# Datasets: BeIR /dbpedia-entity

Dataset Preview
_id (string)title (string)text (string)
"<dbpedia:Animalia_(book)>"
"Animalia (book)"
"Animalia is an illustrated children's book by Graeme Base. It was originally published in 1986, followed by a tenth anniversary edition in 1996, and a 25th anniversary edition in 2012. Over three million copies have been sold. A special numbered and signed anniversary edition was also published in 1996, with an embossed gold jacket."
"Academy Award for Best Production Design"
"The Academy Awards are the oldest awards ceremony for achievements in motion pictures. The Academy Award for Best Production Design recognizes achievement in art direction on a film. The category's original name was Best Art Direction, but was changed to its current name in 2012 for the 85th Academy Awards. This change resulted from the Art Director's branch of the Academy being renamed the Designer's branch."
"<dbpedia:An_American_in_Paris>"
"An American in Paris"
"An American in Paris is a jazz-influenced symphonic poem by the American composer George Gershwin, written in 1928. Inspired by the time Gershwin had spent in Paris, it evokes the sights and energy of the French capital in the 1920s and is one of his best-known compositions.Gershwin composed An American in Paris on commission from the conductor Walter Damrosch. He scored the piece for the standard instruments of the symphony orchestra plus celesta, saxophones, and automobile horns."
"<dbpedia:Astronomer>"
"Astronomer"
"An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who studies stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies, as well as many other celestial objects. A related but distinct subject, cosmology, is concerned with studying the universe as a whole. An astronomer researches the world beyond Earth."
"<dbpedia:American_Football_Conference>"
"American Football Conference"
"The American Football Conference (AFC) is one of the two conferences of the National Football League (NFL). This conference and its counterpart, the National Football Conference (NFC), currently contain 16 teams each, making up the 32 teams of the NFL. The current AFC title holder is the New England Patriots."
"Adobe (/əˈdoʊbi/, UK /əˈdoʊb/, Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðoβe], from Spanish: mud brick, from Arabic) is a building material made from earth and often organic material. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest materials used throughout the world."
"<dbpedia:Animation>"
"Animation"
"Animation is the process of creating the illusion of motion and shape change by means of the rapid display of a sequence of static images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon. Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation."
"<dbpedia:Acid>"
"Acid"
"An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. Non-aqueous acids are usually formed when an anion (negative ion) reacts with one or more positively charged hydrogen cations."
"<dbpedia:Alkane>"
"Alkane"
"In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is a saturated hydrocarbon. Alkanes consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and all bonds are single bonds. Alkanes (technically, always acyclic or open-chain compounds) have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. For example, Methane is CH4, in which n=1 (n being the number of Carbon atoms)."
"<dbpedia:Anarchism>"
"Anarchism"
"Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies, often defined as self-governed, voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful."
"<dbpedia:ASCII>"
"ASCII"
"ASCII (/ˈæski/ ASS-kee), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme (the IANA prefers the name US-ASCII). ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters."
"<dbpedia:Aldous_Huxley>"
"Aldous Huxley"
"Aldous Leonard Huxley /ˈhʌksli/ (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, philosopher and a prominent member of the Huxley family.He was best known for his novels including Brave New World, set in a dystopian London, and for non-fiction books, such as The Doors of Perception, which recalls experiences when taking a psychedelic drug, and a wide-ranging output of essays. Early in his career Huxley edited the magazine Oxford Poetry, and published short stories and poetry."
"<dbpedia:Ambiguity>"
"Ambiguity"
"Ambiguity is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible. It is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose intended meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps. (The ambi- part of the name reflects an idea of "two" as in two meanings.)The concept of ambiguity is generally contrasted with vagueness."
"<dbpedia:Appellate_procedure_in_the_United_States>"
"Appellate procedure in the United States"
