally goes through four stages: fertilized egg, \"tadpole\", young frog, and adult frog. \"tadpole\" belongs to a stage of \"frog\" metamorphosis." ]
[ [ [] ], [ [ "ugly duckling", "white swan", "R2.4" ] ], [], [], [ [] ] ]
a3ffb0-en
stealing concepts:logical fallacies
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "triangle:quadrilateral", "sucrose dissolution:physical changes", "valley wind:sea and land wind", "survey method:questionnaire" ] }
B
[ "\"stealing concepts\" is a type of \"logical fallacy\".", "both \"triangle\" and \"quadrilateral\" are figures, but they are not the same figure.", "\"sucrose dissolution\" is a type of \"physical change\".", "\"valley wind\" and \"sea and land wind\" are both types of winds.", "\"questionnaire survey\" is a kind of \"survey method\", and the word order is inconsistent with the query." ]
[ [ [ "stealing concepts", "logical fallacies", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "triangle", "quadrilateral", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "sucrose dissolution", "physical changes", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "valley wind", "sea and land wind", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "questionnaire", "survey method", "R2.2" ] ] ]
59582d-en
spring ploughing:autumn harvest:winter storage
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "merit:recognition:promotion", "stealing:punishment:remorse", "diligence:get rich:donate", "registration:participation:win the championship" ] }
D
[ "\"spring ploughing\" refers to spring cultivation, \"autumn harvest\" refers to autumn harvest, and \"winter storage\" refers to winter storage. the three are the general process of agricultural production, and the time of the three corresponds to each other. at the same time, \"spring ploughing\" is a necessary condition for \"autumn harvest\". \"autumn harvest\" is a necessary condition for \"winter storage\".", "there is no necessary chronological order between \"meriting\", \"recognition\" and \"promotion\", and \"meriting\" is not a necessary condition for \"recognition\", and \"recognition\" is not a necessary condition for \"promoting\".", "there is no necessary chronological order between \"stealing\", \"punishment\" and \"remorse\", and \"stealing\" leads to \"punishment\", neither \"stealing\" nor \"punishment\" are necessary conditions for \"remorse\".", "there is no necessary chronological order between \"diligence\", \"get rich\", and \"donation\".", "only after \"registration\" you can \"participate\" and then \"win the championship\". the time of the three corresponds to each other, and \"registration\" is a necessary condition for \"participation\", and \"participation\" is a necessary condition for \"win the championship\"." ]
[ [ [ "spring ploughing", "autumn harvest", "winter storage", "R5.2" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "registration", "participation", "win the championship", "R5.2" ] ] ]
f3d073-en
human body:liver:detoxification
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "animals:elk:four dislikes", "advertisement:commercial:publicity", "tree:leaf:photosynthesis", "trace elements:zinc:memory" ] }
C
[ "\"liver\" is an integral part of the \"human body\", and \"liver\" has the function of \"detoxification\".", "\"elk\" is a type of \"animal\", and an \"animal\" is not a type of \"elk\".", "\"commercial\" is a type of \"advertising\", and \"advertising\" is not a type of \"commercial advertisement\".", "\"leaves\" are the components of \"trees\", and \"leaves\" have the function of \"photosynthesis\".", "\"zinc\" is a type of \"trace element\", and \"trace element\" is not a type of \"zinc\"." ]
[ [ [ "human body", "liver", "R2.3" ], [ "liver", "detoxification", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "animals", "elk", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "advertisement", "commercial", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "tree", "leaf", "R2.3" ], [ "leaf", "photosynthesis", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "trace elements", "zinc", "R2.2" ] ] ]
14f4da-en
trees:cut down
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "car:driving", "mountain spring:flow", "yeast:decomposition", "oil:drill" ] }
D
