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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-0
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-0
Pterocarpus indicus ( commonly known as Amboyna wood , Malay padauk , Papua New Guinea rosewood , Philippine mahogany , Andaman redwood , Burmese rosewood , narra , angsana , or Pashu padauk ) is a species of " Pterocarpus " native to southeastern Asia , northern Australasia , and the western Pacific Ocean islands , in Cambodia , southernmost China , East Timor , Indonesia , Malaysia , Papua New Guinea , the Philippines , the Ryukyu Islands , the Solomon Islands , Thailand , and Vietnam .
Pterocarpus indicus ( commonly known as Amboyna wood , Malay padauk , Papua New Guinea rosewood , Philippine mahogany , Andaman redwood , Burmese rosewood , narra or Pashu padauk ) is a species of " Pterocarpus " native to southeastern Asia .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-1
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-1
A romantic friendship , passionate friendship , or affectionate friendship is a very close but typically non-sexual relationship between friends , often involving a degree of physical closeness beyond that which is common in the contemporary Western societies .
A romantic friendship , passionate friendship or affectionate friendship is a close but non-sexual relationship between friends that often involves a degree of physical and emotional closeness .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-2
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-2
Rocky Balboa is a 2006 American boxing sports drama film written , directed by , and starring Sylvester Stallone .
Rocky Balboa ( also known as Rocky VI ) is the sixth and final movie in the Rocky series , written , directed by and starring Sylvester Stallone .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-3
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-3
Janakinath Bose ( 28 May 1860 – 1934 ) was an Indian lawyer and advocate , who was the father of Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose .
Janakinath Bose ( 28 May 1860 – 1934 ) was an Indian lawyer and the father of Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-4
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-4
Bionics or biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology .
Bionics ( also known as biomimetics ) is the science about studying nature to create modern technology .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-5
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-5
The Ilyushin Il-18 ( ; NATO reporting name : Coot ) is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era .
Ilyushin Il-18 ( Russian : Илью ́ шин Ил-18 ; NATO reporting name : Coot ) is a Soviet large turboprop airliner , produced by Ilyushin .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-6
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-6
The seals , phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage , Pinnipedia .
The earless seals or true seals are marine mammals of the family Phocidae , one of the three pinniped families .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-7
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-7
A MUD ( ; originally Multi-User Dungeon , with later variants Multi-User Dimension and Multi-User Domain ) is a multiplayer real-time virtual world , usually text-based .
In terms of computer games , a MUD ( short for Multi-User Dungeon , Multi-User Dimension or Multi-User Domain ) is a multiplayer online game that is usually completely text-based .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-8
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-8
A plutocracy ( , " " , ' wealth ' + , " " , ' power ' ) or plutarchy is a society that is ruled or controlled by people of great wealth or income .
Plutocracy is a government by people who are rich .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-9
The Confederation of African Football or CAF is the administrative and controlling body for African association football .
The Confederation of African Football often referred to as just CAF , is the organization that controls African football .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-10
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-10
Blantyre ( or ; ) is a town and civil parish in South Lanarkshire , Scotland , with a population of 16,900 .
Blantyre is a burgh in South Lanarkshire , Scotland with a population of about 17,000 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-11
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-11
Wangari ̃ Muta Maathai ( wa ̀ ɡa ̀ ˈɹɛ -PIPE- m -PIPE- ɑː -PIPE- ˈ -PIPE- t -PIPE- aɪ ; 1 April 1940 – 25 September 2011 ) was a renowned Kenyan social , environmental and political activist and the first African woman to win the Nobel Prize .
Wangari Muta Mary Jo Maathai ( 1 April 1940 – 25 September 2011 ) was a Kenyan environmentalist , political activist and the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-12
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-12
The 1000s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1 , 1000 , and ended on December 31 , 1009 .
The 1000s was a decade that lasted from 1000 to 1999 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-13
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-13
The Mil Mi-6 ( NATO reporting name Hook ) , given the article number " izdeliye 50 " and company designation V-6 , is a Soviet / Russian heavy transport helicopter that was designed by the Mil design bureau .
Mil Mi-6 ( Russian : Мил Ми-6 ; NATO reporting name : Hook ) was a Soviet heavy transport helicopter designed by Mil .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-14
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-14
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication ( SWIFT ) , legally S.W.I.F.T. SCRL , provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure , standardized and reliable environment .
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication ( SWIFT ) is an international communication network used by the banking and financial industries .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-15
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-15
Sir George Bailey Sansom ( 28 November 1883 – 8 March 1965 ) was a British diplomat and historian of pre-modern Japan , particularly noted for his historical surveys and his attention to Japanese society and culture .
Sir George Bailey Sansom ( November 28 1883 - March 8 1965 ) was a British diplomat , academic , historian and Japanologist .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-16
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-16
The Pallas 's cat ( " Otocolobus manul " ) , also called manul , is a small wild cat with a broad but fragmented distribution in the grasslands and montane steppes of Central Asia .
Pallas ' Cat ( " Felis manul " ) , also known as the manul , is a small wild cat of Central Asia .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-17
Takeo Gerard Spikes ( ; born December 17 , 1976 ) is a former American football linebacker who played in the National Football League ( NFL ) .
Takeo Gerard Spikes ( ; born December 17 , 1976 ) is an American football linebacker who played in the National Football League ( NFL ) .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-18
