Dataset Card for "x_stance"

Dataset Summary

The x-stance dataset contains more than 150 political questions, and 67k comments written by candidates on those questions.

It can be used to train and evaluate stance detection systems.

Supported Tasks

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Dataset Structure

We show detailed information for up to 5 configurations of the dataset.

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 6.11 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 24.54 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 30.65 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

    "author": "f27b54a137b4",
    "comment": "Das Arbeitsgesetz regelt die Arbeitszeiten und schützt den Arbeitnehmer. Es macht doch Sinn, dass wenn eine Nachfrage besteht, die Läden öffnen dürfen und wenn es keine Nachfrage gibt, diese geschlossen bleiben.",
    "id": 10045,
    "label": "FAVOR",
    "language": "de",
    "numerical_label": 100,
    "question": "Sind Sie für eine vollständige Liberalisierung der Geschäftsöffnungszeiten (Geschäfte können die Öffnungszeiten nach freiem Ermessen festlegen)?",
    "question_id": 739,
    "topic": "Economy"

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.


  • question: a string feature.
  • id: a int32 feature.
  • question_id: a int32 feature.
  • language: a string feature.
  • comment: a string feature.
  • label: a string feature.
  • numerical_label: a int32 feature.
  • author: a string feature.
  • topic: a string feature.

Data Splits Sample Size

name train validation test
default 45640 3926 17705

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

    author    = "Vamvas, Jannis and Sennrich, Rico",
    title     = "{X-Stance}: A Multilingual Multi-Target Dataset for Stance Detection",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 5th Swiss Text Analytics Conference (SwissText) \& 16th Conference on Natural Language Processing (KONVENS)",
    address   = "Zurich, Switzerland",
    year      = "2020",
    month     = "jun",
    url       = ""


Thanks to @lewtun, @mariamabarham, @thomwolf, @patrickvonplaten, @jvamvas for adding this dataset.

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