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10.1M
41M
system
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4 values
summary
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26
171
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class label
2 classes
worker_id
stringclasses
3 values
29,911,712
BERTS2S
more than 50 pupils at a bristol academy have been sent home from school because of a lack of uniform.
0no
wid_0
29,911,712
BERTS2S
more than 50 pupils at a bristol academy have been sent home from school because of a lack of uniform.
0no
wid_1
29,911,712
BERTS2S
more than 50 pupils at a bristol academy have been sent home from school because of a lack of uniform.
0no
wid_2
38,505,171
BERTS2S
the wife of a british-iranian woman jailed in iran has called on the government to appeal against her conviction.
0no
wid_0
38,505,171
BERTS2S
the wife of a british-iranian woman jailed in iran has called on the government to appeal against her conviction.
0no
wid_1
38,505,171
BERTS2S
the wife of a british-iranian woman jailed in iran has called on the government to appeal against her conviction.
0no
wid_2
38,156,376
BERTS2S
police searching for a greenock woman who has been missing for more than a decade have launched a fresh search for her.
0no
wid_0
38,156,376
BERTS2S
police searching for a greenock woman who has been missing for more than a decade have launched a fresh search for her.
0no
wid_1
38,156,376
BERTS2S
police searching for a greenock woman who has been missing for more than a decade have launched a fresh search for her.
0no
wid_2
27,838,706
BERTS2S
aberdeen have appointed arbroath boss paul sheerin as their new manager.
1yes
wid_0
27,838,706
BERTS2S
aberdeen have appointed arbroath boss paul sheerin as their new manager.
1yes
wid_1
27,838,706
BERTS2S
aberdeen have appointed arbroath boss paul sheerin as their new manager.
0no
wid_2
37,554,205
BERTS2S
a six-year-old girl from cheshire who was given a rare form of leukaemia by her parents has had a life-changing trial in
0no
wid_0
37,554,205
BERTS2S
a six-year-old girl from cheshire who was given a rare form of leukaemia by her parents has had a life-changing trial in
0no
wid_1
37,554,205
BERTS2S
a six-year-old girl from cheshire who was given a rare form of leukaemia by her parents has had a life-changing trial in
0no
wid_2
40,764,446
BERTS2S
a kenyan police officer has been shot dead by a gunman who broke into his farm home, police say.
0no
wid_0
40,764,446
BERTS2S
a kenyan police officer has been shot dead by a gunman who broke into his farm home, police say.
0no
wid_1
40,764,446
BERTS2S
a kenyan police officer has been shot dead by a gunman who broke into his farm home, police say.
0no
wid_2
11,154,244
BERTS2S
one in five parents in england eat vegetables at home, a survey suggests.
0no
wid_0
11,154,244
BERTS2S
one in five parents in england eat vegetables at home, a survey suggests.
0no
wid_1
11,154,244
BERTS2S
one in five parents in england eat vegetables at home, a survey suggests.
0no
wid_2
31,566,848
BERTS2S
a woman was assaulted and assaulted in a mcdonald's restaurant in kent, police have said.
1yes
wid_0
31,566,848
BERTS2S
a woman was assaulted and assaulted in a mcdonald's restaurant in kent, police have said.
1yes
wid_1
31,566,848
BERTS2S
a woman was assaulted and assaulted in a mcdonald's restaurant in kent, police have said.
1yes
wid_2
33,751,212
BERTS2S
police in southern china have seized more than 1, 000 alcohol bottles and seized more than 1, 200 bottles of contaminated milk, local media report.
0no
wid_0
33,751,212
BERTS2S
police in southern china have seized more than 1, 000 alcohol bottles and seized more than 1, 200 bottles of contaminated milk, local media report.
0no
wid_1
33,751,212
BERTS2S
police in southern china have seized more than 1, 000 alcohol bottles and seized more than 1, 200 bottles of contaminated milk, local media report.
0no
wid_2
40,062,271
BERTS2S
a former labour councillor has denied possessing indecent images of a child.
1yes
wid_0
40,062,271
BERTS2S
a former labour councillor has denied possessing indecent images of a child.
1yes
wid_1
40,062,271
BERTS2S
a former labour councillor has denied possessing indecent images of a child.
1yes
wid_2
26,381,454
BERTS2S
russia's lower house of parliament has approved a bill that would allow russia to issue new passports to its citizens.
0no
wid_0
26,381,454
BERTS2S
russia's lower house of parliament has approved a bill that would allow russia to issue new passports to its citizens.
0no
wid_1
26,381,454
BERTS2S
russia's lower house of parliament has approved a bill that would allow russia to issue new passports to its citizens.
