# Datasets: Filippo /osdg_cd

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doi (string)text_id (string)text (string)sdg (uint16)label (class label)labels_negative (uint16)labels_positive (uint16)agreement (float32)
"10.6027/9789289342698-7-en"
"00021941702cd84171ff33962197ca1f"
"From a gender perspective, Paulgaard points out that the labour markets of the fishing villages have been highly gender-segregated in terms of the existence of "male jobs" and "female jobs", however, the new business opportunities have led to the male population of the peripheral areas now working in the service industry in former "female jobs": "That boys and girls are doing the same jobs indicates change, because traditional boundaries between women and men's work are being crossed. But the fact that young people are still working represents continuity with the past" (Paulgaard 2002: 102). When Paulgaard refers to continuity with traditions, she refers to the expectations of young adults to participate in adult culture, thus these fishing villages traditionally have no actual youth culture. As described earlier, Paulgaard (2015) concludes that in some of Norway's peripheral areas school is still 'foreign', a time waster stealing time from young adults who should instead spend their time on what is considered to be "real" work."
5
4 (SDG 5)
1
8
0.777778
"10.18356/eca72908-en"
"00028349a7f9b2485ff344ae44ccfd6b"
"Labour legislation regulates maximum working hours, industrial safety, minimum wages and benefits for workers and the prevention of child labour, but enforcement, if any, is weak. Therefore, the immigration laws applicable in Western countries cannot be applied to these workers. T. H. including basic public services. ,,"
11
10 (SDG 11)
2
1
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264289062-4-en"
"0004eb64f96e1620cd852603d9cbe4d4"
"The average figure also masks large differences across regions in Kazakhstan. The number of annual contacts ranges from 2.0 in Astana to 9.7 in Mangystau, and some parts of the population are likely to have very limited access to primary care. In addition, poor coverage of outpatient prescription medicines limits both the effectiveness (and appeal) of care at PHC level."
3
2 (SDG 3)
1
8
0.777778
"10.1787/5k9b7bn5qzvd-en"
"0006a887475ccfa5a7f5f51d4ac83d02"
"The extent to which they are akin to corruption is difficult to assess. In 2005, the government implemented an anti-corruption campaign, which decreased the frequency of informal payments. The Ministry' of Health too has been taking steps to reduce corruption and fraud. In 2009, the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network Excellence Award was granted to Mrs. Ewa Kopacz, then Minister of Health, for her anti-corruption and anti-fraud actions."
3
2 (SDG 3)
1
2
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264258211-6-en"
"0006d6e7593776abbdf4a6f985ea6d95"
"A region reporting a higher rate will not earn points for this indicator. This means for example that activities that were carried out in 2012 are rewarded financially through the P4P scheme in 2014. The level of payment in the P4P scheme is set deliberately low at the start of the programme to avoid gaming and crowding out intrinsic motivation."
3
2 (SDG 3)
2
2
0
"10.1787/5js4xfgl4ks0-en"
"000b54717f2deea5d99055b4c1c2bf5a"
"These findings are consistent with previous work that examined differences in wage inequality across countries (Blau and Khan, 2005, Fournier and Koske, 2012). Returns to education are also found to be an important role in explaining the rise in earnings inequality (see Autor, 2014). In these countries, however, the magnitude of the contribution is quite small. Two types of explanation are commonly proposed in the literature. The first emphasises relative supply and demand for skills: characteristics in lower (net) supply get higher rewards. The second, emphasises the role played by labour market institutions such as minimum wages, the degree of unionisation and the rules governing wage bargaining."
10
9 (SDG 10)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264285712-7-en"
"000bc99895142f9b6795ddf402e16e9a"
"Each section states the economic principle, reviews international good practice and discusses the situation in Brazil. Drawing from international experiences, it concludes with sketching some policy recommendations. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. A first observation is that regardless of the constitutional setting (federal or unitary), in the most advanced systems, water abstraction charges are commonly managed at sub-national levels."
6
5 (SDG 6)
2
4
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264117563-8-en"
"000bfb17e9f3a00d4515ab59c5c487e7"
"The Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research station monitors the quantity and quality of water along the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. The Nature and Parks Authority (NPA) monitors water quality in rivers on behalf of the MoEP. Mekorot and local authorities monitor drinking water quality under the supervision of the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health monitors effluent quality prior to its use in the agricultural sector."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
3
1
"10.18356/805b1ae4-en"
"001180f5dd9a821e651ed51e30d0cf8c"
"Previous chapters have discussed ways to make food systems more supportive of food security and better nutrition. Nutrition-sensitive food systems can give consumers better options, but ultimately it is consumers who choose what they eat. What consumers choose to eat influences their own nutritional outcomes and sends signals back through the food system - to retailers, processors and producers - that shape both what is produced and how sustainably it is produced."
2
1 (SDG 2)
0
3
1
"10.1787/1826beee-en"
"0014f8ae09b458434c107236c86c2c38"
"To encourage N runoff reductions by farmers, the government set up a cap to current loads and a buy-back 20% of the quotas. Farmers received allocations and were encouraged to reduce their nitrogen emissions to gain from selling water discharge allowances. Reducing soil erosion brings longterm soil-productivity gains and additional benefits, mainly improving water quality by reducing agricultural nonpoint pollution in drinking water (including fertiliser runoff, leaching, and nutrient contamination). Other conservation programmes that were initiated alongside the CRP included Swampbuster, Sodbuster, and Conservation Compliance."
6
5 (SDG 6)
1
2
0.333333
"10.1787/agr/outlook-2010-4-en"
"001947921f75e9d49041afcb5886b3f7"
"The distinction needs to be made between normal risks that are frequent but generate limited damage and catastrophic risks that are rare but have large consequences for individuals or regions. These latter risks should be the main focus of policy actions, keeping in mind the pre-existing policy environment and the whole set of risks affecting the targeted population. Ex ante measures for risk mitigation, in particular income tax smoothing systems for agriculture are also used."
2
1 (SDG 2)
1
3
0.5
"10.1787/9789264310278-en"
"001f1aee4013cb098da17a979c38bc57"
"Prescription rates appear to be higher where labour force participation is lower. There is also a possible relationship between drug use and disability. This may arise after the definition of disability was extended to include chronic conditions. Krueger (2017(47)) found that around one-fifth of the non-participating prime age males were also regularly taking opioid painkillers."
8
7 (SDG 8)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264235120-8-en"
"00207cdcd22dc31a0239df13a04e3558"
"By contrast, the share of working-age households with a working man remained relatively stable (at 76%) over time in most countries (Panel A). Germany, nevertheless, witnessed a significant decline (by about 15 percentage points) in men’s employment participation among households during this period. A. Households with a male worker Panel. In Spain, for instance, in 1995 only 22% (25%) of households had a woman working full-time (full-year), compared to 42% (52%) in the year prior to the crisis. Dutch women are now working more weeks per year, though not more hours per week."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
6
1
"10.1787/9789264225442-29-en"
"002363dc0399349925c2dd768365dd6d"
"Parents pay a maximum fee for kindergarten only (between 15.8% and 22.5% of total costs in 2011, depending on whether the kindergarten is public or private). Counties are responsible for upper secondary education, which they finance through taxes and block grants. Costs in this sector vary considerably from one region to another. Additional state subsidies and provisions are given to avoid regional disparities. Private kindergartens (50% of all kindergartens) are also financed by the state through the block grants to municipalities."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
9
1
"10.1787/85b52daf-en"
"It does not include activities where the support for the private sector is channelled through public sector agencies e.g. credit lines through state owned banks or challenge funds managed by NGOs, which are covered in the second category. This approach has been used in two previous OECD analyses in Miyamoto and Chiofalo (2015) and Miyamoto and Biousse (2014). This approach has been used in a previous OECD analysis in Brown and Wang (2015)."
13
12 (SDG 13)
8
1
0.777778
"10.18356/0488519d-en"
"0029009b33c6606b783ebda5862854db"
"The rapid assessment takes into account the damage and losses for selected sectors such as housing, infrastructure and agriculture, with disaster risk reduction as a cross cutting sector. This will be a step-by-step guide on conducting rapid damage assessments for the selected sectors using space, geospatial modelling, crowdsourcing and other web-based technology. The manual was pilot tested following the PDNA for the 2015 Nepal earthquakes and the methodology was reviewed by experts."
