Datasets:
GEM
/
squad_v2

Tasks:
Other
Languages: English
Multilinguality: unknown
Size Categories: unknown
Language Creators: unknown
Annotations Creators: crowd-sourced
Source Datasets: original
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gem_id (string)id (string)title (string)context (string)question (string)target (string)references (list)answers (sequence)
"gem-squad_v2-train-0"
"56f89ee99b226e1400dd0cd5"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau (i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/, GI-nee-bi-SOW), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000."
"What is the official name for Guinea-Bissau?"
"What is the official name for Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "What is the official name for Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "the Republic of Guinea-Bissau" ], "answer_start": [ 59 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-1"
"56f89ee99b226e1400dd0cd6"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau (i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/, GI-nee-bi-SOW), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000."
"Where is Guinea-Bissau located?"
"Where is Guinea-Bissau located?"
[ "Where is Guinea-Bissau located?" ]
{ "text": [ "West Africa" ], "answer_start": [ 188 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-2"
"56f89ee99b226e1400dd0cd7"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau (i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/, GI-nee-bi-SOW), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000."
"How many square miles is Guinea-Bissau?"
"How many square miles is Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "How many square miles is Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "13,948 sq mi" ], "answer_start": [ 237 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-3"
"56f89ee99b226e1400dd0cd8"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau (i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/, GI-nee-bi-SOW), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000."
"What is the estimated population of Guinea-Bissau?"
"What is the estimated population of Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "What is the estimated population of Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "1,704,000" ], "answer_start": [ 283 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-4"
"56f89ee99b226e1400dd0cd9"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau (i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/, GI-nee-bi-SOW), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000."
"How many kilometers does Guinea-Bissau cover?"
"How many kilometers does Guinea-Bissau cover?"
[ "How many kilometers does Guinea-Bissau cover?" ]
{ "text": [ "36,125" ], "answer_start": [ 211 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-5"
"56f89fcd9e9bad19000a01ed"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once part of?"
"What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once part of?"
[ "What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once part of?" ]
{ "text": [ "Gabu" ], "answer_start": [ 46 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-6"
"56f89fcd9e9bad19000a01ee"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"What empire was Guinea-Bissau once part of?"
"What empire was Guinea-Bissau once part of?"
[ "What empire was Guinea-Bissau once part of?" ]
{ "text": [ "Mali Empire" ], "answer_start": [ 75 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-7"
"56f89fcd9e9bad19000a01ef"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"What year was Guinea-Bissau declared independent?"
"What year was Guinea-Bissau declared independent?"
[ "What year was Guinea-Bissau declared independent?" ]
{ "text": [ "1973" ], "answer_start": [ 324 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-8"
"56f89fcd9e9bad19000a01f0"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"What country did Guinea-Bissau seek to differentiate itself from?"
"What country did Guinea-Bissau seek to differentiate itself from?"
[ "What country did Guinea-Bissau seek to differentiate itself from?" ]
{ "text": [ "Guinea (formerly French Guinea)" ], "answer_start": [ 444 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-9"
"56f89fcd9e9bad19000a01f1"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"Guinea-Bissau has a history of what since independence?"
"Guinea-Bissau has a history of what since independence?"
[ "Guinea-Bissau has a history of what since independence?" ]
{ "text": [ "political instability" ], "answer_start": [ 508 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-10"
"56f8a0a89b226e1400dd0cf9"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world."
"What percentage of the population speaks Portuguese?"
"What percentage of the population speaks Portuguese?"
[ "What percentage of the population speaks Portuguese?" ]
{ "text": [ "14%" ], "answer_start": [ 5 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-11"
"56f8a0a89b226e1400dd0cfa"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world."
"What percentage of the population speaks Crioulo?"
"What percentage of the population speaks Crioulo?"
[ "What percentage of the population speaks Crioulo?" ]
{ "text": [ "44%" ], "answer_start": [ 135 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-12"
"56f8a0a89b226e1400dd0cfb"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world."
"What are the two main religions?"
"What are the two main religions?"
[ "What are the two main religions?" ]
{ "text": [ "African traditional religions and Islam" ], "answer_start": [ 278 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-13"
"56f8a0a89b226e1400dd0cfc"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world."
"What is their gross domestic product status?"
"What is their gross domestic product status?"
[ "What is their gross domestic product status?" ]
{ "text": [ "one of the lowest in the world" ], "answer_start": [ 425 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-14"