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-18
The Ilyushin Il-14 ( NATO reporting name : Crate ) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950 , and entered service in 1954 .
Ilyushin Il-14 ( Ильюшин Ил-14 ; NATO reporting name : Crate ) was a Soviet twin-engine cargo aircraft for small and medium-haul airline routes and a military transport , produced by Ilyushin .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-19
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-19
Alternative Press is an American music magazine based in Cleveland , Ohio .
Alternative Press ( also abbreviated as AP ) is an American music magazine based in Cleveland , Ohio .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-20
Bjarne Stroustrup ( ; ] ; born 30 December 1950 ) is a Danish computer scientist , most notable for the creation and development of the C + + programming language .
Bjarne Stroustrup ( pronounced Jah-ney Stra-w-soup born 30th December 1950 in A ̊ rhus , Denmark ) is an American-Danish computer scientist , most famous for creating the C + + programming language .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-21
The Canadian Operational Support Command ( CANOSCOM ) ( in French : " Commandement du soutien ope ́ rationnel du Canada " or " COMSOCAN " ) was one of seven commands of the Canadian Forces ( CF ) from 2006 to 2012 .
The Canadian Operational Support Command is the branch of the Canadian Forces responsible for logistics , engineering and health services .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-22
The Mercedes-Benz Axor was a truck manufactured by Mercedes-Benz designed to fill the gap between the premium Actros tractors and the mostly rigid Atego trucks and was targeted at fleet customers .
The Mercedes-Benz Axor was a truck built by Mercedes-Benz from roughly 2001 to 2008 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-23
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-23
The Alberta Junior Hockey League ( AJHL ) is an Alberta-based Junior A ice hockey league that belongs to the Canadian Junior Hockey League ( CJHL ) .
The Alberta Junior Hockey League ( AJHL ) is an Alberta-based Junior A hockey league that belongs to the Canadian Junior Hockey League ( CJHL ) .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-24
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-24
Artemisia absinthium ( wormwood , grand wormwood , absinthe , absinthium , absinthe wormwood ) is a species of " Artemisia " native to temperate regions of Eurasia and Northern Africa and widely naturalized in Canada and the northern United States .
Wormwood ( artemisia absinthium , absinthe wormwood , common wormwood , Green Ginger or grand wormwood ) , is native to mild-climate places of Eurasia and northern Africa .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-25
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-25
Tajal Chan Ahk was an 8th-century ruler of the Maya city Cancue ́ n , whose rule lasted from 757 to c . 799 .
Tajal Chan Ahk , also T 'ah ' ak ' Cha 'an , was an 8th century ruler of the Maya city Cancue ́ n , whose rule lasted from 757 to ca . 799 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-26
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-26
In an electric power system , switchgear is composed of electrical disconnect switches , fuses or circuit breakers used to control , protect and isolate electrical equipment .
A switchgear is a combination of electrical switches , fuses or circuit breakers used to control , protect or isolate electrical equipment .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-27
Mohammed Hanif ( born November 1964 ) is a British Pakistani writer and journalist who writes a monthly opinion piece in " The New York Times . "
Mohammed Hanif ( born November 1964 ) is a Pakistani writer and novelist in English , who is best known for his award-winning novel , " A Case of Exploding Mangos " ( 2008 ) .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-28
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-28
Streets of Rage ( ヘ ゙ アナックル 怒りの鉄拳 , Bea Nakkuru : Ikari no Tekken , " Bare Knuckle : Furious Iron Fist " ) is a side-scrolling beat ' em up video game developed and published by Sega for the Mega Drive / Genesis in 1991 .
Streets of Rage is a beat ' em up game released on the Sega Mega Drive .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-29
The Antonov An-72 ( NATO reporting name : Coaler ) is a Soviet / Ukrainian transport aircraft , developed by Antonov .
Antonov An-72 ( Russian : Antonov An-72 ; NATO reporting name : Coaler ) is a Soviet / Ukrainian transport aircraft designed by Antonov .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-30
James M. Carey ( born May 31 , 1974 ) is a retired American ice hockey goaltender who played for the Washington Capitals , Boston Bruins , and St. Louis Blues in the National Hockey League ( NHL ) .
Jim Carey ( born May 31 , 1974 in Dorchester , Massachusetts ) is a American retired ice hockey goaltender .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-31
A head tie is a women 's cloth head scarf that is commonly worn in many parts of Southern Africa and Western Africa .
A head tie is a west and southern African women ’ s head scarf , specifically an elaborate ornamental head covering .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-32
Alburnoides kubanicus is a species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae .
Alburnoides kubanicus is a type of freshwater fish that lives in Russia .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-33
Face detection is a computer technology being used in a variety of applications that identifies human faces in digital images .
Face detection is a computer technology that identifies a person by the features on their face .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-34
Mega Man X2 , known as Rockman X2 ( ロックマンX2 ) in Japan , is a video game developed by Capcom for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System ( SNES ) .
Mega Man X2 , called ロックマンX2 ( Rockman X2 ) in Japan , is a platform video game made by Capcom for the Super NES game console .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-35
A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert ( TCFA ) is a bulletin released by the U.S. Navy-operated Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu , Hawaii or the Fleet Weather Center in Norfolk , Virginia , warning of the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming from a tropical disturbance that has been monitored .
A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert ( TCFA ) is a notice given out by the U.S. Navy-run Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu , Hawaii or the Naval Maritime Forecast Center in Norfolk , Virginia warning of the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming from a tropical disturbance that has been watched carefully .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-36
William Rufus Dickie ( February 20 , 1916 – December 23 , 1997 ) was a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender who played in one National Hockey League game for the Chicago Black Hawks during the 1941 – 42 NHL season .