13
12 (SDG 13)
4
5
0.111111
"10.1787/eco/surveys-chn-2010-11-en"
"00292cb0ff962be83dcf67a84a0da691"
"For those individuals, out-of-pocket expenses average 78% of average annual income in rural areas, even with the new insurance system. For most of the decade to 2003, the number of visits to township medical centres (hospitals) had been falling, while in urban areas a similar institution did not exist. The two new insurance-based schemes were accompanied by a strategy to orient people to existing township centres and to create new urban community health centres at the level of the neighbourhood committee."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
3
1
"10.1787/5k46dbzhrkhl-en"
"0029819789475dec26a4c2c986fda78e"
"Alastair Wood co-ordinated the production process, Maria Consolati and Louis Scott provided invaluable secretariat assistance. For example, the majority of poor people are principally dependent on agriculture but, in turn, society is dependent on farmers managing land well to sustain water supplies, biodiversity and other environmental services. Such relationships are dynamic and increasingly intense: climate change, rising population, resource scarcities and price volatilities put them all under pressure."
13
12 (SDG 13)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264096356-en"
"0029c6c6f02eab58b0ae567c866e8ca8"
"In the present case, LCOE were calculated including a carbon price of USD 30 per tonne of CO2. The advantage of nuclear energy in this context is that its average cost remains very stable in the light of changes in the fuel or in the carbon price. In particular, it is protected against fuel price changes by the low proportion of fuel costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power generation. Overnight costs include construction and contingency costs but exclude IDC."
7
6 (SDG 7)
1
8
0.777778
"10.1787/9789264230750-8-en"
"002a903707a6ce3e88ec3c91e846dc6d"
"It builds on the nine years of basic education (six years of primary school and three years of junior secondary school). Students entering senior secondary school can attend either a more academically oriented school or vocational school. This applies in both the Islamic and non-Islamic systems. Formal senior secondary education comprises general education (sekolah menengah atas, or SMA), vocational education (sekolah menengah kejuruan, or SMK), Islamic senior secondary schools (madrasah aliyah, or MA) and Islamic vocational education (madrasah aliyah kejuruan, or MAK). This chapter concentrates largely on the provision of academic senior secondary education, while Chapter 5 considers the vocational side. Work is under way to develop community colleges and alternative routes to further and higher education."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
9
1
"10.1787/9789264202276-9-en"
"002f6840660d0e3051543f0ba55c82ca"
"Several hotels and universities have also contracted private firm to construct wastewater treatment plants. Certain groups of consumers - particularly in industry tourism, commerce and agriculture - are expected to pay a tariff reflecting the full cost of water service provision. An increase in the water tariff was approved in late 2010, potentially helping to improve cost recovery, but the Ministry of Water and Irrigation stated in June 2012 that tariffs would not increase further in the near future."
7
6 (SDG 7)
3
6
0.333333
"10.1787/785f021c-en"
"002f6f9f29c3c2e9301602b4c8dcc141"
"Eventually, a higher discretionary income yields a diversified demand for manufactured goods, as demand and consequently expenditure shifts away from agricultural products towards manufactured goods. This new demand, in turn, leads to the creation of new industries and new varieties of products in the economy (process of diversification), which is a key component of sustainable long-term economic development (Saviotti and Pyka, 2004). Demand for new products as well as the desire of firms to become more profitable triggers a process of diversification and consolidation within the manufacturing sector."
9
8 (SDG 9)
1
3
0.5
"10.18356/31959a6d-en"
"002fecbf54ca76030de11cc21d087a7d"
"Indeed, the level of benefits provided by NC schemes is often too modest. Given the large differences between contributory and NC pension benefit levels, even full NC coverage does not necessarily mean equal protection or equal rights. In fact, most countries have adopted means-tested designs in their NC pension pillars and universal schemes exist only in a few of them."
5
4 (SDG 5)
7
2
0.555556
"10.18356/bb1b1617-en"
"0030a34b80a08877dd7e98dfa41bfc10"
"Recognising that this could not continue indefinitely, attention has turned to the management of water demand by measures such as water pricing mechanisms, reduction of water losses, water reuse and recycling, increasing the efficiency of domestic, agricultural and industrial water uses, and water saving campaigns supported by public education. Reducing water demand can bring additional benefits in decreased pollution discharges and lower energy consumption. At the household level, this is largely a matter of combining water-efficient installations with raising awareness, industrial users have reduced water use by recycling, reuse, changing production processes, using more efficient technologies and reducing leakage."
6
5 (SDG 6)
1
3
0.5
"10.1787/5js4vmp5n5r8-en"
"00318d358a0c012f7d22cc91cfc5ab65"
"These signs are topped with a distinctive yellow beacon cap and walking person icon. These features makes the signs easy to spot within the urban environment and when viewed from a distance. Each monolith has two maps, a finder map which displays a 5-minute walking circle, and a planner map which displays a 15-minute walking circle. The maps illustrate significant landmarks in 3D, helping users identify the urban environment and also serving as 'mental navigational tools’."
8
7 (SDG 8)
3
1
0.5
"10.1787/9789264289062-4-en"
"0033a165843817c6af43ae9e802dd189"
"In the last decade, and particularly since 2010, the number of discharges per capita has tended to decrease, and is now in line with the OECD average mentioned previously. For example, rural dwellers represent 43% of the population but only 32% of hospital attendances. In the absence of additional information, it not possible to determine whether or not this difference signals disparities in access for rural populations, and if so, whether the drivers are geographic, cultural or infrastructural. No data appear to be collected on access to care from the patient perspective, which would aid in understanding the nature of (and remedies for) barriers to access. Overall, it is not possible to determine with the available data whether patient income or socio-economic characteristics play a role in reaching the hospital gates or being admitted. Uneven access probably also stems from the inability of facilities across regions to provide the same services."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
9
1
"10.14217/967bd43c-en"
"This paper examines the effects of child, early and forced marriages (CEFM) within the Commonwealth, with a specific focus on East Africa, and highlights how to best address the issue using international, regional, and national legal norms and judicial processes currently in place. The East African countries examined are Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. The introduction is then followed by the background section which gives a historical overview of CEFM at the global level."
5
4 (SDG 5)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264097551-en"
"0034e3f6a955d974cccb1565c7b1a0de"
"To respond to these new challenges PSV has been encouraged to develop strong links with business and enterprises, to cover remote areas and to cater for less affluent students. It analyses the impact of the dual sector universities in Australia, short cycle higher education in Scotland, three sub-sectors of Norway’s tertiary education and the emerging non-university higher education in Italy, as well as the vocational education and training in Spain. It discusses the issues of transition, participation and collaboration of different types ofpost-secondary education and analysis the impact of policy changes."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
3
1
"10.1787/persp/glob/dev-2012-8-en"
"0037695bd85443c7a051cd9f2bc02cea"
"At the same time, highly unequal countries, like South Africa and Brazil, have relatively stable proportions of the population that believe incomes should be made more equal. The shift in preferences towards redistribution in the BRICS shown in Figure 4.12 is in line with similar findings for OECD countries (OECD, forthcoming). Only in a few OECD countries has no change been found since the late 1980s. Of course, the view that “incomes should be made more (or less) equal” says little about the preferred method for achieving such a change. How these attitudes towards inequality translate into concrete government policy, such as tax and transfer schemes or public service provision, is an important part of the social contract in every country."
10
9 (SDG 10)
0
4
1
"003a771b49ec35167101c5842611cd35"
"Thus,for example, the stigma attached to welfare recipients or the poor increases their disadvantage. Similarly, dignity and recognition wrongs can cause disadvantage.54 Undervaluing women’s work is a recognition wrong that directly causes socio-economic disadvantage, hence the right to equal pay for work of equal value is an important synthesis of the first two dimensions of the right to equality: redressing disadvantage and addressing stigma and stereotyping. This step has been taken by both the CESCR and the CEDAW Committee. Reporting Guidelines”, para 29, CESCR, Ecuador, op."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