"56f8a0a89b226e1400dd0cfd"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world."
"What is the minority religion?"
"What is the minority religion?"
[ "What is the minority religion?" ]
{ "text": [ "Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)" ], "answer_start": [ 330 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-15"
"56f8a1a49b226e1400dd0d09"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone."
"What Islamic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
"What Islamic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
[ "What Islamic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?" ]
{ "text": [ "Organisation of Islamic Cooperation" ], "answer_start": [ 107 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-16"
"56f8a1a49b226e1400dd0d0a"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone."
"What Portuguese organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
"What Portuguese organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
[ "What Portuguese organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?" ]
{ "text": [ "Community of Portuguese Language Countries" ], "answer_start": [ 161 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-17"
"56f8a1a49b226e1400dd0d0b"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone."
"What West African organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
"What West African organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
[ "What West African organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?" ]
{ "text": [ "Economic Community of West African States" ], "answer_start": [ 64 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-18"
"56f8a1a49b226e1400dd0d0c"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone."
"What South Atlantic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
"What South Atlantic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
[ "What South Atlantic organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?" ]
{ "text": [ "South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone" ], "answer_start": [ 229 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-19"
"56f8a1a49b226e1400dd0d0d"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone."
"What Latin organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
"What Latin organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?"
[ "What Latin organization does Guinea-Bissau belong to?" ]
{ "text": [ "the Latin Union" ], "answer_start": [ 144 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-20"
"56f8a8539b226e1400dd0d6f"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East."
"What area was known as the Slave Coast?"
"What area was known as the Slave Coast?"
[ "What area was known as the Slave Coast?" ]
{ "text": [ "Portuguese Guinea" ], "answer_start": [ 244 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-21"
"56f8a8539b226e1400dd0d70"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East."
"Who exported African slaves to the western hemisphere?"
"Who exported African slaves to the western hemisphere?"
[ "Who exported African slaves to the western hemisphere?" ]
{ "text": [ "Europeans" ], "answer_start": [ 356 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-22"
"56f8a8539b226e1400dd0d71"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East."
"What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once a part of?"
"What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once a part of?"
[ "What kingdom was Guinea-Bissau once a part of?" ]
{ "text": [ "Gabu" ], "answer_start": [ 46 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-23"
"56f8a8539b226e1400dd0d72"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East."
"How long did the Mali Empire persist?"
"How long did the Mali Empire persist?"
[ "How long did the Mali Empire persist?" ]
{ "text": [ "until the 18th century" ], "answer_start": [ 109 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-24"
"56f8a8539b226e1400dd0d73"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East."
"Who traded slaves into the Middle East?"
"Who traded slaves into the Middle East?"
[ "Who traded slaves into the Middle East?" ]
{ "text": [ "Arabs" ], "answer_start": [ 430 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-25"
"56f8a93c9b226e1400dd0d85"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau."
"When was Alvise Cadamosto's voyage?"
"When was Alvise Cadamosto's voyage?"
[ "When was Alvise Cadamosto's voyage?" ]
{ "text": [ "1455" ], "answer_start": [ 105 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-26"
"56f8a93c9b226e1400dd0d86"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau."
"When was Eustache de la Fosse's voyage?"
"When was Eustache de la Fosse's voyage?"
[ "When was Eustache de la Fosse's voyage?" ]
{ "text": [ "1479–1480" ], "answer_start": [ 115 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-27"
"56f8a93c9b226e1400dd0d87"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau."
"What was the name of the Portuguese explorer?"
"What was the name of the Portuguese explorer?"
[ "What was the name of the Portuguese explorer?" ]
{ "text": [ "Diogo Cão" ], "answer_start": [ 183 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-28"
"56f8a93c9b226e1400dd0d88"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau."
"What river did Diogo Cao reach in the 1480's?"
"What river did Diogo Cao reach in the 1480's?"
[ "What river did Diogo Cao reach in the 1480's?" ]
{ "text": [ "Congo River" ], "answer_start": [ 244 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-29"
"56f8a93c9b226e1400dd0d89"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau."
"What country is about 4200 km from Guinea-Bissau?"
"What country is about 4200 km from Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "What country is about 4200 km from Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "Angola" ], "answer_start": [ 319 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-30"
