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Model description: deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-all-33

The model is designed for zero-shot classification with the Hugging Face pipeline.

The model can do one universal classification task: determine whether a hypothesis is "true" or "not true" given a text (entailment vs. not_entailment).
This task format is based on the Natural Language Inference task (NLI). The task is so universal that any classification task can be reformulated into this task.

A detailed description of how the model was trained and how it can be used is available in this paper.

Training data

The model was trained on a mixture of 33 datasets and 387 classes that have been reformatted into this universal format.

  1. Five NLI datasets with ~885k texts: "mnli", "anli", "fever", "wanli", "ling"
  2. 28 classification tasks reformatted into the universal NLI format. ~51k cleaned texts were used to avoid overfitting: 'amazonpolarity', 'imdb', 'appreviews', 'yelpreviews', 'rottentomatoes', 'emotiondair', 'emocontext', 'empathetic', 'financialphrasebank', 'banking77', 'massive', 'wikitoxic_toxicaggregated', 'wikitoxic_obscene', 'wikitoxic_threat', 'wikitoxic_insult', 'wikitoxic_identityhate', 'hateoffensive', 'hatexplain', 'biasframes_offensive', 'biasframes_sex', 'biasframes_intent', 'agnews', 'yahootopics', 'trueteacher', 'spam', 'wellformedquery', 'manifesto', 'capsotu'.

See details on each dataset here: https://github.com/MoritzLaurer/zeroshot-classifier/blob/main/datasets_overview.csv

Note that compared to other NLI models, this model predicts two classes (entailment vs. not_entailment) as opposed to three classes (entailment/neutral/contradiction)

The model was only trained on English data. For multilingual use-cases, I recommend machine translating texts to English with libraries like EasyNMT. English-only models tend to perform better than multilingual models and validation with English data can be easier if you don't speak all languages in your corpus.

How to use the model

Simple zero-shot classification pipeline

#!pip install transformers[sentencepiece]
from transformers import pipeline
text = "Angela Merkel is a politician in Germany and leader of the CDU"
hypothesis_template = "This example is about {}"
classes_verbalized = ["politics", "economy", "entertainment", "environment"]
zeroshot_classifier = pipeline("zero-shot-classification", model="MoritzLaurer/deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-all-33")
output = zeroshot_classifier(text, classes_verbalised, hypothesis_template=hypothesis_template, multi_label=False)
print(output)

Details on data and training

The code for preparing the data and training & evaluating the model is fully open-source here: https://github.com/MoritzLaurer/zeroshot-classifier/tree/main

Hyperparameters and other details are available in this Weights & Biases repo: https://wandb.ai/moritzlaurer/deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1-1-all-33/table?workspace=user-

Metrics

Balanced accuracy is reported for all datasets. deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-all-33 was trained on all datasets, with only maximum 500 texts per class to avoid overfitting. The metrics on these datasets are therefore not strictly zeroshot, as the model has seen some data for each task during training. deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-heldout indicates zeroshot performance on the respective dataset. To calculate these zeroshot metrics, the pipeline was run 28 times, each time with one dataset held out from training to simulate a zeroshot setup.

figure_large_v1.1

deberta-v3-large-mnli-fever-anli-ling-wanli-binary deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-heldout deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-all-33
datasets mean (w/o nli) 64.1 73.4 85.2
amazonpolarity (2) 94.7 96.6 96.8
imdb (2) 90.3 95.2 95.5
appreviews (2) 93.6 94.3 94.7
yelpreviews (2) 98.5 98.4 98.9
rottentomatoes (2) 83.9 90.5 90.8
emotiondair (6) 49.2 42.1 72.1
emocontext (4) 57 69.3 82.4
empathetic (32) 42 34.4 58
financialphrasebank (3) 77.4 77.5 91.9
banking77 (72) 29.1 52.8 72.2
massive (59) 47.3 64.7 77.3
wikitoxic_toxicaggreg (2) 81.6 86.6 91
wikitoxic_obscene (2) 85.9 91.9 93.1
wikitoxic_threat (2) 77.9 93.7 97.6
wikitoxic_insult (2) 77.8 91.1 92.3
wikitoxic_identityhate (2) 86.4 89.8 95.7
hateoffensive (3) 62.8 66.5 88.4
hatexplain (3) 46.9 61 76.9
biasframes_offensive (2) 62.5 86.6 89
biasframes_sex (2) 87.6 89.6 92.6
biasframes_intent (2) 54.8 88.6 89.9
agnews (4) 81.9 82.8 90.9
yahootopics (10) 37.7 65.6 74.3
trueteacher (2) 51.2 54.9 86.6
spam (2) 52.6 51.8 97.1
wellformedquery (2) 49.9 40.4 82.7
manifesto (56) 10.6 29.4 44.1
capsotu (21) 23.2 69.4 74
mnli_m (2) 93.1 nan 93.1
mnli_mm (2) 93.2 nan 93.2
fevernli (2) 89.3 nan 89.5
anli_r1 (2) 87.9 nan 87.3
anli_r2 (2) 76.3 nan 78
anli_r3 (2) 73.6 nan 74.1
wanli (2) 82.8 nan 82.7
lingnli (2) 90.2 nan 89.6