0no
wid_2
40,223,602
BERTS2S
bolton defender dorian dervite has signed a new two-year contract with the championship club.
0no
wid_0
40,223,602
BERTS2S
bolton defender dorian dervite has signed a new two-year contract with the championship club.
0no
wid_1
40,223,602
BERTS2S
bolton defender dorian dervite has signed a new two-year contract with the championship club.
0no
wid_2
17,592,709
BERTS2S
three years after the death of former british tour de france winner robert millar.
0no
wid_0
17,592,709
BERTS2S
three years after the death of former british tour de france winner robert millar.
0no
wid_1
17,592,709
BERTS2S
three years after the death of former british tour de france winner robert millar.
0no
wid_2
32,278,778
BERTS2S
the confederation of african football ( caf ) and morocco have returned to the competition after a row in the confederation of african football broke down.
1yes
wid_0
32,278,778
BERTS2S
the confederation of african football ( caf ) and morocco have returned to the competition after a row in the confederation of african football broke down.
0no
wid_1
32,278,778
BERTS2S
the confederation of african football ( caf ) and morocco have returned to the competition after a row in the confederation of african football broke down.
0no
wid_2
34,687,720
BERTS2S
rory mcilroy will take a one-shot lead into the final round of the wgc-hsbc champions after carding a three-under
0no
wid_0
34,687,720
BERTS2S
rory mcilroy will take a one-shot lead into the final round of the wgc-hsbc champions after carding a three-under
0no
wid_1
34,687,720
BERTS2S
rory mcilroy will take a one-shot lead into the final round of the wgc-hsbc champions after carding a three-under
0no
wid_2
32,504,766
BERTS2S
forty-eight people are feared dead after a passenger ferry caught fire off the coast of spain.
0no
wid_0
32,504,766
BERTS2S
forty-eight people are feared dead after a passenger ferry caught fire off the coast of spain.
0no
wid_1
32,504,766
BERTS2S
forty-eight people are feared dead after a passenger ferry caught fire off the coast of spain.
0no
wid_2
34,793,274
BERTS2S
the world's first satellite to track flight data from the missing malaysia airlines flight mh370 has been given the go-ahead.
0no
wid_0
34,793,274
BERTS2S
the world's first satellite to track flight data from the missing malaysia airlines flight mh370 has been given the go-ahead.
0no
wid_1
34,793,274
BERTS2S
the world's first satellite to track flight data from the missing malaysia airlines flight mh370 has been given the go-ahead.
0no
wid_2
36,423,607
BERTS2S
west sussex's fire and crime commissioner has asked the government to consider merging it into two separate services.
0no
wid_0
36,423,607
BERTS2S
west sussex's fire and crime commissioner has asked the government to consider merging it into two separate services.
0no
wid_1
36,423,607
BERTS2S
west sussex's fire and crime commissioner has asked the government to consider merging it into two separate services.
0no
wid_2
13,599,161
BERTS2S
shale gas drilling in lancashire has been suspended after a magnitude-7. 5 earthquake struck.
0no
wid_0
13,599,161
BERTS2S
shale gas drilling in lancashire has been suspended after a magnitude-7. 5 earthquake struck.
0no
wid_1
13,599,161
BERTS2S
shale gas drilling in lancashire has been suspended after a magnitude-7. 5 earthquake struck.
0no
wid_2
32,219,005
BERTS2S
children at the centre of a controversy over the treatment of baby ashya king's parents may have been denied treatment, say doctors.
0no
wid_0
32,219,005
BERTS2S
children at the centre of a controversy over the treatment of baby ashya king's parents may have been denied treatment, say doctors.
0no
wid_1
32,219,005
BERTS2S
children at the centre of a controversy over the treatment of baby ashya king's parents may have been denied treatment, say doctors.
0no
wid_2
39,979,364
BERTS2S
the london 2012 para-athletics world championships will feature the latest design of its para-medals for the first time.
0no
wid_0
39,979,364
BERTS2S
the london 2012 para-athletics world championships will feature the latest design of its para-medals for the first time.
0no
wid_1
39,979,364
BERTS2S
the london 2012 para-athletics world championships will feature the latest design of its para-medals for the first time.
0no
wid_2
40,432,797
BERTS2S
a council has said it has lost almost 拢30, 000 to build a new cemetery in oxford.
1yes
wid_0
40,432,797
BERTS2S
a council has said it has lost almost 拢30, 000 to build a new cemetery in oxford.
1yes
wid_1
40,432,797
BERTS2S
a council has said it has lost almost 拢30, 000 to build a new cemetery in oxford.
1yes
wid_2
32,680,434
BERTS2S
