Multilinguality: multilingual
Size Categories: unknown
Language Creators: unknown
Annotations Creators: none
Source Datasets: original
License: cc-by-3.0
Dataset Preview
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The dataset preview is not available for this split.
Cannot load the dataset split (in streaming mode) to extract the first rows.
Error code:   StreamingRowsError
Exception:    NotImplementedError
Message:      Extraction protocol for TAR archives like '' is not implemented in streaming mode. Please use `dl_manager.iter_archive` instead.

Example usage:

	url =
	tar_archive_iterator = dl_manager.iter_archive(url)

	for filename, file in tar_archive_iterator:
Traceback:    Traceback (most recent call last):
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/src/datasets_based/workers/", line 485, in compute_first_rows_response
                  rows = get_rows(
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/src/datasets_based/workers/", line 120, in decorator
                  return func(*args, **kwargs)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/src/datasets_based/workers/", line 164, in get_rows
                  ds = load_dataset(
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 1750, in load_dataset
                  return builder_instance.as_streaming_dataset(split=split)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 1206, in as_streaming_dataset
                  splits_generators = { sg for sg in self._split_generators(dl_manager)}
                File "/tmp/modules-cache/datasets_modules/datasets/GEM--wiki_lingua/84e1fa083237de0bf0016a1934d8b659ecafd567f398012ca5d702b7acc97450/", line 184, in _split_generators
                  dl_dir = dl_manager.download_and_extract(_URL)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/download/", line 973, in download_and_extract
                  return self.extract(
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/download/", line 938, in extract
                  urlpaths = map_nested(self._extract, url_or_urls, map_tuple=True)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/utils/", line 436, in map_nested
                  return function(data_struct)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/download/", line 943, in _extract
                  protocol = _get_extraction_protocol(urlpath, use_auth_token=self.download_config.use_auth_token)
                File "/src/workers/datasets_based/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/download/", line 379, in _get_extraction_protocol
                  raise NotImplementedError(
              NotImplementedError: Extraction protocol for TAR archives like '' is not implemented in streaming mode. Please use `dl_manager.iter_archive` instead.
              Example usage:
              	url =
              	tar_archive_iterator = dl_manager.iter_archive(url)
              	for filename, file in tar_archive_iterator:

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Dataset Card for GEM/wiki_lingua

Link to Main Data Card

You can find the main data card on the GEM Website.

Dataset Summary


You can load the dataset via:

import datasets
data = datasets.load_dataset('GEM/wiki_lingua')

The data loader can be found here.


None (See Repository)



Faisal Ladhak (Columbia University), Esin Durmus (Stanford University), Claire Cardie (Cornell University), Kathleen McKeown (Columbia University)

Dataset Overview

Where to find the Data and its Documentation


None (See Repository)




@inproceedings{ladhak-etal-2020-wikilingua, title = "{W}iki{L}ingua: A New Benchmark Dataset for Cross-Lingual Abstractive Summarization", author = "Ladhak, Faisal and Durmus, Esin and Cardie, Claire and McKeown, Kathleen", booktitle = "Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020", month = nov, year = "2020", address = "Online", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "", doi = "10.18653/v1/2020.findings-emnlp.360", pages = "4034--4048", abstract = "We introduce WikiLingua, a large-scale, multilingual dataset for the evaluation of cross-lingual abstractive summarization systems. We extract article and summary pairs in 18 languages from WikiHow, a high quality, collaborative resource of how-to guides on a diverse set of topics written by human authors. We create gold-standard article-summary alignments across languages by aligning the images that are used to describe each how-to step in an article. As a set of baselines for further studies, we evaluate the performance of existing cross-lingual abstractive summarization methods on our dataset. We further propose a method for direct cross-lingual summarization (i.e., without requiring translation at inference time) by leveraging synthetic data and Neural Machine Translation as a pre-training step. Our method significantly outperforms the baseline approaches, while being more cost efficient during inference.", }

Contact Name

Faisal Ladhak, Esin Durmus

Contact Email,

Has a Leaderboard?


Languages and Intended Use



Covered Dialects

Dataset does not have multiple dialects per language.

Covered Languages

English, Spanish, Castilian, Portuguese, French, German, Russian, Italian, Indonesian, Dutch, Flemish, Arabic, Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, Japanese, Korean, Hindi, Czech, Turkish

Whose Language?

No information about the user demographic is available.


cc-by-3.0: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported

Intended Use

The dataset was intended to serve as a large-scale, high-quality benchmark dataset for cross-lingual summarization.

Primary Task


Communicative Goal

Produce a high quality summary for the given input article.