[ "\"trees\" can be \"cut down\", and \"trees\" are natural resources.", "\"cars\" can be \"driven\", but \"cars\" are not natural resources.", "\"mountain spring\" can \"flow\".", "\"yeast\" can be \"decomposed\".", "\"oil\" is \"drilled\", and \"oil\" is a natural resource." ]
[ [ [ "trees", "cut down", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "car", "driving", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "mountain spring", "flow", "R4.1" ] ], [ [ "yeast", "decomposition", "R4.1" ] ], [ [ "oil", "drill", "R4.2" ] ] ]
ac6115-en
windows:curtains
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "pencil:eraser", "coffee:milk tea", "hair:comb", "building:steel" ] }
C
[ "\"curtains\" are installed on the \"windows\" .", "\"pencil\" and \"eraser\" are both types of stationery.", "\"coffee\" and \"milk tea\" are both types of beverages.", "\"combs\" are used on \"hair\".", "the raw material of \"building\" is \"steel\"." ]
[ [ [ "windows", "curtains", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "pencil", "eraser", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "coffee", "milk tea", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "hair", "comb", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "building", "steel", "R3.7" ] ] ]
5fa7d5-en
real number:agaric
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "yangtze river:river", "master:judge", "huangshan:newton", "sparrow:geese" ] }
C
[ "\"real number\" and \"agaric\" are different from each other.", "\"yangtze river\" belongs to \"river\".", "some \"masters\" are \"judges\", and some \"judges\" are \"masters\".", "\"huangshan\" and \"newton\" are different from each other.", "\"sparrow\" and \"geese\" belong to the same species." ]
[ [ [ "real number", "agaric", "R2.8" ] ], [ [ "yangtze river", "river", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "master", "judge", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "huangshan", "newton", "R2.8" ] ], [ [ "sparrow", "geese", "R2.4" ] ] ]
c36f23-en
wuchang rice:thai basmati rice
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "south china tiger:gerbera", "silvervine:kiwi", "jade emperor:patriarch bodhidharma", "yantian port:new york harbor" ] }
D
[ "\"wuchang rice\" and \"thai fragrant rice\" are of the same kind. \"wuchang rice\" is a domestic variety, and \"thai fragrant rice\" is a foreign variety.", "\"south china tiger\" is an animal. \"gerbera\" is a plant. \"south china tiger\" and \"gerbera\" are not the same kind, which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "\"silvervine\" is an artificially bred variety, and it has become a synonym for kiwi because of its widespread use. \"silvervine\" and \"kiwi\" are the same thing, which is inconsistent with the logical relationship of the query.", "the \"jade emperor\" is the leader of the gods and buddhas in taoist mythology, \"patriarch bodhidharma\" is an indian and the founder of zen buddhism in china.", "\"yantian port\" and \"new york port\" are of the same kind. \"yantian port\" is domestic, and \"new york port\" is foreign." ]
[ [ [ "wuchang rice", "thai basmati rice", "R2.4" ] ], [], [ [ "silvervine", "kiwi", "R2.1" ] ], [], [ [ "yantian port", "new york harbor", "R2.4" ] ] ]
160aa6-en
photography:painting
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "copy:scan", "calligraphy:embroidery", "carving:grinding", "singing:playing" ] }
B
[ "\"photography\" and \"painting\" are two forms of artistic expression, both of which utilize the human visual sensory system.", "\"copying\" and \"scanning\" are both ways of working with documents, but neither are artistic expressions.", "\"calligraphy\" and \"embroidery\" are both traditional chinese arts, both of which are forms of artistic expression, and both utilize the human visual sensory system.", "\"carving\" and \"grinding\" are two processing processes, and \"grinding\" can be carried out on the basis of \"carving\", but neither is an artistic expression.", "\"singing\" and \"playing\" are two artistic expressions, but both are related to the auditory sensory system." ]
[ [ [ "photography", "painting", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "copy", "scan", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "calligraphy", "embroidery", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "carving", "grinding", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "singing", "playing", "R2.4" ] ] ]