William Rufus Dickie ( February 20 , 1916 — December 23 , 1997 ) was a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender who played for the Chicago Black Hawks in the National Hockey League during the 1941 – 42 NHL season for one game .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-37
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-37
Louis Alexandre Chiron ( 3 August 1899 – 22 June 1979 ) was a Mone ́ gasque racing driver who competed in rallies , sports car races , and Grands Prix .
Louis Alexandre Chiron ( born 3 August 1899 in Monte Carlo , Monaco – died there on 22 June 1979 ) was a Grand Prix driver .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-38
A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport .
A world record is the best performance ever made by anyone in a certain discipline .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-39
Sir Charles Geoffrey Prior KCIE ( 1896 – 1972 ) was an administrator in British India .
Sir Geoffrey Prior ( 1896-1972 ) was the first Chief commissioner of Balochistan ( Pakistan ) from 15 August 1947 to 3 October 1947 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-40
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-40
A tank car ( International Union of Railways ( UIC ) : tank wagon ) is a type of railroad car ( UIC : railway car ) or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities .
A tank car or tank wagon is a type of railroad car designed to transport liquids or gases .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-41
The Yakovlev Yak-18 ( ; NATO reporting name Max ) was a tandem two-seat military primary trainer aircraft manufactured in the Soviet Union .
Yakovlev Yak-18 ( Russian : Яковлев Як-18 ; NATO reporting name : Max ) is a Soviet 2-seat military fighter designed by Yakovlev .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-42
John Joseph Gotti Jr . ( , ] ; October 27 , 1940 – June 10 , 2002 ) was an Italian-American gangster who became boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City .
John Joseph Gotti , Jr . ( October 27 , 1940 – June 10 , 2002 ) , commonly known by the media as " The Dapper Don " and " The Teflon Don " after the murder of his former boss Paul Castellano , was the boss of the well known Gambino crime family .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-43
Nicolas Peifer , unseeded Frenchman surrendered the final match and Shingo Kunieda defend his 2009 title without play .
Shingo Kunieda , defended his 2009 title after Nicolas Peifer withdrew from the final .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-44
The year 1861 in architecture involved some significant architectural event and new buildings .
The year 1861 in architecture involved some significant events .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-45
Sub Pop is a record label founded in 1986 by Bruce Pavitt .
Sub Pop is an independent record label founded by Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman in Seattle , Washington in 1986 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-46
In public transport , a request stop , flag stop , or whistle stop is a stop or station or airport at which trains , buses or airline flights respectively stop only on request ; that is , only if there are passengers or freight to be picked up or dropped off .
A request stop , flag stop , or whistle stop is a stop , railway station or airport at which buses , trains or airline flights respectively stop only on request ; only if there are passengers or freight to be picked up or dropped off .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-47
The flag of Iraq includes the three equal horizontal red , white , and black stripes of the Arab Liberation flag .
The flag of Iraq has three horizontal bands of red , white , and black , charged with the ' ( ' , " God is the greatest " ) in green Kufic script , centered on the white stripe .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-48
The Straits of Florida , Florida Straits , or Florida Strait is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland , generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean , and between the Florida Keys ( U.S. ) and Cuba .
The Straits of Florida ( or Florida Straits ) is a strait between the Florida Keys and Cuba .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-49
Fueled By Ramen LLC is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and distributed by Elektra Records .
Fueled by Ramen is an independent record label started by John Janick and Vinnie Fiorello ( drummer and song writer of Less Than Jake ) in August 1996 in Gainesville , Florida .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-50
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-50
Red Stripe is a 4.7 % ABV pale lager brewed by Desnoes & Geddes in Jamaica .
Red Stripe is a Jamaican beer that comes in a can and a bottle .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-51
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-51
The Ilyushin Il-2 ( Cyrillic : Илью ́ шин Ил-2 ) Shturmovik The word also appears in Western sources as Stormovik and Sturmovik , neither of which give correct pronunciation in English .
Ilyushin Il-2 ( Russian : Ильюшин Ил-2 ; NATO reporting name : Bark ) was a Soviet ground-attack aircraft produced by Ilyushin in WWII .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-52
Geoffrey Noel Blake ( 9 April 1914 – 1991 ) was an English athlete who competed in the 1934 British Empire Games .
Geoffrey Noel Blake ( born April 9 , 1914 ) is an English athlete who won the 1934 British Empire Games .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-53
Bedtime Stories is a 2008 American fantasy comedy film directed by Adam Shankman and written by Matt Lopez and Tim Herlihy .
Bedtime Stories is a 2008 movie directed by Adam Shankman starring Adam Sandler .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-54
Andy Raymond Schleck ( ] ; born 10 June 1985 ) is a Luxembourgish former professional road bicycle racer .
Andy Raymond Schleck ( born 10 June 1985 ) is a road cyclist who was the winner of the Tour de France in 2010 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-55
Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin ( ; 30 March O.S. 18 March 1894 – 9 February 1977 ) was a Soviet aircraft designer who founded the Ilyushin aircraft design bureau .
Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin ( Russian : Сергеи ̆ Владимирович Ильюшин ; 30 March 1894 - 9 February 1977 ) was a Soviet aircraft designer and founder of Ilyushin .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-56
The Mil Mi-10 ( NATO reporting name Harke ) , given the product number izdeliye 60 , is a Soviet military transport helicopter of flying crane configuration , developed from the Mi-6 , entering service in 1963 .
Mil Mi-10 ( Russian : Мил Ми-8 ; NATO reporting name : Harke ) is a Soviet military transport helicopter prodiced by Mil .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-57
Crossroads is a 2002 American comedy-drama road film set in Georgia .
Crossroads is a movie from 2002 with starring Britney Spears in her first major movie role .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-58
The Greco-Roman world , Greco-Roman culture , or the term Greco-Roman ( or ) ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth ) , when used as an adjective , as understood by modern scholars and writers , refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally ( and so historically ) were directly , long-term , and intimately influenced by the language , culture , government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans .
The Greco-Roman or Graeco-Roman world , refers to geographical regions and countries who had the language , culture , government or religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-59
Tityos or Tityus ( Ancient Greek : Τιτυο ́ ς ) was a giant from Greek mythology .
Tityas is a giant in Greek mythology who chased Leto and was consequently murdered by Apollo .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-60
Karl Wilhelm Scheibler ( , 1 September 1820 – 13 April 1881 ) was a German-born Polish industrialist , businessman and textile manufacturer .
Karl Wilhelm Scheibler ( 1 September 1820 – 13 April 1881 ) was a German - Polish industrialist .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-61
Nandi ( , , , , ) is the gate-guardian deity of Kailasa , the abode of Lord Shiva .
Nandi ( , , , , ) is a bull that is pet of the Lord Shiva .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-62
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Can ̃ ada Flintridge , California , United States , though it is often referred to as residing in Pasadena , California because it has a Pasadena ZIP Code .
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ) is a NASA research center in Pasadena , California .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-63
The ELTons ( English Language Teaching Innovation Awards ) are international awards given annually by the British Council that recognise and celebrate innovation in the field of English language teaching .
The ELTon Award is given by the British Council for English language teaching innovation .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-64
Philip II ( 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223 ) , known as Philip Augustus , was King of France from 1180 to 1223 .
Philip II of France ( August 21 , 1165 – July 14 , 1223 ) , was King of France from 1180 to 1223 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-65
Nordjyllands Trafikselskab ( English : North Jutland 's Transport Company .
Nordjyllands Trafikselskab ( English : North Jutland 's Transport Company ) is a Danish company who makes the routes of regional buses in Northern Jutland .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-66
Hot sauce , also known as chili sauce or pepper sauce , is any condiment , seasoning , or salsa made from chili peppers and other ingredients .
Hot sauce , chili sauce , or pepper sauce are all spicy condiments made from chili peppers .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-67
Moreland is a census-designated place in Bingham County , Idaho , United States .
Moreland is a census-designated place ( CDP ) of Idaho in the United States .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-68
The flag of South Korea , also known as the Taegukgi ( also spelled as " Taegeukgi " , " " Taegeuk " flag " ) , has three parts : a white rectangular background , a red and blue Taegeuk in its center , and four black trigrams one toward each corner .
The flag of the South Korea , also known as the Taegukgi ( also spelled as " Taegeukgi " , literally " supreme ultimate flag " ) , has three parts : a white rectangular background , a red and blue Taeguk , symbolizing balance , in its center , and four black trigrams selected from the original eight , one toward each corner .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-69
Methods of Mayhem is an American rock band formed in 1999 by Tommy Lee , who had temporarily quit his position as Mo ̈ tley Cru ̈ e 's drummer .
Methods of Mayhem is an American heavy metal band formed in 1999 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-70
The Landseer is a dog breed .
The Landseer ( Continental-European type ) is a dog breed .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-71
Nelson Lagoon ( Unangax ̂ : " Niilsanam Alg ̂ uudaa " ) is a census-designated place ( CDP ) in Aleutians East Borough , Alaska , United States .
Nelson Lagoon is a census-designated place ( CDP ) in Alaska .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-72
Mizrahi Jews , Mizrahim , also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ( ; " Communities of the East " ; Mizrahi Hebrew : " " ) , ( " Sons of the East " ) , or Oriental Jews , are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East and North Africa from biblical times into the modern era .
Mizrahi Jews / " Oriental Jews " / " Mizrahim " are Jews who originally lived in the Middle East .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-73
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-73
In linear algebra , two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if they are orthogonal and unit vectors .
Two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if and only if they are orthogonal ( perpendicular ) and unit vectors .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-74
Encyclopaedia Metallum : The Metal Archives ( commonly known as Metal Archives per the URL or just MA ) is a website which lists bands of predominantly heavy metal music .
Encyclopaedia Metallum : The Metal Archives is a website which lists bands from various forms of heavy metal music .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-75
Center Ridge is an unincorporated census-designated place in Conway County , Arkansas , United States .
Center Ridge is a census-designated place ( CDP ) in Arkansas , United States .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-76
George Stoneman Jr . ( August 8 , 1822 – September 5 , 1894 ) was a United States Army cavalry officer , trained at West Point , where his roommate was Stonewall Jackson .
George Stoneman , Jr . ( August 22 , 1822 – September 5 , 1894 ) was a career U.S. Army officer , a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War , and the Governor of California between 1883 and 1887 .
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wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-77
Stigmatomma saundersi is a species of ant in the genus " Stigmatomma " , endemic to New Zealand .
Amblyopone saundersi is an ant in the subfamily Amblyoponinae , endemic to New Zealand .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-78
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-78
The Portulacaceae are a family of flowering plants , comprising 115 species in a single genus " Portulaca " .
Portulacaceae is a family of flowering plants , comprising about 20 genera with about 500 species , ranging from herbaceous plants to shrubs .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-79
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-79
John George Kemeny ( born Keme ́ ny Ja ́ nos Gyo ̈ rgy ; May 31 , 1926 – December 26 , 1992 ) was a Hungarian-born American mathematician , computer scientist , and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas E. Kurtz .
John George Kemeny ( 31 May 1926 - 26 December 1992 ) developed BASIC with Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College , in 1964 .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-80
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-80