Limitations and bias

The model can only do text classification tasks.

Please consult the original DeBERTa paper and the papers for the different datasets for potential biases.

License

The base model (DeBERTa-v3) is published under the MIT license. The datasets the model was fine-tuned on are published under a diverse set of licenses. The following table provides an overview of the non-NLI datasets used for fine-tuning, information on licenses, the underlying papers etc.: https://github.com/MoritzLaurer/zeroshot-classifier/blob/main/datasets_overview.csv

Citation

If you use this model academically, please cite:

@misc{laurer_building_2023,
    title = {Building {Efficient} {Universal} {Classifiers} with {Natural} {Language} {Inference}},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2312.17543},
    doi = {10.48550/arXiv.2312.17543},
    abstract = {Generative Large Language Models (LLMs) have become the mainstream choice for fewshot and zeroshot learning thanks to the universality of text generation. Many users, however, do not need the broad capabilities of generative LLMs when they only want to automate a classification task. Smaller BERT-like models can also learn universal tasks, which allow them to do any text classification task without requiring fine-tuning (zeroshot classification) or to learn new tasks with only a few examples (fewshot), while being significantly more efficient than generative LLMs. This paper (1) explains how Natural Language Inference (NLI) can be used as a universal classification task that follows similar principles as instruction fine-tuning of generative LLMs, (2) provides a step-by-step guide with reusable Jupyter notebooks for building a universal classifier, and (3) shares the resulting universal classifier that is trained on 33 datasets with 389 diverse classes. Parts of the code we share has been used to train our older zeroshot classifiers that have been downloaded more than 55 million times via the Hugging Face Hub as of December 2023. Our new classifier improves zeroshot performance by 9.4\%.},
    urldate = {2024-01-05},
    publisher = {arXiv},
    author = {Laurer, Moritz and van Atteveldt, Wouter and Casas, Andreu and Welbers, Kasper},
    month = dec,
    year = {2023},
    note = {arXiv:2312.17543 [cs]},
    keywords = {Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science - Computation and Language},
}

Ideas for cooperation or questions?

If you have questions or ideas for cooperation, contact me at m{dot}laurer{at}vu{dot}nl or LinkedIn

Debugging and issues

Note that DeBERTa-v3 was released on 06.12.21 and older versions of HF Transformers can have issues running the model (e.g. resulting in an issue with the tokenizer). Using Transformers>=4.13 might solve some issues.

Hypotheses used for classification

The hypotheses in the tables below were used to fine-tune the model. Inspecting them can help users get a feeling for which type of hypotheses and tasks the model was trained on. You can formulate your own hypotheses by changing the hypothesis_template of the zeroshot pipeline. For example:

from transformers import pipeline
text = "Angela Merkel is a politician in Germany and leader of the CDU"
hypothesis_template = "Merkel is the leader of the party: {}"
classes_verbalized = ["CDU", "SPD", "Greens"]
zeroshot_classifier = pipeline("zero-shot-classification", model="MoritzLaurer/deberta-v3-large-zeroshot-v1.1-all-33")
output = zeroshot_classifier(text, classes_verbalized, hypothesis_template=hypothesis_template, multi_label=False)
print(output)