"In United States appellate procedure, an appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court of law. The petition is made to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower court's decision.The specific procedures for appealing, including even whether there is a right of appeal from a particular type of decision, can vary greatly from state to state."
"<dbpedia:Anthropology>"
"Anthropology"
"Anthropology is the study of humanity. Its main subdivisions are social and cultural anthropology, which describes the workings of societies around the world, linguistic anthropology, which investigates the influence of language in social life, and biological or physical anthropology, which concerns long-term development of the human organism."
"<dbpedia:Altruism>"
"Altruism"
"Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness. The word was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism."
"<dbpedia:Arithmetic_mean>"
"Arithmetic mean"
"In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (pronunciation: /ˌærɪθˈmɛtɪk ˈmiːn/, stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. The collection is often a set of results of an experiment, or a set of results from a survey."
"<dbpedia:International_Atomic_Time>"
"International Atomic Time"
"International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name Temps Atomique International) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid. It is the basis for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface, and for Terrestrial Time, which is used for astronomical calculations. As of 30 June 2015 when the last leap second was added, TAI is exactly 36 seconds ahead of UTC."
"<dbpedia:Allan_Dwan>"
"Allan Dwan"
"Allan Dwan (3 April 1885 – 28 December 1981) was a pioneering Canadian-born American motion picture director, producer and screenwriter."
"The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a statuette, officially the Academy Award of Merit, which is better known by its nickname Oscar."
"<dbpedia:Asphalt>"
"Asphalt"
"Asphalt (US /ˈæsfɔːlt/ or UK /ˈæsfælt/, occasionally /ˈæʃfɔːlt/), also known as bitumen (/bɪˈtjuːmən, baɪ-/), is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product; it is a substance classed as a pitch. Until the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used."
"<dbpedia:Assistive_technology>"
"Assistive technology"
"Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and also includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks."
"<dbpedia:A>"
"A"
"A (named a /ˈeɪ/, plural aes) is the 1st letter and the first vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lower-case version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children."
"<dbpedia:Aristotle>"
"Aristotle"
"Aristotle (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/; Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης [aristotélɛːs], Aristotélēs; 384 – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC)."
"<dbpedia:Agriculture>"
"Agriculture"
"Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science."
"<dbpedia:Ayn_Rand>"
"Ayn Rand"
"Ayn Rand (/ˈaɪn ˈrænd/; born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum, Russian: Али́са Зино́вьевна Розенба́ум; February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-born American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism. Born and educated in Russia, Rand moved to the United States in 1926. She had a play produced on Broadway in 1935–1936."
"<dbpedia:Actrius>"
"Actrius"
"Actrius (Catalan: Actresses) is a 1996 film directed by Ventura Pons. In the film, there are no male actors and the four leading actresses dubbed themselves in the Castilian version."
"<dbpedia:Achilles>"
"Achilles"
"In Greek mythology, Achilles (/əˈkɪliːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἀχιλλεύς, Akhilleus, pronounced [akʰilːéu̯s]) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the nymph Thetis, and his father, Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons.Achilles’ most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector outside the gates of Troy."
"<dbpedia:Atomic_number>"
"Atomic number"
"In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus. It is conventionally represented by the symbol Z. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element."
"<dbpedia:Apollo>"
"Apollo"
"Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more."
"<dbpedia:List_of_Atlas_Shrugged_characters>"
"List of Atlas Shrugged characters"
"This is a list of characters in Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged."
"<dbpedia:Algeria>"
"Algeria"
"Algeria (Arabic: الجزائر‎ al-Jazā'ir), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in Africa and the Arab world."
"<dbpedia:Arraignment>"
"Arraignment"
"Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against them. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea. Acceptable pleas vary among jurisdictions, but they generally include "guilty", "not guilty", and the peremptory pleas (or pleas in bar) setting out reasons why a trial cannot proceed. Pleas of "nolo contendere" (no contest) and the "Alford plea" are allowed in some circumstances."