"56f8aa3e9e9bad19000a029b"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers."
"What areas were the first places colonized by the Portuguese?"
"What areas were the first places colonized by the Portuguese?"
[ "What areas were the first places colonized by the Portuguese?" ]
{ "text": [ "the rivers and coast" ], "answer_start": [ 9 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-31"
"56f8aa3e9e9bad19000a029c"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers."
"When did the Portuguese first set up trading posts in Guinea-Bissau?"
"When did the Portuguese first set up trading posts in Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "When did the Portuguese first set up trading posts in Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "16th century" ], "answer_start": [ 132 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-32"
"56f8aa3e9e9bad19000a029d"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers."
"When did the Portuguese explore the interior of Guinea-Bissau?"
"When did the Portuguese explore the interior of Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "When did the Portuguese explore the interior of Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "19th century" ], "answer_start": [ 190 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-33"
"56f8aa3e9e9bad19000a029e"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers."
"Who controlled the inland trade in Guinea-Bissau during this time?"
"Who controlled the inland trade in Guinea-Bissau during this time?"
[ "Who controlled the inland trade in Guinea-Bissau during this time?" ]
{ "text": [ "local African rulers" ], "answer_start": [ 208 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-34"
"56f8aa3e9e9bad19000a029f"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers."
"What ports were the Portuguese restricted to?"
"What ports were the Portuguese restricted to?"
[ "What ports were the Portuguese restricted to?" ]
{ "text": [ "Bissau and Cacheu" ], "answer_start": [ 637 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-35"
"56f8abb19e9bad19000a02af"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal."
"Who tried to establish a rival foothold at Bolama?"
"Who tried to establish a rival foothold at Bolama?"
[ "Who tried to establish a rival foothold at Bolama?" ]
{ "text": [ "the British" ], "answer_start": [ 33 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-36"
"56f8abb19e9bad19000a02b0"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal."
"When was a rival foothold attempted at Bolama?"
"When was a rival foothold attempted at Bolama?"
[ "When was a rival foothold attempted at Bolama?" ]
{ "text": [ "the 1790s" ], "answer_start": [ 22 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-37"
"56f8abb19e9bad19000a02b1"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal."
"Who regarded Bolama as their own in the 19th century?"
"Who regarded Bolama as their own in the 19th century?"
[ "Who regarded Bolama as their own in the 19th century?" ]
{ "text": [ "the Portuguese" ], "answer_start": [ 139 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-38"
"56f8abb19e9bad19000a02b2"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal."
"What other area did the Portuguese regard as their special territory?"
"What other area did the Portuguese regard as their special territory?"
[ "What other area did the Portuguese regard as their special territory?" ]
{ "text": [ "part of present South Senegal" ], "answer_start": [ 275 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-39"
"56f8abb19e9bad19000a02b3"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal."
"What rival did the Portuguese fend off in Guinea-Bissau?"
"What rival did the Portuguese fend off in Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "What rival did the Portuguese fend off in Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "the British" ], "answer_start": [ 33 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-40"
"56f8ac9b9e9bad19000a02c9"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated."
"What group started an armed rebellion in Guinea-Bissau?"
"What group started an armed rebellion in Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "What group started an armed rebellion in Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC)" ], "answer_start": [ 44 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-41"
"56f8ac9b9e9bad19000a02ca"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated."
"When did the armed rebellion begin?"
"When did the armed rebellion begin?"
[ "When did the armed rebellion begin?" ]
{ "text": [ "1956" ], "answer_start": [ 32 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-42"
"56f8ac9b9e9bad19000a02cb"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated."
"Who was the leader of the armed rebellion?"
"Who was the leader of the armed rebellion?"
[ "Who was the leader of the armed rebellion?" ]
{ "text": [ "Amílcar Cabral" ], "answer_start": [ 136 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-43"
"56f8ac9b9e9bad19000a02cc"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated."
"Who supplied doctors and technicians to the rebels?"
"Who supplied doctors and technicians to the rebels?"
[ "Who supplied doctors and technicians to the rebels?" ]
{ "text": [ "Cuba" ], "answer_start": [ 545 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-44"
"56f8ac9b9e9bad19000a02cd"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated."
"When was Cabral assassinated?"
"When was Cabral assassinated?"
[ "When was Cabral assassinated?" ]
{ "text": [ "January 1973" ], "answer_start": [ 842 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-45"
"56f8c6b29e9bad19000a0496"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime."
"When was independence declared?"
"When was independence declared?"
[ "When was independence declared?" ]
{ "text": [ "24 September 1973" ], "answer_start": [ 42 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-46"