Note that a few rows in the massive and banking77 datasets contain nan because some classes were so ambiguous/unclear that I excluded them from the data.

wellformedquery

label hypothesis
not_well_formed This example is not a well formed Google query
well_formed This example is a well formed Google query.

biasframes_sex

label hypothesis
not_sex This example does not contain allusions to sexual content.
sex This example contains allusions to sexual content.

biasframes_intent

label hypothesis
intent The intent of this example is to be offensive/disrespectful.
not_intent The intent of this example is not to be offensive/disrespectful.

biasframes_offensive

label hypothesis
not_offensive This example could not be considered offensive, disrespectful, or toxic.
offensive This example could be considered offensive, disrespectful, or toxic.

financialphrasebank

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example is negative from an investor's perspective.
neutral The sentiment in this example is neutral from an investor's perspective.
positive The sentiment in this example is positive from an investor's perspective.

rottentomatoes

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example rotten tomatoes movie review is negative
positive The sentiment in this example rotten tomatoes movie review is positive

amazonpolarity

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example amazon product review is negative
positive The sentiment in this example amazon product review is positive

imdb

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example imdb movie review is negative
positive The sentiment in this example imdb movie review is positive

appreviews

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example app review is negative.
positive The sentiment in this example app review is positive.

yelpreviews

label hypothesis
negative The sentiment in this example yelp review is negative.
positive The sentiment in this example yelp review is positive.

wikitoxic_toxicaggregated

label hypothesis
not_toxicaggregated This example wikipedia comment does not contain toxic language.
toxicaggregated This example wikipedia comment contains toxic language.

wikitoxic_obscene

label hypothesis
not_obscene This example wikipedia comment does not contain obscene language.
obscene This example wikipedia comment contains obscene language.

wikitoxic_threat

label hypothesis
not_threat This example wikipedia comment does not contain a threat.
threat This example wikipedia comment contains a threat.

wikitoxic_insult

label hypothesis
insult This example wikipedia comment contains an insult.
not_insult This example wikipedia comment does not contain an insult.

wikitoxic_identityhate

label hypothesis
identityhate This example wikipedia comment contains identity hate.
not_identityhate This example wikipedia comment does not contain identity hate.

hateoffensive

label hypothesis
hate_speech This example tweet contains hate speech.
neither This example tweet contains neither offensive language nor hate speech.
offensive This example tweet contains offensive language without hate speech.

hatexplain

label hypothesis
hate_speech This example text from twitter or gab contains hate speech.
neither This example text from twitter or gab contains neither offensive language nor hate speech.
offensive This example text from twitter or gab contains offensive language without hate speech.

spam

label hypothesis
not_spam This example sms is not spam.
spam This example sms is spam.

emotiondair

label hypothesis
anger This example tweet expresses the emotion: anger
fear This example tweet expresses the emotion: fear
joy This example tweet expresses the emotion: joy
love This example tweet expresses the emotion: love
sadness This example tweet expresses the emotion: sadness
surprise This example tweet expresses the emotion: surprise

emocontext

label hypothesis
angry This example tweet expresses the emotion: anger
happy This example tweet expresses the emotion: happiness
others This example tweet does not express any of the emotions: anger, sadness, or happiness
sad This example tweet expresses the emotion: sadness

empathetic

label hypothesis
afraid The main emotion of this example dialogue is: afraid
angry The main emotion of this example dialogue is: angry
annoyed The main emotion of this example dialogue is: annoyed
anticipating The main emotion of this example dialogue is: anticipating
anxious The main emotion of this example dialogue is: anxious
apprehensive The main emotion of this example dialogue is: apprehensive
ashamed The main emotion of this example dialogue is: ashamed
caring The main emotion of this example dialogue is: caring
confident The main emotion of this example dialogue is: confident
content The main emotion of this example dialogue is: content
devastated The main emotion of this example dialogue is: devastated
disappointed The main emotion of this example dialogue is: disappointed
disgusted The main emotion of this example dialogue is: disgusted
embarrassed The main emotion of this example dialogue is: embarrassed
excited The main emotion of this example dialogue is: excited
faithful The main emotion of this example dialogue is: faithful
furious The main emotion of this example dialogue is: furious
grateful The main emotion of this example dialogue is: grateful
guilty The main emotion of this example dialogue is: guilty
hopeful The main emotion of this example dialogue is: hopeful
impressed The main emotion of this example dialogue is: impressed
jealous The main emotion of this example dialogue is: jealous
joyful The main emotion of this example dialogue is: joyful
lonely The main emotion of this example dialogue is: lonely
nostalgic The main emotion of this example dialogue is: nostalgic
prepared The main emotion of this example dialogue is: prepared
proud The main emotion of this example dialogue is: proud
sad The main emotion of this example dialogue is: sad
sentimental The main emotion of this example dialogue is: sentimental
surprised The main emotion of this example dialogue is: surprised
terrified The main emotion of this example dialogue is: terrified
trusting The main emotion of this example dialogue is: trusting