author jk rowling has said she has been blocked from posting abusive messages on twitter.
0no
wid_0
32,680,434
BERTS2S
author jk rowling has said she has been blocked from posting abusive messages on twitter.
0no
wid_1
32,680,434
BERTS2S
author jk rowling has said she has been blocked from posting abusive messages on twitter.
0no
wid_2
37,618,111
BERTS2S
the number of homicides recorded by police in scotland has fallen to its lowest level since 2009.
1yes
wid_0
37,618,111
BERTS2S
the number of homicides recorded by police in scotland has fallen to its lowest level since 2009.
0no
wid_1
37,618,111
BERTS2S
the number of homicides recorded by police in scotland has fallen to its lowest level since 2009.
1yes
wid_2
35,980,802
BERTS2S
england will face india in the final of the champions trophy at the indian premier league, which starts on thursday, with captain virat kohli taking the
0no
wid_0
35,980,802
BERTS2S
england will face india in the final of the champions trophy at the indian premier league, which starts on thursday, with captain virat kohli taking the
0no
wid_1
35,980,802
BERTS2S
england will face india in the final of the champions trophy at the indian premier league, which starts on thursday, with captain virat kohli taking the
0no
wid_2
37,643,322
BERTS2S
england manager arsene wenger has backed gareth southgate to be the next england manager.
0no
wid_0
37,643,322
BERTS2S
england manager arsene wenger has backed gareth southgate to be the next england manager.
0no
wid_1
37,643,322
BERTS2S
england manager arsene wenger has backed gareth southgate to be the next england manager.
0no
wid_2
39,379,405
BERTS2S
a oil company has said it is " extremely concerned " about the health of six workers who were exposed to radioactive radiation at a north sea platform.
0no
wid_0
39,379,405
BERTS2S
a oil company has said it is " extremely concerned " about the health of six workers who were exposed to radioactive radiation at a north sea platform.
0no
wid_1
39,379,405
BERTS2S
a oil company has said it is " extremely concerned " about the health of six workers who were exposed to radioactive radiation at a north sea platform.
0no
wid_2
38,795,565
BERTS2S
championship side everton have signed everton midfielder ben browning on a season-long loan deal.
0no
wid_0
38,795,565
BERTS2S
championship side everton have signed everton midfielder ben browning on a season-long loan deal.
0no
wid_1
38,795,565
BERTS2S
championship side everton have signed everton midfielder ben browning on a season-long loan deal.
0no
wid_2
37,276,607
BERTS2S
glamorgan set up an unlikely one-day cup victory over gloucestershire after being set a target of 182 to spare in a rain-affected match.
0no
wid_0
37,276,607
BERTS2S
glamorgan set up an unlikely one-day cup victory over gloucestershire after being set a target of 182 to spare in a rain-affected match.
0no
wid_1
37,276,607
BERTS2S
glamorgan set up an unlikely one-day cup victory over gloucestershire after being set a target of 182 to spare in a rain-affected match.
0no
wid_2
40,873,665
BERTS2S
a man has been arrested on suspicion of raping a 15-year-old girl in birmingham.
0no
wid_0
40,873,665
BERTS2S
a man has been arrested on suspicion of raping a 15-year-old girl in birmingham.
0no
wid_1
40,873,665
BERTS2S
a man has been arrested on suspicion of raping a 15-year-old girl in birmingham.
0no
wid_2
36,415,371
BERTS2S
golden state warriors beat golden state warriors 4-1 in the best-of-seven nba finals.
0no
wid_0
36,415,371
BERTS2S
golden state warriors beat golden state warriors 4-1 in the best-of-seven nba finals.
0no
wid_1
36,415,371
BERTS2S
golden state warriors beat golden state warriors 4-1 in the best-of-seven nba finals.
0no
wid_2
36,591,829
BERTS2S
real madrid have signed real madrid striker alvaro morata on a four-year deal for an undisclosed fee.
0no
wid_0
36,591,829
BERTS2S
real madrid have signed real madrid striker alvaro morata on a four-year deal for an undisclosed fee.
0no
wid_1
36,591,829
BERTS2S
real madrid have signed real madrid striker alvaro morata on a four-year deal for an undisclosed fee.
0no
wid_2
39,037,666
BERTS2S
a number of jewish community centres in the us have been threatened by hoax bomb threats, the white house says.
0no
wid_0
39,037,666
BERTS2S
a number of jewish community centres in the us have been threatened by hoax bomb threats, the white house says.
0no
wid_1
39,037,666
BERTS2S
a number of jewish community centres in the us have been threatened by hoax bomb threats, the white house says.
0no
wid_2
39,697,827
BERTS2S
world number one mark selby says he is not feeling the pressure of his career as he prepares for his first round match against china's china '
0no
wid_0