ed7b69-en
ocean:water:oxygen
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "organism:plant:microbe", "army:warrior:weapon", "grassland:forage:chlorophyll", "earth:mountains:forest" ] }
C
[ "\"water\" is part of \"ocean\" and \"oxygen\" is part of \"water\".", "\"plant\" is a \"organism\"", "\"warrior\" is part of \"army\", \"warrior\" uses \"weapons\" to fight, and \"weapon\" are not part of \"warrior\".", "\"forage\" is a component of \"grassland\", and \"chlorophyll\" is a component of \"forage\".", "\"mountains\" are part of the \"earth\", and \"mountains\" refer to mountains that extend in a certain direction and include several mountains and valleys. there is no obvious logical relationship between \"mountains\" and \"forest\"." ]
[ [ [ "water", "ocean", "R2.3" ], [ "oxygen", "water", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "organism", "plant", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "warrior", "army", "R2.3" ], [ "warrior", "weapon", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "forage", "grassland", "R2.3" ], [ "chlorophyll", "forage", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "mountains", "earth", "R2.3" ] ] ]
c0f0b9-en
compute:computer
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "coke:beverage", "hot water:teapot", "carry:truck", "fire:stove" ] }
C
[ "\"computer\" has the function of \"computation\", and \"compute\" is a verb.", "\"coke\" belongs to \"beverage\", and \"beverage\" does not have the function of \"coke\".", "filling \"hot water\" is the function of a \"teapot\", and \"hot water\" is a noun.", "\"truck\" has the function of \"carrying\", and \"carry\" is a verbal phrase.", "the \"stove\" is where the \"fire\" burns." ]
[ [ [ "compute", "computer", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "coke", "beverage", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "hot water", "teapot", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "carry", "truck", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "fire", "stove", "R3.6" ] ] ]
8f7324-en
matches:lighters:make fire
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "coal stove:gas stove:cooking", "hoe:cart:cultivating land", "mirror:comb:grooming", "gleditsia sinensis:do the laundry:wash clothes" ] }
A
[ "\"making fire\" is the function of \"matches\" and \"lighters\".", "\"cooking\" is the function of \"coal stove\" and \"gas stove\". \"coal stove\" and \"gas stove\" have the same function.", "\"cultivating land\" is the function of \"hoes\", but the function of \"carts\" is to carry people or goods.", "\"grooming\" is the function of \"combs\", but the function of \"mirrors\" is to let people tidy themselves up, instead of \"grooming\".", "the skin of \"gleditsia sinensis\" is a natural industrial washing product, which can be used for \"washing clothes\". but the original meaning of \"doing the laundry \"doing the laundry\" is also called \"washing clothes\"." ]
[ [ [ "matches", "lighters", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "coal stove", "gas stove", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "hoe", "cultivating land", "R2.4" ] ], [ [ "comb", "grooming", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "gleditsia sinensis", "wash clothes", "R3.10" ], [ "wash clothes", "do the laundry", "R2.1" ] ] ]
e8c522-en
currency:value
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "law:restriction", "knife:murder", "books:printing", "viewpoint:position" ] }
D
[ "\"value\" can be reflected in \"currency\".", "\"restriction\" is a function of \"law\", and \"restriction\" cannot be embodied by \"law\".", "the tool of \"murder\" is the \"knife\", and \"murder\" cannot be embodied by a \"knife\".", "\"printing\" can be made into \"books\", but \"printing\" cannot be embodied by \"books\".", "\"position\" can be expressed through \"viewpoint\"." ]
[ [ [ "currency", "value", "R3.3" ] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [], [] ]
a4931a-en
bus:conductor
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "driver:train", "car:passenger", "airplane:stewardess", "salesperson:store" ] }
C
[ "a \"conductor\" sells tickets on a \"bus\".", "a \"driver\" can work on a \"train\".", "the \"car\" is ridden by the \"passenger\", but the workplace of the \"passenger\" is not the \"car\".", "\"stewardesses\" work on \"airplanes\".", "a \"salesperson\" works in a \"store\"." ]