agnews

label hypothesis
Business This example news text is about business news
Sci/Tech This example news text is about science and technology
Sports This example news text is about sports
World This example news text is about world news

yahootopics

label hypothesis
Business & Finance This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Business & Finance
Computers & Internet This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Computers & Internet
Education & Reference This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Education & Reference
Entertainment & Music This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Entertainment & Music
Family & Relationships This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Family & Relationships
Health This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Health
Politics & Government This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Politics & Government
Science & Mathematics This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Science & Mathematics
Society & Culture This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Society & Culture
Sports This example question from the Yahoo Q&A forum is categorized in the topic: Sports

massive

label hypothesis
alarm_query The example utterance is a query about alarms.
alarm_remove The intent of this example utterance is to remove an alarm.
alarm_set The intent of the example utterance is to set an alarm.
audio_volume_down The intent of the example utterance is to lower the volume.
audio_volume_mute The intent of this example utterance is to mute the volume.
audio_volume_other The example utterance is related to audio volume.
audio_volume_up The intent of this example utterance is turning the audio volume up.
calendar_query The example utterance is a query about a calendar.
calendar_remove The intent of the example utterance is to remove something from a calendar.
calendar_set The intent of this example utterance is to set something in a calendar.
cooking_query The example utterance is a query about cooking.
cooking_recipe This example utterance is about cooking recipies.
datetime_convert The example utterance is related to date time changes or conversion.
datetime_query The intent of this example utterance is a datetime query.
email_addcontact The intent of this example utterance is adding an email address to contacts.
email_query The example utterance is a query about emails.
email_querycontact The intent of this example utterance is to query contact details.
email_sendemail The intent of the example utterance is to send an email.
general_greet This example utterance is a general greet.
general_joke The intent of the example utterance is to hear a joke.
general_quirky nan
iot_cleaning The intent of the example utterance is for an IoT device to start cleaning.
iot_coffee The intent of this example utterance is for an IoT device to make coffee.
iot_hue_lightchange The intent of this example utterance is changing the light.
iot_hue_lightdim The intent of the example utterance is to dim the lights.
iot_hue_lightoff The example utterance is related to turning the lights off.
iot_hue_lighton The example utterance is related to turning the lights on.
iot_hue_lightup The intent of this example utterance is to brighten lights.
iot_wemo_off The intent of this example utterance is turning an IoT device off.
iot_wemo_on The intent of the example utterance is to turn an IoT device on.
lists_createoradd The example utterance is related to creating or adding to lists.
lists_query The example utterance is a query about a list.
lists_remove The intent of this example utterance is to remove a list or remove something from a list.
music_dislikeness The intent of this example utterance is signalling music dislike.
music_likeness The example utterance is related to liking music.
music_query The example utterance is a query about music.
music_settings The intent of the example utterance is to change music settings.
news_query The example utterance is a query about the news.
play_audiobook The example utterance is related to playing audiobooks.
play_game The intent of this example utterance is to start playing a game.
play_music The intent of this example utterance is for an IoT device to play music.
play_podcasts The example utterance is related to playing podcasts.
play_radio The intent of the example utterance is to play something on the radio.
qa_currency This example utteranceis about currencies.
qa_definition The example utterance is a query about a definition.
qa_factoid The example utterance is a factoid question.
qa_maths The example utterance is a question about maths.
qa_stock This example utterance is about stocks.
recommendation_events This example utterance is about event recommendations.
recommendation_locations The intent of this example utterance is receiving recommendations for good locations.
recommendation_movies This example utterance is about movie recommendations.
social_post The example utterance is about social media posts.
social_query The example utterance is a query about a social network.
takeaway_order The intent of this example utterance is to order takeaway food.
takeaway_query This example utterance is about takeaway food.
transport_query The example utterance is a query about transport or travels.
transport_taxi The intent of this example utterance is to get a taxi.
transport_ticket This example utterance is about transport tickets.
transport_traffic This example utterance is about transport or traffic.
weather_query This example utterance is a query about the wheather.