Dataset Card for XSum Hallucination Annotations

Dataset Summary

Neural abstractive summarization models are highly prone to hallucinate content that is unfaithful to the input document. The popular metric such as ROUGE fails to show the severity of the problem. This dataset contains a large scale human evaluation of several neural abstractive summarization systems to better understand the types of hallucinations they produce. The dataset consists of faithfulness and factuality annotations of abstractive summaries for the XSum dataset. The dataset has crowdsourced 3 judgements for each of 500 x 5 document-system pairs. This will be a valuable resource to the abstractive summarization community.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • summarization: : The dataset can be used to train a model for Summarization,, which consists in summarizing a given document. Success on this task is typically measured by achieving a high/low ROUGE Score.

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English which are abstractive summaries for the XSum dataset. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Faithfulness annotations dataset

A typical data point consists of an ID referring to the news article(complete document), summary, and the hallucination span information.

An example from the XSum Faithfulness dataset looks as follows:

{
'bbcid': 34687720,
 'hallucinated_span_end': 114,
 'hallucinated_span_start': 1,
 'hallucination_type': 1,
 'summary': 'rory mcilroy will take a one-shot lead into the final round of the wgc-hsbc champions after carding a three-under',
 'system': 'BERTS2S',
 'worker_id': 'wid_0'
 }
Factuality annotations dataset

A typical data point consists of an ID referring to the news article(complete document), summary, and whether the summary is factual or not.

An example from the XSum Factuality dataset looks as follows:

{
'bbcid': 29911712,
 'is_factual': 0,
 'summary': 'more than 50 pupils at a bristol academy have been sent home from school because of a lack of uniform.',
 'system': 'BERTS2S',
 'worker_id': 'wid_0'
 }

Data Fields

Faithfulness annotations dataset

Raters are shown the news article and the system summary, and are tasked with identifying and annotating the spans that aren't supported by the input article. The file contains the following columns:

  • bbcid: Document id in the XSum corpus.
  • system: Name of neural summarizer.
  • summary: Summary generated by 鈥榮ystem鈥.
  • hallucination_type: Type of hallucination: intrinsic (0) or extrinsic (1)
  • hallucinated_span: Hallucinated span in the 鈥榮ummary鈥.
  • hallucinated_span_start: Index of the start of the hallucinated span.
  • hallucinated_span_end: Index of the end of the hallucinated span.
  • worker_id: Worker ID (one of 'wid_0', 'wid_1', 'wid_2')

The hallucination_type column has NULL value for some entries which have been replaced iwth -1.

Factuality annotations dataset

Raters are shown the news article and the hallucinated system summary, and are tasked with assessing the summary whether it is factual or not. The file contains the following columns:

  • `bbcid1: Document id in the XSum corpus.
  • system: Name of neural summarizer.
  • summary: Summary generated by 鈥榮ystem鈥.
  • is_factual: Yes (1) or No (0)
  • worker_id: Worker ID (one of 'wid_0', 'wid_1', 'wid_2')

The is_factual column has NULL value for some entries which have been replaced iwth -1.

Data Splits

There is only a single split for both the Faithfulness annotations dataset and Factuality annotations dataset.

train
Faithfulness annotations 11185
Factuality annotations 5597

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

Citation Information

@InProceedings{maynez_acl20,
  author =      "Joshua Maynez and Shashi Narayan and Bernd Bohnet and Ryan Thomas Mcdonald",
  title =       "On Faithfulness and Factuality in Abstractive Summarization",
  booktitle =   "Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
  year =        "2020",
  pages = "1906--1919",
  address = "Online",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @vineeths96 for adding this dataset.

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Models trained or fine-tuned on xsum_factuality