4
1
"10.1787/9789264264113-7-en"
"004008a7bcfb140797184b0f00fd675a"
"In Bandung City, 44% of total revenue in 2016 is expected to come in the form of transfers from the national government. A common problem w'ith such automatic transfers is the way they are calculated. The General Allocation Fund is partly allocated based on the registered population in the local governments and does not take into account unregistered population, which is high in the City of Bandung."
11
10 (SDG 11)
1
5
0.666667
"10.14217/7ef450ae-en"
"0040db696ae17195b13c62cfda9f9a35"
"Much of the true social, economic and environmental damage of the aftermath of disasters has been undocumented and more needs to be explored on the vulnerability of small and island states, where retreat from the threat is not an option and where those most at risk to the impact of the aftermath may be left unattended and at critical risk. This can amount to over 70 per cent of the total death toll. Some of this arises from the destruction of basic service infrastructure and the disruption of services, when staff, if they can get about, discover vital elements of services which may be damaged or destroyed beyond effective operational use and cannot be fixed."
13
12 (SDG 13)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264285637-7-en"
"0044d13c9660479fe02307d649e95837"
"It deals with educational outcomes for these groups and analyses the main programmes targeted at them. The chapter places particular emphasis on areas of priority for Chile such as effective ways to use extra resources for disadvantaged students, the monitoring of the learning outcomes of specific student groups, and reflecting Indigenous cultures in the Chilean education system. The chapter also reviews strategies for rural education and the provision and funding of special needs education. First, it describes educational outcomes for these groups of students. Second, it considers the main programmes targeted to specific groups and analyses their strengths and challenges. Finally, the chapter provides some specific policy recommendations."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
6
1
"10.18356/bf400991-en"
"0046961c90122366deaaa735e0bcdd88"
"The spatial structure and economic development of cities are the most prominent components of these national urban policies. When policymakers decide on important issues such as poverty reduction and economic development, then they classify the activities as either rural or urban. In many instances however, this distinction has been used to show differences between the two settlement patterns, and consistently has overlooked their interlinkages, complementarities and synergies.111' This has been against recorded historical development trends which have shown that, urban-rural linkages include important flows of people, natural resources, capital, goods, ecosystem services, information, technology, ideas and innovation. These are important drivers of economic activities and contribute significantly to overall poverty reduction in a region.*1"This illustrates interdependent, intertwined and complementary functional and productive settlement systems. Strong linkages among urban, rural, peri-urban and other settlements enhance sustainable development, because they channel resources to where they have the largest net economic and social benefits."
11
10 (SDG 11)
1
3
0.5
"10.1787/9789264238701-3-en"
"0047195205677a5bcce79b52e4bfcd51"
"Groundwater has been discussed in the context of pricing and financing (OECD, 2009a and 2009b), energy (OECD, 2012b), risk management (OECD, 2013e), and broader perspectives covering climate change (OECD, 2013d and 2014a). Groundwater is also featured in the reviews of water reforms at the country level (e.g. Fuentes, 2011, OECD, 2013b). All these reports include sections, sub-sections, paragraphs, or illustrations that relate to groundwater, but they do not convey policy conclusions specifically geared towards the managers of specific types of groundwater, especially in the context of agriculture. First, a consistent observation is that groundwater is generally under-studied and there is a need for more in-depth assessment of groundwater stocks, use, and management practices."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
4
1
"10.1787/9789264268791-6-en"
"004a7d2059eb0a8db0c6c0019f121db9"
"Further, some documents cannot be approved without a public inquiry'. This is case for the SCoT, PLU/PLUI and SRADDET. Alternatively, a land use authority can also decide to organise more open and participatory forms of engagement to obtain some of the inhabitants and users’ opinions through such practices as citizen conferences, focus groups, opinion polls, public meetings and information leaflets. This latter path has the potential to achieve a consensus among a full set of stakeholders, but it is much harder to organise, and there is always the possibility that no mutually agreeable resolution will emerge."
11
10 (SDG 11)
2
3
0.2
"10.18356/5022b3a0-en"
"004c6621671e366a17fcdf481a1eff48"
"Although the impacts of these imbalances are not fully apparent in the short run, they pose formidable challenges to the sustainability of development of the LDCs, particularly in the long run. The production system, especially in the agriculture sector, and the livelihoodsof alargemajorityof the people livingin rural and fragile areas are also adversely affected because of the increased frequency of droughts and other extreme weather events associated with climate change. Thus, as ensuring food security becomes increasingly important in these countries as the population grows, measures are needed to protect natural capital and address ecological imbalances."
1
0 (SDG 1)
3
6
0.333333
"10.18356/6bf07ffd-en"
"004cf7b0bbc8f0f761c488a7f15eb866"
"Some of these interlinkages and synergies are fundamental to facets of building climate change resilience and reducing inequalities. The interlinkages between climate change and other dimensions of development are also well reflected in other Goals. If the frequency and intensity of climate hazards increase, it will be harder for countries to end poverty and hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture and ensure healthy lives (Goals 1-3)."
13
12 (SDG 13)
0
9
1
"10.18356/5d345c92-en"
"004d6337ba90d278081c4b3d6f00a85f"
"Those in the informal sector are often hit hardest by external shocks, lacking effective social protection coverage, they rely on the flexibility of shifting between different, if low-paid, tasks. When adversity strikes they are more isolated, with less access to networks and relationships of support. They can also be disadvantaged when it comes to emergency relief."
1
0 (SDG 1)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264168985-7-en"
"004d7719d6c26c11427bb3e89535efab"
"Foster capacity-building at all levels of government. This implies combining investment in physical water and sanitation “hard” infrastructure with the provision of “soft’ infrastructure, which is essentially the institutions upon which water outcomes rely. The development of skills, technical expertise and knowledge and the availability of staff and time are preconditions for effective governance of water policy."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264190320-16-en"
"004df4e1e6a7122fe2876f4342e908d1"
"At federal level, the National Water Commission (CONAGUA) is the main body in charge of water planning, financing and strategic setting, there is no overarching framework for the provision of water services which, according to the Constitution, is the responsibility of municipalities with varying levels of capacity and resources. The 1992 National Water Law has gradually transferred water resource responsibilities to 13 river basin organisations, which operate as CONAGUA implementing agencies. While some progress has been achieved in better managing interdependencies across stakeholders and creating an overarching framework for water resources management, much remains to be done to overcome the scattered regulatory framework for water services. Irrigation units typically operate without a legal identity and are not organised to voice their concerns."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
3
1
"10.18356/e9fa9dd4-en"
"0051d8b43ace1372cb974ebefa2f74d6"
"In terms of effective power generation (the actual yield with which the generating plants operate), in 2030 this would represent 5.3% of the electricity matrix, up from 2.9% in 2015 (see figure V33). Proyectos Estrategicos para Seguridad Energdtica Regional (PRESER)". Proyectos Estratdgicos para Seguridad Energdtica Regional (PRESER)'."
7
6 (SDG 7)
3
6
0.333333
"10.18356/1c11fde8-en"
"0051f5536b0904e2726e406fc32cc82f"
"Pursuant to the judgement, individuals licensed to possess and consume cannabis under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations may now possess cannabis derivatives for their own personal use, in addition to or instead of dried cannabis herb. Also in June 2015, Health Canada announced amendments to the Narcotic Control Regulations and the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations to further strengthen public health and safety. The new measures respond to requests from medical licensing bodies for increased information on how doctors are authorizing cannabis use."
3
2 (SDG 3)
1
5
0.666667
"10.14217/967bd43c-en"
"00550a0fe64ba38833102f529118d5be"