banking77

label hypothesis
Refund_not_showing_up This customer example message is about a refund not showing up.
activate_my_card This banking customer example message is about activating a card.
age_limit This banking customer example message is related to age limits.
apple_pay_or_google_pay This banking customer example message is about apple pay or google pay
atm_support This banking customer example message requests ATM support.
automatic_top_up This banking customer example message is about automatic top up.
balance_not_updated_after_bank_transfer This banking customer example message is about a balance not updated after a transfer.
balance_not_updated_after_cheque_or_cash_deposit This banking customer example message is about a balance not updated after a cheque or cash deposit.
beneficiary_not_allowed This banking customer example message is related to a beneficiary not being allowed or a failed transfer.
cancel_transfer This banking customer example message is related to the cancellation of a transfer.
card_about_to_expire This banking customer example message is related to the expiration of a card.
card_acceptance This banking customer example message is related to the scope of acceptance of a card.
card_arrival This banking customer example message is about the arrival of a card.
card_delivery_estimate This banking customer example message is about a card delivery estimate or timing.
card_linking nan
card_not_working This banking customer example message is about a card not working.
card_payment_fee_charged This banking customer example message is about a card payment fee.
card_payment_not_recognised This banking customer example message is about a payment the customer does not recognise.
card_payment_wrong_exchange_rate This banking customer example message is about a wrong exchange rate.
card_swallowed This banking customer example message is about a card swallowed by a machine.
cash_withdrawal_charge This banking customer example message is about a cash withdrawal charge.
cash_withdrawal_not_recognised This banking customer example message is about an unrecognised cash withdrawal.
change_pin This banking customer example message is about changing a pin code.
compromised_card This banking customer example message is about a compromised card.
contactless_not_working This banking customer example message is about contactless not working
country_support This banking customer example message is about country-specific support.
declined_card_payment This banking customer example message is about a declined card payment.
declined_cash_withdrawal This banking customer example message is about a declined cash withdrawal.
declined_transfer This banking customer example message is about a declined transfer.
direct_debit_payment_not_recognised This banking customer example message is about an unrecognised direct debit payment.
disposable_card_limits This banking customer example message is about the limits of disposable cards.
edit_personal_details This banking customer example message is about editing personal details.
exchange_charge This banking customer example message is about exchange rate charges.
exchange_rate This banking customer example message is about exchange rates.
exchange_via_app nan
extra_charge_on_statement This banking customer example message is about an extra charge.
failed_transfer This banking customer example message is about a failed transfer.
fiat_currency_support This banking customer example message is about fiat currency support
get_disposable_virtual_card This banking customer example message is about getting a disposable virtual card.
get_physical_card nan
getting_spare_card This banking customer example message is about getting a spare card.
getting_virtual_card This banking customer example message is about getting a virtual card.
lost_or_stolen_card This banking customer example message is about a lost or stolen card.
lost_or_stolen_phone This banking customer example message is about a lost or stolen phone.
order_physical_card This banking customer example message is about ordering a card.
passcode_forgotten This banking customer example message is about a forgotten passcode.
pending_card_payment This banking customer example message is about a pending card payment.
pending_cash_withdrawal This banking customer example message is about a pending cash withdrawal.
pending_top_up This banking customer example message is about a pending top up.
pending_transfer This banking customer example message is about a pending transfer.
pin_blocked This banking customer example message is about a blocked pin.
receiving_money This banking customer example message is about receiving money.
request_refund This banking customer example message is about a refund request.
reverted_card_payment? This banking customer example message is about reverting a card payment.
supported_cards_and_currencies nan
terminate_account This banking customer example message is about terminating an account.
top_up_by_bank_transfer_charge nan
top_up_by_card_charge This banking customer example message is about the charge for topping up by card.
top_up_by_cash_or_cheque This banking customer example message is about topping up by cash or cheque.
top_up_failed This banking customer example message is about top up issues or failures.
top_up_limits This banking customer example message is about top up limitations.
top_up_reverted This banking customer example message is about issues with topping up.
topping_up_by_card This banking customer example message is about topping up by card.
transaction_charged_twice This banking customer example message is about a transaction charged twice.
transfer_fee_charged This banking customer example message is about an issue with a transfer fee charge.
transfer_into_account This banking customer example message is about transfers into the customer's own account.
transfer_not_received_by_recipient This banking customer example message is about a transfer that has not arrived yet.
transfer_timing This banking customer example message is about transfer timing.
unable_to_verify_identity This banking customer example message is about an issue with identity verification.
verify_my_identity This banking customer example message is about identity verification.
verify_source_of_funds This banking customer example message is about the source of funds.
verify_top_up This banking customer example message is about verification and top ups
virtual_card_not_working This banking customer example message is about a virtual card not working
visa_or_mastercard This banking customer example message is about types of bank cards.
why_verify_identity This banking customer example message questions why identity verification is necessary.
wrong_amount_of_cash_received This banking customer example message is about a wrong amount of cash received.
wrong_exchange_rate_for_cash_withdrawal This banking customer example message is about a wrong exchange rate for a cash withdrawal.

