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MVP

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# MVP

## Overview

The MVP model was proposed in MVP: Multi-task Supervised Pre-training for Natural Language Generation by Tianyi Tang, Junyi Li, Wayne Xin Zhao and Ji-Rong Wen.

According to the abstract,

• MVP follows a standard Transformer encoder-decoder architecture.
• MVP is supervised pre-trained using labeled datasets.
• MVP also has task-specific soft prompts to stimulate the model’s capacity in performing a certain task.
• MVP is specially designed for natural language generation and can be adapted to a wide range of generation tasks, including but not limited to summarization, data-to-text generation, open-ended dialogue system, story generation, question answering, question generation, task-oriented dialogue system, commonsense generation, paraphrase generation, text style transfer, and text simplification. Our model can also be adapted to natural language understanding tasks such as sequence classification and (extractive) question answering.

Tips:

• We have released a series of models here, including MVP, MVP with task-specific prompts, and multi-task pre-trained variants.
• If you want to use a model without prompts (standard Transformer), you can load it through MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained('RUCAIBox/mvp').
• If you want to use a model with task-specific prompts, such as summarization, you can load it through MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained('RUCAIBox/mvp-summarization').
• Our model supports lightweight prompt tuning following Prefix-tuning with method set_lightweight_tuning().

This model was contributed by Tianyi Tang. The detailed information and instructions can be found here.

## Examples

For summarization, it is an example to use MVP and MVP with summarization-specific prompts.
>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpForConditionalGeneration

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model_with_prompt = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp-summarization")

>>> inputs = tokenizer(
...     "Summarize: You may want to stick it to your boss and leave your job, but don't do it if these are your reasons.",
...     return_tensors="pt",
... )
>>> generated_ids = model.generate(**inputs)
>>> tokenizer.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
["Why You Shouldn't Quit Your Job"]

>>> generated_ids = model_with_prompt.generate(**inputs)
>>> tokenizer.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
["Don't do it if these are your reasons"]

For data-to-text generation, it is an example to use MVP and multi-task pre-trained variants.

>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizerFast, MvpForConditionalGeneration

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizerFast.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model_with_mtl = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mtl-data-to-text")

>>> inputs = tokenizer(
...     "Describe the following data: Iron Man | instance of | Superhero [SEP] Stan Lee | creator | Iron Man",
...     return_tensors="pt",
... )
>>> generated_ids = model.generate(**inputs)
>>> tokenizer.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
['Stan Lee created the character of Iron Man, a fictional superhero appearing in American comic']

>>> generated_ids = model_with_mtl.generate(**inputs)
>>> tokenizer.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
['Iron Man is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.']

For lightweight tuning, i.e., fixing the model and only tuning prompts, you can load MVP with randomly initialized prompts or with task-specific prompts. Our code also supports Prefix-tuning with BART following the original paper.

>>> from transformers import MvpForConditionalGeneration

>>> model = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp", use_prompt=True)
>>> # the number of trainable parameters (full tuning)
>>> sum(p.numel() for p in model.parameters() if p.requires_grad)
468116832

>>> # lightweight tuning with randomly initialized prompts
>>> model.set_lightweight_tuning()
>>> # the number of trainable parameters (lightweight tuning)
>>> sum(p.numel() for p in model.parameters() if p.requires_grad)
61823328

>>> # lightweight tuning with task-specific prompts
>>> model = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mtl-data-to-text")
>>> model.set_lightweight_tuning()
>>> # original lightweight Prefix-tuning
>>> model.set_lightweight_tuning()

