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{ "normal_article_id": 41918715, "normal_article_title": "Lata Mondal", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-41918715-0-0", "normal-41918715-0-1", "normal-41918715-1-0", "normal-41918715-2-0", "normal-41918715-3-0", "normal-41918715-3-1", "normal-41918715-4-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Lata Mondal ( ; born: 16 January 1993, Dhaka) is a Bangladeshi cricketer who plays for the Bangladesh national women's cricket team.", "She is a right handed batter.", "Mondal was born on January 16, 1993 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.", "Mondal made her ODI career against the Ireland women's cricket team on November 26, 2011.", "Mondal made her T20I career against the Ireland women's cricket team on August 28, 2012.", "In October 2018, she was named in Bangladesh's squad for the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 tournament in the West Indies.", "Mondal was a member of the team that won a silver medal in cricket against the China national women's cricket team at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 702227, "simple_article_title": "Lata Mondal", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-702227-0-0", "simple-702227-0-1" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Lata Mondal (born: 16 January 1993) is a Bangladeshi cricketer who plays for the Bangladesh national women's cricket team.", "She is a right handed bat." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 60918445, "normal_article_title": "Tuulikki Ukkola", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-60918445-0-0", "normal-60918445-0-1", "normal-60918445-0-2", "normal-60918445-0-3", "normal-60918445-0-4", "normal-60918445-1-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Lahja Tuulikki Ukkola (\"née\" Parviainen; 28 November 1943 – 28 May 2019) was a Finnish politician and journalist.", "Born in Taivalkoski, she began working for the newspaper \"Kaleva\" in 1962.", "As a member of the Liberal People's Party, she served as an MP for the Oulu constituency from 1991 to 1995.", "She was also the leader of the party between 1993 and 1995.", "Following the 2007 national parliamentary election, Ukkola was again elected as an MP for Oulu, this time for the National Coalition Party, serving until 2011.", "Ukkola died on 28 May 2019 in Oulu, at the age of 75." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 697879, "simple_article_title": "Tuulikki Ukkola", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-697879-0-0", "simple-697879-0-1", "simple-697879-0-2", "simple-697879-0-3", "simple-697879-0-4", "simple-697879-1-0", "simple-697879-1-1" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Lahja Tuulikki Ukkola (\"née\" Parviainen; 28 November 1943 – 28 May 2019) was a Finnish politician and journalist.", "She started working for the newspaper \"Kaleva\" in 1962.", "She served as an MP for the Oulu constituency for the Liberal People's Party from 1991 to 1995.", "She was also the leader of the party between 1993 and 1995.", "In 2007, Ukkola was again elected as an MP for Oulu, this time for the National Coalition Party, serving until 2011.", "Ukkola was born in Taivalkoski.", "She died on 28 May 2019 in Oulu, at the age of 75." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 14570332, "normal_article_title": "Kot Sarang", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-14570332-0-0", "normal-14570332-0-1", "normal-14570332-1-0", "normal-14570332-1-1", "normal-14570332-1-2", "normal-14570332-2-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Kot Sarang is a village and union council of Pakistan, an administrative subdivision, of the Chakwal District in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, it is part of Talagang Tehsil.", "The Sawan River and the village of Jisial are nearby.", "Many are farmers dependent upon rain for irrigation.", "One or more members of every family work in foreign countries.", "OGDCL is another source of employment.", "Kot Sarang benefits from good sewerage and water supply systems and has paved streets" ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 120452, "simple_article_title": "Kot Sarang", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-120452-0-0" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Kot Sarang is a village and Union Council, an administrative subdivision, of Chakwal District in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, it is part of Talagang Tehsil and is located at 33°2'14N 72°23'11E." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 946890, "normal_article_title": "Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-946890-0-0", "normal-946890-0-1", "normal-946890-0-2", "normal-946890-1-0", "normal-946890-1-1", "normal-946890-1-2", "normal-946890-1-3", "normal-946890-1-4", "normal-946890-1-5", "normal-946890-1-6", "normal-946890-1-7", "normal-946890-1-8", "normal-946890-2-0", "normal-946890-2-1", "normal-946890-2-2", "normal-946890-3-0", "normal-946890-3-1", "normal-946890-3-2", "normal-946890-3-3", "normal-946890-4-0", "normal-946890-4-1", "normal-946890-4-2", "normal-946890-4-3", "normal-946890-4-4", "normal-946890-5-0", "normal-946890-6-0", "normal-946890-6-1", "normal-946890-7-0", "normal-946890-7-1", "normal-946890-7-2", "normal-946890-7-3", "normal-946890-7-4", "normal-946890-7-5", "normal-946890-7-6", "normal-946890-7-7", "normal-946890-7-8", "normal-946890-8-0", "normal-946890-8-1", "normal-946890-9-0", "normal-946890-9-1", "normal-946890-10-0", "normal-946890-10-1", "normal-946890-10-2", "normal-946890-10-3", "normal-946890-11-0", "normal-946890-11-1", "normal-946890-12-0", "normal-946890-12-1", "normal-946890-12-2", "normal-946890-12-3", "normal-946890-13-0", "normal-946890-13-1", "normal-946890-13-2", "normal-946890-13-3", "normal-946890-13-4", "normal-946890-14-0", "normal-946890-14-1", "normal-946890-14-2", "normal-946890-14-3", "normal-946890-15-0", "normal-946890-15-1", "normal-946890-16-0", "normal-946890-16-1", "normal-946890-16-2", "normal-946890-16-3", "normal-946890-16-4", "normal-946890-17-0", "normal-946890-17-1", "normal-946890-17-2", "normal-946890-17-3", "normal-946890-17-4", "normal-946890-18-0", "normal-946890-18-1", "normal-946890-18-2", "normal-946890-18-3", "normal-946890-18-4", "normal-946890-18-5", "normal-946890-18-6", "normal-946890-18-7", "normal-946890-18-8", "normal-946890-19-0", "normal-946890-19-1", "normal-946890-20-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Princess Elisabeth Charlotte ( ; nicknamed \"Lieselotte\", 27 May 1652 – 8 December 1722) was a German princess and, as \"Madame\", the second wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV of France, and mother of France's ruler during the Regency.", "Louis invoked her hereditary claim to the Palatinate as pretext to launch the Nine Years' War in 1688.", "Her vast, frank correspondence provides a detailed account of the personalities and activities at the court of her brother-in-law, Louis XIV, for half a century, from the date of her marriage in 1672.", "Princess Elisabeth Charlotte was born on 27 May 1652 in Heidelberg Castle, to Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine of the Simmern branch of the House of Wittelsbach, and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel.", "She is directly related to several iconic European monarchs.", "Her grandmother Elizabeth Stuart was a Scottish and later English princess, daughter of James I of England and granddaughter of Mary, Queen of Scots.", "Her first cousin became George I, the first Hanover King of England.", "Through her daughter, she was the great-grandmother of Marie Antoinette.", "In childhood she became known as \"Liselotte\"—a portmanteau of her names.", "Her parents were in an unhappy dynastic marriage and in 1653 her father began an affair with Marie Luise von Degenfeld, one of his wife's attendants.", "He purported to marry Marie Luise \"motu proprio\" as a prince-elector of the Empire, without benefit of a judicial divorce, and claimed to have done so to legitimise the bastard children.", "Liselotte was five years old when she was sent to live with her father's sister, Sophia, wife of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover.", "She always remembered her time with her aunt as the happiest of her life, although she became close enough to her younger half-sisters to correspond with them at least weekly after she married.", "In 1663, Liselotte had to move back to Heidelberg where she lived with her stepmother, fifteen half-siblings, and brother, the future Charles II, Elector Palatine.", "She had purportedly desired to marry her cousin William III of Orange, who would later become King of England, though her family believed that sacrifices needed to be made in order to make a more beneficial marriage with the recently widowed brother of the King of France, formerly married to her father's first cousin, Princess Henrietta Anne of England.", "On 16 November 1671, she was married by proxy at Metz to Philippe I, Duke of Orléans.", "By prearrangement, after leaving her father's realm but prior to arriving in France, she formally converted to Roman Catholicism.", "The arranged marriage was conceived by the bride's aunt, Anna Gonzaga, a close friend of her future husband and his deceased first wife, who negotiated the marriage contract, including the secret Catholic instruction and subsequent public conversion of the fiancée.", "At the French court, her husband Philippe was known by the traditional honorific of \"Monsieur\".", "Described in the marriage contract as \"the Electoral Princess Palatine of the Rhine\" (\"Kurpfalzprinzessin\"), as Orléans' wife, Elisabeth Charlotte assumed the style of \"Madame\".", "Elisabeth Charlotte was very close to her two stepdaughters Marie Louise and Anne Marie.", "When Marie Louise left France to marry Charles II of Spain in 1679, Liselotte accompanied her to Orléans.", "The homosexual proclivities of her husband were well known at court.", "Elisabeth Charlotte confided that he needed \"rosaries and holy medals draped in the appropriate places to perform the necessary act\" with her.", "Elisabeth Charlotte objected to money spent on his favourites and the exercise of their influence with him to enrich themselves.", "I could put up with it if \"Monsieur\" only squandered his money in gaming, but sometimes he gives away as much as 100,000 francs at one swoop, and all the economies fall upon me and the children.", "That is not at all pleasant, besides putting me in a position where, as God is my witness, we would have to live entirely on the King's charity, which is a miserable thing.", "Elisabeth Charlotte had apartments at Versailles, use of the Palais-Royal in Paris, and her favourite residence, the beautiful Château de Saint-Cloud on the outskirts of Paris, which was the couple's main residence when not at the Palace of Versailles.", "Liselotte also had an apartment at the King's private residence, the Château de Marly.", "In her dowager years she would stay at the Grand Trianon built by her brother-in-law.", "The marriage at first proved to be comfortable enough, with the birth of two male heirs.", "The couple had three children.", "After the death of the couple's first son, the Duke of Valois, she experienced depression and worried about her third pregnancy (with Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans).", "After this birth, the relationship between husband and wife was never as close as it had been.", "After the birth of their daughter Élisabeth Charlotte, the couple mutually agreed to cease conjugal relations.", "Philippe turned to his minions, and Elisabeth Charlotte to writing.", "Her letters to her aunt, Sophia of Hanover, and others, created not only a vivid picture of life during the reign of Louis XIV, but also of the regency era of her son, Philippe.", "They reflect her alienation from her husband and other family members, as well as her warm relations with the king, and with her son, daughter and her two stepdaughters.", "As the king's only brother and sister-in-law, the couple were expected to be in usual attendance at court, where her husband's rank as a \"fils de France\" ensured her precedence before all save the queen, the wives of the king's son and grandsons—and his \"maîtresse-en-titre\".", "This last position rankled her, and she disliked the king's illegitimate children, especially Louis-Auguste, Duke of Maine.", "Madame de Montespan's youngest daughter, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, would eventually marry her son.", "No inducements ever reconciled Elisabeth Charlotte to the marriage.", "When she discovered that her son had agreed to it at the king's insistence, she slapped his face in front of the whole court, and turned her back on the king as he greeted her with a bow.", "Later, writing on the subject she admitted:If, by shedding my own blood, I could have prevented my son's marriage, I would willingly have done so; but since the thing was done, I have had no other wish than to preserve harmony.", "After the king transferred his affections from \"La Montespan\" to \"La Maintenon\", Elisabeth Charlotte became obsessively resentful toward and suspicious of the latter.", "In her correspondence, Elisabeth Charlotte refers to her as the \"King's old drab\", the \"old witch\", and the \"old whore\".", "In addition to letters to her aunt Sophia and her morganatic half-sisters the Raugravines, she also corresponded with the former's courtier Gottfried Leibniz, although they never met.", "After he died, she insisted that the \"Académie des Sciences\", of which he had been a member, honour his passing.", "The resulting eulogy to Leibniz, by Fontenelle, was the only one ever delivered anywhere.", "When the Simmern branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty became extinct in the male line with the death of her brother Karl II in 1685, Louis XIV sent troops to claim the Palatinate in his sister-in-law's name, initiating the War of the Palatine Succession (1688–1697), which would decimate much of the Rhineland.", "On 9 June 1701, her husband, just under 60 years old, died of a stroke at the Château de Saint-Cloud.", "Earlier, he had a heated argument with his brother at the Château de Marly about the conduct of his son — who was also the king's son-in-law.", "After her husband's death, Elisabeth Charlotte feared that the king would send her to a convent, as stipulated in her marriage contract.", "Instead she was confronted with secretly-made excerpts of her all-too-candid letters to correspondents abroad.", "She was warned to change her attitude toward Madame de Maintenon.", "She remained welcome at court.", "She was allowed to keep her apartments at all the royal residences and retained her rank.", "From her husband, she inherited 40,000 livres a year.", "Louis XIV added 250,000 livres, and her son promised her another 200,000.", "Some time after Philippe's death, she wrote:If those who are in the next world could know what was happening in this one, I think His Grace, the late \"Monsieur\", would be most pleased with me, for I have gone through his boxes to find all the letters written to him by his boyfriends and have burnt them unread, so that they will not fall into other people's hands... \"then\" ...I receive great comfort from the King, otherwise I could not endure my position.", "When the King speaks about \"Monsieur\" he is quite moved.", "In 1715, Louis XIV died aged 77 at the Palace of Versailles.", "In his will, he divided the regnal prerogatives among relatives and courtiers, allocating to his legitimised son, the Duke of Maine, guardianship of the new king, Louis XV, who was 5 years old.", "The Parlement of Paris overturned the will's provisions at the request of Elisabeth Charlotte's son, Philippe II, who thus became regent.", "In her memoirs, Elisabeth Charlotte describes the new era of the Regency.", "Although no longer outranked by any woman at court and freed from the imagined persecutions of Madame de Maintenon, she did not cease daily complaints to her correspondents about the antics of what she regarded as an increasingly decadent court, about which she wrote:I believe that the histories that will be written about this court after we are gone will be better and more entertaining than any novel, and I am afraid that those who come after us will not be able to believe them and think they are just fairy tales.", "Elisabeth Charlotte died at age 70 on 8 December 1722, at the Château de Saint-Cloud, near Paris.", "She and her husband, the Duke of Orléans, were the founders of the modern House of Orléans.", "Their only surviving son, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was the Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV of France.", "She became the ancestress of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, and France's Citizen-King Louis Philippe.", "Through her daughter, the Duchess of Lorraine, she was the paternal great-grandmother of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France.", "Elisabeth Charlotte was described as stolid and mannish.", "She possessed the stamina to hunt all day, refusing to wear the mask that Frenchwomen were accustomed to use to protect their skin while watching their men hunt.", "Her face developed a ruddy and weather-beaten look.", "She walked too rapidly for most courtiers to keep up, save the king.", "She had a \"no-nonsense\" attitude.", "Her hearty appetite caused her to gain weight as the years went by, and when describing herself she once commented that she would be as good to eat as a roasted suckling pig.", "Raised a Protestant, she was not fond of lengthy Latin masses.", "She remained virtuous and at times outraged by the open infidelity practised by the aristocracy.", "Her views were frequently the opposite of those prevalent at the French court.", "The dynastic titles to which she was entitled were \"Countess Palatine of the Rhine at Simmern\" and \"Duchess of Bavaria\".", "At the royal court of France she was known, prior to marriage, as the \"Princess Palatine Elisabeth Charlotte\", and afterwards, although her official title was \"Her Royal Highness, Madame, Duchess of Orléans\", she was entitled to and invariably accorded the unique designation of \"Madame\" as wife of the king's younger brother.", "She was played by Renate Müller in the 1935 German film \"The Private Life of Louis XIV\", Heidelinde Weis in the 1966 West German film \"Liselotte of the Palatinate\", Paula Paulisib in the 2014 British film \"A Little Chaos\" and Jessica Clark in the BBC series \"Versailles\" in 2017." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 276895, "simple_article_title": "Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-276895-0-0", "simple-276895-0-1", "simple-276895-0-2", "simple-276895-1-0", "simple-276895-1-1", "simple-276895-1-2", "simple-276895-2-0", "simple-276895-2-1", "simple-276895-2-2", "simple-276895-2-3", "simple-276895-2-4", "simple-276895-2-5", "simple-276895-3-0", "simple-276895-3-1", "simple-276895-3-2" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Daughter of France by marriage (27 May 1652 - 8 December 1722) was a German princess and the wife of Philippe of France, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV.", "She is best known for her vast correspondence detailing the court of her brother in law.", "She was referred to at court as simply Madame, as well as La Palatine and the Princess Palatine (\"Princesse Palatine\")", "Elisabeth Charlotte was born at the Heidelberg Castle as the only daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel.", "In childhood she was known as \"Liselotte\".", "She grew up at the court of her aunt and would remain in contact with her aunt all her life.", "On 16 November 1671, she was married by proxy at Metz.", "In order to marry she had to convert to Roman Catholicism.", "Elisabeth Charlotte would be very close to her two stepdaughters Marie Louise and Anne Marie.", "Her husband was gay but the couple still had three children but one died in infancy.", "After the birth of their daughter Élisabeth Charlotte, the couple mutually agreed to cease conjugal relations.", "Philippe turned to his lovers, and Elisabeth Charlotte to her writing.", "After her husband's death, Elisabeth Charlotte feared that the king would send her to a convent but he insisted she stay at Versailles.", "Elisabeth Charlotte died at the age of seventy on 8 December 1722 at Saint-Cloud.", "She was buried at the Royal Basilica of Saint Denis." ] } }