Tun Haji Abdul Razak bin Dato ' Hussein SMN KStJ ( 11 March 1922 - 14 January 1976 ) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia , serving from 1970 to 1976 .
Yang DiHormat Orang Kaya Indera Shahbandar ke-10 , Tun Haji Abdul Razak bin Dato ' Hussein , DMN , SMN , KStJ , ( Jawi : عبدالرزاق حسین ; 11 March 1922 ; 14 January 1976 ) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1970 to 1976 .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-81
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-81
Asterales is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae ( or Compositae ) known for composite flowers made of florets , and ten families related to the Asteraceae .
The Asterales are an order of flowering plants which include the composite family Asteraceae ( sunflowers , daisies , thistles , etc . ) and its related families .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-82
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-82
Hydra the Revenge ( sometimes simply shortened to Hydra ) is a steel Floorless Coaster at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom in Allentown , Pennsylvania , United States .
Hydra the Revenge is a steel floorless coaster located at Dorney Park .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-83
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-83
The brahminy river turtle or crowned river turtle ( " Hardella thurjii " ) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae .
The Brahminy River Turtle or Crowned River Turtle ( " Hardella thurjii " ) is a species of turtle found in northern India , Pakistan , and Bangladesh ( in the watersheds of the Ganges , Brahmaputra , and Indus rivers ) .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-84
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-84
Garden Valley is an unincorporated census-designated place in Boise County , Idaho , United States .
Garden Valley is a census-designated place ( CDP ) of Idaho in the United States .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-85
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-85
Jewel of the Seas is a " Radiance " class cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean .
The MS " Jewel of the Seas " is a cruise ship belonging to Royal Caribbean 's " Radiance " class .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-86
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-86
The Bama Boyz ( a.k.a. the Bamaz ) are a Grammy-nominated , Dove Award-winning , American record production , songwriting , and artist trio , consisting of Eddie “ E-Trez ” Smith III , Jesse J. Rankins , Jonathan D. Wells .
The Bama Boyz ( a.k.a the Bamaz ) are a Grammy-nominated , Dove Award winning , American record production , songwriting , and artist trio , with Eddie “ E-Trez ” Smith III , Jesse J. Rankins , Jonathan D. Wells as members .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-87
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-87
Sranan Tongo ( also Sranantongo " Surinamese tongue " , Sranan , Surinaams , Surinamese , Surinamese Creole , Taki Taki ) is an English-based creole language that is spoken as a " lingua franca " by approximately 500,000 people in Suriname .
Sranan Tongo ( also known as Sranantongo and Sranan ) is an English creole language spoken in Suriname .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-88
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-88
The 930s decade ran from January 1 , 930 , to December 31 , 939 .
Below are some of the important events that happened from 930 to 939 .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-89
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-89
The Luxembourgish Wikipedia ( " " ) is the Luxembourgish language version of Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia .
Luxembourgish Wikipedia is the Luxembourgish language edition of Wikipedia .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-90
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-90
The Coast Miwok are an indigenous people that was the second largest group of Miwok people .
The Coast Miwok were a Native American tribe who lived in what is now Northern California .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-91
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-91
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) is a civil rights organization in the United States , formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois , Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey .
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People or NAACP ( pronounced N-double-A-C-P ) is a civil rights organization in the United States , created for the advancement of black people by means of following judicial policies .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-92
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-92
The 2013 San Diego Padres season was their 45th season in MLB , and their 9th at Petco Park .
The 2013 San Diego Padres season began with two losses to the New York Mets .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-93
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-93
A measuring cup or measuring jug is a kitchen utensil used primarily to measure the volume of liquid or bulk solid cooking ingredients such as flour and sugar , especially for volumes from about 50 mL ( 2 fl oz ) upwards .
A measuring cup is a cup used to measure liquids or other ingredients , such as sugar or flour .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-94
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-94
A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas , most commonly air .
A whistle is a thing that uses a stream of gas ( usually air ) to make a sound , or the act of making a similar sound called whistling .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-95
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-95
In social philosophy , objectification is the act of treating a person , or sometimes an animal , as an object or a thing .
Objectification refers to the treating of an abstract concept as a real thing .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-96
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-96
Cutout animation is a form of stop-motion animation using flat characters , props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper , card , stiff fabric or even photographs .
Cutout animation is a method for creating animations using flat characters , props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper , card , stiff fabric or even photographs .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-97
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-97
Robert Moses " Lefty " Grove ( March 6 , 1900 – May 22 , 1975 ) was an American professional baseball pitcher .
Robert Moses " Lefty " Grove ( March 6 , 1900 – May 22 , 1975 ) was a pitcher in Major League Baseball .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-98
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-98
The Spengler Cup is an annual invitational ice hockey tournament held in Davos , Switzerland .
The Spengler Cup is an ice hockey tournament in Davos , Switzerland .
[]
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-99
wiki_auto_asset_turk-train-99
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder , usually associated with breastfeeding .
" Mastitis " is an inflammation in the breast cells .
[]