"56f8c6b29e9bad19000a0497"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime."
"What date was independence considered universal? "
"What date was independence considered universal? "
[ "What date was independence considered universal? " ]
{ "text": [ "25 April 1974" ], "answer_start": [ 104 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-47"
"56f8c6b29e9bad19000a0498"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime."
"What event caused the recognition to be universal?"
"What event caused the recognition to be universal?"
[ "What event caused the recognition to be universal?" ]
{ "text": [ "socialist-inspired military coup" ], "answer_start": [ 118 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-48"
"56f8c6b29e9bad19000a0499"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime."
"Where did a coup take place?"
"Where did a coup take place?"
[ "Where did a coup take place?" ]
{ "text": [ "Portugal" ], "answer_start": [ 154 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-49"
"56f8c6b29e9bad19000a049a"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime."
"Who was overthrown in the coup?"
"Who was overthrown in the coup?"
[ "Who was overthrown in the coup?" ]
{ "text": [ "Lisbon's Estado Novo regime" ], "answer_start": [ 180 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-50"
"56f8c76e9e9bad19000a04aa"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá."
"Who was the first President of Guinea-Bissau?"
"Who was the first President of Guinea-Bissau?"
[ "Who was the first President of Guinea-Bissau?" ]
{ "text": [ "Luís Cabral" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-51"
"56f8c76e9e9bad19000a04ab"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá."
"How many Guinean soldiers did the PAIGC kill?"
"How many Guinean soldiers did the PAIGC kill?"
[ "How many Guinean soldiers did the PAIGC kill?" ]
{ "text": [ "thousands" ], "answer_start": [ 150 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-52"
"56f8c76e9e9bad19000a04ac"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá."
"Where did one of the massacres occur?"
"Where did one of the massacres occur?"
[ "Where did one of the massacres occur?" ]
{ "text": [ "Bissorã" ], "answer_start": [ 358 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-53"
"56f8c76e9e9bad19000a04ad"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá."
"When did the PAIGC acknowledge the executions?"
"When did the PAIGC acknowledge the executions?"
[ "When did the PAIGC acknowledge the executions?" ]
{ "text": [ "29 November 1980" ], "answer_start": [ 433 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-54"
"56f8c76e9e9bad19000a04ae"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá."
"Where were the soldiers buried?"
"Where were the soldiers buried?"
[ "Where were the soldiers buried?" ]
{ "text": [ "Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá" ], "answer_start": [ 554 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-55"
"56f8c7fa9b226e1400dd0fcf"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president."
"Who controlled the country prior to 1984?"
"Who controlled the country prior to 1984?"
[ "Who controlled the country prior to 1984?" ]
{ "text": [ "a revolutionary council" ], "answer_start": [ 30 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-56"
"56f8c7fa9b226e1400dd0fd0"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president."
"When were the first multi-party elections held?"
"When were the first multi-party elections held?"
[ "When were the first multi-party elections held?" ]
{ "text": [ "1994" ], "answer_start": [ 111 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-57"
"56f8c7fa9b226e1400dd0fd1"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president."
"What led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War?"
"What led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War?"
[ "What led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War?" ]
{ "text": [ "An army uprising" ], "answer_start": [ 117 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-58"
"56f8c7fa9b226e1400dd0fd2"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president."
"When was the president ousted?"
"When was the president ousted?"
[ "When was the president ousted?" ]
{ "text": [ "June 1999" ], "answer_start": [ 212 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-59"
"56f8c7fa9b226e1400dd0fd3"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president."
"Who was elected president in the 2000 election?"
"Who was elected president in the 2000 election?"
[ "Who was elected president in the 2000 election?" ]
{ "text": [ "Kumba Ialá" ], "answer_start": [ 262 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-60"
"56f8c8829e9bad19000a04d0"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest."
"When was a military coup conducted?"
"When was a military coup conducted?"
[ "When was a military coup conducted?" ]
{ "text": [ "September 2003" ], "answer_start": [ 3 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-61"
"56f8c8829e9bad19000a04d1"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest."
"Who did the military arrest?"
"Who did the military arrest?"
[ "Who did the military arrest?" ]
{ "text": [ "Ialá" ], "answer_start": [ 72 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-62"
"56f8c8829e9bad19000a04d2"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest."
"When were legislative elections held?"
"When were legislative elections held?"
[ "When were legislative elections held?" ]
{ "text": [ "March 2004" ], "answer_start": [ 202 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-63"
"56f8c8829e9bad19000a04d3"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest."
"When did the mutiny of military factions occur?"
"When did the mutiny of military factions occur?"
[ "When did the mutiny of military factions occur?" ]
{ "text": [ "October 2004" ], "answer_start": [ 247 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-64"
"56f8c8829e9bad19000a04d4"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest."