"<dbpedia:Albedo>"
"Albedo"
"Albedo (/ælˈbiːdoʊ/), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo "whiteness" (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus "white", is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it."
"<dbpedia:Autism>"
"Autism"
"Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then regress."
"<dbpedia:Alain_Connes>"
"Alain Connes"
"Alain Connes (French: [alɛ̃ kɔn]; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, The Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000)."
"<dbpedia:Appellate_court>"
"Appellate court"
"An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal."
"An adventure is an exciting or unusual experience. It may also be a bold, usually risky undertaking, with an uncertain outcome. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as exploring, skydiving, mountain climbing, river rafting or participating in extreme sports. The term also broadly refers to any enterprise that is potentially fraught with physical, financial or psychological risk, such as a business venture, a love affair, or other major life undertakings ."
"<dbpedia:Abacus>"
"Abacus"
"The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere. Today, abaci are often constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires, but originally they were beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. The user of an abacus is called an abacist."
"<dbpedia:Animal_Farm>"
"Animal Farm"
"Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and then on into the Stalin era in the Soviet Union. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude that was critically shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War."
"<dbpedia:Austroasiatic_languages>"
"Austroasiatic languages"
"The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China. The name Austroasiatic comes from the Latin words for "south" and "Asia", hence "South Asia"."
"<dbpedia:Afroasiatic_languages>"
"Afroasiatic languages"
"Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate."
"<dbpedia:Andorra>"
"Andorra"
"Andorra (/ænˈdɔːrə/; Catalan: [ənˈdorə], locally: [anˈdɔra]), officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Catalan: Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. Created under a charter in A.D. 988, the present Principality was formed in A.D. 1278."
"<dbpedia:Analysis_of_variance>"
"Analysis of variance"
"Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models used to analyze the differences among group means and their associated procedures (such as "variation" among and between groups), developed by statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. In the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation."
"<dbpedia:Astronaut>"
"Astronaut"
"An astronaut (or cosmonaut) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies."
"<dbpedia:Alchemy>"
"Alchemy"
"Alchemy is an influential tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers. As described by Paul-Jacques Malouin in The Encyclopedia of Diderot, it is the chemistry of the subtlest kind which allows one to observe extraordinary chemical operations at a more rapid pace – operations that require a long time for nature to produce."
"<dbpedia:Andre_Agassi>"
"Andre Agassi"
"Andre Kirk Agassi (/ˈɑːndreɪ ˈæɡəsi/; born April 29, 1970) is an American retired professional tennis player and former World No. 1, who was one of the game's most dominant players from the early 1990s to the mid-2000s. Generally considered by critics and fellow players to be one of the greatest tennis players of all time, Agassi had been called the greatest service returner in the history of the game."
"<dbpedia:A_Modest_Proposal>"
"A Modest Proposal"
"A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People From Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729. Swift suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies."
"<dbpedia:America_the_Beautiful>"
"America the Beautiful"
""America the Beautiful" is an American patriotic song. The lyrics were written by Katharine Lee Bates, and the music was composed by church organist and choirmaster Samuel A. Ward.Bates originally wrote the words as a poem, "Pikes Peak", first published in the Fourth of July edition of the church periodical The Congregationalist in 1895."
"<dbpedia:Android_(robot)>"
"Android (robot)"
"An android is a robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act like a human, especially one with a body having a flesh-like resemblance. Until recently, androids have largely remained within the domain of science fiction, frequently seen in film and television. However, advancements in robot technology have allowed the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots."
"<dbpedia:Alphabet>"
"Alphabet"
"An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language."
"<dbpedia:Transport_in_Angola>"
"Transport in Angola"
"Transport in Angola comprises:"