Dataset Card for GEM/wiki_auto_asset_turk

Link to Main Data Card

You can find the main data card on the GEM Website.

Dataset Summary

WikiAuto is an English simplification dataset that we paired with ASSET and TURK, two very high-quality evaluation datasets, as test sets. The input is an English sentence taken from Wikipedia and the target a simplified sentence. ASSET and TURK contain the same test examples but have references that are simplified in different ways (splitting sentences vs. rewriting and splitting).

You can load the dataset via:

import datasets
data = datasets.load_dataset('GEM/wiki_auto_asset_turk')

The data loader can be found here.

website

n/a

paper

WikiAuto, ASSET, TURK

authors

WikiAuto: Chao Jiang, Mounica Maddela, Wuwei Lan, Yang Zhong, Wei Xu; ASSET: Fernando Alva-Manchego, Louis Martin, Antoine Bordes, Carolina Scarton, and Benoîıt Sagot, and Lucia Specia; TURK: Wei Xu, Courtney Napoles, Ellie Pavlick, Quanze Chen, and Chris Callison-Burch

Dataset Overview

Where to find the Data and its Documentation

Download

Wiki-Auto repository, ASSET repository, TURKCorpus

Paper

WikiAuto, ASSET, TURK

BibTex

WikiAuto:

@inproceedings{jiang-etal-2020-neural,
    title = "Neural {CRF} Model for Sentence Alignment in Text Simplification",
    author = "Jiang, Chao  and
      Maddela, Mounica  and
      Lan, Wuwei  and
      Zhong, Yang  and
      Xu, Wei",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    month = jul,
    year = "2020",
    address = "Online",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.acl-main.709",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/2020.acl-main.709",
    pages = "7943--7960",
}

ASSET:

@inproceedings{alva-manchego-etal-2020-asset,
    title = "{ASSET}: {A} Dataset for Tuning and Evaluation of Sentence Simplification Models with Multiple Rewriting Transformations",
    author = "Alva-Manchego, Fernando  and
      Martin, Louis  and
      Bordes, Antoine  and
      Scarton, Carolina  and
      Sagot, Beno{\^\i}t  and
      Specia, Lucia",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    month = jul,
    year = "2020",
    address = "Online",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.acl-main.424",
    pages = "4668--4679",
}

TURK:

@article{Xu-EtAl:2016:TACL,
 author = {Wei Xu and Courtney Napoles and Ellie Pavlick and Quanze Chen and Chris Callison-Burch},
 title = {Optimizing Statistical Machine Translation for Text Simplification},
 journal = {Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
 volume = {4},
 year = {2016},
 url = {https://cocoxu.github.io/publications/tacl2016-smt-simplification.pdf},
 pages = {401--415}
 }

Contact Name

WikiAuto: Chao Jiang; ASSET: Fernando Alva-Manchego and Louis Martin; TURK: Wei Xu

Contact Email

jiang.1530@osu.edu, f.alva@sheffield.ac.uk, louismartincs@gmail.com, wei.xu@cc.gatech.edu

Has a Leaderboard?

no

Languages and Intended Use

Multilingual?

no

Covered Languages

English

Whose Language?

Wiki-Auto contains English text only (BCP-47: en). It is presented as a translation task where Wikipedia Simple English is treated as its own idiom. For a statement of what is intended (but not always observed) to constitute Simple English on this platform, see Simple English in Wikipedia. Both ASSET and TURK use crowdsourcing to change references, and their language is thus a combination of the WikiAuto data and the language of the demographic on mechanical Turk

License

other: Other license

Intended Use

WikiAuto provides a set of aligned sentences from English Wikipedia and Simple English Wikipedia as a resource to train sentence simplification systems.

The authors first crowd-sourced a set of manual alignments between sentences in a subset of the Simple English Wikipedia and their corresponding versions in English Wikipedia (this corresponds to the manual config in this version of the dataset), then trained a neural CRF system to predict these alignments.

The trained alignment prediction model was then applied to the other articles in Simple English Wikipedia with an English counterpart to create a larger corpus of aligned sentences (corresponding to the auto and auto_acl configs here).

ASSET (Alva-Manchego et al., 2020) is multi-reference dataset for the evaluation of sentence simplification in English. The dataset uses the same 2,359 sentences from TurkCorpus (Xu et al., 2016) and each sentence is associated with 10 crowdsourced simplifications. Unlike previous simplification datasets, which contain a single transformation (e.g., lexical paraphrasing in TurkCorpus or sentence splitting in HSplit), the simplifications in ASSET encompass a variety of rewriting transformations.

TURKCorpus is a high quality simplification dataset where each source (not simple) sentence is associated with 8 human-written simplifications that focus on lexical paraphrasing. It is one of the two evaluation datasets for the text simplification task in GEM. It acts as the validation and test set for paraphrasing-based simplification that does not involve sentence splitting and deletion.

Add. License Info

WikiAuto: CC BY-NC 3.0, ASSET: CC BY-NC 4.0, TURK: GNU General Public License v3.0

Primary Task

Simplification

Communicative Goal

The goal is to communicate the main ideas of source sentence in a way that is easier to understand by non-native speakers of English.