trueteacher

label hypothesis
factually_consistent The example summary is factually consistent with the full article.
factually_inconsistent The example summary is factually inconsistent with the full article.

capsotu

label hypothesis
Agriculture This example text from a US presidential speech is about agriculture
Civil Rights This example text from a US presidential speech is about civil rights or minorities or civil liberties
Culture This example text from a US presidential speech is about cultural policy
Defense This example text from a US presidential speech is about defense or military
Domestic Commerce This example text from a US presidential speech is about banking or finance or commerce
Education This example text from a US presidential speech is about education
Energy This example text from a US presidential speech is about energy or electricity or fossil fuels
Environment This example text from a US presidential speech is about the environment or water or waste or pollution
Foreign Trade This example text from a US presidential speech is about foreign trade
Government Operations This example text from a US presidential speech is about government operations or administration
Health This example text from a US presidential speech is about health
Housing This example text from a US presidential speech is about community development or housing issues
Immigration This example text from a US presidential speech is about migration
International Affairs This example text from a US presidential speech is about international affairs or foreign aid
Labor This example text from a US presidential speech is about employment or labour
Law and Crime This example text from a US presidential speech is about law, crime or family issues
Macroeconomics This example text from a US presidential speech is about macroeconomics
Public Lands This example text from a US presidential speech is about public lands or water management
Social Welfare This example text from a US presidential speech is about social welfare
Technology This example text from a US presidential speech is about space or science or technology or communications
Transportation This example text from a US presidential speech is about transportation