"<dbpedia:Anatomy>"
"Anatomy"
"Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. In some of its facets, anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, which itself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy."
"<dbpedia:Agnostida>"
"Agnostida"
"Agnostida is an order of arthropod which first developed near the end of the Early Cambrian period and thrived during the Middle Cambrian. They are present in the Lower Cambrian fossil record along with trilobites from the Redlichiida, Corynexochida, and Ptychopariida orders. The last agnostids went extinct in the Late Ordovician."
"<dbpedia:Abstract_(law)>"
"Abstract (law)"
"In law, an abstract is a brief statement that contains the most important points of a long legal document or of several related legal papers."
"<dbpedia:Algorithms_(journal)>"
"Algorithms (journal)"
"Algorithms is a peer-reviewed open access mathematics journal concerning design, analysis, and experiments on algorithms. It is published by MDPI, which is considered a predatory publisher by Jeffrey Beall; subsequent investigation by the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association endorsed MDPI according to its membership criteria.The journal was established in 2008. Its editor-in-chief is Kazuo Iwama (Kyoto University)."
"<dbpedia:Demographics_of_Angola>"
"Demographics of Angola"
"This article is about the demographic features of the population of Angola, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.According to 2014 census data, Angola had a population of 24.3 million inhabitants in 2014.Ethnically, there are three main groups, each speaking a Bantu language: the Ovimbundu who represent 37% of the population, the (Ambundu) with 25%, and the Bakongo 13%."
"<dbpedia:American_National_Standards_Institute>"
"American National Standards Institute"
"The American National Standards Institute (ANSI, /ˈænsiː/ AN-see) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide."
"<dbpedia:Aardwolf>"
"Aardwolf"
"The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a small, insectivorous mammal, native to East Africa and Southern Africa. Its name means "earth wolf" in the Afrikaans / Dutch language. It is also called "maanhaar jackal" (Literally "mane jackal" in Afrikaans) or civet hyena, based on the secretions reminiscent of civets from their anal glands. The aardwolf is in the same family as the hyenas."
"<dbpedia:Foreign_relations_of_Angola>"
"Foreign relations of Angola"
"The foreign relations of Angola are based on Angola's strong support of U.S. foreign policy as the Angolan economy is dependent on U.S. foreign aid.From 1975 to 1989, Angola was aligned with the Eastern bloc, in particular the Soviet Union, Libya, and Cuba."
"<dbpedia:Politics_of_Angola>"
"Politics of Angola"
"Since the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, the politics of Angola takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Angola is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government."
"<dbpedia:Atlantic_Ocean>"
"Atlantic Ocean"
"The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean. With a total area of about 106,400,000 square kilometres (41,100,000 sq mi), it covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. The first part of its name refers to Atlas of Greek mythology, making the Atlantic the "Sea of Atlas".The oldest known mention of "Atlantic" is in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (Hdt."
"<dbpedia:Annual_plant>"
"Annual plant"
"An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seed, within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.One seed-to-seed life cycle for an annual can occur in as little as a month in some species, though most last several months."
"<dbpedia:Amphibian>"
"Amphibian"
"Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs."
"<dbpedia:Aruba>"
"Aruba"
"Aruba (/əˈruːbə/ ə-ROO-bə; Dutch pronunciation: [aːˈrubaː]) is an island country in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands."
"<dbpedia:Articles_of_Confederation>"
"Articles of Confederation"
"The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, were an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution. Its drafting by a committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress began on July 12, 1776, and an approved version was sent to the states for ratification in late 1777. The formal ratification by all thirteen states was completed in early 1781."
"<dbpedia:Anthophyta>"
"Anthophyta"
"The anthophytes were thought to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures. The group contained the angiosperms - the extant flowering plants, such as roses and grasses - as well as the Gnetales and the extinct Bennettitales. Detailed morphological and molecular studies have shown that the group is not actually monophyletic, with proposed floral homologies of the gnetophytes and the angiosperms having evolved in parallel."
"<dbpedia:Algae>"
"Algae"