"Early marriage, also refers to marriages where both spouses are 18 years and over but certain factors make them unready to consent to marriage, for example their level of physical, emotional, sexual and psychosocial development, or lack of information regarding the person’s life options.10 Within the context of the law in East Africa, CEFM does not have a concrete definition. Most information gathered on CEFM places child marriages into two categories: those married before 15 years and those married before 18 years. This categorisation is of importance as it enables those researching CEFM to understand the trends in various countries."
5
4 (SDG 5)
6
3
0.333333
"10.18356/cc778895-en"
"0055ba4cc458246f21d008e0363c2821"
"This points to the possibility that the effects which reductions in inequality have in terms of decreases in poverty levels may be greater than the effects of increases in mean income levels. One possible explanation for this is that increases in income levels are transmitted to the poor segment of the population in the region in a disproportionate (or unequal) manner. These results are similar to those obtained by Franga (2010). This analysis is presented in the following sections."
1
0 (SDG 1)
2
7
0.555556
"10.18356/5ef1a516-en"
"0059520388019c9dc0c8dda76c00bd9e"
"In addition to rising sea levels and global temperatures, extreme weather events are becoming more common and natural habitats such as coral reefs are declining. These changes affect people everywhere, but disproportionately harm the poorest and the most vulnerable. Concerted action is urgently needed to stem climate change and strengthen resilience to pervasive and ever-increasing climate-related hazards."
13
12 (SDG 13)
0
9
1
"10.18356/c544899f-en"
"0059f134c141fe1981c25551eca038ac"
"In contrast, when electricity firms are controlled by investment funds, rather than forming part of transnational companies, there is less opportunity for operational synergies and knowledge transfers within the enterprise. If the presence of investment funds in the sector were to expand, it could produce a business model in which ownership of the assets (by the investment funds) is separated from their management ( in the hands of the electricity firms), in a system similar to that operated by some hotel groups. In that year, it purchased 38% of EDENOR, one of the leading energy distributors in Argentina. Later it increased its interests in this country with other transmission and generating companies."
7
6 (SDG 7)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264119536-12-en"
"005c6847752feb6153011ac7df757fc4"
"For most services, the actual consumption approach will be the most appropriate, if actual beneficiaries can be identified. In some cases an insurance value approach may be applicable or even preferable. Such an approach imputes the “insurance value” of coverage to each person based on specific characteristics (such as age, sex, socio-economic position)."
10
9 (SDG 10)
2
4
0.333333
"10.1787/eco/surveys-che-2013-5-en"
"0060bca9e7e186b86b4cf055d487ea36"
"The implicit tax penalty for married women should also be removed, as the Federal Council is currently considering. More flexibility in working arrangements could further alleviate women’s cost of reconciling work and family life. For instance, facilitating flexi-time, annualised hours, job-sharing, part-time and telework options for both women and men, and creating paternity and/or consecutive, take-it-or-leave-it parental leave could facilitate transition in and out of the labour market."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264190658-11-en"
"An appraisal process that only requires one meeting between school leaders and evaluators rather places emphasis on the question whether a result has been achieved or a skill has been demonstrated. Based on an extensive review of literature on school leader appraisal, Leon et al. ( A high frequency of meetings and school visits may increase the effectiveness of these tools to gain a better picture of a school leader’s performance and produce valid information (Pashiardis and Brauckman, 2008). However, the time and efforts required for the longer-term observation of school leaders also involves costs that need to be considered (Ginsberg and Berry, 1990)."
4
3 (SDG 4)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264279421-6-en"
"0062160dc39a0a604227605439b17180"
"There are many unqualified teachers in schools, as it is difficult to hire qualified teachers. One indication of the recognition of the important role of teachers in this context is Alberta’s inclusion of additional questions in the 2018 OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey pertaining to teachers’ and school leaders’ understanding of issues related to Indigenous cultures, history and working with Indigenous students, as well as on relevant professional development. The holistic approach of Indigenous peoples stresses how much these contribute to the overall well-being of children, as well as everyone else, in addition to factors such as material advantage and disadvantage. The trauma suffered by Indigenous peoples, including through the residential school system, is still acutely felt by many. Indeed, we were told that the symptoms of trauma may be increasing rather than diminishing with the passage of time, exacerbated through intergenerational relationships. Against this bigger picture, specific surveys of particular provinces and territories, and comparing Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people, can be better understood (Freeman, King and Pickett, 2016)."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
9
1
"10.18356/55fea2f6-en"
"0065aaa240be58d5a1502859fac85680"
"In other words, factors that might make a child more prone to experiencing deprivation in a single domain might not make that child more liable to being cumulatively deprived and vice versa. Living in a less densely populated area, for example, has little impact on children’s risks of domain deprivation (with the exception of Germany) and even predicts a lower probability of deprivation in the environment domain. Nevertheless, a child living in an intermediate or thinly populated area in either France or the UK faces higher odds of experiencing cumulative deprivation."
1
0 (SDG 1)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264235120-7-en"
"0068e1e0c3989ac9674b955f559b5bdc"
"In Australia, where a broad definition of temporary employment also includes casual workers (Box 4.1), this type of work accounts for 85% (43%) of part-time (full-time) workers with a temporary employment contract. Some people work part-time because they wish to do so and would not take on full-time employment, while others do so because there is no full-time employment available. There are, however, large variations across countries. In Greece, Spain and Italy, over 60% of part-timers want to work more hours but could not find full-time jobs. For instance, there is a well-established negative relationship between the level of GDP and the self-employment rate (Acs et al.,"
1
0 (SDG 1)
5
4
0.111111
"10.18356/4a593aa3-en"
"0069d4b9a97524a8083b72f7145c2175"
"Female genital mutilation is sometimes a precursor to child marriage as it is associated with a woman’s “coming of age”. Female genital mutilation may also result in a variety of reproductive health issues, including maternal and infant mortality and obstetric fistula. Pre-natal sex selection and sex selective abortions are forms of discrimination against women and are symptomatic of the devalued status of women in society. In addition, over the past 60 years, numerous provisions in international legal and policy frameworks have called for legal measures to address “harmful practices”."
5
4 (SDG 5)
1
8
0.777778
"10.1787/9789264233775-6-en"
"00704743fa4f6f0708910f2aa61eaa36"
"The programme relied on strategic integration of all relevant agencies involved in delivering mental health services for this group, and identifying children's needs in the school context. In addition to training teachers, this programme also consisted of social and emotional learning programmes. Parents and community' were also involved in the learning and social aspects of the initiative."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
5
1
"10.1787/9789264281653-4-en"
"0078213fc0005108502b27088b43cbf4"
"Although a wide range of public health initiatives are in place, their impact is rarely evaluated. Furthermore, a recent WHO evaluation against essential public health functions found weaknesses mechanisms for perfonnance and accountability (particularly at sub-national level) and training of the public health workforce. A good example of this is the Comision de Enlace Salud, Industriay Comercio (COESAINCO, the Commission for liaison between health, industry and commerce), established in 2012. This brings together the Ministries of Health, Economics, External Trade and the Presidency, and a number of national trade and industry bodies (including those representing the pharmaceutical sector)."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
3
1
"10.18356/1edabeca-en"
"00793f64e9c2a144baee10ec94c862e3"
"Only 14 LDCs have even limited oil-refining capacity, the output of which is overwhelmed by that of the other manufacturing sectors. Similarly, available national accounts and employment data typically group together energy-related utilities — electricity and gas — and water supply, with no further breakdown. In households where both women and men are engaged in wood collection, the gender distribution of time savings may also differ significantly from that of time allocation: even if women spend more time than men collecting wood, a greater share of the time savings may accrue to men. This should be achieved through both centralized and decentralized energy technologies and systems, combining the three general models of grid extension, mini-grid access and off-grid access (AGECC, 2010)."