Curation Organization Type(s)


Curation Organization(s)

Columbia University

Dataset Creators

Faisal Ladhak (Columbia University), Esin Durmus (Stanford University), Claire Cardie (Cornell University), Kathleen McKeown (Columbia University)

Who added the Dataset to GEM?

Jenny Chim (Queen Mary University of London), Faisal Ladhak (Columbia University)

Dataset Structure

Data Fields

gem_id -- The id for the data instance. source_language -- The language of the source article. target_language -- The language of the target summary. source -- The source document.

Example Instance

{ "gem_id": "wikilingua_crosslingual-train-12345", "gem_parent_id": "wikilingua_crosslingual-train-12345", "source_language": "fr", "target_language": "de", "source": "Document in fr", "target": "Summary in de", }

Data Splits

The data is split into train/dev/test. In addition to the full test set, there's also a sampled version of the test set.

Splitting Criteria

The data was split to ensure the same document would appear in the same split across languages so as to ensure there's no leakage into the test set.

Dataset in GEM

Rationale for Inclusion in GEM

Why is the Dataset in GEM?

This dataset provides a large-scale, high-quality resource for cross-lingual summarization in 18 languages, increasing the coverage of languages for the GEM summarization task.

Similar Datasets


Unique Language Coverage


Difference from other GEM datasets

XSum covers English news articles, and MLSum covers news articles in German and Spanish. In contrast, this dataset has how-to articles in 18 languages, substantially increasing the languages covered. Moreover, it also provides a a different domain than the other two datasets.

Ability that the Dataset measures

The ability to generate quality summaries across multiple languages.

GEM-Specific Curation

Modificatied for GEM?


GEM Modifications


Modification Details

Previous version had separate data loaders for each language. In this version, we've created a single monolingual data loader, which contains monolingual data in each of the 18 languages. In addition, we've also created a single cross-lingual data loader across all the language pairs in the dataset.

Additional Splits?


Getting Started with the Task

Previous Results

Previous Results

Measured Model Abilities

Ability to summarize content across different languages.



Proposed Evaluation

ROUGE is used to measure content selection by comparing word overlap with reference summaries. In addition, the authors of the dataset also used human evaluation to evaluate content selection and fluency of the systems.

Previous results available?


Dataset Curation

Original Curation

Original Curation Rationale

The dataset was created in order to enable new approaches for cross-lingual and multilingual summarization, which are currently understudied as well as open up inetersting new directions for research in summarization. E.g., exploration of multi-source cross-lingual architectures, i.e. models that can summarize from multiple source languages into a target language, building models that can summarize articles from any language to any other language for a given set of languages.

Communicative Goal

Given an input article, produce a high quality summary of the article in the target language.

Sourced from Different Sources


Language Data

How was Language Data Obtained?


Where was it found?

Single website

Language Producers

WikiHow, which is an online resource of how-to guides (written and reviewed by human authors) is used as the data source.

Topics Covered

The articles cover 19 broad categories including health, arts and entertainment, personal care and style, travel, education and communications, etc. The categories cover a broad set of genres and topics.

Data Validation

not validated

Was Data Filtered?

not filtered

Structured Annotations

Additional Annotations?


Annotation Service?



Any Consent Policy?


Consent Policy Details

(1) Text Content. All text posted by Users to the Service is sub-licensed by wikiHow to other Users under a Creative Commons license as provided herein. The Creative Commons license allows such text content be used freely for non-commercial purposes, so long as it is used and attributed to the original author as specified under the terms of the license. Allowing free republication of our articles helps wikiHow achieve its mission by providing instruction on solving the problems of everyday life to more people for free. In order to support this goal, wikiHow hereby grants each User of the Service a license to all text content that Users contribute to the Service under the terms and conditions of a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 License. Please be sure to read the terms of the license carefully. You continue to own all right, title, and interest in and to your User Content, and you are free to distribute it as you wish, whether for commercial or non-commercial purposes.

Other Consented Downstream Use

The data is made freely available under the Creative Commons license, therefore there are no restrictions about downstream uses as long is it's for non-commercial purposes.

Private Identifying Information (PII)

Contains PII?

no PII

Justification for no PII

Only the article text and summaries were collected. No user information was retained in the dataset.


Any Maintenance Plan?


Broader Social Context

Previous Work on the Social Impact of the Dataset

Usage of Models based on the Data

yes - other datasets featuring the same task

Impact on Under-Served Communities

Addresses needs of underserved Communities?


Discussion of Biases

Any Documented Social Biases?


Considerations for Using the Data

PII Risks and Liability


Copyright Restrictions on the Dataset

non-commercial use only

Copyright Restrictions on the Language Data

non-commercial use only

Known Technical Limitations

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