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"normal-2656347-39-2", "normal-2656347-39-3", "normal-2656347-39-4", "normal-2656347-40-0", "normal-2656347-40-1", "normal-2656347-40-2", "normal-2656347-41-0", "normal-2656347-41-1", "normal-2656347-41-2", "normal-2656347-42-0", "normal-2656347-42-1", "normal-2656347-43-0", "normal-2656347-44-0", "normal-2656347-44-1", "normal-2656347-44-2", "normal-2656347-45-0", "normal-2656347-46-0", "normal-2656347-46-1", "normal-2656347-47-0", "normal-2656347-47-1" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Roderick James Nugent Stewart (born 3 January 1973) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been Member of Parliament for Penrith and The Border since 2010.", "He served in several ministerial roles, including as Secretary of State for International Development in 2019.", "After education at Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, Stewart became a diplomat, working in Indonesia and Montenegro.", "He left the civil service to undertake a two-year walk across Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India and Nepal.", "He later wrote a best-selling book, \"The Places in Between\", about his experiences.", "He subsequently served as a Deputy Governor for the Coalition Provisional Authority following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and wrote a second book covering this period, \"\".", "He later lectured at Harvard and worked for several non-governmental organizations, including as executive chairman of the Turquoise Mountain Foundation.", "In 2009, Stewart joined the Conservative Party and was selected as the parliamentary candidate for Penrith and The Border.", "He was elected to the House of Commons the following year, and was later elected as Chair of the Defence Select Committee.", "In 2015, he was appointed to the Cameron Government as Minister of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.", "From 2016 to 2019, Stewart served in the May Government as Minister of State for International Development, Minister of State for Africa, and Minister of State for Prisons.", "On 1 May 2019, he was promoted to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for International Development.", "Stewart stood as a candidate for Leader of the Conservative Party in the 2019 leadership contest, finishing fifth.", "Stewart was born in Hong Kong, the son of Brian Stewart and his wife Sally Elizabeth Acland Nugent.", "Stewart's father, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, was a colonial official and diplomat who, in the 1970s, was a candidate to become the director of the British Secret Intelligence Service, also known as MI6.", "His family is from Broich House (built in 1770), which is near Crieff in Perth and Kinross, Scotland.", "He was brought up in Malaysia and in Scotland and educated at the Dragon School in Oxford, and at Eton College.", "As a teenager, he was a member of the Labour Party and he has spoken about this in a number of interviews, including on BBC Radio 4's \"Political Thinking\" with Nick Robinson.", "During his gap year in 1991, he was commissioned (\"short service limited commission\") in the Black Watch for five months as second lieutenant (on probation).", "He then attended Balliol College, Oxford University, where he read Modern History for one year, before switching to Philosophy, Politics and Economics.", "While a student at Oxford, Stewart was a private tutor to Prince William and Prince Harry during the summer.", "After graduating, Stewart joined the Foreign Office.", "He served in the British embassy in Indonesia from 1997 to 1999, working on issues related to East Timor independence, and was appointed at the age of 26 as the British Representative to Montenegro in the wake of the Kosovo campaign.", "Some have suggested that Stewart was an employee of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) at this time.", "Stewart has said that his career progression and his father's work for MI6 might \"give the appearance\" that he worked for MI6, but says he did not work for MI6 while a diplomat.", "After the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Stewart became the Coalition Provisional Authority Deputy Governorate Co-ordinator in Maysan and Deputy Governorate Co-ordinator/Senior Advisor in Dhi Qar in 2003, both of which are provinces in southern Iraq.", "He was posted initially to the KOSB Battlegroup then to the Light Infantry.", "His responsibilities included holding elections, resolving tribal disputes, and implementing development projects.", "He faced growing unrest and an incipient civil war from his base in a Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) compound in Al Amarah, and in May 2004 was in command of his compound in Nasiriyah when it was besieged by Sadrist militia.", "He was awarded an OBE for his services during this period.", "While Stewart initially supported the Iraq War, the international coalition's inability to achieve a more humane, prosperous state led him in retrospect to believe the invasion had been a mistake.", "In late 2004, Stewart became a fellow at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, and in July 2008, he was appointed Ryan Family Professor of Human Rights at Harvard and director of the Carr Center.", "Stewart left his position at Harvard in 2010 in order to campaign for Parliament.", "W.W. Norton published his book \"Can Intervention Work?\"", "Stewart has frequently been called on to provide advice on Afghanistan and Iraq to policy-makers, particularly in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.", "In an article in \"The Daily Telegraph\" he was described an advisor on Afghan issues to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and the U.S. Special Envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan Richard Holbrooke.", "In late 2005 he joined the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, a human development NGO established by Charles, Prince of Wales, and Hamid Karzai, in Afghanistan.", "For this role he relocated to Kabul for the next three years, working to restore historic buildings in the old city of Kabul, managing its finances, installing water supply, electricity, and establishing a clinic, a school and an institute for traditional crafts.", "Stewart was awarded the Royal Scottish Geographical Society's Livingstone medal in 2009 \"in recognition of his work in Afghanistan and his travel writing, and for his distinguished contribution to geography\".", "Stewart stepped down as executive chairman of the Turquoise Mountain Foundation in May 2010.", "Stewart served for a time on the board of governors of the International Development Research Centre of Canada.", "Stewart had considered a parliamentary career in the past but only decided to stand when, in the aftermath of the expenses scandal, David Cameron decided to \"reopen the Conservative candidates' list to anybody who wants to apply\".", "Stewart tried for selection for the Bracknell constituency in the 2010 general election, but the place went to Dr Phillip Lee.", "Stewart was then shortlisted for the Penrith and the Border constituency and, at an open caucus, selected as the Conservative Party Candidate on 25 October 2009.", "He was returned as the MP for the constituency on 6 May 2010.", "At the 2015 general election, Stewart almost doubled his majority in Penrith and the Border from 11,241 to 19,894, the highest majority since the seat was created.", "In the 2017 general election, he received 60.4% of the vote.", "Upon joining the House of Commons, Stewart was elected a member of the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, serving until 2014.", "In this capacity, he made a notable contribution to the committee's report on Afghanistan.", "Stewart also served as the chairman of the APPG for Mountain Rescue and the APPG for Local Democracy and was an officer of the APPG for Rural Services.", "He was elected Chairman of the Defence Select Committee in May 2014.", "He left these positions upon his appointment as Minister for the Environment.", "On 25 July 2010, Stewart apologised to his constituents after blogging about the relative poverty of rural areas and need for more public services.", "He was quoted in the \"Scottish Sun\" as saying that \"Some areas around here are pretty primitive, people holding up their trousers with bits of twine.\"", "A light-hearted \"Guardian\" article, \"In praise of ... binder twine\", whilst acknowledging the \"serious effort\" Stewart had made \"walking hundreds of miles\" to get to know his constituency believed he had simply underestimated the importance of the \"ubiquitous and indispensable\" twine to the rural community.", "His speech about hedgehogs in Parliament in 2015 was named by \"The Times\" and \"The Daily Telegraph\" as the best parliamentary speech of 2015 and described by the Deputy Speaker as \"one of the best speeches she had ever heard in Parliament\".", "Stewart supported Remain in the 2016 referendum on the UK's continued membership of the European Union but fully accepted the result, writing that \"the decision is made, and we should be energetic and optimistic about it\".", "Stewart has emerged as a prominent supporter of the Brexit withdrawal agreement negotiated by Prime Minister Theresa May, arguing that the agreement respects the result of the referendum \"by leaving EU political institutions...and by taking back control over immigration\" while also addressing \"the concerns of the more than 16 million who voted Remain\" and protecting the British economy.", "Stewart led the first backbench motion for expanding broadband and mobile coverage, securing what was then the largest number of cross-party endorsements for a backbench motion.", "In a report published in 2011, Stewart won support from the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee in calling for mobile phone companies to be forced to provide coverage to 98% of the population, and in 2012, his campaign achieved its goal when regulator Ofcom announced its plans for the auction of fourth generation (4G) bandwidth for mobile phone services.", "In March 2018, Ofcom announced that the 98% target had been met.", "Stewart was successful in securing the Cumbrian broadband pilot in 2011, and in November 2013, broadband provider EE cited the support of Government and regulatory policy in announcing that over 2,000 residents and businesses in rural Cumbria were to have access to superfast home and office broadband for the first time.", "In February 2015 Stewart secured more funding in order to continue the broadband roll-out in Cumbria.", "In July 2014 Stewart launched Hands Across The Border, a project to construct a cairn called 'The Auld Acquaintance' as \"a testament to the Union\".", "Built by members of the public it is close to the Scotland–England border near Gretna.", "During the run up to the Scottish independence referendum.", "Stewart said of the project: \"We wanted to come up with a lasting marker of our union, something that future generations will look back at and remember, with deep gratitude, the moment we chose to stay together.\"", "The campaign received support from several notable public figures in the UK, including actress Joanna Lumley, explorer Sir Ranulph Fiennes, mountaineers Alan Hinkes and Doug Scott, and historians Simon Schama and David Starkey.", "Approximately 100,000 stones were laid on the cairn, many with personal messages.", "At the same time, Stewart hosted a two-part documentary on BBC Two about the cross-border history of what he called \"Britain's lost middleland\", covering the kingdoms of Northumbria and Strathclyde and the Debatable Lands of the Scottish Marches on the Anglo-Scottish border.", "In January 2014, Stewart was asked by Chris Grayling, Secretary of State for Justice, to lead a Government review into the reasons why a number of British veterans become criminal offenders after returning to civilian life.", "The review looked at ways in which support and prevention for veterans in the justice system can be improved.", "Following his election to Chairman of the Defence Select Committee, Stewart handed over the lead for the review to Stephen Phillips QC MP.", "In May 2014, Stewart was elected by MPs from all parties as Chairman of the Defence Select Committee.", "He was the youngest Chair of a select committee in parliamentary history, as well as the first MP of the 2010 intake to be elected to chair a committee.", "Following the Conservatives' return with an outright majority at the 2015 UK General Election, Stewart was appointed Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA), with responsibilities including the natural environment, national parks, floods and water, resource and environmental management, rural affairs, lead responsibility for the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Forestry Commission, and acting as the Secretary of State's deputy on the Environment Council.", "In July 2015, in his capacity as Resource Minister, he announced a review into the regulatory and enforcement barriers to growth and innovation in the waste sector.", "Stewart as 'Floods Minister' joined the National Flood Resilience Review, formed in 2016 and chaired by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Oliver Letwin.", "Stewart initiated the Cumbria Floods Partnership in response to Storm Desmond, with a focus on long-term flood defence.", "UK House of Commons cross-party Environment Audit Committee criticised Floods Minister Stewart \"that the extra £700m newly allocated flood defence monies was the result of a 'political calculation' and that it might not be spent according to the strict value-for-money criteria currently used.\"", "As Environment Minister he introduced the plastic bag tax which dropped use of personal bags by 85% in 6 months; and he was responsible for bringing the first draft of the 25 year environment plan in which he emphasised alongside biodiversity and ecosystems, the importance of human cultural features in the landscape, and particularly the conservation of small family sheep farms.", "As Minister responsible for the National Parks, Stewart secured five years of increased funding for National Parks and AOBs.", "He also ensured the extension of the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Park and supported the UNESCO World Heritage bid for the Lake District.", "As Floods Minister, Stewart oversaw the government's response to the 2015–16 Great Britain and Ireland floods, including the post-Storm Desmond floods, including the reopening of the A591 and the bridge at Pooley Bridge in the Lake District.", "After Theresa May replaced David Cameron as Prime Minister, Stewart was promoted to Minister of State for International Development on 17 July 2016.", "Stewart was promoted to become joint Minister for Africa, taking over responsibility for the Foreign Office and its embassies in Africa, as well as DfID in Africa.", "In this capacity he has visited Nigeria, Uganda, Botswana, Zambia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, DRC, South Sudan, Kenya, Zimbabwe and to the United National General Assembly in New York (UNGA).", "During these trips he held personal meetings with President Kagame of Rwanda, President Kabila of DRC, President Lungu of Zambia, President Magufuli of Tanzania, and President Mnangagwa of Zimbabwe.", "In this role Stewart was the driving force behind the British Government's new Africa Strategy and pushed for more resources to go into the Foreign Office network in Africa.", "His most notable trip was to Zimbabwe where he was the first foreign dignitary to be received by President Mnangagwa.", "His Zimbabwe policy pressed for political reform, and free and fair elections.", "Stewart was appointed Minister of State with responsibility for prisons and probation in England and Wales in January 2018.", "He was appointed in the aftermath of a highly critical leaked report on the state of HMP Liverpool, in which the inspector described it as the \"worst prison he had ever seen\" with piles of rubbish, rats, soaring violence and drug use and poor health provision.", "Stewart immediately visited the prison and, testifying before the Justice Select Committee, announced his determination to clean up prisons in England and Wales.", "This advocacy of a \"back to basics\" approach was recorded in \"The Guardian\", with Stewart writing an opinion piece in the publication, entitled \"I strongly believe we can improve our prisons and make progress\".", "In April 2018 Stewart took the Assaults on Emergency Workers (Offences) Private Member's Bill through the House of Commons, on behalf of the government, which doubled the maximum sentences for those who attack emergency services personnel and introduced sexual assault as an aggravating factor in sentencing.", "In August 2018, during an interview with \"BBC Breakfast\", Stewart announced the launch of the Ten Prisons Project.", "He argued that, despite five years of continuous rise in violence in prisons, it was possible to turn it around.", "Stewart argued that it could be done through improving perimeter gate security (to catch drugs) and by improving training and support of staff.", "The key, he said, was to get the basics right.", "He undertook to create a new Prison Officer handbook and a new course at the training college for prison officers.", "Stewart pledged, in the same interview, that he would resign if this project was not successful.", "Though he was promoted to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for International Development before the twelve months elapsed, significant progress was made in reducing violence in prisons, with reductions reported within six months of the project's launch.", "The twelve months statistics showed a continuing positive trend when, in August 2019, the results from the 10 Prisons Project were published.", "These showed a 16% drop in the rate of assaults, and a 17% drop in the number of assaults, almost 10% greater than the national trend.", "At the same time, the percentage of positive results from random mandatory drug tests dropped by 50%.", "In May 2019, Stewart was promoted to the Cabinet after the dismissal of Gavin Williamson from Cabinet, replacing the new Defence Secretary Penny Mordaunt in the Department for International Development.", "This position includes membership of the Political Cabinet, the National Security Council and saw Stewart serve as a Governor of the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank and the Inter-African Development Bank.", "He was also an Alternative Governor to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.", "On 24 July 2019, Stewart resigned as International Development Secretary.", "Stewart was a candidate in the 2019 Conservative leadership election, announcing his intention to stand in an interview in \"The Times.\"", "His candidacy was not initially taken seriously, with a piece in the \"New Statesman's\" diary stating that he had a single supporter: himself.", "As \"The Guardian\" noted: 'his campaign benefited at the start from low expectations, and for days leading up to the first vote his tally of supporters was in single figures.", "When he met the threshold he looked like the insurgent because so many had assumed he would be knocked out'.", "Adopting an unconventional campaigning style, Stewart did not focus his attention on Westminster but, instead, went on a series of filmed walkabouts (dubbed 'RoryWalks'), which saw him take to the streets of Britain, talking to voters, to understand their priorities and concerns.", "These were then uploaded onto social media, with significant success.On 1 June, Kenneth Clarke was announced as one of Stewart's MP backers, with other supporters including David Lidington, David Gauke, Nicholas Soames, Tobias Ellwood, Gillian Keegan and Victoria Prentis.", "Against expectations, on 13 June 2019, Stewart made it through the first parliamentary ballot, gaining 19 votes, two more than the elimination threshold.", "On 16 June he appeared, as one of the six remaining candidates, in a televised debate on Channel 4.", "He was widely judged to have won the debate, with Michael Deacon writing in \"The Daily Telegraph\" that 'If you were to judge it by the response of the studio audience, Channel 4’s debate had only one winner.", "Rory Stewart got more rounds of applause than any other candidate – and, at the end, when each took turns to sum up, he was the only candidate to get a round of applause at all'.", "On 18 June 2019, he also made it through the second parliamentary ballot, with 37 votes from a threshold of 33, but, following a lacklustre performance in that evening's BBC debate, he polled just 27 votes in the next day's ballot and was eliminated as the last-placed candidate.", "It was revealed on the same day that Stewart was in talks with Michael Gove to stop Boris Johnson becoming Prime Minister.", "His first book, \"The Places in Between\", was an account of his 32-day solo walk across Afghanistan in early 2002.", "It was a \"New York Times\" best-seller, with the newspaper also naming it one of its 10 notable books of 2006 and hailing it as a \"flat-out masterpiece\".", "It won the Royal Society of Literature Ondaatje Prize, a Scottish Arts Council prize, the Spirit of Scotland award, and the .", "It was short-listed for a Scottish Arts Council prize, the Guardian First Book Award and the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize.", "The book was adapted into a radio play by Benjamin Yeoh and was broadcast in 2007 on BBC Radio 4.", "Stewart's second book, \"The Prince of the Marshes: and other Occupational Hazards of a Year in Iraq\", also published as \"Occupational Hazards: My Time Governing in Iraq\", describes his experiences as a Deputy Governorate Co-ordinator in Iraq.", "The \"New York Times\" critic William Grimes commented that Stewart \"seems to be living one of the more extraordinary lives on record\", but for him the \"real value of the new book is Mr. Stewart's sobering picture of the difficulties involved in creating a coherent Iraqi state based on the rule of law\".", "Stewart's books have been translated into multiple languages.", "Stewart's reflections on the circumstances under which outside military and political intervention in countries' internal affairs may or may not hope to achieve positive results were distilled in a 2011 book, \"Can Intervention Work?