7
6 (SDG 7)
1
8
0.777778
"10.1787/9789264115118-7-en"
"0079ecf3ee3fb853b9e4a245944d0d6b"
"The conclusion is that the evolution of the two components of the greenhouse gas intensity measure should be separately identifiable. The ratio itself could give an indication about the greening of production and about structural economic shifts, but not necessarily about the greening of growth. A decline in the emission intensity of production gives no indication of whether such a reduction has been achieved through genuine efficiency improvements or changes in the energy mix, or by substituting away from energy-intensive production through purchases of carbonintensive intermediate products abroad, among a number of other explanations."
7
6 (SDG 7)
1
8
0.777778
"10.18356/ecc83295-en"
"007f06a3cc366285d2d1530065749c62"
"Some countries have responded to shrinking populations with policies to attract migrants, especially younger people who can fill gaps in labour forces. By the 1970s, the fertility transition had occurred in Australia, Japan, and all highly developed countries in Europe and North America. Fertility in China fell sharply in the 1970s in response to policies to promote later and less frequent childbearing, and the introduction of the country’s 1979 family planning policy, which generally limited couples to one child."
5
4 (SDG 5)
8
1
0.777778
"10.18356/0476b8f9-en"
"00807f106a220853aa9718a456be2814"
"These are comprehensive and contemporary in their thinking and approaches, and align the country with international agreements and the EU approximation process. They set the country on the right path towards sustainable development. The challenge facing the Government now is to complete the high-priority strategic actions set forth and, in partnership with public enterprises, public institutions, the private sector, and the public, to apply the products of those actions in day-to-day administration. Its overall goal is to increase the contribution of the forestry sector to the national economy and rural development through sustainable forest management, reliance on renewable resources, protection of the local and global environment, and the delivery of products and services for improving the quality of life of all citizens."
15
14 (SDG 15)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264196155-6-en"
"008274bd1e14f9d51c809840acbd2b1f"
"Housing and land expropriations have become a major issue and remain highly controversial. Infrastructure and factories are being constructed to attract more investors, causing a rise in the number of displaced tenants. By 2011, there were already 700 000 formal complaints, according to National Assembly data, mostly over compensation issues, and it is expected that a large number of lease agreements will soon expire creating uncertainty for millions of tenants."
10
9 (SDG 10)
3
0
1
"10.18356/e3c062fb-en"
"00846c887bf9f4c8006e2b13ed12bcb8"
"Of mammals, four species are extinct at the national level and five species are critically endangered (lynx, leopard, striped hyena, red deer and wild goat). Of the two species of tur - West Caucasian tur {Capra caucasica) and East Caucasian tur (Capra cylindricomis) - the West Caucasian tur has the smallest population size and is found in only a few areas of Georgia. Among ungulates, the rarest species is the wild goat (Capra aegagrus), found only in Tusheti Protected Areas with an estimated population size of 210."
15
14 (SDG 15)
0
4
1
"10.1787/0ec26947-en"
"00858b3185c1955e725cfa1ec721cd89"
"Monetary incentives (or fines) can be transferred directly between wallets held by the (shared) mobility assets, its owners or users. Selling the surplus power increases efficiency and resilience of the power plant portfolio, and provides an incentive for the private sector to invest in renewable power plants. Local grid operators and integrated utilities may benefit from more efficient grid operation and decreasing demand for traditional generation assets and power transport infrastructure. However, the shift to a decentralised grid also represents tremendous disruption to traditional power and utility business models (as well as to power grids themselves which were designed to distribute power from generation to consumer, not from consumer to consumer) and requires increased awareness and knowledge on the part of consumers (Steinberger et al.,"
9
8 (SDG 9)
1
3
0.5
"10.18356/cf6cb95e-en"
"00864801b442bb957360e47bfe0575d9"
"More males than females suffer and die from diarrhoea in every region except South-East Asia. Absence or inadequate provision of public toilets for women reflects - and reinforces - women's exclusion from public power and public spaces more generally. Yet many millions of people in the world lack even the most rudimentary means of obtaining safe water, while billions do not have sanitation facilities that are protected from outside contamination (UN 2015, UN 2014, UN-Women 2014, WHO and UNICEF 2014). Water and sanitation access, demand, provision, priority, health, organization and policy are gendered, even if this is manifested in different ways in different places. The gendered dimensions of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector are increasingly reflected in public policy agendas, but concrete results have been partial and uneven. Water was generally thought of as a physical resource whose provision was determined, for the most part, by the hydrological cycle and physical infrastructure."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
9
1
"10.14217/9781848591646-15-en"
"00866ed06339fbe351d2fb3157ce5042"
"Drawing on the sub-set of AfT data within the CRS, the OECD data show that - for all donors and for all developing countries - flows classified under TRA (the final and barely visible column on the right) are negligible compared with the other three categories, particularly those destined for ‘building productive capacity’ or ‘economic infrastructure’. As shown in Table 13.1, the negligible share of measured TRA in relation to total AfT flows is present across all major country classifications, irrespective of the year chosen in the CRS database. For 2009, TRA flows do not equal more than 0.38 per cent of the value of total AfT flows when countries are disaggregated by geographic area, income group or status as an SVE."
10
9 (SDG 10)
0
3
1
"10.1787/5js65xn790nv-en"
"0086fbc04a08e9d44b3f2742da11a0b1"
"So the implications of moving to neutral policies (free trade) will vary within and between food exporters and food importers. This approach subsumes the combined effects of policies and transaction costs in impeding price transmission. Data from the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System show that recent food price increases have had heterogeneous impacts (Sharma, 2012)."
2
1 (SDG 2)
1
8
0.777778
"10.1787/9789264191761-en"
"008b666a44090f46a9415899d4159cf3"
"The company receives state budgetary funds and also uses own and borrowed funds to purchase machinery and equipment, predominantly from foreign manufacturers. Among the key suppliers are the leading agricultural machinery manufacturers from Canada, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and the United States. Since the mid-2000s, the KAF also provides machinery and equipment leasing to agro-food processors."
2
1 (SDG 2)
2
3
0.2
"10.18356/39291afb-en"
"008baba8edac85b8a4a4b2423b2f4f68"
"According to ECLAC estimates, between 2002 and 2014 poverty and extreme poverty both fell considerably in the region: the poverty rate from 44.5% to 27.8%, and the extreme poverty rate from 11.2% to 7.8%, with the steepest fall occurring in the first half of that period. However, in 2015 and again in 2016 both rates rose, representing a setback that was especially severe in the case of extreme poverty. In turn, the extreme poverty rate will likely remain at the same level as in 2017, which would push up the numbers living in this situation by around 1 million. A range of procedures and assumptions are adopted for these measurements, which gives them the specificity necessary for use in the national context, but limits their comparability between countries."
1
0 (SDG 1)
0
9
1
"10.18356/2dd5352f-en"
"00902a7dd73c7d02b42334129903a8ff"
"Health of Indigenous Circumpolar Populations. Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. Emergence of obesity in indigenous Siberians. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, vol. Rapid changes in cardiovascular risk factors associated with economic development and lifestyle change in an indigenous circumpolar population from Siberia."
3
2 (SDG 3)
2
7
0.555556
"10.18356/b8259a41-en"
"0093194155c7ecca7fa0548968d0f6cd"
"Washington D.C.: National Academic Press. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Equity of access to and utilization of reproductive health services in Thailand: national Reproductive survey data. Reproductive Health Matters, vol. Family planning policies and programmes in eight low-income countries: a comparative policy analysis."
5
4 (SDG 5)
2
4
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264225817-8-en"
"009408d19e771891fcce817c7c7316db"
"Following their concerns that physicians across the Japanese health system were not able to identify signs of psychological distress which could help reduce suicide, the Japanese Medical Association reports that they began sharing information and guidance on depression with all doctors, first in 2004 and then again in 2009. At present, only indicators on the rate of seclusion and restraint, and involuntary admission, are collected by providers and at a Prefectural level. Systematically collected information on the mental health care system is limited to structural indicators - facilities, staff numbers, bed numbers."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264083660-7-en"