## MvpConfig

### class transformers.MvpConfig

< >

( vocab_size = 50267 max_position_embeddings = 1024 encoder_layers = 12 encoder_ffn_dim = 4096 encoder_attention_heads = 16 decoder_layers = 12 decoder_ffn_dim = 4096 decoder_attention_heads = 16 encoder_layerdrop = 0.0 decoder_layerdrop = 0.0 activation_function = 'gelu' d_model = 1024 dropout = 0.1 attention_dropout = 0.0 activation_dropout = 0.0 init_std = 0.02 classifier_dropout = 0.0 scale_embedding = False use_cache = True pad_token_id = 1 bos_token_id = 0 eos_token_id = 2 is_encoder_decoder = True decoder_start_token_id = 2 forced_eos_token_id = 2 use_prompt = False prompt_length = 100 prompt_mid_dim = 800 **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 50267) — Vocabulary size of the MVP model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling MvpModel.
• d_model (int, optional, defaults to 1024) — Dimensionality of the layers and the pooler layer.
• encoder_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of encoder layers.
• decoder_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of decoder layers.
• encoder_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 16) — Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.
• decoder_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 16) — Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer decoder.
• decoder_ffn_dim (int, optional, defaults to 4096) — Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in decoder.
• encoder_ffn_dim (int, optional, defaults to 4096) — Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in decoder.
• activation_function (str or function, optional, defaults to "gelu") — The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "silu" and "gelu_new" are supported.
• dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.
• attention_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.
• activation_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The dropout ratio for activations inside the fully connected layer.
• classifier_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The dropout ratio for classifier.
• max_position_embeddings (int, optional, defaults to 1024) — The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).
• init_std (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) — The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.
• encoder_layerdrop (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The LayerDrop probability for the encoder. See the [LayerDrop paper](see https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11556) for more details.
• decoder_layerdrop (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The LayerDrop probability for the decoder. See the [LayerDrop paper](see https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11556) for more details.
• scale_embedding (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Scale embeddings by diving by sqrt(d_model).
• use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether or not the model should return the last key/values attentions (not used by all models).
• forced_eos_token_id (int, optional, defaults to 2) — The id of the token to force as the last generated token when max_length is reached. Usually set to eos_token_id.
• use_prompt (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use prompt.
• prompt_length (int, optional, defaults to 100) — The length of prompt.
• prompt_mid_dim (int, optional, defaults to 800) — Dimensionality of the “intermediate” layer in prompt.

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a MvpModel. It is used to instantiate a MVP model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the MVP RUCAIBox/mvp architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Example:

>>> from transformers import MvpModel, MvpConfig

>>> # Initializing a MVP RUCAIBox/mvp style configuration
>>> configuration = MvpConfig()

>>> # Initializing a model from the RUCAIBox/mvp style configuration
>>> model = MvpModel(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

## MvpTokenizer

### class transformers.MvpTokenizer

< >

( vocab_file merges_file errors = 'replace' bos_token = '<s>' eos_token = '</s>' sep_token = '</s>' cls_token = '<s>' unk_token = '<unk>' pad_token = '<pad>' mask_token = '<mask>' add_prefix_space = False **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_file (str) — Path to the vocabulary file.
• merges_file (str) — Path to the merges file.
• errors (str, optional, defaults to "replace") — Paradigm to follow when decoding bytes to UTF-8. See bytes.decode for more information.
• bos_token (str, optional, defaults to "<s>") — The beginning of sequence token that was used during pretraining. Can be used a sequence classifier token.

When building a sequence using special tokens, this is not the token that is used for the beginning of sequence. The token used is the cls_token.

• eos_token (str, optional, defaults to "</s>") — The end of sequence token.

When building a sequence using special tokens, this is not the token that is used for the end of sequence. The token used is the sep_token.

• sep_token (str, optional, defaults to "</s>") — The separator token, which is used when building a sequence from multiple sequences, e.g. two sequences for sequence classification or for a text and a question for question answering. It is also used as the last token of a sequence built with special tokens.
• cls_token (str, optional, defaults to "<s>") — The classifier token which is used when doing sequence classification (classification of the whole sequence instead of per-token classification). It is the first token of the sequence when built with special tokens.
• unk_token (str, optional, defaults to "<unk>") — The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.
• pad_token (str, optional, defaults to "<pad>") — The token used for padding, for example when batching sequences of different lengths.
• mask_token (str, optional, defaults to "<mask>") — The token used for masking values. This is the token used when training this model with masked language modeling. This is the token which the model will try to predict.
• add_prefix_space (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to add an initial space to the input. This allows to treat the leading word just as any other word. (MVP tokenizer detect beginning of words by the preceding space).

Constructs a MVP tokenizer, which is smilar to the RoBERTa tokenizer, using byte-level Byte-Pair-Encoding.

This tokenizer has been trained to treat spaces like parts of the tokens (a bit like sentencepiece) so a word will

be encoded differently whether it is at the beginning of the sentence (without space) or not:

>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer
>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> tokenizer("Hello world")['input_ids']
[0, 31414, 232, 2]
>>> tokenizer(" Hello world")['input_ids']
[0, 20920, 232, 2]

You can get around that behavior by passing add_prefix_space=True when instantiating this tokenizer or when you call it on some text, but since the model was not pretrained this way, it might yield a decrease in performance.

When used with is_split_into_words=True, this tokenizer will add a space before each word (even the first one).

