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Twitter 2022 154M (RoBERTa-base, 154M - full update)

This is a RoBERTa-base model trained on 154M tweets until the end of December 2022 (from original checkpoint, no incremental updates). A large model trained on the same data is available here.

These 154M tweets result from filtering 220M tweets obtained exclusively from the Twitter Academic API, covering every month between 2018-01 and 2022-12. Filtering and preprocessing details are available in the TimeLMs paper.

Below, we provide some usage examples using the standard Transformers interface. For another interface more suited to comparing predictions and perplexity scores between models trained at different temporal intervals, check the TimeLMs repository.

For other models trained until different periods, check this table.

Preprocess Text

Replace usernames and links for placeholders: "@user" and "http". If you're interested in retaining verified users which were also retained during training, you may keep the users listed here.

def preprocess(text):
    preprocessed_text = []
    for t in text.split():
        if len(t) > 1:
            t = '@user' if t[0] == '@' and t.count('@') == 1 else t
            t = 'http' if t.startswith('http') else t
        preprocessed_text.append(t)
    return ' '.join(preprocessed_text)

Example Masked Language Model

from transformers import pipeline, AutoTokenizer

MODEL = "cardiffnlp/twitter-roberta-base-2022-154m"
fill_mask = pipeline("fill-mask", model=MODEL, tokenizer=MODEL)
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(MODEL)

def pprint(candidates, n):
    for i in range(n):
        token = tokenizer.decode(candidates[i]['token'])
        score = candidates[i]['score']
        print("%d) %.5f %s" % (i+1, score, token))

texts = [
    "So glad I'm <mask> vaccinated.",
    "I keep forgetting to bring a <mask>.",
    "Looking forward to watching <mask> Game tonight!",
]
for text in texts:
    t = preprocess(text)
    print(f"{'-'*30}\n{t}")
    candidates = fill_mask(t)
    pprint(candidates, 5)

Output:

------------------------------
So glad I'm <mask> vaccinated.
1) 0.26251  not
2) 0.25460  a
3) 0.12611  in
4) 0.11036  the
5) 0.04210  getting
------------------------------
I keep forgetting to bring a <mask>.
1) 0.09274  charger
2) 0.04727  lighter
3) 0.04469  mask
4) 0.04395  drink
5) 0.03644  camera
------------------------------
Looking forward to watching <mask> Game tonight!
1) 0.57683  Squid
2) 0.17419  The
3) 0.04198  the
4) 0.00970  Spring
5) 0.00921  Big

Example Tweet Embeddings

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModel, TFAutoModel
import numpy as np
from scipy.spatial.distance import cosine
from collections import Counter

def get_embedding(text):  # naive approach for demonstration
  text = preprocess(text)
  encoded_input = tokenizer(text, return_tensors='pt')
  features = model(**encoded_input)
  features = features[0].detach().cpu().numpy() 
  return np.mean(features[0], axis=0) 


MODEL = "cardiffnlp/twitter-roberta-base-2022-154m"
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(MODEL)
model = AutoModel.from_pretrained(MODEL)

query = "The book was awesome"
tweets = ["I just ordered fried chicken ๐Ÿฃ", 
          "The movie was great",
          "What time is the next game?",
          "Just finished reading 'Embeddings in NLP'"]

sims = Counter()
for tweet in tweets:
    sim = 1 - cosine(get_embedding(query), get_embedding(tweet))
    sims[tweet] = sim

print('Most similar to: ', query)
print(f"{'-'*30}")
for idx, (tweet, sim) in enumerate(sims.most_common()):
    print("%d) %.5f %s" % (idx+1, sim, tweet))

Output:

Most similar to:  The book was awesome
------------------------------
1) 0.99403 The movie was great
2) 0.98006 Just finished reading 'Embeddings in NLP'
3) 0.97314 What time is the next game?
4) 0.92448 I just ordered fried chicken ๐Ÿฃ

Example Feature Extraction

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModel, TFAutoModel
import numpy as np

MODEL = "cardiffnlp/twitter-roberta-base-2022-154m"
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(MODEL)

text = "Good night ๐Ÿ˜Š"
text = preprocess(text)

# Pytorch
model = AutoModel.from_pretrained(MODEL)
encoded_input = tokenizer(text, return_tensors='pt')
features = model(**encoded_input)
features = features[0].detach().cpu().numpy() 
features_mean = np.mean(features[0], axis=0) 
#features_max = np.max(features[0], axis=0)

# # Tensorflow
# model = TFAutoModel.from_pretrained(MODEL)
# encoded_input = tokenizer(text, return_tensors='tf')
# features = model(encoded_input)
# features = features[0].numpy()
# features_mean = np.mean(features[0], axis=0) 
# #features_max = np.max(features[0], axis=0)

BibTeX entry and citation info

Please cite the reference paper if you use this model.

@article{loureiro2023tweet,
  title={Tweet Insights: A Visualization Platform to Extract Temporal Insights from Twitter},
  author={Loureiro, Daniel and Rezaee, Kiamehr and Riahi, Talayeh and Barbieri, Francesco and Neves, Leonardo and Anke, Luis Espinosa and Camacho-Collados, Jose},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.02142},
  year={2023}
}
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