\",", ", co-authored with Gerald Knaus and part of the Amnesty International Global Ethics Series.", "He has also written about theory and practice of travel writings in prefaces to Wilfred Thesiger's \"Arabian Sands\", Charles Doughty's \"Arabia Deserta\" and Robert Byron's \"The Road to Oxiana\".", "In 2016, he published \"The Marches: Border Walks With My Father\" a travelogue about a 1,000-mile walk in the borderlands separating England and Scotland, known as the Scottish Marches, and an extended essay on his father, Brian Stewart.", "\"The Marches\" was long listed for the Orwell Prize, won the Hunter Davies Lakeland Book of the Year, was a Waterstones Book of the Month, and became a Sunday Times top ten bestseller.", "Stewart is a columnist for the \"Cumberland and Westmorland Herald\", contributing a monthly column, and has been a columnist for \"The New York Times\", in addition to a contributor to the New York Review of Books, and the London Review of Books.", "In 2012 he married American Shoshana Clark, a former employee.", "They had their first child in November 2014 — a son whom Stewart delivered at home in the absence of medical assistance — and their second child was born in April 2017.", "Shoshana and her former husband were volunteering at the Turquoise Mountain Foundation in Afghanistan when she met Stewart.", "In 2012, \"The Daily Telegraph\" reported that in 2008, Brad Pitt bought the rights to make a film about Stewart, particularly his time in Afghanistan, with Orlando Bloom expected to play the leading role.", "During the 2019 Conservative leadership election, Stewart admitted he had smoked opium during a wedding in Iran.", "Several other candidates admitted to previous illegal drug use during the leadership contest.", "Stewart lives at Dufton in Cumbria.", "He is a member of the The Athenaeum Club and the Special Forces Club." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 697649, "simple_article_title": "Rory Stewart", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-697649-0-0", "simple-697649-0-1", "simple-697649-1-0", "simple-697649-2-0" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Roderick James Nugent \"Rory\" Stewart (born 3 January 1973) is a British Conservative Party politician.", "He was the Secretary of State for International Development from May 2019 to July 2019, and has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Penrith and The Border since 2010.", "From 2016 to 2018, Stewart was Minister of State at the Department for International Development and Minister of State for Africa, and on 9 January 2018 he was appointed Minister of State for Prisons.", "Stewart was a candidate in the 2019 Conservative leadership election." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 1808380, "normal_article_title": "Not Without My Daughter (film)", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-1808380-0-0", "normal-1808380-0-1", "normal-1808380-0-2", "normal-1808380-1-0", "normal-1808380-1-1", "normal-1808380-2-0", "normal-1808380-2-1", "normal-1808380-2-2", "normal-1808380-2-3", "normal-1808380-3-0", "normal-1808380-3-1", "normal-1808380-3-2", "normal-1808380-4-0", "normal-1808380-4-1", "normal-1808380-4-2", "normal-1808380-5-0", "normal-1808380-5-1", "normal-1808380-5-2", "normal-1808380-6-0", "normal-1808380-6-1", "normal-1808380-7-0", "normal-1808380-7-1", "normal-1808380-8-0", "normal-1808380-8-1", "normal-1808380-8-2", "normal-1808380-9-0", "normal-1808380-9-1", "normal-1808380-10-0", "normal-1808380-10-1", "normal-1808380-10-2", "normal-1808380-10-3", "normal-1808380-11-0", "normal-1808380-11-1", "normal-1808380-11-2", "normal-1808380-12-0", "normal-1808380-13-0", "normal-1808380-13-1", "normal-1808380-14-0", "normal-1808380-15-0", "normal-1808380-16-0", "normal-1808380-16-1", "normal-1808380-16-2", "normal-1808380-17-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Not Without My Daughter is a 1991 American drama film based on the book of the same name, depicting the escape of American citizen Betty Mahmoody and her daughter from her abusive husband in Iran.", "The film was shot in the United States, Turkey and Israel, and the main characters Betty Mahmoody and Sayyed Bozorg \"Moody\" Mahmoody are played by Sally Field and Alfred Molina, respectively.", "Sheila Rosenthal and Roshan Seth star as Mahtob Mahmoody and Houssein the smuggler, respectively.", "In 1984, an Iranian physician, Sayyed Bozorg \"Moody\" Mahmoody wants to visit Iran with his American family.", "He claims that his Iranian family wants to meet his wife Betty and daughter Mahtob, and asks them to come with him for a two-week visit.", "Despite her deep fears about visiting Iran, particularly due to the Iranian Hostage Crisis of several years earlier, Betty reluctantly agrees.", "Upon their arrival, they are all greeted warmly by Moody's family, but shortly before their flight back to the United States, Moody announces to his wife that he wishes for them to stay in Iran.", "Betty realizes that she has been deceived by her husband, even though Moody took an oath that they would return to the United States, swearing on the sacred Quran.", "When she protests, Moody strikes her, and nobody in Moody's family sympathises with her.", "Moody becomes more hostile and abusive, preventing her from leaving the house or using the telephone.", "Betty briefly manages to visit the American Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy, but is told that she is now an Iranian citizen since she is married to an Iranian, and as long as she lives in Iran, she cannot leave the country without her husband's written consent and has no parental rights over her daughter.", "Moody, alarmed by Betty's absence from the house, threatens to kill her if she tries anything again.", "Knowing that her chances of escape are minuscule, Betty conforms to her husband's wishes in order to gain Moody's trust.", "By chance, during a trip to the marketplace, she meets a sympathetic shopkeeper who overhears her telephone conversations with the Swiss Embassy and puts her in contact with a pair of humanitarian Iranians, Hossein and his sister, who offer to help Betty and Mahtob in their passage back to the United States.", "Betty accepts Hossein's assistance, especially after he mentions that Mahtob could be at risk of being forced into marriage at nine years old or be chosen to serve in the military as a child soldier.", "The plan becomes complicated when Betty receives news from the U.S that her father is seriously ill and may be dying.", "Moody allows Betty to return to see her dying father, but will not let Mahtob go with her.", "Betty decides to wait to return to the United States with Mahtob, but Moody unknowingly foils her by having her booked on a flight several days early thanks to his relatives' contacts in the airport.", "Betty eventually gets what seems to be her last chance to escape when Moody is suddenly called to the clinic for an emergency.", "On the pretense of going to buy presents for her father, Betty takes Mahtob and they contact Hossein, who manages to send Betty and Mahtob off with some Iranian smugglers, and using fake identity documents, they make their way past the checkpoints.", "Despite the difficult and very dangerous journey, Betty and Mahtob are eventually dropped off in a street in Ankara, where they see the flag of the American Embassy in the distance.", "The film's end title cards reveal that Betty and Mahtob eventually made it back home to the United States, and Betty became a successful author and dedicates herself to helping those in need.", "The movie was based on a book with the same title, written by Betty Mahmoody and William Hoffer and based on Betty's version of events.", "The screenplay was written by David W. Rintels.", "The film was directed by Brian Gilbert and filmed in Israel, at GG Studios, Neve Ilan, and in Atlanta.", "The movie debuted poorly and grossed less than $15 million in ticket sales.", "The movie plummeted in its second week.", "\"Not Without My Daughter\" was poorly received, and has been criticized for its misrepresentation of Muslim Iranians and of their culture.", "Caryn James of \"The New York Times\", in a review, states that the movie \"exploits the stereotype of the demonic is an utter artistic failure, and its reliance on cultural stereotype is a major cause\".", "Moody, she writes, seems to be a \"pure product of his culture, a mysterious, misogynist Easterner...the film views fanaticism as the Iranian national character\".", "A review in the \"Los Angeles Times\" described the movie as \"unbalanced and distorted\" which \"fails to distinguish between the (Iranian) state and the people\".", "Roger Ebert stated the film made \"moral and racial assertions that are deeply troubling\" and that it \"does not play fair with its Muslim characters.", "If a movie of such a vitriolic and spiteful nature were to be made in America about any other ethnic group, it would be denounced as racist and prejudiced.\"", "While Iranians are not shown in a completely negative light, as the film depicts generous and brave Iranians who contact Betty Mahmoody and arrange for the escape of her and her daughter, these \"good\" Iranians are high-born opponents of the Islamic Republic regime, shown listening to European classical music.", "As of December 2018, the film holds an approval rating of 50% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 16 reviews.", "The score by Jerry Goldsmith was also not well received.", "Jay Boyar of the \"Orlando Sentinel\" called it \"TV-movie manipulative\", while Jason Ankeny of AllMusic wrote, \"Jerry Goldsmith's score does little to refute its opponents' charges of racism.\"", "Sheila Rosenthal won the Young Artist Award for Best Actress.", "Sally Field was nominated for the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actress of 1991, where she lost to Sean Young for \"A Kiss Before Dying\".", "In response to \"Not Without My Daughter\", a Finnish documentary, titled \"Without My Daughter\" was made by director Alexis Kouros.", "It is composed of interviews with Dr. Mahmoody regarding his life in Iran and attempts to contact his daughter Mahtob.", "Kouros said that the intention of the 90-minute documentary was to \"show the lies in the American film and present the real story\".", "Alfred Molina confirmed in an interview with \"Time Out\" that he was punched by a man who apparently hated his brutal portrayal of Dr. Mahmoody in the film." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 413275, "simple_article_title": "Not Without My Daughter", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-413275-0-0", "simple-413275-0-1", "simple-413275-0-2", "simple-413275-1-0", "simple-413275-1-1", "simple-413275-2-0", "simple-413275-2-1", "simple-413275-2-2", "simple-413275-2-3", "simple-413275-2-4", "simple-413275-2-5", "simple-413275-3-0", "simple-413275-3-1", "simple-413275-3-2", "simple-413275-3-3", "simple-413275-3-4" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Not Without My Daughter is a 1991 American drama movie by director Brian Gilbert.", "It plays Sally Field and Alfred Molina.", "It is based on Betty Mahmoody's 1987 book by telling the story about the escape with her daughter from her husband from Iran.", "American Betty Lover marries Iranian doctor Sayeed Bozorg Mahmoody (nicknamed: Moody).", "They have a daughter called Mahtab (Persian: \"Moonlight\").", "Moody wants to see his family in Tehran, Iran, because he has not seen his family for ten years.", "Betty doesn't want to go to Iran, because she thinks that it is dangerous.", "Moody persuades Betty, that she goes to Iran for a two week holiday.", "But Moody has hidden the termination of his job in a hospital in the USA from Betty and Mahtab and tells his family, that they will stay in Iran for ever.", "Because a man has the say in Iran, they have to stay here and Betty cannot take her daughter Mahtab out of the country without her husband's permission.", "She searches for help to escape from the country with Mahtab, for example from the Swiss embassy.", "She has major problems to adapt to the strict laws and customs of the country, because as an American she is much-hated in Iran.", "Moody often abuses Betty, because she does not obey him.", "After 18 months, Betty succeeds to escape Iran with her daughter Mahtab.", "They flee over the Zagros mountains in the northwest of Iran to Turkey.", "They fly back to USA from there." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 150698, "normal_article_title": "NBC Symphony Orchestra", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-150698-0-0", "normal-150698-0-1", "normal-150698-0-2", "normal-150698-0-3", "normal-150698-0-4", "normal-150698-1-0", "normal-150698-1-1", "normal-150698-1-2", "normal-150698-1-3", "normal-150698-1-4", "normal-150698-1-5", "normal-150698-2-0", "normal-150698-2-1", "normal-150698-2-2", "normal-150698-2-3", "normal-150698-2-4", "normal-150698-3-0", "normal-150698-3-1", "normal-150698-3-2", "normal-150698-3-3", "normal-150698-3-4", "normal-150698-3-5", "normal-150698-4-0", "normal-150698-4-1", "normal-150698-4-2", "normal-150698-5-0", "normal-150698-5-1", "normal-150698-5-2", "normal-150698-5-3", "normal-150698-6-0", "normal-150698-6-1", "normal-150698-6-2", "normal-150698-6-3", "normal-150698-6-4", "normal-150698-6-5", "normal-150698-7-0", "normal-150698-7-1", "normal-150698-7-2", "normal-150698-7-3", "normal-150698-7-4", "normal-150698-7-5", "normal-150698-7-6", "normal-150698-7-7", "normal-150698-7-8", "normal-150698-7-9", "normal-150698-8-0", "normal-150698-8-1", "normal-150698-9-0", "normal-150698-9-1", "normal-150698-9-2", "normal-150698-9-3", "normal-150698-9-4", "normal-150698-9-5", "normal-150698-10-0", "normal-150698-10-1", "normal-150698-10-2", "normal-150698-10-3", "normal-150698-10-4", "normal-150698-11-0", "normal-150698-11-1", "normal-150698-11-2", "normal-150698-11-3", "normal-150698-11-4", "normal-150698-12-0", "normal-150698-12-1", "normal-150698-13-0", "normal-150698-13-1", "normal-150698-13-2", "normal-150698-13-3" ], "normal_sentence": [ "The NBC Symphony Orchestra was a radio orchestra established by David Sarnoff, the president of the Radio Corporation of America, especially for the celebrated conductor Arturo Toscanini.", "The NBC Symphony performed weekly radio concert broadcasts with Toscanini and other conductors and served as house orchestra for the NBC network.", "The orchestra's first broadcast was on November 13, 1937 and it continued until disbanded in 1954.", "A new ensemble, independent of the network, called the \"'Symphony of the Air'\" followed.", "It was made up of former members of the NBC Symphony Orchestra and performed from 1954 to 1963, notably under Leopold Stokowski.", "Tom Lewis, in the \"Organization of American Historians Magazine of History\", described NBC's plan for cultural programming and the origin of the NBC Symphony: Sarnoff devoted considerable effort and resources to create an orchestra of the first rank for Toscanini and NBC.", "Artur Rodziński, a noted orchestra builder and musical task master in his own right, was engaged to mold and train the new orchestra in anticipation of the arrival of Toscanini.", "It offered the highest salaries of any orchestra at the time and a 52-week contract.", "Prominent musicians from major orchestras around the country were recruited and the conductor Pierre Monteux was hired as well to work with the orchestra in its formative months.", "A new large broadcast studio was built for the orchestra at NBC's Radio City Studios in Rockefeller Center, New York, \"Studio 8-H\".", "In addition to creating prestige for the network, there has been speculation that one of the reasons NBC created the orchestra was to deflect a Congressional inquiry into broadcasting standards.", "The orchestra's first broadcast concert aired on November 13, 1937 under the direction of Monteux.", "Toscanini conducted ten concerts that first season, making his NBC debut on December 25, 1937.", "In addition to weekly broadcasts on the NBC Red and Blue networks, the NBC Symphony Orchestra made many recordings for RCA Victor.", "Televised concerts began in March 1948 and continued until March 1952.", "During the summer of 1950, NBC converted Studio 8-H into a television studio (the broadcast home of NBC's late-night comedy program \"Saturday Night Live\" since 1975) and moved the broadcast concerts to Carnegie Hall, where many of the orchestra's recording sessions and special concerts had already taken place.", "Leopold Stokowski served as principal conductor from 1941-1944 on a three-year contract following a dispute between Toscanini and NBC.", "During this time Toscanini continued to lead the orchestra in a series of public benefit concerts for war relief.", "He returned as Stokowski's co-conductor for the 1942-43 and 1943-44 seasons, resuming full control thereafter.", "Upon Toscanini's retirement in the spring of 1954, NBC officially disbanded the orchestra, much to Toscanini's distress, though it continued for several years independent of NBC, as the Symphony of the Air.", "Toscanini's final broadcast concert with the orchestra took place at Carnegie Hall on April 4, 1954, and he conducted the orchestra for the last time during RCA Victor recording sessions held June 3 and 5, 1954.", "Some notable musicians who were members of the orchestra include violinists Samuel Antek, Henry Clifton, Felix Galimir, Josef Gingold, Daniel Guilet (concertmaster 1952-54), Harry Lookofsky, Mischa Mischakoff (concertmaster 1937-1952), Albert Pratz, David Sarser, Oscar Shumsky, Benjamin Steinberg, Herman Spielberg, Boris Koutzen and Andor Toth; violists Carlton Cooley, Milton Katims, William Primrose, and Tibor Serly; cellists Frank Miller, Leonard Rose, Harvey Shapiro, Alan Shulman, George Koutzen and David Soyer; double bassists Homer Mensch and Oscar G. Zimmerman; flutists Carmine Coppola, Arthur Lora and Paul Renzi; clarinetists Augustin Duques, Al Gallodoro, David Weber and Alexander Williams; trombonist Norberto (Robert) Paolucci; saxophonist Frankie Trumbauer; oboists Robert Bloom and Paolo Renzi; bassoonists Elias Carmen, Benjamin Kohon, William Polisi, Leonard Sharrow and Arthur Weisberg; French horn players Arthur Berv, Harry Berv, Jack Berv and Albert Stagliano; Harry Glantz, Bernard Baker, and Raymond Crisara trumpets and tuba player William Bell, among others.", "Not all of the NBC Symphony performers were under full-time contracts to NBC.", "In the early 1950s, for example, only about 55 of these musicians were salaried; the rest were hired under per-service contracts (in line with Local 802 American Federation of Musicians wage scales) to bring the Orchestra's performing and recording strength up to the 85-100 seen in period photographs and video footage.", "Even for the salaried members, NBC Symphony duties constituted barely half of their work obligations for NBC; these musicians played in orchestras for other NBC radio and television programs, with many of the wind players also serving with the Cities Service \"Band of America\" conducted by Paul Lavalle.", "In the first several seasons the NBC Symphony broadcasts were \"sustaining\" programs, meaning that they were paid for and presented by NBC itself.", "In later years the broadcasts were commercially sponsored, primarily by General Motors.", "Under GM's sponsorship the NBC Symphony broadcasts went out under the title of General Motors Symphony of the Air, not to be confused with the later orchestra of the same name.", "Other sponsors included the House of Squibb, the Reynolds Metals Company, and the Socony Vacuum Oil Company (Mobil).", "RCA Victor began making studio recordings of the NBC Symphony for commercial release early in 1938; Mozart's \"Symphony No. 40\", Joseph Haydn's \"Symphony No. 88\" and the second and third movements from Beethoven's \"Op. 135 String Quartet\" were among the first works to be recorded.", "The orchestra recorded initially in Studio 8-H, but RCA Victor producer Charles O'Connell soon decided to hold most of the studio recording sessions in Carnegie Hall.", "However, many live broadcast performances originating in Studio 8H were also released on records, and subsequently on CD.", "The infamous dry acoustics of Studio 8-H, designed for broadcasting, were found to be less than ideal for recording.", "Acoustical modifications in 1939 were thought to have greatly improved the sound of Studio 8H; although most NBC Symphony recording sessions were shifted to Carnegie Hall in 1940, some sessions were held there as late as June 1950, when 8-H was converted into a television studio.", "From the autumn of 1950 until 1954, all NBC Symphony radio broadcasts and RCA Victor recording sessions took place in Carnegie Hall.", "RCA Victor released the orchestra's recordings on its flagship Red Seal label on the then-standard 78-rpm records.", "In 1950, a 1945 recording of Ferde Grofé's \"Grand Canyon Suite\" became the NBC Symphony's first LP release (LM-1004).", "A mainstay of RCA Victor's Red Seal catalog through the 1950s, most of the Toscanini/NBC Symphony recordings were reissued on the lower-priced RCA Victrola label to celebrate Toscanini's centenary in 1967.", "In the 1980s, RCA began digitally remastering recordings of the orchestra for release on Compact Disc.", "A complete reissue of all Toscanini's RCA Victor recordings was released on CD and cassette between 1990 and 1992 and again in 2012.", "Later advances in digital technology has led RCA (now owned by Sony Music) to claim further enhancement of the sound of the magnetic tapes for later reissues, changing original equalization balances and adding acoustical enhancement, but critics are divided in their judgment.", "RCA has only reissued recordings that were personally approved by Toscanini, including some broadcast performances such as the seven complete operas he conducted at NBC between 1944 and 1954; however, several other labels have released discs taken from off-the-air recordings of NBC broadcast concerts.", "Toscanini's final two broadcast programs, in the spring of 1954, were experimentally recorded in stereo, but he did not approve their release; many years passed before they were finally issued by labels other than RCA Victor.", "Recorded in rather primitive and \"minimalist\" two-channel sound, the stereo antiphonal effect is striking (if crude); but unfortunately the complete performance from March 21, 1954 of the Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 6 (\"Pathetique\") is not entirely stereo as the master 2-track tape of the entire 'Allegro molto vivace' third movement had apparently not survived; an artificial stereo synthesis is substituted.", "The missing portion of the stereo recording of the third movement was later found and included in the version now available on YouTube.", "The complete series of ten NBC Symphony telecasts has been issued on VHS and LaserDisc by RCA in 1990 and on DVD by Testament in 2006.", "While the videos are taken from primitive kinescope films, the sound tracks were carefully synchronized from the highest fidelity transcriptions and tapes that exist.", "One of the NBC Symphony Orchestra's most ambitious projects was the recording of the 13-hour musical score for NBC Television's 1952-53 series \"Victory at Sea.