[ [ [] ], [], [ [ "car", "passenger", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "airplane", "stewardess", "R3.5" ] ], [] ]
c3a050-en
finite:infinite
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "odd:even", "land:ocean", "positive number:negative number", "distant relatives:close neighbors" ] }
A
[ "\"finite\" and \"infinite\" are completely complementary.", "\"odd\" refers to an integer that is not divisible by 2, \"even\" refers to an integer that is divisible by 2, and \"odd\" and \"even\" are completely complementary.", "\"land\" and \"ocean\" are one category, and the components of the earth are not only \"land\" and \"ocean\" but also the sky.", "\"positive number\" and \"negative number\" are one category, and there are zeros in the number in addition to \"positive number\" and \"negative number\".", "\"distant relatives\" and \"near neighbors\" are one category. in addition to \"distant relatives\" and \"near neighbors\", there are other people around." ]
[ [ [ "finite", "infinite", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "odd", "even", "R2.5" ] ], [ [ "land", "ocean", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "positive number", "negative number", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "distant relatives", "close neighbors", "R2.6" ] ] ]
16eb2b-en
hertz:frequency
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "farah:capacitance", "joule:power", "newton:pressure", "resistance:ohm" ] }
A
[ "the unit of \"frequency\" is \"hertz\".", "the unit of \"capacitance\" is \"farah\".", "the unit of \"power\" is not \"joules\", it is watts. the unit of energy and work is the \"joule\".", "the unit of \"pressure\" is not \"newton\", it is pa. the unit of force is \"newton\".", "the unit of \"resistance\" is \"ohm\", but the order of words is inconsistent with the question." ]
[ [ [ "hertz", "frequency", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "farah", "capacitance", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "ohm", "resistance", "R3.10" ] ] ]
85ef8e-en
creativity:innovation
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "willingness:action", "knowing:ability", "idea:practice", "feeling:reaction" ] }
C
[ "\"creativity\" guides \"innovation\".", "\"willingness\" cannot guide \"action\", \"willingness\" can lead to \"action\".", "\"knowing\" is an \"ability\"", "\"idea\" guides \"practice\"", "\"feeling\" is an inner \"reaction\", not \"feeling\" guiding \"reaction\"" ]
[ [ [ "creativity", "innovation", "R3.3" ] ], [], [ [ "knowing", "ability", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "idea", "practice", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "feeling", "reaction", "R2.2" ] ] ]
f42c20-en
law:comply with
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "policy:push", "resource:utilization", "economy:developed", "environment:neat" ] }
B
[ "the \"law\" will be \"complied with\".", "\"policies\" are not \"pushed\".", "\"resources\" will be \"utilized\".", "\"developed\" is a modifier of \"economy\".", "\"neat\" is a modifier of \"environment\"." ]
[ [ [ "comply with", "law", "R4.2" ] ], [], [ [ "utilization", "resource", "R4.2" ] ], [ [ "developed", "economy", "R4.3" ] ], [ [ "neat", "environment", "R4.3" ] ] ]
00bcd9-en
order:delivery:sign
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "waiting:boarding:security check", "recruit:training:hire", "rehearsal:tuning:playing", "load:aim:shoot" ] }
D
[ "\"order\" first, then \"delivery\" and finally \"sign\"", "\"security check\" first, then \"waiting\" and then \"boarding\"", "first \"recruit\" then \"hire\" and finally \"train\"", "\"tuning\", \"rehearsal\" and \"playing\" have no chronological relationship.", "\"load\", \"aim\" and finally , \"shoot\"" ]
[ [ [ "order", "delivery", "sign", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "waiting", "boarding", "security check", "R5.2" ] ], [ [ "recruit", "training", "hire", "R5.2" ] ], [], [ [ "load", "aim", "shoot", "R5.2" ] ] ]
68026c-en
business:performance
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "work:income", "reality:fantasy", "surgery:efficacy", "input:output" ] }
C