"009465564e2d4906477ee1ed8595c417"
"In India, the approach of the Total Sanitation Campaign (a nationwide programme to boost sanitation coverage, particularly in rural areas) was revised in 2004 to make the payment of the subsidy to below-poverty line (BPL) households dependent on the entire village reaching Open Defecation Free (ODF) status.14 OBA mechanisms have also been considered by bilateral donors, such as the AFD in Morocco and South Africa,15 but they are yet to apply those principles on a significant scale. This mechanism works as follows: a fixed subsidy amount is paid to a private operator for each new water connection installed in a poor neighbourhood. A significant risk with such approach, however, is that the newly connected users might not receive adequate service from the operator after the connection has been installed. To enhance the sustainability of the schemes, a portion of the output-based payment can be withheld until several months of service delivery have been made."
6
5 (SDG 6)
3
6
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264235151-4-en"
"However, even by 2012, the income of urban residents was still on average double that of rural residents. The gap tends to decline, but remains large. This decline in rural poverty rates from 21% in 2004 to 13% in 2013 reflects Viet Nam’s success in increasing agricultural productivity for many farm commodities and in diversifying sources of rural incomes. The proportion of undernourished in the total population fell from 46% in 1990-92 to 13% in 2012-14."
2
1 (SDG 2)
1
3
0.5
"10.1787/9789264268791-7-en"
"0097c0f798f0b5c53e2efe8fe99f7b18"
"The benefits of this are: reduced infrastructure costs, the potential for less car use for commuting if people live near where they w'ork and preserving land for agriculture and nature. To maintain support for the plan’s objectives, the two core communes may have to compensate these losing communes, w'hich of course reduces the benefits of the strategy. Moreover, the spatial strategy seems to assume that new employers will be w illing to settle for a higher cost and more complex to develop browmfield sites in Nantes or Saint-Nazaire over greenfield sites in a rural commune."
11
10 (SDG 11)
0
9
1
"10.1787/9789264281318-18-en"
"009884c9b9157d1d54f2194426ce3c87"
"On average, women do the greatest share of unremunerated housework and childcare in Korea, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Turkey and Italy, where women undertake more than three-quarters of all unpaid work. Women in Turkey and Mexico spend the most time per day on unpaid work, in absolute values, at over six hours per day on average, compared with under two hours for men (OECD Gender Data Portal). The gaps are typically even larger in developing countries (OECD, 2014a), where inadequate access to time-saving infrastructure (e.g., water piped into the home) and technology (e.g., washing machines) increases the total time required for unpaid work."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
9
1
"10.18356/2e1a4924-en"
"009d4feda6cf5914a742c1caa1c7cea3"
"Otherwise, across the rest of the formal-sector quantiles, there are no statistically significant motherhood wage penalty effects in either of the two time periods. As in the ols results, the penalty is greater in the preshock period. The differences in the coefficients before and after the shock are not significant, but a larger gap prior to the crisis could reflect general downward pressure on wages affecting the formal sector during this period."
5
4 (SDG 5)
1
2
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264187894-7-en"
"009fbfac66b71e1abe9b4fdc5c941f64"
"Many poor producers are unable to access government support programmes because they lack the necessary capital to contribute the required investment costs. Supporting the organisation of irrigation units and increasing investments in these structures would allow members to jointly apply for government resources and facilitate monitoring functions. The Lerma River, with a length of 750 kilometres, is originated in Mexico’s central high plateau at an altitude beyond 3 000 metres above sea level and ends in Lake Chapala, the largest tropical lake in the country. Between 2002 and 2005, the Lerma Chapala River Basin Council, in its search for a solution to the depletion and contamination of Lake Chapala, entered into a negotiation process to reach a new water allocation agreement."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
4
1
"10.1787/9789264088986-en"
"00a0ebb490133c4edb55806389dc21ef"
"While voluntary donations have a strong tradition in Israel, higher education institutions or the authorities did not seem to well-developed mechanisms to support it. Recognising that the investment in the infrastructure of fundraising can generate real rates of return, some OECD countries, for example the United Kingdom, have sought to stimulate this activity by matched funding schemes (see Box 4.4.). The matched funding scheme began in August 2008 for a three year period. Funding was available to match eligible gifts raised by English higher education institutions and directly funded further education colleges."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
9
1
"10.1787/729bf864-en"
"00a2774330f814de7dfc36b09757ab14"
"This ranges from 50% in Malaysia to 80% in Singapore, 95% in Korea and up to 100% in China (though it is notable that other security, including equity, may be required by some guarantee providers in China which will affect the effective risk/reward ratio). It is also noteworthy that the tenor of these loans, when provided by commercial banks, is relatively short (commonly 1 year in China, otherwise generally 2-3 years or less), compared with the approach taken by dedicated funds such as MDV in Malaysia (over 5 years with up to 12 months’ repayment holiday). Measures to broaden the availability of skilled valuers are apparent in several markets, though the Japan Patent Office has taken a more direct approach by directing the provision of the valuation reports itself, albeit provided by private sector companies."
8
7 (SDG 8)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264168060-8-en"
"00a4e14be1c562dbc7462d204c860489"
"The Bay provides significant economic and recreational benefits to the water catchment’s population, estimated to exceed USD 33 billion annually (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010a). While total pollution levels have declined since 1985, most of the Bay’s waters are degraded and are incapable of fully supporting fishing, crabbing, or recreational activities. Algal blooms fed by nutrient pollution block sunlight from reaching underwater Bay grasses and lead to low oxygen levels in the water."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
3
1
"10.18356/2cb622fb-en"
"00ab9cf7c4586f52a8f83f7fe05979b2"
"Meanwhile, in some countries the predominance of the growth effect in each period was different. In Honduras and Mexico, the role played by the growth effect remained the same in both periods, while in Guatemala and Uruguay, its influence was greater between 2002 and 2008 than in 1990-2002. Between 1990 and 2008, variations in the Gini coefficient correlated closely with the share of the distribution effect in reducing poverty (see figure 1.10)."
1
0 (SDG 1)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264083523-4-en"
"00b096fb49a3ed4301368737e4c2aeaf"
"At one level, the causes of flooding are straightforward. Simply put, some coastal and inland areas are already below mean sea level and therefore increasingly vulnerable to flooding. But the reasons for the increasing vulnerability are complex, and are related largely to human action at local and global scales."
6
5 (SDG 6)
3
0
1
"10.1787/9789264086487-8-en"
"00b27b910b3d4f157a3f0a7c503ebf0e"
"Over the past approximately 40 years, however, there has also been increasing interest in the role it can play in supporting learning, often called “formative assessment” or “assessment for learning”. This chapter presents a brief overview of how the concept of formative assessment has developed in recent years, in particular, how the central idea has expanded from an original focus on feedback to a wider perspective on classroom practice. It presents evidence on the impact of formative assessment on learning and discusses definitional issues."
4
3 (SDG 4)
0
9
1
"10.1787/eco/studies-2015-5jrqhbb1t5jb"
"00b370d7b35c6d12f89319eb164ea230"
"This issue however is far from being settled in the literature. See Arnold et al. ( See inter alia, Ruiz and Trannoy (2008), for a microsimulation study on the short-term (that is immediate) distributional effects of consumption taxes in France. The paper runs against the prior that consumption taxes are strongly regressive."
10
9 (SDG 10)
1
2
0.333333
"10.18356/e9e584f1-en"
"00b500c9b356f4e22fdd67662b838432"
"The most limited use of modern contraceptive methods was reported by the Sudan and Mauritania, at 12 and 16 per cent, respectively. Such visits are to include measurements of blood pressure, weight and height, and an analysis of urine and blood (WHO. Figure 4.2 shows the percentage of pregnant women who receive prenatal care by a skilled health personnel at least once. Prenatal care rates range from 60 per cent in Yemen to 100 per cent in Bahrain."
3
2 (SDG 3)
2
7
0.555556
"10.18356/0543d374-en"
"The forests and OWL are especially remarkable in terms of vegetation diversity. The biodiversity of Turkmenistan is not only rich but also unique due to the country’s geographical position and relief, and the specific evolution of its flora and fauna. The higher plants are currently represented by 3,140 species, of which 47 are tree species and 88 are shrubs. The 1999 Red Data Book lists 109 plant species, including 15 species of trees and bushes (Chapter 10). Plants differ in their resource significance, range of useful features and possibilities for practical use."