\"", "Robert Russell Bennett conducted the orchestra in his arrangements of Richard Rodgers' musical themes for the 26 documentary programs (recorded in Rockefeller Center's Center Theatre).", "The series is currently available on DVD.", "The first RCA Victor LP of excerpts was recorded by Bennett and the NBC SO musicians in July 1953.", "Bennett would later lead stereo recordings of \"Volume 2\" in 1957, a re-make of \"Volume 1\" in 1959, and a concluding \"Volume 3\" in 1961, conducting the \"RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra\" (members of the Symphony of the Air).", "RCA has reissued all of these recordings on CD.", "In 1954, shortly after the orchestra's final concerts with Toscanini, Stokowski made stereo recordings for RCA Victor of excerpts from Prokofiev's ballet \"Romeo and Juliet\" and Gian Carlo Menotti's ballet \"Sebastian\".", "The recordings were originally issued (monophonically) as \"Leopold Stokowski and his orchestra,\" but reissued as \"members of the NBC Symphony Orchestra.\"", "On April 6, 1954, just two days after Toscanini's final concert with the orchestra, Guido Cantelli made a recording in Carnegie Hall of César Franck's \"Symphony in D minor\".", "Though the performance was recorded in stereo, RCA Victor initially issued the recording in mono.", "The label finally issued the stereo version in 1978.", "After the NBC Symphony Orchestra disbanded, some members went on to play with other orchestras, notably Frank Miller (principal cello) and Leonard Sharrow (principal bassoon) with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.", "However, many former NBC Symphony members, in an attempt to stay together and preserve the orchestra, regrouped as a new ensemble called the \"Symphony of the Air\".", "They made their first recording on September 21, 1954, and gave their first public concert at the United Nations 9th Anniversary Celebration on October 24.", "On November 14 they appeared on the acclaimed \"Omnibus\" TV program in which Leonard Bernstein, making his first television appearance, discussed Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, and Bernstein led the Symphony of the Air during its first season.", "With an Asian tour under the auspices of the State Department and an attendance of 60,000 at concerts in the Catskills that summer, the first season was a huge success.", "In 1960, the CBS Television network also featured the \"Symphony of the Air\" in its televised prime-time special \"Spring Festival of Music\" under the direction of the conductor Alfredo Antonini.", "In collaboration with the concert pianist John Browning, producer Robert Herridge and director Roger Englander, the orchestra presented a virtuoso live presentation of Sergei Rachmaninoff's Second Piano Concerto.", "For nearly a decade, the Symphony of the Air performed many concerts led by Stokowski, the orchestra's music director from 1955.", "The orchestra recorded widely (on RCA Victor, Columbia, Vanguard and United Artists) under leading conductors, including Stokowski, Bernstein, Monteux, Fritz Reiner, Bruno Walter, Kirill Kondrashin, Sir Thomas Beecham, Alfred Wallenstein and Josef Krips.", "Only once more did they use their old name, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, in the 1963 telecast of Gian Carlo Menotti's written-for television opera, \"Amahl and the Night Visitors\", with an all-new cast.", "The orchestra disbanded in 1963." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 256064, "simple_article_title": "NBC Symphony Orchestra", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-256064-0-0", "simple-256064-0-1", "simple-256064-0-2", "simple-256064-0-3", "simple-256064-0-4", "simple-256064-0-5" ], "simple_sentence": [ "The NBC Symphony Orchestra was a radio orchestra.", "It was made by David Sarnoff of the National Broadcasting Company mostly for conductor Arturo Toscanini.", "The NBC Symphony performed weekly radio concert broadcasts with Toscanini and other conductors.", "It was the house orchestra for the network.", "It began November 13, 1937.", "It ended in 1954." ] } }
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"normal-838950-44-0", "normal-838950-44-1", "normal-838950-44-2", "normal-838950-44-3", "normal-838950-44-4", "normal-838950-44-5", "normal-838950-44-6", "normal-838950-44-7", "normal-838950-44-8", "normal-838950-44-9", "normal-838950-45-0", "normal-838950-45-1", "normal-838950-45-2", "normal-838950-45-3", "normal-838950-46-0", "normal-838950-46-1", "normal-838950-46-2", "normal-838950-46-3" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Priyanka Chopra Jonas (] ; born 18 July 1982) is an Indian actress, singer, film producer, and the winner of the Miss World 2000 pageant.", "One of India's highest-paid and most popular celebrities, Chopra has received numerous awards, including one National Film Awards and five Filmfare Awards.", "In 2016, the Government of India honoured her with the Padma Shri, and \"Time\" named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world.", "In 2017 and 2018, \"Forbes\" listed her among the World's 100 Most Powerful Women.", "Although Chopra initially aspired to study aeronautical engineering, she accepted offers to join the Indian film industry, which came as a result of her pageant wins, making her Bollywood debut in \"\" (2003).", "She played the leading lady in the box-office hits \"Andaaz\" (2003) and \"Mujhse Shaadi Karogi\" (2004) and received critical acclaim for her breakout role in the 2004 thriller \"Aitraaz\".", "In 2006, Chopra established herself as a leading actress of Indian cinema with starring roles in the top-grossing productions \"Krrish\" and \"Don\", and she later reprised her role in their sequels.", "Following a brief setback, her career was revived in 2008 for playing a troubled model in the drama \"Fashion\", which won her the National Film Award for Best Actress, and a glamorous journalist in \"Dostana\".", "Chopra gained wider recognition for portraying a range of characters in the films \"Kaminey\" (2009), \"7 Khoon Maaf\" (2011), \"Barfi!\"", "(2012), \"Mary Kom\" (2014), and \"Bajirao Mastani\" (2015).", "From 2015 to 2018, she starred as Alex Parrish in the ABC thriller series \"Quantico\", becoming the first South Asian to headline an American network drama series.", "Chopra has since played supporting roles in the Hollywood comedies \"Baywatch\" (2017) and \"Isn't It Romantic\" (2019).", "As a philanthropist, Chopra has worked with UNICEF since 2006 and was appointed as the national and global UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador for Child Rights in 2010 and 2016, respectively.", "She promotes social causes such as environment, health and education, and women's rights, and is vocal about gender equality and feminism.", "As a recording artist, she has released three singles.", "She is also the founder of the production company Purple Pebble Pictures, which released the acclaimed Marathi film \"Ventilator\" (2016).", "Despite maintaining privacy, Chopra's off-screen life is the subject of substantial media coverage.", "She is married to the American singer and actor Nick Jonas.", "Priyanka Chopra was born on 18 July 1982 in Jamshedpur, Bihar (present-day Jharkhand), to Ashok and Madhu Chopra, both physicians in the Indian Army.", "Her father was a Punjabi Hindu from Ambala.", "Her mother, from Jharkhand, is the eldest daughter of Madhu Jyotsna Akhouri, a former member of Bihar Legislative Assembly, and Dr. Manohar Kishan Akhouri, a former Congress veteran.", "Her late maternal grandmother was a practicing Jacobite Syrian Christian originally named Mary John, belonging to the Kavalappara family of Kumarakom, Kottayam district, Kerala before her marriage.", "Chopra has a brother, Siddharth, who is seven years her junior and actresses Parineeti Chopra, Meera Chopra and Mannara Chopra are her cousins.", "Due to her parents' occupations the family relocated to a number of places in India, including Delhi, Chandigarh, Ambala, Ladakh, Lucknow, Bareilly, and Pune.", "Among the schools she attended were La Martiniere Girls' School in Lucknow and St. Maria Goretti College in Bareilly.", "In an interview published in \"Daily News and Analysis\", Chopra said that she did not mind travelling regularly and changing schools; she welcomed it as a new experience and a way to discover India's multicultural society.", "Among the many places that she lived, Chopra has fond memories as a child of playing in the valleys of Leh, in the cold northwestern Indian desert region of Jammu and Kashmir.", "She has said, \"I think I was in Class 4 when I was in Leh.", "My brother was just born.", "My dad was in the army and was posted there.", "I stayed in Leh for a year and my memories of that place are tremendous ... We were all army kids there.", "We weren't living in houses, we were in bunkers in the valley and there was a stupa right on top of a hill which used to overlook our valley.", "We used to race up to the top of the stupa\".", "She now considers Bareilly her home town, and maintains strong connections there.", "At the age of thirteen, Chopra moved to the United States to study, living with her aunt, and attending schools in Newton, Massachusetts, and Cedar Rapids, Iowa, after a stop in Queens, New York, as her aunt's family also moved frequently.", "While in Massachusetts, she participated in several theatre productions and studied Western classical music, choral singing and Kathak dance.", "During her teenage years in the United States, Chopra sometimes faced racial issues and was bullied for being Indian by an African-American classmate.", "She has said, \"I was a gawky kid, had low self-esteem, came from a modest middle-class background, had white marks on my legs ... But I was damn hard working.", "Today, my legs sell 12 brands.\"", "After three years, Chopra returned to India, finishing the senior year of her high-school education at the Army Public School in Bareilly.", "During this period, she won the local \"May Queen\" beauty pageant, after which she was pursued by admirers, leading her family to equip their home with bars for her protection.", "Her mother then entered her in the Femina Miss India contest of 2000; she finished second, winning the Femina Miss India World title.", "Chopra then went on to the Miss World pageant, where she was crowned Miss World 2000 and Miss World Continental Queen of BeautyAsia & Oceania at the Millennium Dome in London on 30 November 2000.", "Chopra was the fifth Indian contestant to win Miss World, and the fourth to do so in seven years.", "She had enrolled in college, but left after winning the Miss World pageant.", "Chopra said that the Miss India and Miss World titles brought her recognition, and she then began receiving offers for film roles.", "After winning Miss India World, Chopra was cast as the female lead in Abbas-Mustan's romantic thriller \"Humraaz\" (2002), in which she was to make her film debut.", "However, this fell through for various reasons: she stated the production conflicted with her schedule, while the producers said they re-cast because Chopra took on various other commitments.", "Her screen debut occurred in the 2002 Tamil film \"Thamizhan\" as the love interest of the protagonist, played by Vijay.", "A review published in \"The Hindu\" was appreciative of the film for its wit and dialogue, however it felt that Chopra's role was limited from an acting viewpoint.", "In 2003, Chopra made her Bollywood film debut as the second female lead opposite Sunny Deol and Preity Zinta in Anil Sharma's \"\".", "Set against the backdrop of the Indian Army in Kashmir, the film tells the story of an agent and his fight against terrorism.", "\"The Hero\" was one of the highest-grossing Bollywood films that year, but received mixed reviews from critics.", "Derek Elley from \"Variety\" said that \"mega-looker Chopra makes a solid screen debut.\"", "Later that year she appeared in Raj Kanwar's box-office success \"Andaaz\" with Akshay Kumar, again sharing the female lead (this time with the debuting Lara Dutta).", "Chopra played a vivacious young girl who falls in love with Kumar's character.", "The \"Hindustan Times\" noted the glamour that she brought to the role; Kunal Shah of Sify praised her performance and stated she had \"all the qualities to be a star.\"", "Her performance earned her the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut (along with Dutta) and a nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress.", "Chopra's first three releases in 2004—\"Plan\", \"Kismat\", and \"Asambhav\"—performed poorly at the box office.", "Chopra was typically cast during this earlier period as a \"glamour quotient\", in roles that were considered \"forgettable\" by film critic Joginder Tuteja.", "Later that year she starred with Salman Khan and Akshay Kumar in David Dhawan's romantic comedy \"Mujhse Shaadi Karogi\", which became the third-highest-grossing film of the year in India and emerged as a commercial success.", "In late 2004, she starred opposite Kumar and Kareena Kapoor in Abbas-Mustan's thriller \"Aitraaz\".", "Chopra considers her first role as an antagonist, portraying Soniya Roy, an ambitious woman who accuses her employee of sexual harassment, as the \"biggest learning experience of her career.\"", "The film was a critical and commercial success, and Chopra's performance received critical acclaim.", "Author Rini Bhattacharya credited her with bringing back the seductress to the silver screen.", "The \"Hindustan Times\" cited it as the film that changed her career significantly.", "A reviewer writing for the BBC said, \"\"Aitraaz\" is Priyanka Chopra's film.", "As the deliciously wicked, gold digging, scheming seductress, she chews up every scene she is in with her magnetic screen presence.\"", "She won a Filmfare Award for Best Performance in a Negative Role, becoming the second and final actress to win the award after Kajol (the category was discontinued in 2008).", "Chopra also received a nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress, and the Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role.", "In 2005, Chopra appeared in six films.", "Her first two releases, the action thrillers \"Blackmail\" and \"Karam\", were commercially unsuccessful.", "Shilpa Bharatan-Iyer of considered \"Blackmail\" to be a very predictable film and believed that her role as a police commissioner's wife was very limited from an acting point of view.", "Her performance in \"Karam\" was better received, Subhash K. Jha wrote that Chopra \"with her poised interpretation of high drama, flies high creating a character whose vulnerability and beauty are endorsed by both the inner and outer worlds created for her character.\"", "Later that year Chopra played the wife of Akshay Kumar in Vipul Amrutlal Shah's family drama \"\", the story of a small businessman (played by Amitabh Bachchan) who, hiding his illness, wants to teach his irresponsible son some lessons before he dies.", "During production, Chopra revisited Leh, a favourite childhood haunt, for the shooting of the song \"Subah Hogi\".", "She suffered an accident during the filming for the song \"Do Me A Favour Let's Play Holi\" when she electrocuted herself, spending a day recovering in hospital.", "The film was well received by critics, and was a commercial success.", "She next starred opposite Arjun Rampal in the romantic mystery thriller \"Yakeen\", portraying the role of a possessive lover.", "Critical reaction towards the film was mixed, but her performance received praise.", "Taran Adarsh wrote that Chopra \"is bound to win laurels yet again ... the actor is emerging as one of the finest talents in these fast-changing times\".", "Her next release was Suneel Darshan's romance \"Barsaat\", co-starring Bobby Deol and Bipasha Basu.", "The film was a critical and commercial failure in India but fared better in the overseas market.", "Chopra's performance received mixed reviews, with Bollywood Hungama describing it as \"mechanical\".", "However, considered Chopra to be an \"epitome of calm intelligence, who underplayed her role to perfection\".", "Later that year, Rohan Sippy cast her with Abhishek Bachchan, Ritesh Deshmukh and Nana Patekar in the comedy \"Bluffmaster!\"", "Chopra played independent working woman Simran Saxena, Bachchan's love interest.", "The film proved to be a box-office success.", "After starting 2006 with special appearances in three films, Chopra starred in Rakesh Roshan's superhero film \"Krrish\" (a sequel to the 2003 science-fiction film \"Koi... Mil Gaya\").", "Co-starring with Hrithik Roshan, Rekha and Naseeruddin Shah, Chopra played a young television journalist who schemes to take advantage of an innocent young man with remarkable physical abilities, but eventually falls in love with him.", "The film was the second-highest-grossing film of the year in India and grossed over worldwide attaining a blockbuster status.", "Her next film was Dharmesh Darshan's romantic comedy \"Aap Ki Khatir\", co-starring Akshaye Khanna, Ameesha Patel and Dino Morea.", "Neither the film nor Chopra's performance were well received.", "Sukanya Verma of stated that Chopra's portrayal of Anu was \"erratically sketched\" and that her character was never consistent: \"first flaky, then cool, and later, sensitive\".", "Chopra's final release of 2006 was Farhan Akhtar's action-thriller \"Don\" (a remake of the 1978 film of the same name), with Shah Rukh Khan.", "Chopra portrayed Roma (played by Zeenat Aman in the original film), who joins the underworld to avenge Don for killing her brother.", "Chopra received martial-arts training for her role in the movie, and performed her own stunts.", "The film was declared a box-office success in India and overseas, with revenues of .", "Raja Sen of found Chopra to be film's \"big surprise\"; he believed that Chopra convincingly portrayed Roma, \"looking every bit the competent woman of action\" and wrote \"This is an actress willing to push herself, and has definite potential for screen magic.", "Not to mention a great smile.