""Alga" redirects here. For places called Alga, see Alga (disambiguation). For other uses, see Algae (disambiguation).Algae (/ˈældʒiː/ or /ˈælɡiː/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga that may grow up to 50 meters in length."
"<dbpedia:Amateur_astronomy>"
"Amateur astronomy"
"Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy watching the sky, and the abundance of objects found in it with the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes."
"<dbpedia:Albert_Sidney_Johnston>"
"Albert Sidney Johnston"
"Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) served as a general in three different armies: the Texian (i.e., Republic of Texas) Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army."
"<dbpedia:Angolan_Armed_Forces>"
"Angolan Armed Forces"
"The Angolan Armed Forces (Portuguese: Forças Armadas Angolanas) are the military in Angola that succeeded the Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) following the abortive Bicesse Accord with the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in 1991. As part of the peace agreement, troops from both armies were to be demilitarized and then integrated. Integration was never completed as UNITA went back to war in 1992."
"<dbpedia:Andrei_Tarkovsky>"
"Andrei Tarkovsky"
"Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Russian: Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский; IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej ɐrˈsʲenʲjɪvʲɪtɕ tɐrˈkofskʲɪj]; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Soviet and Russian film-maker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.Tarkovsky's films include Ivan's Childhood, Andrei Rublev, Solaris, Mirror, and Stalker."
"<dbpedia:Alismatales>"
"Alismatales"
"Alismatales is an order of flowering plants including about 4500 species. Plants assigned to this order are mostly tropical or aquatic. Some grow in fresh water, some in marine habitats."
"<dbpedia:Allocution>"
"Allocution"
"An allocution or allocutus is a formal statement made to the court by the defendant who has been found guilty, prior to being sentenced."
"<dbpedia:Asteroids_(video_game)>"
"Asteroids (video game)"
"Asteroids is an arcade space shooter released in November 1979 by Atari, Inc. and designed by Lyle Rains, Ed Logg, and Dominic Walsh. The player controls a spaceship in an asteroid field which is periodically traversed by flying saucers. The object of the game is to shoot and destroy asteroids and saucers while not colliding with either or being hit by the saucers' counter-fire."
"<dbpedia:Mouthwash>"
"Mouthwash"
"Mouthwash, mouth rinse, oral rinse or mouth bath, is a liquid which is held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth."
"<dbpedia:Affidavit>"
"Affidavit"
"An affidavit (/ˌæfɨˈdeɪvɨt/ A-fə-DAY-vət) is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin for he/she has declared upon oath."
"<dbpedia:Economy_of_Angola>"
"Economy of Angola"
"The Economy of Angola is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with reported annual average GDP growth of 11.1 percent for the period from 2001 to 2010. It is still recovering from the Angolan Civil War that plagued the country from independence in 1975 until 2002. Despite extensive oil and gas resources, diamonds, hydroelectric potential, and rich agricultural land, Angola remains poor, and a third of the population relies on subsistence agriculture."
"<dbpedia:Ampere>"
"Ampere"
"The ampere (SI unit symbol: A), often shortened to "amp", is the SI unit of electric current (dimension symbol: I) and is one of the seven SI base units. It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics.The ampere is equivalent to one coulomb (roughly 7018624100000000000♠6.241×1018 times the elementary charge) per second. Amperes are used to express flow rate of electric charge."
"<dbpedia:Art>"
"Art"
"Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art."
"<dbpedia:Abraham_Lincoln>"
"Abraham Lincoln"
"Abraham Lincoln /ˈeɪbrəhæm ˈlɪŋkən/ (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis."
"<dbpedia:Alfred_Korzybski>"
"Alfred Korzybski"
"Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski ([kɔˈʐɨpski]; July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics."
"<dbpedia:Alabama>"
"Alabama"
"Alabama (/ˌæləˈbæmə/) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 23rd-most populous of the 50 United States."
"<dbpedia:Asteroid>"
"Asteroid"
"Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have also been called planetoids. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not show the disc of a planet and was not observed to have the characteristics of an active comet."
"<dbpedia:Allah>"
"Allah"
"Allah (English pronunciation: /ˈælə/ or /ˈɑːlə/; Arabic: الله‎ Allāh, IPA: [ʔalˤˈlˤɑːh]) is the Arabic word for God (al ilāh, literally "the God"). The word has cognates in other Semitic languages, including Elah in Aramaic, ʾĒl in Canaanite and Elohim in Hebrew.It is used mainly by Muslims to refer to God in Islam, but it has also been used by Arab Christians since pre-Islamic times."