"Who died in the mutiny?"
"Who died in the mutiny?"
[ "Who died in the mutiny?" ]
{ "text": [ "the head of the armed forces" ], "answer_start": [ 285 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-65"
"56f8c95e9b226e1400dd0ff3"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau."
"After the coup, when were presidential elections held?"
"After the coup, when were presidential elections held?"
[ "After the coup, when were presidential elections held?" ]
{ "text": [ "June 2005" ], "answer_start": [ 3 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-66"
"56f8c95e9b226e1400dd0ff4"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau."
"At that time, who ran claiming to be the legitimate president of the country?"
"At that time, who ran claiming to be the legitimate president of the country?"
[ "At that time, who ran claiming to be the legitimate president of the country?" ]
{ "text": [ "Ialá" ], "answer_start": [ 100 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-67"
"56f8c95e9b226e1400dd0ff5"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau."
"Who won the election?"
"Who won the election?"
[ "Who won the election?" ]
{ "text": [ "João Bernardo Vieira" ], "answer_start": [ 245 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-68"
"56f8c95e9b226e1400dd0ff6"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau."
"Who did Vieira beat in a runoff election?"
"Who did Vieira beat in a runoff election?"
[ "Who did Vieira beat in a runoff election?" ]
{ "text": [ "Malam Bacai Sanhá" ], "answer_start": [ 305 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-69"
"56f8c95e9b226e1400dd0ff7"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau."
"When was Vieira, a former president, deposed?"
"When was Vieira, a former president, deposed?"
[ "When was Vieira, a former president, deposed?" ]
{ "text": [ "1999" ], "answer_start": [ 282 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-70"
"56f8ca0f9e9bad19000a04fa"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized"."
"What was reported to be entering the country prior to the election?"
"What was reported to be entering the country prior to the election?"
[ "What was reported to be entering the country prior to the election?" ]
{ "text": [ "arms" ], "answer_start": [ 19 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-71"
"56f8ca0f9e9bad19000a04fb"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized"."
"What type of "disturbances" were reported during the campaign?"
"What type of "disturbances" were reported during the campaign?"
[ "What type of \"disturbances\" were reported during the campaign?" ]
{ "text": [ "attacks on government offices" ], "answer_start": [ 121 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-72"
"56f8ca0f9e9bad19000a04fc"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized"."
"How did foreign election monitors describe the election?"
"How did foreign election monitors describe the election?"
[ "How did foreign election monitors describe the election?" ]
{ "text": [ "\"calm and organized\"" ], "answer_start": [ 240 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-73"
"56f8ca0f9e9bad19000a04fd"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized"."
"What year was the election held?"
"What year was the election held?"
[ "What year was the election held?" ]
{ "text": [ "2005" ], "answer_start": [ 215 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-74"
"56f8ca0f9e9bad19000a04fe"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized"."
"Where the election monitors local, or foreign?"
"Where the election monitors local, or foreign?"
[ "Where the election monitors local, or foreign?" ]
{ "text": [ "foreign" ], "answer_start": [ 175 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-75"
"56f8cb539b226e1400dd101d"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed."
"When was the parliamentary election held?"
"When was the parliamentary election held?"
[ "When was the parliamentary election held?" ]
{ "text": [ "November 2008" ], "answer_start": [ 122 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-76"
"56f8cb539b226e1400dd101e"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed."
"Who won a strong majority in the election?"
"Who won a strong majority in the election?"
[ "Who won a strong majority in the election?" ]
{ "text": [ "PAIGC" ], "answer_start": [ 19 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-77"
"56f8cb539b226e1400dd101f"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed."
"How many seats did PAIGC win in the election?"
"How many seats did PAIGC win in the election?"
[ "How many seats did PAIGC win in the election?" ]
{ "text": [ "67" ], "answer_start": [ 67 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-78"
"56f8cb539b226e1400dd1020"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed."
"Whose residence was attacked by members of the armed forces?"
"Whose residence was attacked by members of the armed forces?"
[ "Whose residence was attacked by members of the armed forces?" ]
{ "text": [ "President Vieira's" ], "answer_start": [ 155 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-79"
"56f8cb539b226e1400dd1021"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed."
"When did the attack on the residence occur?"
"When did the attack on the residence occur?"
[ "When did the attack on the residence occur?" ]
{ "text": [ "November 2008" ], "answer_start": [ 140 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-80"
"56f8ceed9b226e1400dd1047"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá."
"Who was assassinated on 2 March 2009?"
"Who was assassinated on 2 March 2009?"
[ "Who was assassinated on 2 March 2009?" ]
{ "text": [ "Vieira" ], "answer_start": [ 26 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-81"
"56f8ceed9b226e1400dd1048"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá."
"Who was assassinated on 1 March 2009?"
"Who was assassinated on 1 March 2009?"
[ "Who was assassinated on 1 March 2009?" ]