\"", "In 2007, Chopra had two leading roles.", "Her first film was Nikhil Advani's \"\", a romantic comedy in six chapters with an ensemble cast.", "She was featured opposite Salman Khan in the first chapter as Kamini, an item girl and aspiring actress who tries to land the lead role in a Karan Johar film with a publicity gimmick.", "Film critic Sukanya Verma praised her flair for comedy, especially her impressions of Meena Kumari, Nargis and Madhubala.", "Both \"Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love\" and her next film, \"Big Brother\", proved unsuccessful at the domestic box office.", "In 2008, Chopra starred opposite Harman Baweja in his father's \"Love Story 2050\".", "Chopra played a double role, so she coloured her hair twice; once red to portray the girl from the future and then black for the girl of the past.", "Her performance was poorly received; Rajeev Masand was unimpressed with Chopra's chemistry with her co-star, remarking that her character \"fails to inspire either affection or sympathy\".", "She next appeared in the comedy \"God Tussi Great Ho\", portraying a TV anchor opposite Salman Khan, Sohail Khan and Amitabh Bachchan.", "Chopra next starred as a kindergarten teacher in \"Chamku\" opposite Bobby Deol and Irrfan Khan, and played the role of Sonia in Goldie Behl's fantasy superhero film \"Drona\" opposite Abhishek Bachchan and Jaya Bachchan.", "\"Drona\", widely criticised for its extensive use of special effects, marked Chopra's sixth film in succession which had failed at both the box-office and critically, although Sukanya Verma of stated that Chopra displayed convincing action heroine skills.", "Critics generally perceived at this time that her career was over.", "The string of poorly received films ended when Chopra starred in Madhur Bhandarkar's \"Fashion\", a drama about the Indian fashion industry which followed the lives and careers of several fashion models.", "She portrayed the ambitious supermodel Meghna Mathur, a role which she initially thought was out of her depth, but after six months' consideration she accepted the role, inspired by Bhandarkar's confidence in her.", "For the role, Chopra had to gain 6 kg and steadily shed the weight during the production as the character progressed in the film.", "Both the film and her performance received critical acclaim, becoming a major turning point in her career.", "Rajeev Masand wrote, \"Priyanka Chopra turns in a respectable performance, one that will inevitably go down as her best.\"", "For her performance, she won several awards, including the National Film Award for Best Actress, the Filmfare Award for Best Actress, the IIFA Award for Best Actress, the Screen Award for Best Actress, the Stardust Award for Actor of the Year - Female (with Dostana) and the Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role.", "With a worldwide revenue of million , \"Fashion\" emerged as a commercial success, and was listed by Subhash K. Jha as one of the best films of the decade with women protagonists.", "It was noted for being commercially successful despite being a women-centric film with no male lead.", "She said in retrospect, \"I think actually \"Fashion\" kick started ... the process of female dominated films.", "Today you have so many other films which have done well with female leads.\"", "Chopra's final film of the year was Tarun Mansukhani's romantic comedy \"Dostana\", with Abhishek Bachchan and John Abraham.", "Set in Miami, the film tells the story of a friendship between her character and two men who pretend to be gay to share an apartment with her.", "Chopra played a stylish young fashion-magazine editor Neha, who is trying to deal with professional pressures in her life.", "Produced by Dharma Productions, the film was a financial success with worldwide revenues of over million .", "Chopra's performance and look in the film were praised.", "In 2009, Chopra played a feisty Marathi woman named Sweety in Vishal Bhardwaj's caper thriller \"Kaminey\" (co-starring Shahid Kapoor), about twin brothers and the journey in their life linked with the underworld.", "The film received critical acclaim and became successful at the box-office with the worldwide gross earnings of million .", "Nikhat Kazmi of \"The Times of India\" thought that Chopra's role completely reinvented her, and Rajeev Masand wrote: \"Springing a delightful surprise in a smaller part is Chopra, who sprinkles her lines with a smattering of fluent Marathi and emerges one of the film's most lovable characters.\"", "Raja Sen of named Chopra's performance as the best by an actress that year.", "Her role earned her several awards and nominations, including a second consecutive Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role after \"Fashion\" and Best Actress nominations at the Filmfare, Screen and IIFA awards.", "Chopra subsequently appeared in Ashutosh Gowariker's romantic comedy \"What's Your Raashee?\",", ", based on the novel \"Kimball Ravenswood\" by Madhu Rye.", "The film depicts the story of a US-based Gujrati NRI in search of his soulmate among 12 girls (all played by Chopra) associated with the 12 zodiac signs.", "She received the Screen Best Actress Award nomination for her performance in the film.", "She was also considered for inclusion in the \"Guinness World Records\" book for being the first film actress to portray 12 distinct characters in one film.", "Chopra's heavy workloadfilming for several productions, travelling for endorsements and performing at live shows (including the Miss India pageant)took its toll; she fainted during filming, and was admitted to hospital.", "In 2010, Chopra starred with Uday Chopra in Jugal Hansraj's unremarkable romantic comedy \"Pyaar Impossible!\"", "as Alisha, a beautiful college girl (and later a working mother) who falls in love with a nerdy boy.", "Later that year, she co-starred with Ranbir Kapoor in Siddharth Anand's romantic comedy \"Anjaana Anjaani\".", "The film, set in New York and Las Vegas, follows the story of two strangers, both trying to commit suicide, who eventually fall in love with each other.", "The film was a moderate commercial success, and received mixed reviews from critics.", "She starred as a femme fatale in her first film of 2011, Vishal Bhardwaj's black comedy \"7 Khoon Maaf\".", "Based on the short story \"Susanna's Seven Husbands\" by Ruskin Bond, \" 7 Khoon Maaf\" centers on Susanna Anna-Marie Johannes, an Anglo-Indian woman (played by Chopra) who murders her seven husbands in an unending quest for love.", "The film and her performance received acclaim from critics.", "Nikhat Kazmi remarked, \"\"7 Khoon Maaf\" would undoubtedly end up as a milestone in Priyanka Chopra's career graph.", "The actor displays exquisite command over a complex character that is definitely a first in Indian cinema.\"", "Aniruddha Guha of \"Daily News and Analysis\" wrote: \"Priyanka Chopra takes on a character that most of her contemporaries would shy away from and enacts it in a way that only she possibly can.", "For a woman with as many shades as Susanna, Chopra gets a crack at the role of a lifetime and she sparkles like never before.\"", "Chopra's performance earned her the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress and a nomination for the Filmfare Award, IIFA Award, Producers Guild Film Award, and Screen Award for Best Actress.", "Chopra's final release of the year saw her reprising her role as Roma in the second installment of the \"Don\" franchise, \"Don 2\".", "Although the film received mixed reviews, Chopra's performance earned positive feedback from critics.", "According to \"The Express Tribune\", \"Chopra ... seems to be the perfect choice for an action heroine.", "As you watch her effortlessly beat up some thugs in the movie, you come to the realisation that she may be the first proper female action hero in Bollywood.\"", "\"Don 2\" was a major success in India and overseas, earning over worldwide.", "Chopra's first film of 2012 was Karan Malhotra's action drama \"Agneepath\", in which she starred with Hrithik Roshan, Sanjay Dutt and Rishi Kapoor.", "Produced by Karan Johar, the film is a remake of his father's 1990 production of the same name.", "In one of several accidents to happen during production, Chopra's \"lehenga\" (a traditional skirt) caught fire while filming a sequence for an elaborate Ganpati festival song.", "She featured as Kaali Gawde, Roshan's loquacious love interest in the film.", "Mayank Shekhar noted how much Chopra stood out in the male-dominated film.", "\"Agneepath\" broke Bollywood's highest opening-day earnings record, and had a worldwide gross of .", "Chopra next co-starred with Shahid Kapoor in Kunal Kohli's romance, \"Teri Meri Kahaani\".", "The film relates the stories of three unconnected couples (each played by Kapoor and Chopra), born in different eras..", ", with Ranbir Kapoor and Ileana D'Cruz, was her final appearance of 2012.", "Set in the 1970s, the film tells the story of three people, two of whom are physically disabled.", "Chopra played Jhilmil Chatterjee, an autistic woman who falls in love with a deaf, mute man (Kapoor).", "Rituparno Ghosh, an acclaimed director, considered it a \"very, very brave\" role to accept given how demanding it is for an actor to convincingly portray a woman with autism.", "To prepare for the role, Chopra visited several mental institutions and spent time with autistic people.", "The film received critical acclaim and was a major commercial success, earning worldwide.", "Rachit Gupta of \"Filmfare\" found Chopra to be the film's \"surprise package\" and found her performance to be \"the best representation of autism on Indian celluloid\".", "Pratim D. Gupta of \"The Telegraph\" noted that Kapoor and Chopra turn in two of the finest performances seen on the Indian screen, although he found her to be a \"tad showy\" in her part.", "Chopra received Best Actress nominations at the Filmfare, Screen, IIFA and Producers Guild Film Awards.", "The film was chosen as India's entry for the 85th Academy Awards.", "\"Don 2\", \"Agneepath\" and \"Barfi!\"", "ranked among the highest grossing Bollywood films of all time up until then.", "In 2013, she lent her voice to the character of Ishani, the reigning Pan-Asian champion from India and the love interest of the main protagonist in the Disney Animation Studios's film \"Planes\", a spinoff of Pixar's \"Cars\" franchise.", "Chopra, a fan of Disney films, had fun voicing the character saying \"The closest I could come to being a Disney princess, I think, was Ishani\".", "The film was a commercial success, grossing approximately US$240 million worldwide.", "She played an NRI girl in the Apoorva Lakhia's bilingual action drama \"Zanjeer\" (\"Thoofan\" in Telugu), a remake of the 1973 Hindi film of the same name, which met with poor reactions from critics and was unsuccessful at the box office.", "Chopra next reprised her role of Priya in Rakesh Roshan's \"Krrish 3\"a sequel to the 2006 superhero film \"Krrish\"with Hrithik Roshan, Vivek Oberoi and Kangana Ranaut.", "Critics opined that Chopra's role in the film was small, with Saibal Chatterjee of NDTV writing that she \"is saddled with a sketchily written role and is reduced to the status of a hanger-on waiting for things to unfold\".", "The feature became a box office success, earning over worldwide, to become Chopra's biggest commercial success to that point and her fourth major hit in the last two years.", "She also appeared in an item number titled \"Ram Chahe Leela\" for Sanjay Leela Bhansali's \"Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela\".", "The song, which took four days to rehearse, saw Chopra execute a contemporary mujra, that incorporated complicated dance steps.", "In 2014, Chopra played the lead female role in Yash Raj Films's romantic action drama \"Gunday\" directed by Ali Abbas Zafar, alongside Ranveer Singh, Arjun Kapoor and Irrfan Khan.", "She portrayed Nandita, a cabaret dancer in Calcutta.", "Set in the 1970s, the film tells the story of two best friends who fall in love with Nandita.", "\"Gunday\" proved to be a box-office success, grossing over worldwide.", "Chopra next starred as the title character in \"Mary Kom\", a biographical film of the five time world boxing champion and Olympic bronze medalist Mary Kom.", "To prepare for the role, she spent time with Kom and received four months of boxing training.", "The film premiered at the 2014 Toronto International Film Festival, received positive reviews from critics, and her performance received critical acclaim.", "Deborah Young of \"The Hollywood Reporter\" criticised the film's screenplay but praised Chopra's \"grit as an actress that she overcomes trashy set-ups like these and, punch after punch, fills the screen with real emotion\".", "Namrata Joshi from \"Outlook\" opined that Chopra's sincere and earnest performance brings out Kom's \"determination as well as her vulnerabilities, and insecurities\", \"Mary Kom\" emerged as a commercial success, with revenues of at the box office.", "Chopra won the Screen Award for Best Actress, the Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, and received another nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actress.", "In 2015, Chopra starred in Zoya Akhtar's \"Dil Dhadakne Do\", an ensemble comedy-drama alongside Anil Kapoor, Shefali Shah, Ranveer Singh, Anushka Sharma and Farhan Akhtar.", "The film tells the story of a dysfunctional Punjabi family (the Mehras), who invite their family and friends on a cruise trip to celebrate the parents' 30th wedding anniversary.", "She portrayed the role of Ayesha Mehra, a successful entrepreneur and the eldest child.", "Pratim D. Gupta from \"The Telegraph\" wrote of Chopra, \"From the propah body language to the measured speech ... shows the kind of depth she is able to bring to her lines and characters these days.", "Conversely, Shubhra Gupta of \"The Indian Express\" commented that it was time for her \"to being a little messy: all these not-a-hair-out-place roles are making her constrained.\"", "The cast of \"Dil Dhadakne Do\" won the Screen Award for Best Ensemble Cast, and Chopra was nominated for a Screen Award, IIFA Award, and Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress.", "Chopra signed a talent holding deal with ABC Studios and was later cast in the American thriller series \"Quantico\" as the character Alex Parrish.", "The series premiered on 27 September 2015 on ABC, making Chopra the first South Asian to headline an American network drama series.", "The series received positive reviews from television critics and Chopra was praised for her performance.", "James Poniewozik of \"The New York Times\" described Chopra as the \"strongest human asset\" of the show, and added that \"she is immediately charismatic and commanding.\"", "She received the People's Choice Award for Favourite Actress In A New TV Series for her role in \"Quantico\", becoming the first South Asian actress to win a People's Choice Award.", "The following year, Chopra won a second People's Choice Award for Favorite Dramatic TV Actress.", "\"Quantico\" was cancelled after three seasons in 2018.", "Chopra next portrayed Kashibai, the first wife of the Maratha general Peshwa Bajirao I, in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's epic historical romance drama \"Bajirao Mastani\".", "The feature opened to positive reviews, and Chopra received praise for her portrayal which several reviewers regarded as her best performance to date.", "Rajeev Masand wrote \"the film benefits from a nice touch of playfulness and humor in Priyanka Chopra's Kashibai.", "Chopra brings grace to the character, and practically steals the film.\"", "Film critic Raja Sen thought that Chopra, despite not being in the title role, owned the film, and wrote \"Chopra's terrific in the part, her intelligently expressive eyes speaking volumes and her no-nonsense Marathi rhythm bang-on.\"", "A major commercial success, \"Bajirao Mastani\" grossed at the box office, becoming one of the highest-grossing Indian films of all time.", "For her performance, she won the Filmfare Award, IIFA Award, and Screen Award for Best Supporting Actress, and received a nomination for the Producers Guild Film Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role.", "In 2016, Chopra starred as a police officer in Prakash Jha's social drama \"Jai Gangaajal\".", "Writing for \"The Hindu\", Namrata Joshi thought that she \"looks off-colour, disinterested and uninvolved with the goings on through most of the film\".", "It did not perform well commercially.", "She next produced the Marathi comedy-drama \"Ventilator\" under her production company Purple Pebble Pictures, which went on to win three awards at the 64th National Film Awards.", "The following year, Chopra made her Hollywood live-action film debut by playing the antagonist Victoria Leeds in Seth Gordon's action comedy \"Baywatch\" opposite Dwayne Johnson and Zac Efron.", "The feature received unfavorable reviews.", "Scott Mendelson of \"Forbes\" wrote \"Chopra has fun as the baddie, but she stays in the background until the end of the movie and really only gets one big scene at the end of the picture.\"", "\"Baywatch\" was not a commercial success in North America but the film performed better in the overseas markets.", "The 2018 Sundance Film Festival marked the release of Chopra's next American film, \"A Kid Like Jake\", a drama about gender variance, starring Jim Parsons and Claire Danes.", "Amy Nicholson of \"Variety\" commended her \"charming presence\" but thought that her role added little value to the film.", "A year later, Chopra had another supporting part, as a yoga ambassador, in Todd Strauss-Schulson's comedy \"Isn't It Romantic\", which starred Rebel Wilson in the lead role.", "Dana Schwartz of \"Entertainment Weekly\" considered her to be \"perfectly cast\" but Benjamin Lee of \"The Guardian\" thought that she was \"not quite interesting enough\".", "Chopra will next reunite with Farhan Akhtar to play the parents of Aisha Chaudhary, a teenage motivational speaker who died of pulmonary fibrosis, in Shonali Bose's biographical drama \"The Sky Is Pink\".", "Chopra has also committed to star alongside Mindy Kaling in a comedy about an Indian-American wedding, and will portray the lawyer Vanita Gupta in Gordan's courtroom drama \"Tulia\", an adaptation of a non-fiction book \"Tulia: Race, Cocaine, and Corruption\" (2005) based on the 1999 racial injustice case that took place in the city of the same name.", "She is also producing over a dozen regional films in various languages under her production company, and is developing a sitcom for ABC based on the life of Madhuri Dixit, for which she will serve as an executive producer.", "Chopra's main vocal influence was her father, who helped develop her interest in singing.", "She used her vocal talent early in her pageantry career.", "Her first recording, the song \"Ullathai Killathe\" in the Tamil film \"Thamizhan\" (2002), was made at the urging of her director and co-star, Vijay (who had noticed her singing on the set).", "She declined to sing playback for \"Tinka Tinka\" in her film \"Karam\" (2005), preferring to concentrate on her acting career, but later sang the song live on the television programme \"Sa Re Ga Ma Pa\".", "Chopra recorded an unreleased song for \"Bluffmaster!\"", "In August 2011, Universal Music Group signed Chopra to a worldwide recording agreement with DesiHits.", "The deal indicated that her first studio album would be released by Interscope Records in North America and by Island Records elsewhere.", "In July 2012, Chopra became the first Bollywood star signed by Creative Artists Agency, an entertainment and sports agency based in Los Angeles.", "Travelling to the United States to work on her album, Chopra collaborated with Sam Watters, Matthew Koma and Jay Sean.", "The album was produced by RedOne.", "Her first single, \"In My City\", debuted in the US on 13 September 2012 in a TV spot for the NFL Network's Thursday Night Football, 12 hours after the full song debuted in India; a shortened version of the song was used to open each show of the season.", "\"In My City\" features rapper; according to Chopra, a co-writer, the song was inspired by her unsettled childhood and her journey from a small-town girl to a celebrity.", "The song received mixed reviews from critics, and was a commercial success in India; it sold more than 130,000 copies in its first week, topped the Hindi pop chart and was certified triple platinum.", "In the United States the single was unsuccessful, with 5,000 digital downloads in its first week according to Nielsen SoundScan, and did not receive radio play.", "In October 2012, the single won her the Best International Debut award at the People's Choice Awards India.", "In December 2012, she received three nominations: Best Female Artist, Best Song and Best Video (for \"In My City\") at the World Music Awards.", "She also received the Trailblazer Award from the South Asian Media, Marketing and Entertainment Association for becoming the first Bollywood actor to win a major record deal in the U.S. Chopra was also featured on \"Erase\", an EDM song produced by the American DJ and producer duo The Chainsmokers.", "In July 2013, Chopra released her second single \"Exotic\" featuring American rapper Pitbull, along with its music video.", "\"Exotic\" debuted at number 16 on the \"Billboard\" Dance/Electronic Songs and number 11 on the Dance/Electronic Digital Songs chart in 27 July 2013 issue.", "The single also entered at number 74 on the Canadian Hot 100 chart.", "\"Exotic\" debuted at number 44 on the \"Billboard\" Hot Dance Club Songs chart and peaked at number 12.", "Her third single, a cover of Bonnie Raitt's \"I Can't Make You Love Me\" was released in April 2014.", "The song's accompanying video was released around the same time.", "The song peaked at number 28 on the \"Billboard\" Hot Dance/Electronic Songs chart.", "Chopra's first song as a playback singer in Bollywood was \"Chaoro\", a lullaby from \"Mary Kom\" (2014).", "In 2015, she sang the title song, a duet with Farhan Akhtar, for \"Dil Dhadakne Do\".", "She recorded a promotional song for \"Ventilator\" (2016), making her Marathi language playback singing debut with \"Baba\".", "In 2017, Chopra collaborated with the Australian DJ Will Sparks for \"Young and Free\", an EDM song which she also wrote.", "Chopra supports various causes through her foundation \"The Priyanka Chopra Foundation for Health and Education\", which works towards providing support to unprivileged children across the country in the areas of Education and Health.", "She donates ten percent of her earnings to fund the foundation's operations, and pays for educational and medical expenses for seventy children in India, fifty among whom are girls.", "She often speaks out on women's issues: against female infanticide and foeticide, and in support of education for girls.", "A believer in feminism, Chopra has always been vocal about women's rights, gender equality, and gender pay inequality.", "In 2006, a \"day with Chopra\" was auctioned on eBay; the proceeds were donated to an NGO, Nanhi Kali, which helps educate girls in India.", "She has made appearances in support of other charities, such as the 2005 HELP!", "Telethon Concert to raise funds for the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.", "She has worked with UNICEF since 2006, recording public-service announcements and participating in media panel discussions promoting children's rights and the education of girls, and also participated in celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.", "She was appointed as the national UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador for Child Rights on 10 August 2010.", "UNICEF Representative Karin Hulshof said of the appointment: \"She is equally passionate about her work on behalf of children and adolescents.", "We are proud of the work she has done with us so far on child rights, and, we are thrilled about all what we will be doing together so that no child gets left behind.