"<dbpedia:Apiales>"
"Apiales"
"The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system. This is typical of the newer classifications, though there is some slight variation, and in particular the Torriceliaceae may be divided.Under this definition, well-known members include carrots, celery, parsley, and ivy.The order Apiales is placed within the asterid group of eudicots as circumscribed by the APG III system."
"<dbpedia:Angola>"
"Angola"
"Angola /ænˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola pronounced: [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ]; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west."
"<dbpedia:Aikido>"
"Aikido"
"Aikido (Japanese: 合気道, Hepburn: Aikidō) [a.i.ki.doː] is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs."
"<dbpedia:Algorithm>"
"Algorithm"
"In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms exist that perform calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning.An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function."
"<dbpedia:Aquarius_(constellation)>"
"Aquarius (constellation)"
"Aquarius is a constellation of the zodiac, situated between Capricornus and Pisces. Its name is Latin for "water-carrier" or "cup-carrier", and its symbol is 20px (Unicode ♒), a representation of water.Aquarius is one of the oldest of the recognized constellations along the zodiac (the sun's apparent path). It was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century AD astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations."
"<dbpedia:Arthur_Schopenhauer>"
"Arthur Schopenhauer"
"Arthur Schopenhauer (German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, in which he characterizes the phenomenal world, and consequently all human action, as the product of a blind, insatiable, and malignant metaphysical will.Schopenhauer's atheistic metaphysical system and subsequent doctrine of ethics have been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism."
"<dbpedia:Museum_of_Work>"
"Museum of Work"
"The Museum of Work, or Arbetets museum, is a museum located in Norrköping, Sweden. The museum can be found in the 19th century building The Iron in the Motala ström river in central Norrköping."
"Alaska (/əˈlæskə/) is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent. Bordering the state to the east are the Canadian territory of Yukon and the Canadian province of British Columbia; to the north is the Arctic Ocean; and to the west and south is the Pacific Ocean, with Russia (specifically, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Kamchatka Krai) farther west across the Bering Strait."
"<dbpedia:Anaconda>"
"Anaconda"
"An anaconda is a large snake found in tropical South America."
"<dbpedia:American_Revolutionary_War>"
"American Revolutionary War"
"The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America. Early fighting took place primarily on the North American continent. In 1778, France, eager for revenge after its defeat in the Seven Years' War, signed an alliance with the new nation."
"<dbpedia:Asterales>"
"Asterales"
"Asterales /æstəˈreɪliːz/ is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae (or Compositae) known for composite flowers made of florets, and ten families related to the Asteraceae.The order is a cosmopolite (plants found throughout most of the world including desert and frigid zones), and includes mostly herbaceous species, although a small number of trees (such as the giant Lobelia and the giant Senecio) and shrubs are also present.Asterales are organisms that seem to have evolved from one common ancestor."
"<dbpedia:Alberta>"
"Alberta"
"Alberta (/ælˈbɜrtə/) is a western province of Canada. With a population of 3,645,257 in 2011 and an estimated population of 4,145,992 as of October 1, 2014, it is Canada's fourth-most populous province and most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Alberta and its neighbour, Saskatchewan, were established as provinces on September 1, 1905."
"<dbpedia:Anime>"
"Anime"
"Anime (Japanese: アニメ, [anime]), also informally romanized as animé, are Japanese animated productions featuring hand-drawn or computer animation. In Japan the word refers to all animation, being a shortened form of the rōmaji animēshon "\animation"). Outside Japan, the meaning of the word anime can vary slightly; definitions include animation from Japan or, alternatively, a Japanese-disseminated animation style often characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes."
"<dbpedia:Asia>"
"Asia"
"Asia (/ˈeɪʒə/ or /ˈeɪʃə/) is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. Though it covers only 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area, it comprises 30% of Earth's land area, and has historically been home to the bulk of the planet's human population (currently roughly 60%)."
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for BEIR Benchmark