{ "text": [ "General Batista Tagme Na Wai" ], "answer_start": [ 171 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-82"
"56f8ceed9b226e1400dd1049"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá."
"Who pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession?"
"Who pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession?"
[ "Who pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession?" ]
{ "text": [ "Military leaders" ], "answer_start": [ 281 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-83"
"56f8ceed9b226e1400dd104a"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá."
"Who was appointed interim president?"
"Who was appointed interim president?"
[ "Who was appointed interim president?" ]
{ "text": [ "Raimundo Pereira" ], "answer_start": [ 398 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-84"
"56f8ceed9b226e1400dd104b"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá."
"Who won the election in June 2009?"
"Who won the election in June 2009?"
[ "Who won the election in June 2009?" ]
{ "text": [ "Malam Bacai Sanhá" ], "answer_start": [ 512 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-85"
"56f8cfb29e9bad19000a056c"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties."
"When was a coup d'etat staged?"
"When was a coup d'etat staged?"
[ "When was a coup d'etat staged?" ]
{ "text": [ "12 April 2012" ], "answer_start": [ 18 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-86"
"56f8cfb29e9bad19000a056d"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties."
"Who staged the coup d'etat?"
"Who staged the coup d'etat?"
[ "Who staged the coup d'etat?" ]
{ "text": [ "members of the country's military" ], "answer_start": [ 33 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-87"
"56f8cfb29e9bad19000a056e"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties."
"Who assumed control of the country after the coup d'etat?"
"Who assumed control of the country after the coup d'etat?"
[ "Who assumed control of the country after the coup d'etat?" ]
{ "text": [ "Mamadu Ture Kuruma" ], "answer_start": [ 197 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-88"
"56f8cfb29e9bad19000a056f"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties."
"Who did Kuruma negotiate with?"
"Who did Kuruma negotiate with?"
[ "Who did Kuruma negotiate with?" ]
{ "text": [ "opposition parties" ], "answer_start": [ 305 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-89"
"56f8cfb29e9bad19000a0570"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties."
"What was Kuruma's former position?"
"What was Kuruma's former position?"
[ "What was Kuruma's former position?" ]
{ "text": [ "vice chief of staff" ], "answer_start": [ 168 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-90"
"56f8d0389e9bad19000a057e"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"What country is listed as a republic?"
"What country is listed as a republic?"
[ "What country is listed as a republic?" ]
{ "text": [ "Guinea-Bissau" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-91"
"56f8d0389e9bad19000a057f"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"When had the government been highly centralized?"
"When had the government been highly centralized?"
[ "When had the government been highly centralized?" ]
{ "text": [ "In the past" ], "answer_start": [ 29 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-92"
"56f8d0389e9bad19000a0580"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"When was multi-party governance established?"
"When was multi-party governance established?"
[ "When was multi-party governance established?" ]
{ "text": [ "mid-1991" ], "answer_start": [ 135 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-93"
"56f8d0389e9bad19000a0581"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"Who is the head of state?"
"Who is the head of state?"
[ "Who is the head of state?" ]
{ "text": [ "president" ], "answer_start": [ 149 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-94"
"56f8d0389e9bad19000a0582"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term."
"Who is the head of government?"
"Who is the head of government?"
[ "Who is the head of government?" ]
{ "text": [ "prime minister" ], "answer_start": [ 188 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-95"
"56f8d10e9b226e1400dd1065"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president."
"How many members compose the legislature?"
"How many members compose the legislature?"
[ "How many members compose the legislature?" ]
{ "text": [ "100" ], "answer_start": [ 110 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-96"
"56f8d10e9b226e1400dd1066"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president."
"Is the legislature bicameral or unicameral?"
"Is the legislature bicameral or unicameral?"
[ "Is the legislature bicameral or unicameral?" ]
{ "text": [ "unicameral" ], "answer_start": [ 28 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-97"
"56f8d10e9b226e1400dd1067"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president."
"How long do members serve in the legislature?"
"How long do members serve in the legislature?"
[ "How long do members serve in the legislature?" ]
{ "text": [ "four-year term" ], "answer_start": [ 194 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-98"
"56f8d10e9b226e1400dd1068"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president."
"What is the head of the judicial system?"
"What is the head of the judicial system?"
[ "What is the head of the judicial system?" ]
{ "text": [ "Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court)" ], "answer_start": [ 245 ] }
"gem-squad_v2-train-99"
"56f8d10e9b226e1400dd1069"
"Guinea-Bissau"
"At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president."
"How many justices are on the Supreme Court?"
"How many justices are on the Supreme Court?"
[ "How many justices are on the Supreme Court?" ]
{ "text": [ "nine" ], "answer_start": [ 301 ] }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for GEM/squad_v2