15
14 (SDG 15)
0
3
1
"10.18356/ee52a573-en"
"00b60c5d6222e7c4c0f976e0fdcc4bf6"
"The shift cannot be left to individual actors, it requires government support through a broad package of policy tools. This chapter explores the role of government in supporting the transition towards sustainable lifestyles, considers what is required for encouraging sustainable behaviour and details policy options such as choice editing, advertising, promoting sustainable products and increasing product information. While the industrialised countries have plateaued in their population growth, established at high levels of consumption, emerging economies, starting from a low consumption base, are on the rise, both in terms of numbers and in aspiration to join the ranks of consumerism being broadcast across western TV channels."
12
11 (SDG 12)
0
3
1
"10.1787/9789264179370-6-en"
"00b7fa1e2b399f62b9d3d26277f03411"
"The discriminatory practices of financial institutions, such as the requirement that men should sign women’s documents, must be eliminated. But formal financial institutions need to do more than merely lower the entry barriers to female micro-owners. They must improve their performance in funding the growth of female-owned businesses."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
3
1
"10.18356/48fdc937-en"
"00c16aa468450d58744809cc0e3ca7ae"
"For example, it is anticipated that these countries will experience serious damage due to floods and droughts. However, even developed countries cannot always avoid more violent physical events, such as torrential rainfall or severe drought, on a previously unimaginable scale. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 is representative of an event of such a large-scale impact, it destroyed protective levees and seriously damaged the city of New Orleans."
13
12 (SDG 13)
1
8
0.777778
"10.18356/06f7e845-en"
"00c6d9b65201b583a68308c7029ebb67"
"Countries with indigenous people should achieve infant and under-5 mortality levels among their indigenous people that are the same as those of the general population. By 2005, countries with intermediate mortality levels should aim to achieve an infant mortality rate below 50 deaths per 1,000 and an under-5 mortality rate below 60 deaths per 1,000 births. By 2015, all countries should aim to achieve an infant mortality rate below 35 per 1,000 live births and an under-5 mortality rate below 45 per 1,000. Countries that achieve these levels earlier should strive to lower them further."
3
2 (SDG 3)
0
9
1
"10.1787/9789264281707-8-en"
"00c6e77bda20d34c19d12b277d0249bb"
"In that context, the forthcoming initiative by the Korean government to accelerate the renewal of water supply and sanitation infrastructure can contribute to the further deployment of K-SWM at local level. Efforts to minimise non-revenue water will resonate with users’ priorities and concerns when water tariffs better reflect the full cost of supplying water, including the cost of investing in and operating and maintaining the w'ater supply infrastructure, the environmental and opportunity costs of abstracting water and preventing other uses (for industry, the environment, or else). Similarly, a municipality or utility will only be able to finance K-SWM w'hen water savings compensate investment and operating costs, that is, when revenues from water tariffs tend to reflect full water supply costs. This explains why the diffusion of SWM in Korea is directly related to issues discussed in Chapter 3, and to other issues related to tariffs for water supply and sanitation services (an issue not covered in this report)."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
4
1
"10.18356/cf0157c8-en"
"00c887f53530ac90b4b8b85a7fdf0813"
"Aging infrastructure and a lack of government management capacity are leading to insufficient and inconsistent water deliveries, sometimes stalling industrial activity. Both public and private actors have begun to recognize that solving global water challenges is not a solitary endeavour. This process has resulted in notable water savings and pollution reduction, mitigating environmental and social impacts and often reducing water and related costs (i.e., energy, chemicals) to the business. An industrial facility’s exposure to risk thus depends on the ability of public water policy and management to deliver water services, to address water-related risks over the long term, to create effective allocation regimes, and to develop and enforce water quality regulations."
6
5 (SDG 6)
0
4
1
"10.1787/9789264214682-5-en"
"00cc2786a40843e87df6b496ce50071f"
"This framework then provides the basis of quality assurance, since the training enterprise, in combination with the student, becomes responsible for delivery of the learning outcomes. In recognition of these obligations, the framework may also involve a contract between students and training enterprises. It means that programmes will only be funded when training providers develop and maintain the active partnerships with employers that support work placements."
4
3 (SDG 4)
2
7
0.555556
"10.1787/9789264168985-7-en"
"00cecb5e866ec6c78ffbbbcbb53e2a42"
"In the City of Chihuahua, for example, 61.3% trips made each day are done through cars. Indeed, only 16.5% of the trips are made through public transport, which is far below the Mexican national average which is between 50 and 60%. The increased use of automobiles has also been stimulated by improved road conditions (i.e. the percentage of paved areas in the City of Chihuahua grew from 50% in 2000 to 69% in 2007). Recent efforts to promote more public transportation have been challenged by the high accident rates of buses."
6
5 (SDG 6)
2
1
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264179370-6-en"
"00cf9767581d5e6e33f5017eb77352d7"
"The panel of businesses was created using a random sample from Dun & Bradstreet’s (D & B) Database list of new businesses started in 2004. The KFS oversampled “innovative” businesses on the basis of information on the intensity of research and development employment in the businesses’ primary industries. The KFS excluded D & B records for businesses that were wholly owned subsidiaries of existing businesses, businesses inherited from someone else, and not-for-profit organisations. Data from the first wave (2004) are used to identify the owners-founders of the enterprises and to construct the variables related to their characteristics (gender, experience, etc.)."
5
4 (SDG 5)
6
3
0.333333
"11.1002/pub/810be2fb-e9f9b60a-en"
"00d1f63db99df50cb6e61519d2a32f50"
"This technology bank for the LDCs was officially established on 23 December 2016, through the adoption of the UN General Assembly Resolution A/71/L.52. In addition, ITU's Membership recognized the importance of ICTs for LDCs by adopting specific targets for the LDCs in its Connect 2020 Agenda (ITU, 2014). Target 2, on inclusiveness, includes specific targets on household access to ICTs, Internet use, and affordability in the LDCs. Most have been primarily based on basic, low-bandwidth mobile cellular technologies."
9
8 (SDG 9)
0
3
1
"10.1787/5k49dv6c5xmv-en"
"00d7b9c53e6611875c11832531cae00f"
"However, this tax credit is due to expire in 2012. Wemau (2011a) estimates that up to one-fifth of the state’s power generation capacity could decide to exit the market rather than invest in the necessary upgrades, potentially driving up the price of coal by 65% and offering opportunities for renewable energy sources. It saves approximately 47 000 tons of CO2 per year and replaces annually over eight million private vehicle trips in the city of Calgary."
7
6 (SDG 7)
0
9
1
"10.18356/6f7c638a-en"
"00dd087c250922be90724c77bf6de004"
"In Uruguay for example, data is collected on care provided to dependent persons aged 65 or older and questions focus on care for adults who require assistance with personal hygiene, feeding or medical care, including transportation to health centres. The national time-use survey in Mexico collects information on the time spent caring for persons aged 60 or older, including support in the use of information technology, transportation and accompaniment, even when the older person is not dependent or does not have a disability. In households where persons in this age range are present, women spend 18 hours per week on average caring for them, compared with 15 hours spent by men."
5
4 (SDG 5)
2
1
0.333333
"00defece7fdb7a55891994903a193734"
"Information and transaction costs include obstacles that firms have to overcome in order to search for trading partners, acquiring information about tastes, regulations and technical requirements, and enforcing contracts. World Bank-ESCAP database on International trade costs. Each time series is standardized to 100 at the beginning of the sample period."
9
8 (SDG 9)
3
6
0.333333
"10.1787/9789264179370-4-en"
"00e09564a8affb94486f0762b7d237a9"
"The regions with wider gender gaps in primary enrolment are not necessarily the ones with the strongest gender focus in aid to education. Country groupings are defined in the Annex II.A2. Meanwhile, only 68% of the aid to primary education targeted gender equality in Sub-Saharan Africa where, except for some countries in Southern Africa, primary school enrolment had some of the highest levels of gender disparity (see Chapter 4). There is therefore scope for DAC members to increase the gender equality focus of their aid to primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa."
5
4 (SDG 5)
0
3
1
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for OSDG-CD