Credit

Curation Organization Type(s)

academic, industry

Curation Organization(s)

Ohio State University, University of Sheffield, Inria, Facebook AI Research, Imperial College London, University of Pennsylvania, John Hopkins University

Dataset Creators

WikiAuto: Chao Jiang, Mounica Maddela, Wuwei Lan, Yang Zhong, Wei Xu; ASSET: Fernando Alva-Manchego, Louis Martin, Antoine Bordes, Carolina Scarton, and Benoîıt Sagot, and Lucia Specia; TURK: Wei Xu, Courtney Napoles, Ellie Pavlick, Quanze Chen, and Chris Callison-Burch

Funding

WikiAuto: NSF, ODNI, IARPA, Figure Eight AI, and Criteo. ASSET: PRAIRIE Institute, ANR. TURK: NSF

Who added the Dataset to GEM?

GEM v1 had separate data cards for WikiAuto, ASSET, and TURK. They were contributed by Dhruv Kumar and Mounica Maddela. The initial data loader was written by Yacine Jernite. Sebastian Gehrmann merged and extended the data cards and migrated the loader to the v2 infrastructure.

Dataset Structure

Data Fields

  • source: A source sentence from one of the datasets
  • target: A single simplified sentence corresponding to source
  • references: In the case of ASSET/TURK, references is a list of strings corresponding to the different references.

Reason for Structure

The underlying datasets have extensive secondary annotations that can be used in conjunction with the GEM version. We omit those annotations to simplify the format into one that can be used by seq2seq models.

Example Instance

{
  'source': 'In early work, Rutherford discovered the concept of radioactive half-life , the radioactive element radon, and differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation .',
 'target': 'Rutherford discovered the radioactive half-life, and the three parts of radiation which he named Alpha, Beta, and Gamma.'
}

Data Splits

In WikiAuto, which is used as training and validation set, the following splits are provided:

Tain Dev Test
Total sentence pairs 373801 73249 118074
Aligned sentence pairs 1889 346 677

ASSET does not contain a training set; many models use WikiLarge (Zhang and Lapata, 2017) for training. For GEM, Wiki-Auto will be used for training the model.

Each input sentence has 10 associated reference simplified sentences. The statistics of ASSET are given below.

Dev Test Total
Input Sentences 2000 359 2359
Reference Simplifications 20000 3590 23590

The test and validation sets are the same as those of TurkCorpus. The split was random.

There are 19.04 tokens per reference on average (lower than 21.29 and 25.49 for TurkCorpus and HSplit, respectively). Most (17,245) of the referece sentences do not involve sentence splitting.

TURKCorpus does not contain a training set; many models use WikiLarge (Zhang and Lapata, 2017) or Wiki-Auto (Jiang et. al 2020) for training.

Each input sentence has 8 associated reference simplified sentences. 2,359 input sentences are randomly split into 2,000 validation and 359 test sentences.

Dev Test Total
Input Sentences 2000 359 2359
Reference Simplifications 16000 2872 18872

There are 21.29 tokens per reference on average.

Splitting Criteria

In our setup, we use WikiAuto as training/validation corpus and ASSET and TURK as test corpora. ASSET and TURK have the same inputs but differ in their reference style. Researchers can thus conduct targeted evaluations based on the strategies that a model should learn.

Dataset in GEM

Rationale for Inclusion in GEM

Why is the Dataset in GEM?

WikiAuto is the largest open text simplification dataset currently available. ASSET and TURK are high quality test sets that are compatible with WikiAuto.

Similar Datasets

yes

Unique Language Coverage

no

Difference from other GEM datasets

It's unique setup with multiple test sets makes the task interesting since it allows for evaluation of multiple generations and systems that simplify in different ways.

Ability that the Dataset measures

simplification

GEM-Specific Curation

Modificatied for GEM?

yes

GEM Modifications

other

Modification Details

We removed secondary annotations and focus on the simple input->output format, but combine the different sub-datasets.

Additional Splits?

yes

Split Information

we split the original test set according to syntactic complexity of the source sentences. To characterize sentence syntactic complexity, we use the 8-level developmental level (d-level) scale proposed by Covington et al. (2006) and the implementation of Lu, Xiaofei (2010). We thus split the original test set into 8 subsets corresponding to the 8 d-levels assigned to source sentences. We obtain the following number of instances per level and average d-level of the dataset:

Total nb. sentences L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 Mean Level
359 166 0 58 32 5 28 7 63 2.38

Split Motivation

The goal was to assess performance when simplifying source sentences with different syntactic structure and complexity.

Getting Started with the Task

Pointers to Resources

There are recent supervised (Martin et al., 2019, Kriz et al., 2019, Dong et al., 2019, Zhang and Lapata, 2017) and unsupervised (Martin et al., 2020, Kumar et al., 2020, Surya et al., 2019) text simplification models that can be used as baselines.

Technical Terms

The common metric used for automatic evaluation is SARI (Xu et al., 2016).

Previous Results

Previous Results

Measured Model Abilities

Simplification

Metrics

Other: Other Metrics, BLEU

Other Metrics

SARI: A simplification metric that considers both input and references to measure the "goodness" of words that are added, deleted, and kept.

Proposed Evaluation

The original authors of WikiAuto and ASSET used human evaluation to assess the fluency, adequacy, and simplicity (details provided in the paper). For TURK, the authors measured grammaticality, meaning-preservation, and simplicity gain (details in the paper).