Link to Main Data Card

You can find the main data card on the GEM Website.

Dataset Summary

SQuAD2.0 is a dataset that tests the ability of a system to not only answer reading comprehension questions, but also abstain when presented with a question that cannot be answered based on the provided paragraph. F1 score is used to evaluate models on the leaderboard. In GEM, we are using this dataset for the question-generation task in which a model should generate squad-like questions from an input text.

You can load the dataset via:

import datasets
data = datasets.load_dataset('GEM/squad_v2')

The data loader can be found here.

website

Website

paper

Arxiv

authors

Pranav Rajpurkar, Robin Jia and Percy Liang

Dataset Overview

Where to find the Data and its Documentation

Webpage

Website

Download

Website

Paper

Arxiv

BibTex

@inproceedings{Rajpurkar2018KnowWY,
  title={Know What You Don’t Know: Unanswerable Questions for SQuAD},
  author={Pranav Rajpurkar and Robin Jia and Percy Liang},
  booktitle={ACL},
  year={2018}
}

Contact Name

Robin Jia

Contact Email

robinjia@stanford.edu

Has a Leaderboard?

yes

Leaderboard Link

Website

Leaderboard Details

SQuAD2.0 tests the ability of a system to not only answer reading comprehension questions, but also abstain when presented with a question that cannot be answered based on the provided paragraph. F1 score is used to evaluate models on the leaderboard.

Languages and Intended Use

Multilingual?

no

Covered Languages

English

License

cc-by-sa-4.0: Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International

Intended Use

The idea behind SQuAD2.0 dataset is to make the models understand when a question cannot be answered given a context. This will help in building models such that they know what they don't know, and therefore make the models understand language at a deeper level. The tasks that can be supported by the dataset are machine reading comprehension, extractive QA, and question generation.

Primary Task

Question Generation

Communicative Goal

Given an input passage and an answer span, the goal is to generate a question that asks for the answer.

Credit

Curation Organization Type(s)

academic

Curation Organization(s)

Stanford University

Dataset Creators

Pranav Rajpurkar, Robin Jia and Percy Liang

Funding

Facebook and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-114747

Who added the Dataset to GEM?

(Abinaya Mahendiran)[https://github.com/AbinayaM02], Manager Data Science, NEXT Labs,

Dataset Structure

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

squad_v2

  • id: a string feature.
  • gem_id: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • context: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • answers: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a string feature.
    • answer_start: a int32 feature.

Example Instance

Here is an example of a validation data point. This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "gem_id": "gem-squad_v2-validation-1",
    "id": "56ddde6b9a695914005b9629",
    "answers": {
        "answer_start": [94, 87, 94, 94],
        "text": ["10th and 11th centuries", "in the 10th and 11th centuries", "10th and 11th centuries", "10th and 11th centuries"]
    },
    "context": "\"The Normans (Norman: Nourmands; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave thei...",
    "question": "When were the Normans in Normandy?",
    "title": "Normans"
}

Data Splits

The original SQuAD2.0 dataset has only training and dev (validation) splits. The train split is further divided into test split and added as part of the GEM datasets.

name train validation test
squad_v2 90403 11873 39916

Dataset in GEM

Rationale for Inclusion in GEM

Why is the Dataset in GEM?

SQuAD2.0 will encourage the development of new reading comprehension models that know what they don’t know, and therefore understand language at a deeper level. It can also help in building better models for answer-aware question generation .