### Dataset Summary

The OSDG Community Dataset (OSDG-CD) is a public dataset of thousands of text excerpts, which were validated by approximately 1,000 OSDG Community Platform (OSDG-CP) citizen scientists from over 110 countries, with respect to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

NOTE: There are currently no examples for SDGs 16 and 17. See this GitHub issue.

TBD

### Languages

The language of the dataset is English.

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

For each instance, there is a string for the text, a string for the SDG, and an integer for the label.

{'text': 'Each section states the economic principle, reviews international good practice and discusses the situation in Brazil.',
'label': 5}


The average token count for the premises and hypotheses are given below:

Feature Mean Token Count
Premise 14.1
Hypothesis 8.3

### Data Fields

• doi: Digital Object Identifier of the original document
• text_id: unique text identifier
• text: text excerpt from the document
• sdg: the SDG the text is validated against
• label: an integer from 0 to 17 which corresponds to the sdg field
• labels_negative: the number of volunteers who rejected the suggested SDG label
• labels_positive: the number of volunteers who accepted the suggested SDG label
• agreement: agreement score based on the formula

### Data Splits

The OSDG-CD dataset has 1 splits: train.

Dataset Split Number of Instances in Split
Train 32,327

## Dataset Creation

### Curation Rationale

The The OSDG Community Dataset (OSDG-CD) was developed as a benchmark for ... with the goal of producing a dataset large enough to train models using neural methodologies.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

### Personal and Sensitive Information

The dataset does not contain any personal information about the authors or the crowdworkers.

## Considerations for Using the Data

TBD

TBD

TBD

### Citation Information

@dataset{osdg_2022_6393942,
author       = {OSDG and
UNDP IICPSD SDG AI Lab and
PPMI},
title        = {OSDG Community Dataset (OSDG-CD)},
month        = apr,
year         = 2022,
note         = {{This CSV file uses UTF-8 character encoding. For
easy access on MS Excel, open the file using Data
→ From Text/CSV.  Please split CSV data into
different columns by using a TAB delimiter.}},
publisher    = {Zenodo},
version      = {2022.04},
doi          = {10.5281/zenodo.6393942},
url          = {https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6393942}
}


TBD