### Dataset Summary

BEIR is a heterogeneous benchmark that has been built from 18 diverse datasets representing 9 information retrieval tasks:

All these datasets have been preprocessed and can be used for your experiments.




The dataset supports a leaderboard that evaluates models against task-specific metrics such as F1 or EM, as well as their ability to retrieve supporting information from Wikipedia.

The current best performing models can be found here.

### Languages

All tasks are in English (en).

## Dataset Structure

All BEIR datasets must contain a corpus, queries and qrels (relevance judgments file). They must be in the following format:

• corpus file: a .jsonl file (jsonlines) that contains a list of dictionaries, each with three fields _id with unique document identifier, title with document title (optional) and text with document paragraph or passage. For example: {"_id": "doc1", "title": "Albert Einstein", "text": "Albert Einstein was a German-born...."}
• queries file: a .jsonl file (jsonlines) that contains a list of dictionaries, each with two fields _id with unique query identifier and text with query text. For example: {"_id": "q1", "text": "Who developed the mass-energy equivalence formula?"}
• qrels file: a .tsv file (tab-seperated) that contains three columns, i.e. the query-id, corpus-id and score in this order. Keep 1st row as header. For example: q1 doc1 1

### Data Instances

A high level example of any beir dataset:

corpus = {
"doc1" : {
"title": "Albert Einstein",
"text": "Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. who developed the theory of relativity, \
one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). His work is also known for \
its influence on the philosophy of science. He is best known to the general public for his massâ€“energy \
equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed 'the world's most famous equation'. He received the 1921 \
Nobel Prize in Physics 'for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law \
of the photoelectric effect', a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory."
},
"doc2" : {
"title": "", # Keep title an empty string if not present
"text": "Wheat beer is a top-fermented beer which is brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of \
malted barley. The two main varieties are German WeiÃŸbier and Belgian witbier; other types include Lambic (made\
with wild yeast), Berliner Weisse (a cloudy, sour beer), and Gose (a sour, salty beer)."
},
}

queries = {
"q1" : "Who developed the mass-energy equivalence formula?",
"q2" : "Which beer is brewed with a large proportion of wheat?"
}

qrels = {
"q1" : {"doc1": 1},
"q2" : {"doc2": 1},
}


### Data Fields

Examples from all configurations have the following features:

### Corpus

• corpus: a dict feature representing the document title and passage text, made up of:
• _id: a string feature representing the unique document id
• title: a string feature, denoting the title of the document.
• text: a string feature, denoting the text of the document.

### Queries

• queries: a dict feature representing the query, made up of:
• _id: a string feature representing the unique query id
• text: a string feature, denoting the text of the query.

### Qrels

• qrels: a dict feature representing the query document relevance judgements, made up of:
• _id: a string feature representing the query id
• _id: a string feature, denoting the document id.
• score: a int32 feature, denoting the relevance judgement between query and document.

### Data Splits

Dataset Website BEIR-Name Type Queries Corpus Rel D/Q Down-load md5
MSMARCO Homepage msmarco train
dev
test
6,980 8.84M 1.1 Link 444067daf65d982533ea17ebd59501e4
TREC-COVID Homepage trec-covid test 50 171K 493.5 Link ce62140cb23feb9becf6270d0d1fe6d1
NFCorpus Homepage nfcorpus train
dev
test
323 3.6K 38.2 Link a89dba18a62ef92f7d323ec890a0d38d
BioASQ Homepage bioasq train
test
500 14.91M 8.05 No How to Reproduce?
NQ Homepage nq train
test
3,452 2.68M 1.2 Link d4d3d2e48787a744b6f6e691ff534307
HotpotQA Homepage hotpotqa train
dev
test
7,405 5.23M 2.0 Link f412724f78b0d91183a0e86805e16114
FiQA-2018 Homepage fiqa train
dev
test
648 57K 2.6 Link 17918ed23cd04fb15047f73e6c3bd9d9
Signal-1M(RT) Homepage signal1m test 97 2.86M 19.6 No How to Reproduce?
TREC-NEWS Homepage trec-news test 57 595K 19.6 No How to Reproduce?
ArguAna Homepage arguana test 1,406 8.67K 1.0 Link 8ad3e3c2a5867cdced806d6503f29b99
Touche-2020 Homepage webis-touche2020 test 49 382K 19.0 Link 46f650ba5a527fc69e0a6521c5a23563
CQADupstack Homepage cqadupstack test 13,145 457K 1.4 Link 4e41456d7df8ee7760a7f866133bda78
Quora Homepage quora dev
test
10,000 523K 1.6 Link 18fb154900ba42a600f84b839c173167
DBPedia Homepage dbpedia-entity dev
test
400 4.63M 38.2 Link c2a39eb420a3164af735795df012ac2c
SCIDOCS Homepage scidocs test 1,000 25K 4.9 Link 38121350fc3a4d2f48850f6aff52e4a9
FEVER Homepage fever train
dev
test
6,666 5.42M 1.2 Link 5a818580227bfb4b35bb6fa46d9b6c03
Climate-FEVER Homepage climate-fever test 1,535 5.42M 3.0 Link 8b66f0a9126c521bae2bde127b4dc99d
SciFact Homepage scifact train
test
300 5K 1.1 Link 5f7d1de60b170fc8027bb7898e2efca1
Robust04 Homepage robust04 test 249 528K 69.9 No How to Reproduce?

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Citation Information

Cite as:

@inproceedings{
thakur2021beir,
title={{BEIR}: A Heterogeneous Benchmark for Zero-shot Evaluation of Information Retrieval Models},
author={Nandan Thakur and Nils Reimers and Andreas R{\"u}ckl{\'e} and Abhishek Srivastava and Iryna Gurevych},
booktitle={Thirty-fifth Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems Datasets and Benchmarks Track (Round 2)},
year={2021},
url={https://openreview.net/forum?id=wCu6T5xFjeJ}
}


### Contributions

Thanks to @Nthakur20 for adding this dataset.