Enhancing Diffusion Models with Text-Encoder Reinforcement Learning

Published on Nov 27, 2023


Text-to-image diffusion models are typically trained to optimize the log-likelihood objective, which presents challenges in meeting specific requirements for downstream tasks, such as image aesthetics and image-text alignment. Recent research addresses this issue by refining the diffusion U-Net using human rewards through reinforcement learning or direct backpropagation. However, many of them overlook the importance of the text encoder, which is typically pretrained and fixed during training. In this paper, we demonstrate that by finetuning the text encoder through reinforcement learning, we can enhance the text-image alignment of the results, thereby improving the visual quality. Our primary motivation comes from the observation that the current text encoder is suboptimal, often requiring careful prompt adjustment. While fine-tuning the U-Net can partially improve performance, it remains suffering from the suboptimal text encoder. Therefore, we propose to use reinforcement learning with low-rank adaptation to finetune the text encoder based on task-specific rewards, referred as TexForce. We first show that finetuning the text encoder can improve the performance of diffusion models. Then, we illustrate that TexForce can be simply combined with existing U-Net finetuned models to get much better results without additional training. Finally, we showcase the adaptability of our method in diverse applications, including the generation of high-quality face and hand images.


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