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizer which contains most of the main methods. Users should refer to this superclass for more information regarding those methods.

#### build_inputs_with_special_tokens

< >

( token_ids_0: typing.List[int] token_ids_1: typing.Optional[typing.List[int]] = None ) List[int]

Parameters

• token_ids_0 (List[int]) — List of IDs to which the special tokens will be added.
• token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) — Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List[int]

List of input IDs with the appropriate special tokens.

Build model inputs from a sequence or a pair of sequence for sequence classification tasks by concatenating and adding special tokens. A MVP sequence has the following format:

• single sequence: <s> X </s>
• pair of sequences: <s> A </s></s> B </s>

#### convert_tokens_to_string

< >

( tokens )

Converts a sequence of tokens (string) in a single string.

#### create_token_type_ids_from_sequences

< >

( token_ids_0: typing.List[int] token_ids_1: typing.Optional[typing.List[int]] = None ) List[int]

Parameters

• token_ids_0 (List[int]) — List of IDs.
• token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) — Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List[int]

List of zeros.

Create a mask from the two sequences passed to be used in a sequence-pair classification task. MVP does not make use of token type ids, therefore a list of zeros is returned.

< >

( token_ids_0: typing.List[int] token_ids_1: typing.Optional[typing.List[int]] = None already_has_special_tokens: bool = False ) List[int]

Parameters

• token_ids_0 (List[int]) — List of IDs.
• token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) — Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.
• already_has_special_tokens (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not the token list is already formatted with special tokens for the model.

Returns

List[int]

A list of integers in the range [0, 1]: 1 for a special token, 0 for a sequence token.

Retrieve sequence ids from a token list that has no special tokens added. This method is called when adding special tokens using the tokenizer prepare_for_model method.

## MvpTokenizerFast

### class transformers.MvpTokenizerFast

< >

( vocab_file = None merges_file = None tokenizer_file = None errors = 'replace' bos_token = '<s>' eos_token = '</s>' sep_token = '</s>' cls_token = '<s>' unk_token = '<unk>' pad_token = '<pad>' mask_token = '<mask>' add_prefix_space = False trim_offsets = True **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_file (str) — Path to the vocabulary file.
• merges_file (str) — Path to the merges file.
• errors (str, optional, defaults to "replace") — Paradigm to follow when decoding bytes to UTF-8. See bytes.decode for more information.
• bos_token (str, optional, defaults to "<s>") — The beginning of sequence token that was used during pretraining. Can be used a sequence classifier token.

When building a sequence using special tokens, this is not the token that is used for the beginning of sequence. The token used is the cls_token.

• eos_token (str, optional, defaults to "</s>") — The end of sequence token.

When building a sequence using special tokens, this is not the token that is used for the end of sequence. The token used is the sep_token.

• sep_token (str, optional, defaults to "</s>") — The separator token, which is used when building a sequence from multiple sequences, e.g. two sequences for sequence classification or for a text and a question for question answering. It is also used as the last token of a sequence built with special tokens.
• cls_token (str, optional, defaults to "<s>") — The classifier token which is used when doing sequence classification (classification of the whole sequence instead of per-token classification). It is the first token of the sequence when built with special tokens.
• unk_token (str, optional, defaults to "<unk>") — The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.
• pad_token (str, optional, defaults to "<pad>") — The token used for padding, for example when batching sequences of different lengths.
• mask_token (str, optional, defaults to "<mask>") — The token used for masking values. This is the token used when training this model with masked language modeling. This is the token which the model will try to predict.
• add_prefix_space (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to add an initial space to the input. This allows to treat the leading word just as any other word. (MVP tokenizer detect beginning of words by the preceding space).
• trim_offsets (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether the post processing step should trim offsets to avoid including whitespaces.

Construct a “fast” MVP tokenizer (backed by HuggingFace’s tokenizers library), derived from the GPT-2 tokenizer, using byte-level Byte-Pair-Encoding.

This tokenizer has been trained to treat spaces like parts of the tokens (a bit like sentencepiece) so a word will

be encoded differently whether it is at the beginning of the sentence (without space) or not:

>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizerFast
>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizerFast.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> tokenizer("Hello world")['input_ids']
[0, 31414, 232, 2]
>>> tokenizer(" Hello world")['input_ids']
[0, 20920, 232, 2]

You can get around that behavior by passing add_prefix_space=True when instantiating this tokenizer or when you call it on some text, but since the model was not pretrained this way, it might yield a decrease in performance.

When used with is_split_into_words=True, this tokenizer needs to be instantiated with add_prefix_space=True.