Similar Datasets

no

Unique Language Coverage

yes

Ability that the Dataset measures

Reasoning capability

GEM-Specific Curation

Modificatied for GEM?

yes

GEM Modifications

other

Additional Splits?

yes

Split Information

The train(80%) and validation(10%) split of SQuAD2.0 are made available to public whereas the test(10%) split is not available.

As part of GEM, the train split, 80% of the original data is split into two train split (90%) and test split (remaining 10%). The idea is to provide all three splits for the users to use.

Getting Started with the Task

Previous Results

Previous Results

Measured Model Abilities

Extractive QA, Question Generation

Metrics

Other: Other Metrics, METEOR, ROUGE, BLEU

Other Metrics

  • Extractive QA uses Exact Match and F1 Score
  • Question generation users METEOR, ROUGE-L, BLEU-4

Previous results available?

yes

Other Evaluation Approaches

Question generation users METEOR, ROUGE-L, BLEU-4

Relevant Previous Results

@article{Dong2019UnifiedLM, title={Unified Language Model Pre-training for Natural Language Understanding and Generation}, author={Li Dong and Nan Yang and Wenhui Wang and Furu Wei and Xiaodong Liu and Yu Wang and Jianfeng Gao and M. Zhou and Hsiao-Wuen Hon}, journal={ArXiv}, year={2019}, volume={abs/1905.03197} }

Dataset Curation

Original Curation

Original Curation Rationale

The dataset is curated in three stages:

  • Curating passages,
  • Crowdsourcing question-answers on those passages,
  • Obtaining additional answers As part of SQuAD1.1, 10000 high-quality articles from English Wikipedia is extracted using Project Nayuki’s Wikipedia’s internal PageRanks, from which 536 articles are sampled uniformly at random. From each of these articles, individual paragraphs are extracted, stripping away images, figures, tables, and discarding paragraphs shorter than 500 characters.

SQuAD2.0 combines the 100,000 questions in SQuAD1.1 with over 50,000 unanswerable questions written adversarially by crowdworkers to look similar to answerable ones.

Communicative Goal

To build systems that not only answer questions when possible, but also determine when no answer is supported by the paragraph and abstain from answering.

Sourced from Different Sources

yes

Source Details

Wikipedia

Language Data

How was Language Data Obtained?

Found

Where was it found?

Single website

Topics Covered

The dataset contains 536 articles covering a wide range of topics, from musical celebrities to abstract concepts.

Data Validation

validated by crowdworker

Data Preprocessing

From the sampled articles from Wikipedia, individual paragraphs are extracted, stripping away images, figures, tables, and discarding paragraphs shorter than 500 characters and partitioned into training(80%), development set(10%) and test set(10%).

Was Data Filtered?

algorithmically

Filter Criteria

To retrieve high-quality articles, Project Nayuki’s Wikipedia’s internal PageRanks was used to obtain the top 10000 articles of English Wikipedia, from which 536 articles are sampled uniformly at random.

Structured Annotations

Additional Annotations?

crowd-sourced

Number of Raters

unknown

Rater Qualifications

Crowdworkers from the United States or Canada with a 97% HIT acceptance rate, a minimum of 1000 HITs, were employed to create questions.

Raters per Training Example

0

Raters per Test Example

0

Annotation Service?

yes

Which Annotation Service

other, Amazon Mechanical Turk

Annotation Values

For SQuAD 1.1 , crowdworkers were tasked with asking and answering up to 5 questions on the content of that paragraph. The questions had to be entered in a text field, and the answers had to be highlighted in the paragraph.

For SQuAD2.0, each task consisted of an entire article from SQuAD 1.1. For each paragraph in the article, workers were asked to pose up to five questions that were impossible to answer based on the paragraph alone, while referencing entities in the paragraph and ensuring that a plausible answer is present.

Any Quality Control?

validated by another rater

Quality Control Details

Questions from workers who wrote 25 or fewer questions on an article is removed; this filter helped remove noise from workers who had trouble understanding the task, and therefore quit before completing the whole article. This filter to both SQuAD2.0 and the existing answerable questions from SQuAD 1.1.

Consent

Any Consent Policy?

no

Private Identifying Information (PII)

Contains PII?

unlikely

Any PII Identification?

no identification

Maintenance

Any Maintenance Plan?

no

Broader Social Context

Previous Work on the Social Impact of the Dataset

Usage of Models based on the Data

no

Impact on Under-Served Communities

Addresses needs of underserved Communities?

no

Discussion of Biases

Any Documented Social Biases?

yes

Considerations for Using the Data

PII Risks and Liability

Licenses

Known Technical Limitations

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