[ "\"performance\" measures the level of \"business\".", "the level of \"work\" cannot be measured by \"income\".", "\"reality\" and \"fantasy\" have opposite meanings.", "\"efficacy\" can measure the \"surgery\" effect.", "without \"input\", there is no \"output\", and \"input\" cannot be used to measure \"output\"." ]
[ [ [ "business", "performance", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "reality", "fantasy", "R1.2" ] ], [ [ "surgery", "efficacy", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "input", "output", "R5.4" ] ] ]
b2fa9c-en
teacher:student
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "referee:athlete", "lawyer:judge", "doctor:nurse", "cook:keeper" ] }
A
[ "\"teachers\" teach \"students\".", "the \"referee\" gives a penalty to the \"athlete\".", "the \"lawyer\" is not the subject of the \"judge\".", "both \"doctors\" and \"nurses\" work in the hospital.", "there is no obvious logic for the \"cook\" and the \"keeper\"." ]
[ [ [ "teacher", "student", "R3.10" ] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ], [ [] ] ]
25a93c-en
wet:dry
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "bright:windy", "sunrise:sunset", "high temperature:low temperature", "dawn:dusk" ] }
C
[ "when it comes to the state of how much water an object contains, there are \"wet\", \"dry\" and other states. from the semantics of words, \"wet\" refers to the state of containing more water than normal, and \"dry\" refers to with no or very little water. the two mean the opposite.", "\"bright\" and \"windy\" belong to different weather conditions, and they do not have opposite meanings.", "\"sunrise\" and \"sunset\" belong to two time periods of a day, and they are not opposite in their meanings.", "\"high temperature\" and \"low temperature\" belong to the state of temperature. meanwhile, from a semantic point of view, these two have opposite meanings.", "\"dawn\" and \"dusk\" belong to two times of the day. they are not opposite in their meanings." ]
[ [ [ "wet", "dry", "R2.6" ] ], [ [] ], [ [ "sunrise", "sunset", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "high temperature", "low temperature", "R2.6" ] ], [ [ "dawn", "dusk", "R2.6" ] ] ]
9f6fe8-en
communication:mobile:metal
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "hiring:interview:introduction", "satellite:science and technology:scientist", "logistics:transportation:road", "camping:tent:canvas" ] }
D
[ "\"mobiles\" has the function of \"communication\", and the raw material of \"mobiles\" includes \"metal\".", "\"interviews\" have the function of \"recruitments\", and the raw material of \"interviews\" is not the \"profile\".", "the product of \"science and technology\" is the \"satellite\", and \"science and technology\" is the research object of \"scientists\".", "the necessary link of \"logistics\" is \"transportation\", and \"road\" has the function of \"transportation\".", "a \"tent\" has the function of \"camping\", and the raw material of the \"tent\" is \"canvas\"." ]
[ [ [ "mobile", "communication", "R3.3" ], [ "mobile", "metal", "R3.7" ] ], [], [ [ "satellite", "science and technology", "R3.10" ], [ "science and technology", "scientist", "R4.4" ] ], [ [ "transportation", "logistics", "R5.4" ], [ "transportation", "road", "R3.3" ] ], [ [ "tent", "camping", "R3.3" ], [ "tent", "canvas", "R3.7" ] ] ]
72e3e9-en
writing:pen
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "basket:basketball", "rice:rice bowl", "character:strength", "throwing:stone" ] }
D
[ "the tool for \"writing\" is the \"pen\".", "one of the terms in the sport of \"basketball\" is \"basket\" and \"basketball\" is not a tool for \"basketball\".", "the container of \"rice\" is a \"rice bowl\", and the \"rice bowl\" is not the tool of \"rice\".", "\"strength\" belongs to \"character\", \"strong\" is not a tool of \"character\".", "the tool for \"throwing\" is a \"stone\"." ]
[ [ [ "pen", "writing", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "basket", "basketball", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "rice bowl", "rice", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "strength", "character", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "stone", "throwing", "R3.8" ] ] ]
3be07b-en
farmer:land
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "merchant:commodity", "betting:player", "worker:machine", "proletarian:capitalist" ] }
C