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizerFast which contains most of the main methods. Users should refer to this superclass for more information regarding those methods.

#### create_token_type_ids_from_sequences

< >

( token_ids_0: typing.List[int] token_ids_1: typing.Optional[typing.List[int]] = None ) List[int]

Parameters

• token_ids_0 (List[int]) — List of IDs.
• token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) — Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List[int]

List of zeros.

Create a mask from the two sequences passed to be used in a sequence-pair classification task. MVP does not make use of token type ids, therefore a list of zeros is returned.

## MvpModel

### class transformers.MvpModel

< >

( config: MvpConfig )

Parameters

• config (MvpConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare MVP Model outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top. This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

#### forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_input_ids: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None decoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None cross_attn_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None encoder_outputs: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None decoder_inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are input IDs?

• attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.

• decoder_input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Indices of decoder input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are decoder input IDs?

Mvp uses the eos_token_id as the starting token for decoder_input_ids generation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

For translation and summarization training, decoder_input_ids should be provided. If no decoder_input_ids is provided, the model will create this tensor by shifting the input_ids to the right for denoising pre-training following the paper.

• decoder_attention_mask (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Default behavior: generate a tensor that ignores pad tokens in decoder_input_ids. Causal mask will also be used by default.

If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_mvp._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

• head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• decoder_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• encoder_outputs (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional) — Tuple consists of (last_hidden_state, optional: hidden_states, optional: attentions) last_hidden_state of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) is a sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention of the decoder.
• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length). inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional): Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

• decoder_inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing decoder_input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values). This is useful if you want more control over how to convert decoder_input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If decoder_input_ids and decoder_inputs_embeds are both unset, decoder_inputs_embeds takes the value of inputs_embeds.

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqModelOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (MvpConfig) and inputs.

• last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the decoder of the model.

If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• decoder_hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the decoder at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

• decoder_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• encoder_last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder of the model.

• encoder_hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the encoder at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

• encoder_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the encoder, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The MvpModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpModel
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model = MvpModel.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

## MvpForConditionalGeneration

### class transformers.MvpForConditionalGeneration

< >

( config: MvpConfig )

Parameters

• config (MvpConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The MVP Model with a language modeling head. Can be used for various text generation tasks. This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

#### forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_input_ids: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None decoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None cross_attn_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None encoder_outputs: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None decoder_inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqLMOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are input IDs?

• attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.

• decoder_input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Indices of decoder input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are decoder input IDs?

Mvp uses the eos_token_id as the starting token for decoder_input_ids generation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

For translation and summarization training, decoder_input_ids should be provided. If no decoder_input_ids is provided, the model will create this tensor by shifting the input_ids to the right for denoising pre-training following the paper.

• decoder_attention_mask (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Default behavior: generate a tensor that ignores pad tokens in decoder_input_ids. Causal mask will also be used by default.

If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_mvp._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

• head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• decoder_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• encoder_outputs (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional) — Tuple consists of (last_hidden_state, optional: hidden_states, optional: attentions) last_hidden_state of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) is a sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention of the decoder.
• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length). inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional): Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

• decoder_inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing decoder_input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values). This is useful if you want more control over how to convert decoder_input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If decoder_input_ids and decoder_inputs_embeds are both unset, decoder_inputs_embeds takes the value of inputs_embeds.

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should either be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size] or -100 (see input_ids docstring). Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size].

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqLMOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.Seq2SeqLMOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (MvpConfig) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss.

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• decoder_hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the decoder at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• decoder_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• encoder_last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder of the model.

• encoder_hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the encoder at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• encoder_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the encoder, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The MvpForConditionalGeneration forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example of summarization:

Fine-tuning a model

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpForConditionalGeneration

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model = MvpForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")

>>> inputs = tokenizer(
...     "Summarize: You may want to stick it to your boss and leave your job, but don't do it if these are your reasons.",
...     return_tensors="pt",
... )

>>> loss = model(**inputs, labels=labels).loss
>>> loss.backward()

Inference after the model fine-tuned

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     generated_ids = model.generate(**inputs)

>>> generated_text = tokenizer.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)

## MvpForSequenceClassification

### class transformers.MvpForSequenceClassification

< >

( config: MvpConfig **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (MvpConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Mvp model with a sequence classification/head on top (a linear layer on top of the pooled output) e.g. for GLUE tasks.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

#### forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_input_ids: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None decoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None cross_attn_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None encoder_outputs: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None decoder_inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None )

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are input IDs?

• attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.

• decoder_input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Indices of decoder input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are decoder input IDs?

Mvp uses the eos_token_id as the starting token for decoder_input_ids generation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

For translation and summarization training, decoder_input_ids should be provided. If no decoder_input_ids is provided, the model will create this tensor by shifting the input_ids to the right for denoising pre-training following the paper.

• decoder_attention_mask (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Default behavior: generate a tensor that ignores pad tokens in decoder_input_ids. Causal mask will also be used by default.

If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_mvp._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

• head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• decoder_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• encoder_outputs (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional) — Tuple consists of (last_hidden_state, optional: hidden_states, optional: attentions) last_hidden_state of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) is a sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention of the decoder.
• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length). inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional): Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

• decoder_inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing decoder_input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values). This is useful if you want more control over how to convert decoder_input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If decoder_input_ids and decoder_inputs_embeds are both unset, decoder_inputs_embeds takes the value of inputs_embeds.

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

The MvpForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example of single-label classification:

Fine-tuning a model on num_labels classes

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpForSequenceClassification

>>> num_labels = 2  # for example, this is a binary classification task
>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
>>> model = MvpForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp", num_labels=num_labels)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Classify: Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor(1)  # the real label for inputs

>>> loss = model(**inputs, labels=labels).loss
>>> loss.backward()

Inference after the model fine-tuned

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     logits = model(**inputs).logits

>>> predicted_class_id = logits.argmax()

< >

( config )

Parameters

• config (MvpConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

MVP Model with a span classification head on top for extractive question-answering tasks like SQuAD (a linear layer on top of the hidden-states output to compute span start logits and span end logits).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

#### forward

< >

( input_ids: Tensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_input_ids: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None decoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None decoder_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None cross_attn_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None encoder_outputs: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None start_positions: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None end_positions: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None decoder_inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None )

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are input IDs?

• attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.

• decoder_input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Indices of decoder input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are decoder input IDs?

Mvp uses the eos_token_id as the starting token for decoder_input_ids generation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

For translation and summarization training, decoder_input_ids should be provided. If no decoder_input_ids is provided, the model will create this tensor by shifting the input_ids to the right for denoising pre-training following the paper.

• decoder_attention_mask (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length), optional) — Default behavior: generate a tensor that ignores pad tokens in decoder_input_ids. Causal mask will also be used by default.

If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_mvp._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

• head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• decoder_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules in the decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• encoder_outputs (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional) — Tuple consists of (last_hidden_state, optional: hidden_states, optional: attentions) last_hidden_state of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) is a sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention of the decoder.
• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length). inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional): Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

• decoder_inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, target_sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing decoder_input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values). This is useful if you want more control over how to convert decoder_input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If decoder_input_ids and decoder_inputs_embeds are both unset, decoder_inputs_embeds takes the value of inputs_embeds.

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• start_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for position (index) of the start of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.
• end_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for position (index) of the end of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.

The MvpForQuestionAnswering forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

Fine-tuning a model for extrative question answering, and our model also supports generative question answering using BartForConditionalGeneration

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpForQuestionAnswering

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")

>>> inputs = tokenizer(
...     "Answer the following question: Who was Jim Henson? [SEP] Jim Henson was a nice puppet",
...     return_tensors="pt",
... )
>>> target_start_index = torch.tensor([18])
>>> target_end_index = torch.tensor([19])

>>> loss = model(**inputs, start_positions=target_start_index, end_positions=target_end_index).loss
>>> loss.backward()

Inference after the model fine-tuned

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> predict_answer = tokenizer.decode(predict_answer_tokens)

## MvpForCausalLM

### class transformers.MvpForCausalLM

< >

( config )

#### forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None encoder_hidden_states: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None encoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None cross_attn_head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using MvpTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

What are input IDs?

• attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.

• encoder_hidden_states (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.
• encoder_attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:
• head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head). The two additional tensors are only required when the model is used as a decoder in a Sequence to Sequence model.

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should either be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size] or -100 (see input_ids docstring). Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size].
• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (MvpConfig) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Cross attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor tuples of length config.n_layers, with each tuple containing the cached key, value states of the self-attention and the cross-attention layers if model is used in encoder-decoder setting. Only relevant if config.is_decoder = True.

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

Example:

>>> from transformers import MvpTokenizer, MvpForCausalLM

>>> tokenizer = MvpTokenizer.from_pretrained("RUCAIBox/mvp")
[1, 8, 50267]