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ESM-2 LoRA for CAFA-5 Protein Function Prediction

This is a Low Rank Adaptation (LoRA) of cafa_5_protein_function_prediction, which is a fine-tuned (without LoRA) version of facebook/esm2_t6_8M_UR50D, for the same task. For more information on training a sequence classifier langauge model with LoRA see here. Note, this is for natural language processing and must be adapted to our use case using a protein language model like ESM-2.

Training procedure

Using Hugging Face's Parameter Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT) library, a Low Rank Adaptation was trained for 3 epochs on the CAFA-5 protein sequences dataset at an 80/20 train/test split. The dataset can be found here. Somewhat naively, the model was trained on the train_sequences.fasta file of protein sequences, with the train_terms.tsv file serving as the labels. The gene ontology used is a hierarchy, and so the labels lower in the hierchay should be weighted more, or the graph structure should be taken into account. The model achieved the following metrics:

Epoch: 3,
Validation Loss: 0.0031,
Validation Micro F1: 0.3752,
Validation Macro F1: 0.9968,
Validation Micro Precision: 0.5287,
Validation Macro Precision: 0.9992,
Validation Micro Recall: 0.2911,
Validation Macro Recall: 0.9968

Future iterations of this model will likely need to take into account class weighting.

Framework versions

  • PEFT 0.4.0

Using the Model

To use the model, try downloading the data from here, adjust the paths to the files in the code below to their local paths on your machine, and try running:

import os
import numpy as np
import torch
from transformers import AutoTokenizer, EsmForSequenceClassification, AdamW
from torch.nn.functional import binary_cross_entropy_with_logits
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import f1_score, precision_score, recall_score
from accelerate import Accelerator
from Bio import SeqIO

# Step 1: Data Preprocessing
fasta_file = "data/Train/train_sequences.fasta"
tsv_file = "data/Train/train_terms.tsv"

fasta_data = {}
tsv_data = {}

for record in SeqIO.parse(fasta_file, "fasta"):
    fasta_data[record.id] = str(record.seq)

with open(tsv_file, 'r') as f:
    for line in f:
        parts = line.strip().split("\t")
        tsv_data[parts[0]] = parts[1:]

unique_terms = list(set(term for terms in tsv_data.values() for term in terms))

def parse_fasta(file_path):
    """
    Parses a FASTA file and returns a list of sequences.
    """
    with open(file_path, 'r') as f:
        content = f.readlines()

    sequences = []
    current_sequence = ""

    for line in content:
        if line.startswith(">"):
            if current_sequence:
                sequences.append(current_sequence)
                current_sequence = ""
        else:
            current_sequence += line.strip()

    if current_sequence:
        sequences.append(current_sequence)

    return sequences

# Parse the provided FASTA file
fasta_file_path = "data/Test/testsuperset.fasta"
protein_sequences = parse_fasta(fasta_file_path)
# protein_sequences[:3]  # Displaying the first 3 sequences for verification

import torch
from transformers import AutoTokenizer, EsmForSequenceClassification
from sklearn.metrics import precision_recall_fscore_support

# 1. Parsing the go-basic.obo file (Assuming this is still needed)
def parse_obo_file(file_path):
    with open(file_path, 'r') as f:
        data = f.read().split("[Term]")
        
    terms = []
    for entry in data[1:]:
        lines = entry.strip().split("\n")
        term = {}
        for line in lines:
            if line.startswith("id:"):
                term["id"] = line.split("id:")[1].strip()
            elif line.startswith("name:"):
                term["name"] = line.split("name:")[1].strip()
            elif line.startswith("namespace:"):
                term["namespace"] = line.split("namespace:")[1].strip()
            elif line.startswith("def:"):
                term["definition"] = line.split("def:")[1].split('"')[1]
        terms.append(term)
    return terms

# Let's assume the path to go-basic.obo is as follows (please modify if different)
obo_file_path = "data/Train/go-basic.obo"  
parsed_terms = parse_obo_file("data/Train/go-basic.obo")  # Replace with your path

# 2. Load the saved model and tokenizer
# Assuming the model path provided is correct
from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForSequenceClassification
from peft import PeftModel, PeftConfig

# Load the tokenizer and model
model_id = "AmelieSchreiber/esm2_t6_8M_UR50D_cafa5_lora"  # Replace with your Hugging Face hub model name
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_id)

# First, we load the underlying base model
base_model = AutoModelForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained(model_id)

# Then, we load the model with PEFT
model = PeftModel.from_pretrained(base_model, model_id)
loaded_model = model
loaded_tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_id)

# 3. The predict_protein_function function
def predict_protein_function(sequence, model, tokenizer, go_terms):
    inputs = tokenizer(sequence, return_tensors="pt", padding=True, truncation=True, max_length=1022)
    model.eval()
    with torch.no_grad():
        outputs = model(**inputs)
        predictions = torch.sigmoid(outputs.logits)
        predicted_indices = torch.where(predictions > 0.05)[1].tolist()
    
    functions = []
    for idx in predicted_indices:
        term_id = unique_terms[idx]  # Use the unique_terms list from your training script
        for term in go_terms:
            if term["id"] == term_id:
                functions.append(term["name"])
                break
                
    return functions

# 4. Predicting protein function for the sequences in the FASTA file
protein_functions = {}
for seq in protein_sequences[:20]:  # Using only the first 3 sequences for demonstration
    predicted_functions = predict_protein_function(seq, loaded_model, loaded_tokenizer, parsed_terms)
    protein_functions[seq[:20] + "..."] = predicted_functions  # Using first 20 characters as key

protein_functions
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Dataset used to train AmelieSchreiber/esm2_t6_8M_UR50D_cafa5_lora