[ "\"farmers\" use \"land\" for farming, \"farmer\" is an occupation, and \"land\" is the means of production.", "\"merchant\" sells \"commodity\", and \"commodity\" is not a means of production.", "\"players\" will \"bet\", \"players\" are not means of production.", "\"workers\" use \"machines\" to produce, \"worker\" is an occupation, and \"machine\" is a means of production.", "\"proletarians\" and \"capitalists\" belong to one category, and \"capitalist\" is not a means of production." ]
[ [ [ "farmer", "land", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "merchant", "commodity", "R4.4" ] ], [ [ "player", "betting", "R4.1" ] ], [ [ "worker", "machine", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "proletarian", "capitalist", "R2.4" ] ] ]
4afc93-en
language:communication
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "paint:painting", "clothes:decoration", "tv:movies", "rose:love" ] }
A
[ "\"language\" can be used to \"communicate\", and \"communication\" is the main function of \"language\".", "\"paint\" can be used for \"painting\", and \"painting\" is the main function of \"paint\".", "\"decoration\" can use \"clothing\", but \"decoration\" is not the main function of \"clothing\", the main function of \"clothing\" is to cover the body.", "a \"movie\" can be played on \"tv\", and \"tv\" is the carrier of \"movie\".", "\"love\" can be symbolized by \"roses\"." ]
[ [ [ "language", "communication", "R3.8" ] ], [], [], [ [] ], [ [] ] ]
c21546-en
white pollution:biodegradation
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "industrial electricity:solar entry", "domestic water:reclaimed water recycling", "chinese herbal prescriptions:medical research", "industrial waste gas:waste heat power generation" ] }
D
[ "what helps to solve \"white pollution\" is \"biodegradation\", and \"white pollution\" is an environmental pollution phenomenon.", "\"industrial electricity\" refers to electricity consumption by enterprises engaged in large-scale production and processing industries, and \"industrial electricity\" is not a phenomenon of environmental pollution.", "the water required by residents in their daily life is \"domestic water\", and \"domestic water\" is not a phenomenon of environmental pollution.", "the prescription of traditional chinese medicine is \"chinese herbal prescriptions\", and \"chinese herbal prescriptions\" is not a phenomenon of environmental pollution.", "what helps to solve \"industrial waste gas\" is \"waste heat power generation\", and \"industrial waste gas\" is an environmental pollution phenomenon." ]
[ [ [ "white pollution", "biodegradation", "R3.3" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "industrial waste gas", "waste heat power generation", "R3.3" ] ] ]
4f1cfd-en
economic regulations:rules
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "military intelligence:new intelligence", "college students:graduate students", "wheat:food crop", "literary works:short stories" ] }
C
[ "\"economic regulations\" are a kind of \"rule\".", "\"military intelligence\" can be \"new intelligence\", and \"new intelligence\" can also be \"military intelligence\". \"military intelligence\" is not a kind of \"new intelligence\".", "\"graduate students\" are a kind of \"college students\", and \"college students\" are not a kind of \"graduate students\".", "\"food crops\" include \"wheat\", which is a kind of grain.", "a \"short story\" is a \"literary work\" and a \"literary work\" is not a \"short story\"." ]
[ [ [ "rules", "economic regulations", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "new intelligence", "military intelligence", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "college students", "graduate students", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "food crop", "wheat", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "short stories", "literary works", "R2.2" ] ] ]
b5de1a-en
bronze inscription:bronze ware:calligraphy
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "annual rings:trees:signs", "ink painting:rice paper:chinese painting", "hourglass:glass:container", "tang sancai:pottery:color" ] }
B