Previous results available?

no

Dataset Curation

Original Curation

Original Curation Rationale

Wiki-Auto provides a new version of the Wikipedia corpus that is larger, contains 75% less defective pairs and has more complex rewrites than the previous WIKILARGE dataset.

ASSET was created in order to improve the evaluation of sentence simplification. It uses the same input sentences as the TurkCorpus dataset from (Xu et al., 2016). The 2,359 input sentences of TurkCorpus are a sample of "standard" (not simple) sentences from the Parallel Wikipedia Simplification (PWKP) dataset (Zhu et al., 2010), which come from the August 22, 2009 version of Wikipedia. The sentences of TurkCorpus were chosen to be of similar length (Xu et al., 2016). No further information is provided on the sampling strategy.

The TurkCorpus dataset was developed in order to overcome some of the problems with sentence pairs from Standard and Simple Wikipedia: a large fraction of sentences were misaligned, or not actually simpler (Xu et al., 2016). However, TurkCorpus mainly focused on lexical paraphrasing, and so cannot be used to evaluate simplifications involving compression (deletion) or sentence splitting. HSplit (Sulem et al., 2018), on the other hand, can only be used to evaluate sentence splitting. The reference sentences in ASSET include a wider variety of sentence rewriting strategies, combining splitting, compression and paraphrasing. Annotators were given examples of each kind of transformation individually, as well as all three transformations used at once, but were allowed to decide which transformations to use for any given sentence.

An example illustrating the differences between TurkCorpus, HSplit and ASSET is given below:

Original: He settled in London, devoting himself chiefly to practical teaching.

TurkCorpus: He rooted in London, devoting himself mainly to practical teaching.

HSplit: He settled in London. He devoted himself chiefly to practical teaching.

ASSET: He lived in London. He was a teacher.

Communicative Goal

The goal is to communicate the same information as the source sentence using simpler words and grammar.

Sourced from Different Sources

yes

Source Details

Wikipedia

Language Data

How was Language Data Obtained?

Found

Where was it found?

Single website

Language Producers

The dataset uses language from Wikipedia: some demographic information is provided here.

Data Validation

not validated

Was Data Filtered?

algorithmically

Filter Criteria

The authors mention that they "extracted 138,095 article pairs from the 2019/09 Wikipedia dump using an improved version of the WikiExtractor library". The SpaCy library is used for sentence splitting.

Structured Annotations

Additional Annotations?

crowd-sourced

Number of Raters

11<n<50

Rater Qualifications

WikiAuto (Figure Eight): No information provided.

ASSET (MTurk):

  • Having a HIT approval rate over 95%, and over 1000 HITs approved. No other demographic or compensation information is provided.
  • Passing a Qualification Test (appropriately simplifying sentences). Out of 100 workers, 42 passed the test.
  • Being a resident of the United States, United Kingdom or Canada.

TURK (MTurk):

  • Reference sentences were written by workers with HIT approval rate over 95%. No other demographic or compensation information is provided.

Raters per Training Example

1

Raters per Test Example

5

Annotation Service?

yes

Which Annotation Service

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Appen

Annotation Values

WikiAuto: Sentence alignment labels were crowdsourced for 500 randomly sampled document pairs (10,123 sentence pairs total). The authors pre-selected several alignment candidates from English Wikipedia for each Simple Wikipedia sentence based on various similarity metrics, then asked the crowd-workers to annotate these pairs. Finally, they trained their alignment model on this manually annotated dataset to obtain automatically aligned sentences (138,095 document pairs, 488,332 sentence pairs). No demographic annotation is provided for the crowd workers. The Figure Eight platform now part of Appen) was used for the annotation process.

ASSET: The instructions given to the annotators are available here.

TURK: The references are crowdsourced from Amazon Mechanical Turk. The annotators were asked to provide simplifications without losing any information or splitting the input sentence. No other demographic or compensation information is provided in the TURKCorpus paper. The instructions given to the annotators are available in the paper.

Any Quality Control?

none

Consent

Any Consent Policy?

yes

Consent Policy Details

Both Figure Eight and Amazon Mechanical Turk raters forfeit the right to their data as part of their agreements.

Private Identifying Information (PII)

Contains PII?

no PII

Justification for no PII

Since the dataset is created from Wikipedia/Simple Wikipedia, all the information contained in the dataset is already in the public domain.

Maintenance

Any Maintenance Plan?

no

Broader Social Context

Previous Work on the Social Impact of the Dataset

Usage of Models based on the Data

no

Impact on Under-Served Communities

Addresses needs of underserved Communities?

no

Discussion of Biases

Any Documented Social Biases?

yes

Links and Summaries of Analysis Work

The dataset may contain some social biases, as the input sentences are based on Wikipedia. Studies have shown that the English Wikipedia contains both gender biases (Schmahl et al., 2020) and racial biases (Adams et al., 2019).

Considerations for Using the Data

PII Risks and Liability

Potential PII Risk

All the data is in the public domain.

Licenses

Copyright Restrictions on the Dataset

open license - commercial use allowed

Copyright Restrictions on the Language Data

open license - commercial use allowed

Known Technical Limitations

Technical Limitations

The dataset may contain some social biases, as the input sentences are based on Wikipedia. Studies have shown that the English Wikipedia contains both gender biases (Schmahl et al., 2020) and racial biases (Adams et al., 2019).

Unsuited Applications

Since the test datasets contains only 2,359 sentences that are derived from Wikipedia, they are limited to a small subset of topics present on Wikipedia.

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