manifesto

label hypothesis
Agriculture and Farmers: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards policies for agriculture and farmers
Anti-Growth Economy: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of anti-growth politics
Anti-Imperialism This example text from a political party manifesto is anti-imperialistic, for example against controlling other countries and for greater self-government of colonies
Centralisation This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of political centralisation
Civic Mindedness: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards national solidarity, civil society or appeals for public spiritedness or against anti-social attitudes
Constitutionalism: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards constitutionalism
Constitutionalism: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards constitutionalism and the status quo of the constitution
Controlled Economy This example text from a political party manifesto is supportive of direct government control of the economy, e.g. price control or minimum wages
Corporatism/Mixed Economy This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards cooperation of government, employers, and trade unions simultaneously
Culture: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of cultural policies or leisure facilities, for example museus, libraries or public sport clubs
Decentralization This example text from a political party manifesto is for decentralisation or federalism
Democracy This example text from a political party manifesto favourably mentions democracy or democratic procedures or institutions
Economic Goals This example text from a political party manifesto is a broad/general statement on economic goals without specifics
Economic Growth: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is supportive of economic growth, for example facilitation of more production or government aid for growth
Economic Orthodoxy This example text from a political party manifesto is for economic orthodoxy, for example reduction of budget deficits, thrift or a strong currency
Economic Planning This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards government economic planning, e.g. policy plans or strategies
Education Expansion This example text from a political party manifesto is about the need to expand/improve policy on education
Education Limitation This example text from a political party manifesto is sceptical towards state expenditure on education, for example in favour of study fees or private schools
Environmental Protection This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of environmental protection, e.g. fighting climate change or 'green' policies or preservation of natural resources or animal rights
Equality: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards equality or social justice, e.g. protection of underprivileged groups or fair distribution of resources
European Community/Union: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto negatively mentions the EU or European Community
European Community/Union: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards the EU or European Community, for example EU expansion and integration
Foreign Special Relationships: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards particular countries
Foreign Special Relationships: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards particular countries
Free Market Economy This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of a free market economy and capitalism
Freedom and Human Rights This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of freedom and human rights, for example freedom of speech, assembly or against state coercion or for individualism
Governmental and Administrative Efficiency This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of efficiency in government/administration, for example by restructuring civil service or improving bureaucracy
Incentives: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is favourable towards supply side economic policies supporting businesses, for example for incentives like subsidies or tax breaks
Internationalism: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is sceptical of internationalism, for example negative towards international cooperation, in favour of national sovereignty and unilaterialism
Internationalism: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of international cooperation with other countries, for example mentions the need for aid to developing countries, or global governance
Keynesian Demand Management This example text from a political party manifesto is for keynesian demand management and demand side economic policies
Labour Groups: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards labour groups and unions
Labour Groups: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards labour groups, for example for good working conditions, fair wages or unions
Law and Order: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards law and order and strict law enforcement
Market Regulation This example text from a political party manifesto is supports market regulation for a fair and open market, for example for consumer protection or for increased competition or for social market economy
Marxist Analysis This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards Marxist-Leninist ideas or uses specific Marxist terminology
Middle Class and Professional Groups This example text from a political party manifesto favourably references the middle class, e.g. white colar groups or the service sector
Military: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards the military, for example for decreasing military spending or disarmament
Military: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards the military, for example for military spending or rearmament or military treaty obligations
Multiculturalism: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is sceptical towards multiculturalism, or for cultural integration or appeals to cultural homogeneity in society
Multiculturalism: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto favourably mentions cultural diversity, for example for freedom of religion or linguistic heritages
National Way of Life: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto unfavourably mentions a country's nation and history, for example sceptical towards patriotism or national pride
National Way of Life: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards the national way of life and history, for example pride of citizenship or appeals to patriotism
Nationalisation This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards government ownership of industries or land or for economic nationalisation
Non-economic Demographic Groups This example text from a political party manifesto favourably mentions non-economic demographic groups like women, students or specific age groups
Peace This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards peace and peaceful means of solving crises, for example in favour of negotiations and ending wars
Political Authority This example text from a political party manifesto mentions the speaker's competence to govern or other party's lack of such competence, or favourably mentions a strong/stable government
Political Corruption This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards political corruption or abuse of political/bureaucratic power
Protectionism: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards protectionism, in favour of free trade
Protectionism: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is in favour of protectionism, for example tariffs, export subsidies
Technology and Infrastructure: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is about technology and infrastructure, e.g. the importance of modernisation of industry, or supportive of public spending on infrastructure/tech
Traditional Morality: Negative This example text from a political party manifesto is negative towards traditional morality, for example against religious moral values, for divorce or abortion, for modern families or separation of church and state
Traditional Morality: Positive This example text from a political party manifesto is favourable towards traditional or religious values, for example for censorship of immoral behavour, for traditional family values or religious institutions
Underprivileged Minority Groups This example text from a political party manifesto favourably mentions underprivileged minorities, for example handicapped, homosexuals or immigrants
Welfare State Expansion This example text from a political party manifesto is positive towards the welfare state, e.g. health care, pensions or social housing
Welfare State Limitation This example text from a political party manifesto is for limiting the welfare state, for example public funding for social services or social security, e.g. private care before state care
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