[ "\"bronze inscription\" is a kind of \"calligraphy\" cast on \"bronze ware\", and \"bronze inscription\" is a man-made thing.", "\"annual rings\" are a kind of \"sign\" that grows on \"trees\", but \"annual rings\" are natural phenomena.", "\"ink painting\" is a kind of \"chinese painting\" painted on \"rice paper\", and \"ink painting\" is a man-made thing.", "\"glass\" is the raw material for making an \"hourglass\", and the \"container\" does not contain an \"hourglass\".", "because the glaze color is mainly yellow, green and white, people are used to calling it \"tang sancai\". \"tang sancai\" is a low-temperature glaze \"pottery\" popular in the tang dynasty, and \"color\" does not include \"tang sancai\"." ]
[ [ [ "bronze inscription", "bronze ware", "R3.10" ], [ "bronze inscription", "calligraphy", "R2.2" ] ], [], [ [ "ink painting", "rice paper", "R3.10" ], [ "ink painting", "chinese painting", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "hourglass", "glass", "R3.7" ] ], [ [ "tang sancai", "pottery", "R2.2" ] ] ]
a0f154-en
ozone layer:climate warming
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "poaching:species extinction", "forest:soil erosion", "drought:land desertification", "acid rain:water pollution" ] }
B
[ "the destruction of the \"ozone layer\" may lead to \"climate warming\".", "\"poaching\" may lead to \"species extinction\".", "destruction of \"forests\" may lead to \"soil erosion\".", "\"drought\" may lead to \"land desertification\".", "\"acid rain\" may lead to \"water pollution\"." ]
[ [ [ "ozone layer", "climate warming", "R3.10" ] ], [], [ [ "forest", "soil erosion", "R3.10" ] ], [], [] ]
e1ac83-en
clean energy:solar energy
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "heroine:march 8 red banner bearer", "windmill:wind energy", "renewable energy:plants", "therapeutic device:massager" ] }
C
[ "\"solar energy\" is a type of \"clean energy\".", "\"heroines\" can be \"march 8 red banner bearers\", and \"march 8 red banner bearers\" can be \"heroes\".", "\"wind energy\" can make the \"windmill\" turn.", "\"renewable energy\" includes \"plants\".", "the two different instruments are different \"therapeutic instruments\" and \"massagers\"." ]
[ [ [ "solar energy", "clean energy", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "heroine", "march 8 red banner bearer", "R2.7" ] ], [ [ "windmill", "wind energy", "R3.10" ] ], [ [ "plants", "renewable energy", "R2.2" ] ], [ [ "therapeutic device", "massager", "R2.4" ] ] ]
9d7963-en
windows:glass
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "clothes:buttons", "basin stand:basin", "ring:gemstone", "photos:albums" ] }
C
[ "the \"window\" has \"glass\" embedded in it.", "the \"clothing\" has \"buttons\" sewn on it, not embedded.", "the \"basin\" is placed on the \"basin rack\", which can be taken out at any time, not embedded.", "the \"ring\" has a \"gemstone\" embedded in it.", "\"photos\" are stored in \"albums\"." ]
[ [ [ "windows", "glass", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [ [ "ring", "gemstone", "R3.10" ] ], [] ]
88f75e-en
energy:earthquake
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "quarrel:conflict", "nutrition:health", "force:war", "emotion:angry" ] }
D
[ "the release of \"energy\" from the earth's crust is an \"earthquake\".", "the reason for \"quarrel\" is \"contradiction\", and the corresponding method is inconsistent with the query.", "the reason for \"health\" is \"nutrition\", and the corresponding method is inconsistent with the query.", "\"force\" refers to violent force or military force, which can be used for \"war\", and \"war\" is not a form of \"force\".", "the expression of people releasing \"emotion\" is \"anger\"." ]
[ [ [ "earthquake", "energy", "R3.10" ] ], [], [], [], [ [ "angry", "emotion", "R3.10" ] ] ]
3cf1e2-en
water:agriculture
{ "label": [ "A", "B", "C", "D" ], "text": [ "consumption:economy", "marriage:life", "writing:culture", "entertainment:life" ] }
A
[ "to develop \"agriculture\", there must be \"water\".", "in the process of \"economic\" development, there must be \"consumption\".", "\"marriage\" is not a necessary part of the \"life\" stage.", "\"writing\" is a part of \"culture\". to have \"culture\", it is not necessary to have \"writing\".", "\"entertainment\" is a part of \"life\". to have \"life\", it is not necessary to have \"entertainment\"." ]
[ [ [ "water", "agriculture", "R5.4" ] ], [ [ "consumption", "economy", "R5.4" ] ], [], [ [ "writing", "culture", "R2.3" ] ], [ [ "entertainment", "life", "R2.3" ] ] ]
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Dataset Card for ekar_english

Dataset Summary

The ability to recognize analogies is fundamental to human cognition. Existing benchmarks to test word analogy do not reveal the underneath process of analogical reasoning of neural models. Holding the belief that models capable of reasoning should be right for the right reasons, we propose a first-of-its-kind Explainable Knowledge-intensive Analogical Reasoning benchmark (E-KAR). Our benchmark consists of 1,655 (in Chinese) and 1,251 (in English) problems sourced from the Civil Service Exams, which require intensive background knowledge to solve. More importantly, we design a free-text explanation scheme to explain whether an analogy should be drawn, and manually annotate them for each and every question and candidate answer. Empirical results suggest that this benchmark is very challenging for some state-of-the-art models for both explanation generation and analogical question answering tasks, which invites further research in this area.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • analogical-qa: The dataset can be used to train a model for analogical reasoning in the form of multiple-choice QA.
  • explanation-generation: The dataset can be used to generate free-text explanations to rationalize analogical reasoning.

This dataset supports two task modes: EASY mode and HARD mode:

  • EASY mode: where query explanation can be used as part of the input.
  • HARD mode: no explanation is allowed as part of the input.

Languages

This dataset is in English, which is translated from its Chinese version

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

{
  "id": "982f17-en",
  "question": "plant:coal",
  "choices": {
    "label": [
      "A",
      "B",
      "C",
      "D"
    ],
    "text": [
      "white wine:aged vinegar",
      "starch:corn",
      "milk:yogurt",
      "pickled cabbage:cabbage"
    ]
  },
  "answerKey": "C",
  "explanation": [
    "\"plant\" is the raw material of \"coal\".",
    "both \"white wine\" and \"aged vinegar\" are brewed.",
    "\"starch\" is made of \"corn\", and the order of words is inconsistent with the query.",
    "\"yogurt\" is made from \"milk\".",
    "\"pickled cabbage\" is made of \"cabbage\", and the word order is inconsistent with the query."
  ],
  "relation": [
    [["plant", "coal", "R3.7"]],
    [["white wine", "aged vinegar", "R2.4"]],
    [["corn", "starch", "R3.7"]],
    [["milk", "yogurt", "R3.7"]],
    [["cabbage", "pickled cabbage", "R3.7"]]
  ]
}

Data Fields

  • id: a string identifier for each example.
  • question: query terms.
  • choices: candidate answer terms.
  • answerKey: correct answer.
  • explanation: explanations for query (1st) and candidate answers (2nd-5th).
  • relation: annotated relations for terms in the query (1st) and candidate answers (2nd-5th).

Data Splits

name train validation test_blind test_easy_blind
default 870 119 262 262
description without query explanations (for HARD mode) with query explanations (for EASY mode)

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[Needs More Information]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[Needs More Information]

Who are the source language producers?

[Needs More Information]

Annotations

Annotation process

[Needs More Information]

Who are the annotators?

[Needs More Information]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[Needs More Information]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

The purpose of this dataset is to help develop analogical reasoning systems that are right for the right reasons.

Discussion of Biases

This dataset is sourced and translated from the Civil Service Examinations of China. Therefore, despite the effort that the authors try to remove or rewrite such problems, it may still contain information biased to Chinese culture.

Other Known Limitations

  1. The explanation annotation process in E-KAR (not the EG task) is mostly post-hoc and reflects only the result of reasoning. Humans solve the analogy problems in a trial-and-error manner, i.e., adjusting the abduced source structure and trying to find the most suited one for all candidate answers. Therefore, such explanations cannot offer supervision for intermediate reasoning.

  2. E-KAR only presents one feasible explanation for each problem, whereas there may be several.

  3. The English version of E-KAR is machine-translated and post-edited by humans. Although the authors have tried their best to maintain the translation quality, there could be some unsatisfying samples in the English dataset, e.g., culture-specific ones, ambiguous ones after translation, etc.

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

The dataset was initially created and curated by Jiangjie Chen (Fudan University, ByteDance), Rui Xu (Fudan University), Ziquan Fu (Brain Technologies, Inc.), Wei Shi (South China University of Technology), Xinbo Zhang (ByteDance), Changzhi Sun (ByteDance) and other colleagues at ByteDance and Fudan University.

Licensing Information

[Needs More Information]

Citation Information

@inproceedings{chen-etal-2022-e,
    title = "{E}-{KAR}: A Benchmark for Rationalizing Natural Language Analogical Reasoning",
    author = "Chen, Jiangjie  and
      Xu, Rui  and
      Fu, Ziquan  and
      Shi, Wei  and
      Li, Zhongqiao  and
      Zhang, Xinbo  and
      Sun, Changzhi  and
      Li, Lei  and
      Xiao, Yanghua  and
      Zhou, Hao",
    booktitle = "Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022",
    month = may,
    year = "2022",
    address = "Dublin, Ireland",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://aclanthology.org/2022.findings-acl.311",
    pages = "3941--3955",
}
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