\"", "In 2009, she shot a documentary for the organisation Alert India to increase understanding of leprosy.", "She modelled for designer Manish Malhotra and Shaina NC's charity fashion show to raise funds for the Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA) NGO.", "In 2010 Chopra was one of several celebrities who created promotional messages for Pearls Wave Trust, which campaigns against violence and abuse of women and girls.", "Chopra also launched the \"Save the Girl Child\" campaign, which aims to change the attitudes of Indians towards girls.", "In 2012 Chopra spoke at the launch of Awakening Youth, an anti-addiction programme.", "Chopra is a supporter of environmental charities and is brand ambassador for NDTV Greenathon, an initiative to support eco-friendliness and provide solar power to rural villages without electricity supplies.", "She appeared with children in an animated video to support the cause, and removed rubbish from the banks of the Yamuna river in Agra to increase awareness of environmental issues.", "During the third and fourth editions of Greenathon, She adopted up to seven villages to provide with a regular supply of electricity.", "She adopted a tigress in 2011 and a lioness in 2012 at the Birsa biological park, paying for both animals upkeep for a year.", "To promote organ donation, Chopra pledged to donate her own organs after death and was co-keynote speaker at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's Bollywood-themed 20th-anniversary celebration of its liver-transplant programme in 2012.", "She donated million to Nanavati hospital to build a cancer ward.", "The ward, which is named after her late father, was inaugurated by her in 2013.", "The same year, she provided voice-over in English and Hindi for the documentary film \"Girl Rising\" for the organisation of the same name.", "She was invited as one of the speakers alongside Gordon Brown, Steve Wozniak, Bill Clinton, and Charlie Baker for the 50th anniversary of the World Leaders Conference at the Hynes Convention Center, Boston.", "She spoke about women empowerment through education, discussing inequality and the challenges of education for women, and received a standing ovation for her speech.", "Chopra also lent her voice to a music video of John Lennon's \"Imagine\".", "The video featuring her along with other singers, including Katy Perry, and The Black Eyed Peas was created as part of a global campaign by UNICEF to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.", "Indian prime minister Narendra Modi selected Chopra as one of his nine nominees called \"Navratna\" in 2014 for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, a national cleanliness campaign by the Government of India.", "She lent her support to the campaign by cleaning and rehabilitating a garbage-laden neighbourhood in Mumbai, and urged people to maintain the cleanliness.", "In 2015, she voiced People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA's) life-size robotic elephant named \"Ellie\", who visited schools across the United States and Europe to educate kids about elephants and captivity, and to urge people to boycott circuses.", "Chopra was appointed as the global UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in December 2016.", "In 2017, she received the Mother Teresa Memorial Award for Social Justice for her contribution towards social causes.", "At a public event in 2019, an activist criticised Chopra for a tweet in which she hailed India's military forces while tensions amid Pakistan and India were escalating.", "The main line of argument was that she was warmongering and that was incompatible with her job as UN Peace Ambassador.", "Chopra's response at the event was that she is patriotic; she was also fast to silence the activist criticising her.", "Pakistan asked for Chopra being sacked from her UN job but UN supported Chopra's right to talk for herself.", "In 2007, Chopra was on the judges' panel of the Miss India pageant.", "She stated, \"Miss India will always remain special.", "That's where it all started for me.", "And maybe that's where it would've ended if I hadn't won the crown.\"", "She also served as a judge at Miss World 2009.", "She visited Jawan troops in Tenga, in eastern India, for a special episode of the NDTV show \"Jai Jawan\" celebrating the 60th anniversary of India's independence.", "In 2010, she hosted the third season of the reality show \"\" on the Colors channel, taking over from previous host Akshay Kumar.", "According to contestants, in hosting the series, Chopra had \"transformed into quite a whip-wielding dictator\", relentlessly pushing the contestants to work.", "She performed most of her own stunts, adamant to prove that she could rival Akshay Kumar, who had hosted the previous two seasons.", "The opening ratings of the show topped those of the two previous seasons.", "The show was praised by critics, and earned her the Indian Telly Award for Most Impactful Debut on Television.", "In February 2016, Chopra presented the award for Best Film Editing at the 88th Academy Awards.", "Chopra has participated in a number of world tours and concerts.", "She took part in a world concert tour, \"Temptations 2004\", and performed with other Bollywood actors (including Shah Rukh Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Rani Mukerji, Preity Zinta and Arjun Rampal) in 19 stage shows.", "In 2011, she participated (with Shahid Kapoor and Shah Rukh Khan) in a concert in Durban, South Africa celebrating 150 years of India–South Africa friendship.", "In 2012, she performed at M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai in the opening ceremony of the fifth season of cricket's Indian Premier League with Amitabh Bachchan, Salman Khan, Kareena Kapoor and Katy Perry.", "The same year, she performed at Dubai Festival City's Ahlan Bollywood Concert with other Bollywood stars such as Salman Khan and Sophie Choudry.", "Chopra began writing an opinion column, \"The Priyanka Chopra Column\", for the \"Hindustan Times\" in 2009.", "She wrote a total of fifty columns for the newspaper.", "She said after her first year of writing: \"I'm a private person and never thought that I could express my feelings.", "But strangely enough, whenever I sat down to write this column, my inner most thoughts came to the fore.\"", "In March 2009, she met several readers who had submitted feedback on her weekly column.", "She continued to write sporadically for newspapers.", "In August 2012 she wrote a column published in \"The Times of India\" titled \"No woman in Mumbai feels safe any longer\", discussing the murder of 25-year-old Pallavi Purkayastha, whom she met while working on \"Don\".", "In the article, Chopra expressed her views about the safety of women in cities.", "In a July 2014 article published in \"The Guardian\", Chopra criticised female genital mutilation and child marriage.", "Later that year, Chopra wrote an op-ed for \"The New York Times\" titled \"What Jane Austen Knew\" about the importance of education for girls.", "She praised and quoted Nobel Peace Prize winners Malala Yousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi, and described how her desire to help others was triggered when, at just nine years old, she joined her parents while they volunteered their spare time to offer modern health care to the rural poor.", "In late 2014, Chopra began writing a monthly column, \"Pret-a-Priyanka\", for \"Elle\".", "In an article published in January 2015, she expressed her views on diversity and being a global citizen.", "In June 2018, it was announced that Chopra will publish her memoir titled \"Unfinished\", which is scheduled to be released in 2019 by Penguin Books in India, Ballantine Books in the United States and Michael Joseph in the United Kingdom.", "Chopra has maintained a strong relationship with her family, including her younger brother, Siddharth, and lives in an apartment on the same floor as her family.", "She was especially close to her father, who died in June 2013; in 2012, she got a tattoo reading \"Daddy's lil girl\", in his handwriting.", "Having not come from a film background, she describes herself as a self-made woman.", "Her mother, a well-established gynaecologist in Bareilly, gave up her practice to support Chopra as she embarked upon a film career.", "A practicing Hindu, Chopra performs a puja every morning at a small shrine consisting of various murtis of Hindu deities in her home, which she even travels with.", "Although she is known for her media-friendly attitude, Chopra is publicly reticent about her personal life.", "She had signed on to play one of the leading ladies in \"Bharat\", but opted out days before filming her scenes.", "Nikhil Namit, a producer of the film, said that she quit due to her engagement to Nick Jonas and accused her of being \"a little unprofessional\".", "Chopra and Jonas became engaged in August 2018 in a Punjabi Roka ceremony in Mumbai.", "In December 2018, the couple married at Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur in traditional Hindu and Christian ceremonies.", "Analysing Chopra's career highlights, Bollywood Hungama noted: \"Despite a career that has seen a constant flip-flop ... the performer in her has seen a constant growth with every passing year.\"", "After playing strong characters in a series of films, she gained recognition for portraying a range of unconventional roles, leading CNN-IBN to describe her \"as one of the most powerful actresses in the current lot and someone who doesn't shy away from experimenting with roles within the realms of popular cinema\".", "\"The Times of India\" called her a \"game changer\" for changing \"the age-old demarcation between a hero and heroine\".", "In 2012, film critic Subhash K. Jha labelled her \"the best actress in the post-Sridevi generation\" and listed her character in \"Barfi!\"", "as being \"one of the finest inwardly ravaged characters in Bollywood.\"", "Chopra has often featured on's annual listing of \"Bollywood's Best Actresses\", and was featured in their list of \"Top 10 Actresses of 2000–2010\".", "Chopra is one of the highest-paid and high-profile celebrities in India.", "She is described as a sex symbol and a style icon.", "Her figure, eyes, lips and exotic looks have been cited by the media as her distinctive physical features.", "Designers Falguni and Shane Peacock wrote, \"She is comfortable in her own skin and looks ravishing in whatever she wears, be it a bikini, short or long dress or even a sari.\"", "She ranks high on lists of the most beautiful, influential, powerful, and attractive celebrities in the World.", "In 2006, 2012, 2014 and 2015, the UK magazine \"Eastern Eye\" ranked her first on their \"World's Sexiest Asian Women\" list, and she was featured on \"Verve\"' s list of most powerful women in 2009 and 2010.", "She was named \"India's Best-Dressed Woman of the Year\" by \"People\" in 2011, and \"Maxim\" selected her thrice (2011, 2013 and 2016) as \"Hottest Girl of the Year\".", "In 2015, \"People\" featured her as one of the \"Most Intriguing People of the Year\".", "In 2016, \"Time\" named her one of the \"100 Most Influential People in the World\" and also featured on the cover of the issue.", "The same year, she was ranked fourth on AskMen's Top 99 Women and \"Forbes\" named her the world's eight-highest-paid TV actress.", "In 2017, Buzznet named her World's second \"Most Beautiful Women\", after Beyonce.", "The same year, Chopra was named one of \"People\" magazine's Most Beautiful Women in the World.", "In 2017, \"Variety\" honoured her with the Power of Women award for her philanthropic work with UNICEF, and \"Forbes\" listed her among the World's 100 Most Powerful Women in 2017 and 2018.", "In 2018, Chopra was named one of the 500 most influential business leaders by \"Variety\" and the market research firm YouGov named her the world's twelfth most admired woman.", "Chopra was ranked second in the list of brand ambassadors of 2008 (only after Shah Rukh Khan) in a survey conducted by TAM AdEx.", "The following year, she topped their list, becoming the first woman to in India to do so.", "Chopra has represented many brands, including TAG Heuer, Pepsi, Nokia, Garnier and Nestlé; she was the first female representative of Hero Honda.", "She and three other Bollywood actors (Shah Rukh Khan, Kajol and Hrithik Roshan) had their likenesses made into a series of miniature dolls for Hasbro and the UK-based Bollywood Legends Corporation.", "In 2009, Chopra became the first Indian actress to cast a foot impression at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum in Florence, Italy, and she received custom-designed shoes from the Ferragamo house.", "In 2013, she became the first Indian model to represent Guess, whose CEO Paul Marciano called her \"the young Sophia Loren\".", "The actress became the first Indian actress to feature in a school textbook.", "Her life is described in a chapter of \"Roving Families, Shifting Homes\", a book taught at Springdales School.", "The book also includes pictures of her family and the moment she was crowned Miss World in 2000.", "Biography of the actress named \"Priyanka Chopra: The Incredible Story of a Global Bollywood Star\" written by the journalist Aseem Chhabra, was released in 2018.", "Chopra is known in the Indian media and film industry for her professionalism and is often referred to as \"Piggy Chops\", a nickname given her by co-stars on the set of \"Bluffmaster!\"", "She is popularly referred to by the media and the film industry as \"PeeCee\" or \"PC\".", "Chopra has had a Twitter account since January 2009, and is one of the most followed Indian actresses on the platform.", "In 2012, she was declared the most influential Indian on the social-media circuit in a survey conducted by Pinstorm and in 2015, Chopra appeared in \"HuffPost\"' s \"100 Most Influential Women on Twitter\" list, in which she was ranked first among Indians.", "Chopra has won a National Film Award for Best Actress for \"Fashion\" (2008) and five Filmfare Awards: Best Female Debut for \"Andaaz\" (2003), Best Performance in a Negative Role for \"Aitraaz\" (2004), Best Actress for \"Fashion\" (2008), Critics Award for Best Actress for \"7 Khoon Maaf\" (2011), and Best Supporting Actress for \"Bajirao Mastani\" (2015).", "She has also won two People's Choice Awards: \"Favourite Actress In A New TV Series\", and \"Favorite Dramatic TV Actress\" for \"Quantico\".", "She is the first South Asian actress to win a People's Choice Award.", "In 2016, she was awarded the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, by the Government of India for her contribution to arts." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 966394, "normal_article_title": "Michigan International Speedway", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-966394-0-0", "normal-966394-0-1", "normal-966394-0-2", "normal-966394-0-3", "normal-966394-0-4", "normal-966394-0-5", "normal-966394-1-0", "normal-966394-1-1", "normal-966394-1-2", "normal-966394-1-3", "normal-966394-1-4", "normal-966394-1-5", "normal-966394-2-0", "normal-966394-2-1", "normal-966394-2-2", "normal-966394-2-3", "normal-966394-3-0", "normal-966394-3-1", "normal-966394-3-2", "normal-966394-3-3", "normal-966394-3-4", "normal-966394-3-5", "normal-966394-3-6", "normal-966394-3-7", "normal-966394-3-8", "normal-966394-3-9", "normal-966394-4-0", "normal-966394-5-0", "normal-966394-5-1", "normal-966394-5-2", "normal-966394-5-3", "normal-966394-5-4", "normal-966394-6-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Michigan International Speedway (MIS) is a 2 mi moderate-banked D-shaped speedway located off U.S. Highway 12 on more than 1400 acre approximately 4 mi south of the village of Brooklyn, in the scenic Irish Hills area of southeastern Michigan.", "The track is used primarily for NASCAR events.", "It is sometimes known as a \"sister track\" to Texas World Speedway, and was used as the basis of Auto Club Speedway.", "The track is owned by International Speedway Corporation (ISC).", "Michigan International Speedway is recognized as one of motorsports' premier facilities because of its wide racing surface and high banking (by open-wheel standards; the 18-degree banking is modest by stock car standards).", "Michigan is the fastest track in NASCAR due to its wide, sweeping corners, long straightaways, and lack of a restrictor plate requirement; typical qualifying speeds are in excess of 200 mph and corner entry speeds are anywhere from 215 to after the 2012 repaving of the track.", "Groundbreaking took place on September 28, 1967.", "Over 2.5 e6cuyd of dirt were moved to form the D-shaped oval.", "The track opened in 1968 with a total capacity of 25,000 seats.", "The track was originally built and owned by Lawrence H. LoPatin, a Detroit-area land developer who built the speedway at an estimated cost of $4–6 million.", "Financing was arranged by Thomas W Itin.", "Its first race took place on Sunday, October 13, 1968, with the running of the USAC 250 mile Championship Car Race won by Ronnie Bucknum.", "In 1972, Roger Penske purchased the speedway for an estimated $2 million.", "During Penske's ownership the track was upgraded several times from the original capacity to 125,000 seating capacity.", "From 1996 to 2000, the track was referred to as Michigan Speedway.", "This was to keep consistency with other tracks owned by Roger Penske's Motorsports International before its merger with ISC.", "In 1999, the speedway was purchased by International Speedway Corporation (ISC) and in 2000 the track was renamed to its original name of Michigan International Speedway.", "In 2000 10,800 seats were added via a turn 3 grandstand bringing the speedway to its current capacity.", "In 2004-2005 the largest renovation project in the history of the facility was ready for race fans when it opened its doors for the race weekend.", "The AAA Motorsports Fan Plaza—a reconfiguration of over 26 acre behind the main grandstand.", "A new, three-story viewing tower housing the Champions Club presented by AAA and 16 new corporate suites targeted VIP guests, while a press box and a race operations facility high above the 2 mi oval welcomed the media and race officials.", "Michigan was repaved prior to the 2012 season.", "This marks the first time since 1995 that the oval was resurfaced, along with 1967, 1975, and 1986.", "Also new for 2012 was the addition of a new 20-space trackside luxury campsite to be known as APEX.", "Situated in turn 3, each site will offer a 20 by area.", "To accommodate these new campsites, the remaining silver grandstands in turns 3 and 4 were removed.", "On January 28, 2019, it was revealed on ISC's 2018 annual report that the speedway's track seating was reduced from 71,000 to 56,000.", "In addition to motor racing, the venue hosts a number of events including the Michigan High School Athletic Association cross country finals for the Lower Peninsula and the annual Make-A-Wish Bicycle Tour.", "The track also hosts concerts in conjunction with its race weekends.", "Driving schools are held throughout the year.", "The Formula SAE competition is now held at MIS, after previously being held in the parking lot of the Pontiac Silverdome.", "Since 2010, it has hosted the Michigan Wine and Beer Festival, and since 2013, the venue has hosted the country music festival Faster Horses.", "* from minimum 5 starts." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 103132, "simple_article_title": "Michigan International Speedway", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-103132-0-0", "simple-103132-0-1", "simple-103132-0-2", "simple-103132-0-3", "simple-103132-0-4", "simple-103132-1-0", "simple-103132-1-1" ], "simple_sentence": [ "The Michigan International Speedway (or MIS) is a two-mile (3.22 km) long racetrack.", "It contains more than 1,400 acres, near Brooklyn, Michigan.", "The track is used mostly for NASCAR events.", "It is sometimes known as the \"sister track\" of Texas World Speedway.", "Construction for the track began on September 28, 1967, and opened October 13, 1968 with budget of around $4–6 million.", "Michigan is now one of the fastest tracks in NASCAR due to its wide, sweeping corners and long straightaways.", "It normal speeds of more than 190 mph, but corner entry speeds easily pass 200 mph (~320 Km/h)." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 1570429, "normal_article_title": "Loneliness", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-1570429-0-0", "normal-1570429-0-1", "normal-1570429-0-2", "normal-1570429-0-3", "normal-1570429-1-0", "normal-1570429-1-1", "normal-1570429-1-2", "normal-1570429-1-3", "normal-1570429-2-0", "normal-1570429-2-1", "normal-1570429-3-0", "normal-1570429-3-1", "normal-1570429-3-2", "normal-1570429-4-0", "normal-1570429-4-1", "normal-1570429-4-2", "normal-1570429-4-3", "normal-1570429-4-4", "normal-1570429-4-5", "normal-1570429-4-6", "normal-1570429-5-0", "normal-1570429-5-1", "normal-1570429-5-2", "normal-1570429-6-0", "normal-1570429-6-1", "normal-1570429-6-2", "normal-1570429-6-3", "normal-1570429-6-4", "normal-1570429-6-5", "normal-1570429-6-6", "normal-1570429-6-7", "normal-1570429-6-8", "normal-1570429-7-0", "normal-1570429-7-1", "normal-1570429-7-2", "normal-1570429-7-3", "normal-1570429-8-0", "normal-1570429-8-1", "normal-1570429-8-2", "normal-1570429-9-0", "normal-1570429-9-1", "normal-1570429-9-2", "normal-1570429-10-0", "normal-1570429-10-1", "normal-1570429-10-2", "normal-1570429-10-3", "normal-1570429-10-4", "normal-1570429-10-5", "normal-1570429-11-0", "normal-1570429-11-1", "normal-1570429-11-2", "normal-1570429-12-0", "normal-1570429-12-1", "normal-1570429-13-0", "normal-1570429-13-1", "normal-1570429-13-2", "normal-1570429-14-0", "normal-1570429-14-1", "normal-1570429-14-2", "normal-1570429-14-3", "normal-1570429-14-4", "normal-1570429-14-5", "normal-1570429-14-6", "normal-1570429-14-7", "normal-1570429-15-0", "normal-1570429-15-1", "normal-1570429-16-0", "normal-1570429-16-1", "normal-1570429-17-0", "normal-1570429-17-1", "normal-1570429-18-0", "normal-1570429-18-1", "normal-1570429-18-2", "normal-1570429-18-3", "normal-1570429-18-4", "normal-1570429-19-0", "normal-1570429-19-1", "normal-1570429-19-2", "normal-1570429-20-0", "normal-1570429-20-1", "normal-1570429-20-2", "normal-1570429-20-3", "normal-1570429-20-4", "normal-1570429-21-0", "normal-1570429-22-0", "normal-1570429-22-1", "normal-1570429-22-2", "normal-1570429-23-0", "normal-1570429-24-0", "normal-1570429-25-0", "normal-1570429-25-1", "normal-1570429-25-2", "normal-1570429-26-0", "normal-1570429-26-1", "normal-1570429-26-2", "normal-1570429-27-0", "normal-1570429-27-1", "normal-1570429-28-0", "normal-1570429-28-1", "normal-1570429-28-2", "normal-1570429-29-0", "normal-1570429-29-1", "normal-1570429-29-2", "normal-1570429-29-3", "normal-1570429-29-4", "normal-1570429-29-5", "normal-1570429-29-6", "normal-1570429-30-0", "normal-1570429-30-1", "normal-1570429-30-2", "normal-1570429-31-0", "normal-1570429-31-1", "normal-1570429-31-2", "normal-1570429-31-3", "normal-1570429-31-4", "normal-1570429-31-5", "normal-1570429-31-6", "normal-1570429-31-7", "normal-1570429-32-0", "normal-1570429-32-1", "normal-1570429-32-2", "normal-1570429-32-3", "normal-1570429-32-4", "normal-1570429-32-5", "normal-1570429-32-6", "normal-1570429-33-0", "normal-1570429-34-0", "normal-1570429-34-1", "normal-1570429-35-0", "normal-1570429-35-1", "normal-1570429-35-2" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation.", "Loneliness typically includes anxious feelings about a lack of connection or communication with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future.", "As such, loneliness can be felt even when surrounded by other people and one who feels lonely, is lonely.", "The causes of loneliness are varied and include social, mental, emotional, and physical factors.", "Research has shown that loneliness is prevalent throughout society, including people in marriages, relationships, families, veterans, and those with successful careers.", "It has been a long explored theme in the literature of human beings since Classical antiquity.", "Loneliness has also been described as social pain—a psychological mechanism meant to motivate an individual to seek social connections.", "Loneliness is often defined in terms of one's connectedness to others, or more specifically as \"the unpleasant experience that occurs when a person's network of social relations is deficient in some important way\".", "People can experience loneliness for many reasons, and many life events may cause it, such as a lack of friendship relations during childhood and adolescence, or the physical absence of meaningful people around a person.", "At the same time, loneliness may be a symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression.", "Many people experience loneliness for the first time when they are left alone as infants.", "It is also a very common, though normally temporary, consequence of a breakup, divorce, or loss of any important long-term relationship.", "In these cases, it may stem both from the loss of a specific person and from the withdrawal from social circles caused by the event or the associated sadness.", "The loss of a significant person in one's life will typically initiate a grief response; in this situation, one might feel lonely, even while in the company of others.", "Loneliness may also occur after the birth of a child (often expressed in postpartum depression), after marriage, or following any other socially disruptive event, such as moving from one's home town into an unfamiliar community, leading to homesickness.", "Loneliness can occur within unstable marriages or other close relationships of a similar nature, in which feelings present may include anger or resentment, or in which the feeling of love cannot be given or received.", "Loneliness may represent a dysfunction of communication, and can also result from places with low population densities in which there are comparatively few people to interact with.", "Loneliness can also be seen as a social phenomenon, capable of spreading like a disease.", "When one person in a group begins to feel lonely, this feeling can spread to others, increasing everybody's risk for feelings of loneliness.", "People can feel lonely even when they are surrounded by other people.", "A twin study found evidence that genetics account for approximately half of the measurable differences in loneliness among adults, which was similar to the heritability estimates found previously in children.", "These genes operate in a similar manner in males and females.", "The study found no common environmental contributions to adult loneliness.", "There is a clear distinction between feeling lonely and being socially isolated (for example, a loner).", "In particular, one way of thinking about loneliness is as a discrepancy between one's necessary and achieved levels of social interaction, while solitude is simply the lack of contact with people.", "Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience; if a person thinks they are lonely, then they are lonely.", "People can be lonely while in solitude, or in the middle of a crowd.", "What makes a person lonely is the fact that they need more social interaction or a certain type of social interaction that is not currently available.", "A person can be in the middle of a party and feel lonely due to not talking to enough people.", "Conversely, one can be alone and not feel lonely; even though there is no one around that person is not lonely because there is no desire for social interaction.", "There have also been suggestions that each person has their own optimal level of social interaction.", "If a person gets too little or too much social interaction, this could lead to feelings of loneliness or over-stimulation.", "Solitude can have positive effects on individuals.", "One study found that, although time spent alone tended to depress a person's mood and increase feelings of loneliness, it also helped to improve their cognitive state, such as improving concentration.", "Furthermore, once the alone time was over, people's moods tended to increase significantly.", "Solitude is also associated with other positive growth experiences, religious experiences, and identity building such as solitary quests used in rites of passages for adolescents.", "Loneliness can also play an important role in the creative process.", "In some people, temporary or prolonged loneliness can lead to notable artistic and creative expression, for example, as was the case with poets Emily Dickinson and Isabella di Morra, and numerous musicians .", "This is not to imply that loneliness itself ensures this creativity, rather, it may have an influence on the subject matter of the artist and more likely be present in individuals engaged in creative activities.", "The other important typology of loneliness focuses on the time perspective.", "In this respect, loneliness can be viewed as either transient or chronic.", "It has also been referred to as state and trait loneliness.", "Transient (state) loneliness is temporary in nature, caused by something in the environment, and is easily relieved.", "Chronic (trait) loneliness is more permanent, caused by the person, and is not easily relieved.", "For example, when a person is sick and cannot socialize with friends would be a case of transient loneliness.", "Once the person got better it would be easy for them to alleviate their loneliness.", "A person who feels lonely regardless of if they are at a family gathering, with friends, or alone is experiencing chronic loneliness.", "It does not matter what goes on in the surrounding environment, the experience of loneliness is always there.", "The existentialist school of thought views loneliness as the essence of being human.", "Each human being comes into the world alone, travels through life as a separate person, and ultimately dies alone.", "Coping with this, accepting it, and learning how to direct our own lives with some degree of grace and satisfaction is the human condition.", "Some philosophers, such as Sartre, believe in an epistemic loneliness in which loneliness is a fundamental part of the human condition because of the paradox between people's consciousness desiring meaning in life and the isolation and nothingness of the universe.", "Conversely, other existentialist thinkers argue that human beings might be said to actively engage each other and the universe as they communicate and create, and loneliness is merely the feeling of being cut off from this process.", "In his recent text, \"Evidence of Being: The Black Gay Cultural Renaissance and the Politics of Violence,\" Darius Bost draws from Heather Love's theorization of loneliness to delineate the ways in which loneliness structures black gay feeling and literary, cultural productions.", "Bost limns, “As a form of negative affect, loneliness shores up the alienation, isolation, and pathologization of black gay men during the 1980s and early 1990s.", "But loneliness is also a form of bodily desire, a yearning for an attachment to the social and for a future beyond the forces that create someone’s alienation and isolation.\"", "There are several estimates and indicators of loneliness.", "It has been estimated that approximately 60 million people in the United States, or 20% of the total population, feel lonely.", "Another study found that 12% of Americans have no one with whom to spend free time or to discuss important matters.", "Other research suggests that this rate has been increasing over time.", "The \"General Social Survey\" found that between 1985 and 2004, the number of people the average American discusses important matters with decreased from three to two.", "Additionally, the number of Americans with no one to discuss important matters with tripled (though this particular study may be flawed).", "In the UK research by Age UK shows half a million people more than 60 years old spend each day alone without social interaction and almost half a million more see and speak to no one for 5 or 6 days a week.", "On the other hand, the \"Community Life Survey, 2016 to 2017\", by the UK's Office for National Statistics, found that young adults in England aged 16 to 24 reported feeling lonely more often than those in older age groups.", "Loneliness appears to have intensified in every society in the world as modernization occurs.", "A certain amount of this loneliness appears to be related to greater migration, smaller household sizes, a larger degree of media consumption (all of which have positive sides as well in the form of more opportunities, more choice in family size, and better access to information), all of which relates to social capital.", "Within developed nations, loneliness has shown the largest increases among two groups: seniors and people living in low-density suburbs.", "Seniors living in suburban areas are particularly vulnerable, for as they lose the ability to drive, they often become \"stranded\" and find it difficult to maintain interpersonal relationships.", "Loneliness is prevalent in vulnerable groups in society.", "In New Zealand the fourteen surveyed groups with the highest prevalence of loneliness most/all of the time in descending order are: disabled, recent migrants, low income households, unemployed, single parents, rural (rest of South Island), seniors aged 75+, not in the labour force, youth aged 15–24, no qualifications, not housing owner-occupier, not in a family nucleus, Māori, and low personal income.", "Americans seem to report more loneliness than any other country, though this finding may simply be an effect of greater research volume.", "A 2006 study in the \"American Sociological Review\" found that Americans on average had only two close friends in which to confide, which was down from an average of three in 1985.", "The percentage of people who noted having no such confidant rose from 10% to almost 25%, and an additional 19% said they had only a single confidant, often their spouse, thus raising the risk of serious loneliness if the relationship ended.", "The modern office environment has been demonstrated to give rise to loneliness.", "This can be especially prevalent in individuals prone to social isolation who can interpret the business focus of co-workers for a deliberate ignoring of needs.", "Whether a correlation exists between Internet usage and loneliness is a subject of controversy, with some findings showing that Internet users are lonelier and others showing that lonely people who use the Internet to keep in touch with loved ones (especially seniors) report less loneliness, but that those trying to make friends online became lonelier.", "On the other hand, studies in 2002 and 2010 found that \"Internet use was found to decrease loneliness and depression significantly, while perceived social support and self-esteem increased significantly\" and that the Internet \"has an enabling and empowering role in people's lives, by increasing their sense of freedom and control, which has a positive impact on well-being or happiness.\"", "The one apparently unequivocal finding of correlation is that long driving commutes correlate with dramatically higher reported feelings of loneliness (as well as other negative health impacts).", "Loneliness has been linked with depression, and is thus a risk factor for suicide.", "Émile Durkheim has described loneliness, specifically the inability or unwillingness to live for others, i.e. for friendships or altruistic ideas, as the main reason for what he called \"egoistic suicide\".", "In adults, loneliness is a major precipitant of depression and alcoholism.", "People who are socially isolated may report poor sleep quality, and thus have diminished restorative processes.", "Loneliness has also been linked with a schizoid character type in which one may see the world differently and experience social alienation, described as \"the self in exile\".", "While the long term effects of extended periods of loneliness are little understood, it has been noted that people who are isolated or experience loneliness for a long period of time fall into a “ontological crisis” or “ontological insecurity,” where they are not sure if they or their surroundings exist, and if they do, exactly who or what they are, creating torment, suffering, and despair to the point of palpability within the thoughts of the person.", "In children, a lack of social connections is directly linked to several forms of antisocial and self-destructive behavior, most notably hostile and delinquent behavior.", "In both children and adults, loneliness often has a negative impact on learning and memory.", "Its disruption of sleep patterns can have a significant impact on the ability to function in everyday life.", "Research from a large-scale study published in the journal Psychological Medicine, showed that \"lonely millennials are more likely to have mental health problems, be out of work and feel pessimistic about their ability to succeed in life than their peers who feel connected to others, regardless of gender or wealth.”", "In 2004, the United States Department of Justice published a study indicating that loneliness increases suicide rates profoundly among juveniles, with 62% of all suicides that occurred within juvenile facilities being among those who either were, at the time of the suicide, in solitary confinement or among those with a history of being housed thereof.", "Pain, depression, and fatigue function as a symptom cluster and thus may share common risk factors.", "Two longitudinal studies with different populations demonstrated that loneliness was a risk factor for the development of the pain, depression, and fatigue symptom cluster over time.", "These data also highlight the health risks of loneliness; pain, depression, and fatigue often accompany serious illness and place people at risk for poor health and mortality.", "Chronic loneliness can be a serious, life-threatening health condition.", "It has been found to be associated with an increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.", "Loneliness shows an increased incidence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity.", "Loneliness is shown to increase the concentration of cortisol levels in the body.", "Prolonged, high cortisol levels can cause anxiety, depression, digestive problems, heart disease, sleep problems, and weight gain.", "′′Loneliness has been associated with impaired cellular immunity as reflected in lower natural killer (NK) cell activity and higher antibody titers to the Epstein Barr Virus and human herpes viruses\".", "Because of impaired cellular immunity, loneliness among young adults shows vaccines, like the flu vaccine, to be less effective.", "Data from studies on loneliness and HIV positive men suggests loneliness increases disease progression.", "There are a number of potential physiological mechanisms linking loneliness to poor health outcomes.", "In 2005, results from the American \"Framingham Heart Study\" demonstrated that lonely men had raised levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a blood chemical linked to heart disease.", "A 2006 study conducted by the \"Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience\" at the University of Chicago found loneliness can add thirty points to a blood pressure reading for adults over the age of fifty.", "Another finding, from a survey conducted by John Cacioppo from the University of Chicago, is that doctors report providing better medical care to patients who have a strong network of family and friends than they do to patients who are alone.", "Cacioppo states that loneliness impairs cognition and willpower, alters DNA transcription in immune cells, and leads over time to high blood pressure.", "Lonelier people are more likely to show evidence of viral reactivation than less lonely people.", "Lonelier people also have stronger inflammatory responses to acute stress compared with less lonely people; inflammation is a well known risk factor for age-related diseases.", "When someone feels left out of a situation, they feel excluded and one possible side effect is for their body temperature to decrease.", "When people feel excluded blood vessels at the periphery of the body may narrow, preserving core body heat.", "This class protective mechanism is known as vasoconstriction.", "There are many different ways used to treat loneliness, social isolation, and clinical depression.", "The first step that most doctors recommend to patients is therapy.", "Therapy is a common and effective way of treating loneliness and is often successful.", "Short-term therapy, the most common form for lonely or depressed patients, typically occurs over a period of ten to twenty weeks.", "During therapy, emphasis is put on understanding the cause of the problem, reversing the negative thoughts, feelings, and attitudes resulting from the problem, and exploring ways to help the patient feel connected.", "Some doctors also recommend group therapy as a means to connect with other sufferers and establish a support system.", "Doctors also frequently prescribe anti-depressants to patients as a stand-alone treatment, or in conjunction with therapy.", "It may take several attempts before a suitable anti-depressant medication is found.", "Alternative approaches to treating depression are suggested by many doctors.", "These treatments include exercise, dieting, hypnosis, electro-shock therapy, acupuncture, and herbs, amongst others.", "Many patients find that participating in these activities fully or partially alleviates symptoms related to depression.", "Another treatment for both loneliness and depression is pet therapy, or animal-assisted therapy, as it is more formally known.", "Studies and surveys, as well as anecdotal evidence provided by volunteer and community organizations, indicate that the presence of animal companions such as dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea pigs can ease feelings of depression and loneliness among some sufferers.", "Beyond the companionship the animal itself provides there may also be increased opportunities for socializing with other pet owners.", "According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention there are a number of other health benefits associated with pet ownership, including lowered blood pressure and decreased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.", "Nostalgia has also been found to have a restorative effect, counteracting loneliness by increasing perceived social support.", "A 1989 study found that the social aspect of religion had a significant negative association with loneliness among elderly people.", "The effect was more consistent than the effect of social relationships with family and friends, and the subjective concept of religiosity had no significant effect on loneliness.", "One study compared the effectiveness of four interventions: improving social skills, enhancing social support, increasing opportunities for social interaction, addressing abnormal social cognition (faulty thoughts and patterns of thoughts).", "The results of the study indicated that all interventions were effective in reducing loneliness, possibly with the exception of social skill training.", "Results of the meta-analysis suggest that correcting maladaptive social cognition offers the best chance of reducing loneliness." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 425394, "simple_article_title": "Loneliness", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-425394-0-0", "simple-425394-0-1", "simple-425394-1-0", "simple-425394-1-1", "simple-425394-1-2", "simple-425394-1-3", "simple-425394-1-4" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Loneliness is a sad emotion that a person can feel if they are isolated or feel a sense of lack of friends and family members.", "Loneliness can make people feel anxious.", "People can feel lonely even if they are surrounded by a lot of other people.", "Loneliness can occur even to people in marriages, relationships, families and successful jobs.", "One cause of loneliness is a lack of friends during childhood and teenage years.", "Loneliness can also be caused by chronic depression.", "Loneliness can also be caused when a relationship or marriage ends." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 779478, "normal_article_title": "Changdeokgung", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-779478-0-0", "normal-779478-0-1", "normal-779478-0-2", "normal-779478-1-0", "normal-779478-1-1", "normal-779478-1-2", "normal-779478-1-3", "normal-779478-2-0", "normal-779478-2-1", "normal-779478-2-2", "normal-779478-2-3", "normal-779478-2-4", "normal-779478-2-5", "normal-779478-3-0", "normal-779478-3-1", "normal-779478-3-2", "normal-779478-3-3", "normal-779478-3-4", "normal-779478-3-5", "normal-779478-3-6", "normal-779478-4-0", "normal-779478-4-1", "normal-779478-5-0", "normal-779478-5-1", "normal-779478-5-2", "normal-779478-6-0", "normal-779478-6-1", "normal-779478-6-2", "normal-779478-6-3", "normal-779478-7-0", "normal-779478-7-1", "normal-779478-7-2", "normal-779478-7-3", "normal-779478-7-4", "normal-779478-7-5", "normal-779478-7-6", "normal-779478-8-0", "normal-779478-8-1", "normal-779478-9-0", "normal-779478-9-1", "normal-779478-9-2", "normal-779478-9-3", "normal-779478-10-0", "normal-779478-10-1", "normal-779478-10-2", "normal-779478-11-0", "normal-779478-11-1", "normal-779478-12-0", "normal-779478-13-0", "normal-779478-13-1", "normal-779478-13-2" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Changdeokgung (Hangul, 창덕궁, 昌德宮; literally, \"Prospering Virtue Palace\"), also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea.", "It is one of the \"Five Grand Palaces\" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1897).", "As it is located east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung—along with Changgyeonggung—is also referred to as the \"East Palace\" (동궐, 東闕, \"Donggwol\").", "Changdeokgung was the most favored palace of many Joseon princes and retained many elements dating from the Three Kingdoms of Korea period that were not incorporated in the more contemporary Gyeongbokgung.", "One such element is the fact that the buildings of Changdeokgung blend with the natural topography of the site instead of imposing themselves upon it.", "It, like the other Five Grand Palaces in Seoul, was heavily damaged during the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910–1945).", "Currently, only about 30% of the pre-Japanese structures of the East Palace Complex (Changdeokgung together with Changgyeonggung) survive.", "Changdeokgung was the second palace after Gyeongbokgung which had been established in 1395 as a primary palace.", "In the midst of strife for the throne between princes and vassals, authority of Gyeongbokgung was deteriorated.", "King Jeongjong enthroned by Prince Jeong-an (Yi Bang-won, later became King Taejong) moved the capital to Gaegyeong, the one of Goryeo Dynasty, again in 1400 on the pretext of superior geographical features of it, in fact, in order to avert the power struggle.", "King Taejong (Yi Bang-won) soon taking over the throne returned to Hanseong(present-day Seoul) had a new palace named \"Changdeokgung\" instead of Gyeongbokgung because he had killed his half brothers in Gyeongbokgung whose construction was led by Jeong Do-jeon, the king's rival before.", "Construction of Changdeok Palace began in 1405, and was completed in 1412.", "King Seonjo expanded the palace grounds by about 500,000 square meters, including \"Huwon\" (see below).", "The Palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasion in 1592 and reconstructed in 1609 by King Seonjo and King Gwanghaegun.", "The palace burnt down again in 1623 because of King Injo a political Revolt against Gwanghaegun.", "The palace was also attacked by the Manchu Qing but throughout its history of reconstruction and repair has remained faithful to its original design.", "Changdeokgung was the site of the royal court and the seat of government until 1868, when the neighboring Gyeongbokgung was rebuilt.", "Korea's last Emperor, Sunjong lived here until his death in 1926.", "Other members of the former Royal family were permitted to live in parts of the palace such as former Crown Prince Yi Un who lived in the Nakseon- jae (hall) Buildings with his wife Princess Bangja and sister Princess Deokhye until their respective deaths; this arrangement was periodically interrupted by differing Presidential orders supporting and objecting to their use of the historic facilities.", "The son of Yi-Un, Yi-Gu also lived in the Palace for variant intervals prior to moving to semi-permanent residence in Tokyo due to mental health issues having been unable to fully adapt to the new Korea.", "Today there are 13 buildings remaining on the palace grounds and 28 pavilions in the gardens, occupying 110 acres (45 hectares) in all and the area is designated as Historical Site No. 122.", "Buildings of note include Donhwamun (built in 1412, rebuilt in 1607, with a copper bell weighing 9 short tons or 8 metric tons), Injeongjeon (main hall), Seongjeongjeon (auxiliary office in the main hall), Huijeongdang (the king's private residence, later used as a conference hall), Daejojeon (living quarters), and Nakseon-jae.", "The palace was built between Peak Maebong of Mt. Bugaksan in the back and River Geumcheon having flowing in the front influenced by the principle \"baesanimsu\" (배산임수) in Feng Shui theory.", "Contrary to Gyeongbokgung whose main buildings are arranged in accurate architectural principle, however, buildings in Changdeokgung are disposed more freely without a regular system.", "Though its structure seems chaotic at a glance, all buildings are in harmony with the environment surrounding them.", "Changdeokgung consists of governmental area (치조, 治朝, \"chijo\") centering on Injeongjeon and Seonjeongjeon, royal private area (침전, 寢殿, \"chimjeon\", meaning 'a house of king's bedroom'), Nakseonjae area in the east, and Huwon beyond the north hills.", "Most of major official buildings such as Injeongjeon, main hall of Changdeokgung, Seonjeongjeon, king's office, and many of government offices (궐내각사, 闕內各司, \"gwollaegaksa\") are placed in the front parts of the palace, beyond which there are royal private court for king and queen.", "King's houses like Seonjeongjeon, Huijeongdang, and Nakseonjae are surrounded in many folds of buildings and courts in case any outsider break through.", "The architectural style of Changdeokgung overall features simplicity and frugality because of Confucian ideology.", "Behind the palace lies the 78-acre (32 ha) Huwon (후원, 後苑, \"Rear garden\") which was originally constructed for the use of the royal family and palace women.", "The garden incorporates a lotus pond, pavilions, and landscaped lawns, trees, and flowers.", "There are over 26,000 specimens of a hundred different species of trees in the garden and some of the trees behind the palace are over 300 years old.", "The garden for the private use of the king had been called 'Geumwon' (금원, 禁苑, \"Forbidden garden\") because even high officials were not allowed to enter without the king's permission.", "It had also been called 'Naewon' (내원, 內苑, 'Inner garden').", "Today Koreans often call it 'Biwon' (비원, 秘院, \"Secret garden\") which derived from the office of same name in the late 19th century.", "Though the garden had many other names, the one most frequently used through Joseon dynasty period was 'Huwon'.", "In September 2012, the Buyongjeong pavilion in the garden was re-opened after a year-long restoration project.", "The pavilion was restored based on the Donggwoldo from 1820, National Treasures of South Korea No. 249.", "A variety of ceremonies hosted by the king were held in Huwon.", "In the early period of the Joseon dynasty, military inspections in which the king participated were often held here.", "King Sejo had troops parade and array before him or commanded them by himself in the garden.", "In addition, feasts were given, archery tournaments held, and fireworks enjoyed in Huwon.", "The Ongnyucheon (옥류천, 玉流川, \"Jade Stream\") area is of particular interest.", "It contains a U-shaped water channel carved in 1636 for floating wine cups, with a small waterfall and an inscribed poem on the boulder above it.", "The area also contains five small pavilions.", "Changdeokgung was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997.", "The UNESCO committee stated the place was an \"outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design\" being exceptional because the buildings are \"integrated into and harmonized with the natural setting\" and adapted \"to the topography and retaining indigenous tree cover.\"", "Portions of the palace were used to film the hugely popular Korean drama \"Dae Jang Geum\" in the first decade of the 21st century.", "From April to October 2018, Changdeok Palace will host the 2018 Changdeok Palace moonlight tour.", "Changdeok Palace moonlight tours are a special time event to experience life in the palace.", "It takes about two hours and starts at Donhwamun Gate, the main gate of Changdeok Palace, at 8 p.m." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 186334, "simple_article_title": "Changdeokgung", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-186334-0-0", "simple-186334-0-1", "simple-186334-0-2", "simple-186334-0-3", "simple-186334-0-4", "simple-186334-0-5", "simple-186334-1-0", "simple-186334-1-1", "simple-186334-1-2", "simple-186334-2-0", "simple-186334-2-1", "simple-186334-2-2", "simple-186334-2-3", "simple-186334-3-0", "simple-186334-3-1", "simple-186334-3-2", "simple-186334-3-3", "simple-186334-3-4", "simple-186334-3-5", "simple-186334-4-0", "simple-186334-4-1", "simple-186334-4-2", "simple-186334-4-3" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Changdeokgung is one of the five grand palaces in South Korea.", "They are Gyeongbokgung, Changdeokgung, Deoksugung, Changgyunggung, and Gyeonghuigung.", "The five grand palaces were not built at the same time.", "Changdeokgung was built as the secondary palace next to Gyeongbokgung.", "The construction began by King Taejong, the Third King of the Joseon Dynasty, in 1405.", "Taking 7 years to complete, it was finished in the year 1412.", "In the word Changdeokgung, Changdeok means 'Prospering Virtue', and gung means 'palace'.", "So the word Changdeokgung means 'the palace of prospering virtue'.", "Because of the meaning of the name of the palace, the kings of Joseon Dynasty chose mostly Changdeokgung to live in.", "The palace had been the home of 14 kings of Joseon Dynasty until it was totally destroyed by the Japanese army in the year 1592.", "After the Japanese were driven back by the combined forces of Korea and China, Changdeokgung was rebuilt in 1612.", "After the reconstruction, the palace had suffered little damage and became the primary royal court of the Joseon Dynasty.", "This was because Gyeongbokgung was also destroyed by the Japanese but the Joseon Dynasty did not rebuild it for some reason and the Changdeokgung became the biggest palace in Korea.", "However, Changdeokgung had suffered some damage for 350 years after the reconstruction.", "As a result, a large scale restoration took palace from 1990 to 1999.", "This restoration shows how much the Korean people loved Changdeokgung.", "Apparently, the UNESCO saw its value as well.", "Seeing Changdeokgung as a vital global asset, UNESCO listed it as a World Cultural Heritage.", "The UNESCO said that Changdukgung 'was outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design'.", "Changdeokgung is in a park in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea.", "There are total of 13 buildings remaining in all and the area is designated as Historical Site No. 122.", "Tourists from all around the world visit this historic site.", "Changdeokgung is also an enjoyable park for families to spend their weekends." ] } }
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{ "normal_article_id": 105097, "normal_article_title": "Codeshare agreement", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-105097-0-0", "normal-105097-0-1", "normal-105097-1-0", "normal-105097-1-1", "normal-105097-1-2", "normal-105097-2-0", "normal-105097-2-1", "normal-105097-3-0", "normal-105097-3-1", "normal-105097-3-2", "normal-105097-3-3", "normal-105097-4-0", "normal-105097-4-1", "normal-105097-5-0", "normal-105097-6-0", "normal-105097-6-1", "normal-105097-7-0", "normal-105097-7-1", "normal-105097-7-2" ], "normal_sentence": [ "A codeshare agreement, also known as codeshare, is a business arrangement, common in the aviation industry, in which two or more airlines publish and market the same flight under their own airline designator and flight number (the “airline flight code”) as part of their published timetable or schedule.", "Typically, a flight is operated by one airline (technically called an \"administrating carrier\") while seats are sold for the flight by all cooperating airlines using their own designator and flight number.", "The term \"code\" refers to the identifier used in flight schedule, generally the two-character IATA airline designator code and flight number.", "Thus, XX123 (flight number 123 operated by the airline XX), might also be sold by airline YY as YY456 and by ZZ as ZZ9876.", "Airlines YY and ZZ are in this case called \"Marketing airlines\" (sometimes abbreviated MKT CXR for \"marketing carrier\").", "Most of the major airlines today have code sharing partnerships with other airlines, and code sharing is a key feature of the major airline alliances.", "Typically, code-sharing agreements are also a part of the commercial agreements between airlines in the same airline alliances.", "In 1967, Richard A. Henson joined with US Airways predecessor Allegheny Airlines in the nation's first codeshare relationship.", "The term \"code sharing\" or \"codeshare\" was coined in 1989 by Qantas and American Airlines, and in 1990 the two firms provided their first codeshare flights between an array of Australian cities and U.S. domestic cities.", "Code sharing has become widespread in the airline industry since that time, particularly in the wake of the formation of large airline alliances.", "These alliances have extensive codesharing and networked frequent flyer programs.", "Under a code sharing agreement, the airline that administrates the flight (the one holding the operational permissions, airport slots and planning/controlling the flight and responsible for the ground handling services) is commonly called the \"operating carrier\", often abbreviated OPE CXR, even though the IATA SSIM term \"Administrating carrier\" is more precise.", "The reason for this is that a third carrier may be involved, typically in the case that the airline originally planning to operate the flight needs to hire a subcontractor to operate the flight on their behalf (typically a wet lease, meaning an aircraft is leased with crew and all facilities to fly, commonly due to capacity limitations, technical problems etc.) In this case, the airline carrying the passenger should be designated the operating carrier, since it is the one carrying the passengers/cargo.", "When a flight is sold under several designators and flight numbers as described above, the one published by the \"Administrating carrier\" is commonly called a \"prime flight\" (as opposed to a codeshare marketing flight).", "Much competition in the airline industry revolves around ticket sales (also known as \"seat booking\") strategies (revenue management, variable pricing, and geo-marketing).", "Criticism has been leveled against code sharing by consumer organizations and national departments of trade since it is claimed it is confusing and not transparent to passengers.", "There are also code sharing arrangements between airlines and railway companies, formally known as air-rail alliances, and commonly marketed as \"Rail & Fly\" due to the popularity of the Deutsche Bahn codeshare with many airlines.", "They involve some integration of both types of transport, e.g., in finding the fastest connection and allowing the transfer between plane and train using a single ticket.", "This allows passengers to book a whole journey at the same time, often for a discounted price compared to separate tickets." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 225125, "simple_article_title": "Codeshare agreement", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-225125-0-0", "simple-225125-0-1", "simple-225125-0-2", "simple-225125-1-0", "simple-225125-1-1", "simple-225125-1-2", "simple-225125-2-0" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Codesharing is a type of partnership that airlines have.", "Airlines agree to sell each other's tickets on some routes.", "This means that both airlines sell more tickets.", "Sometimes, airlines join groups (called alliances) which all agree to sell each other's tickets.", "For example, both United Airlines and Lufthansa are part of Star Alliance.", "This means that Lufthansa can sell tickets for United Airlines and United Airlines can sell Lufthansa's tickets.", "Because airlines sell each other's tickets, some flights will have more than one flight number." ] } }
{ "normal_paragraph_id": [], "simple_paragraph_id": [] }
{ "normal_sentence_id": [], "simple_sentence_id": [] }
{ "normal_article_id": 1666997, "normal_article_title": "Hal Greer", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-1666997-0-0", "normal-1666997-0-1", "normal-1666997-0-2", "normal-1666997-0-3", "normal-1666997-0-4", "normal-1666997-1-0", "normal-1666997-1-1", "normal-1666997-1-2", "normal-1666997-1-3", "normal-1666997-2-0", "normal-1666997-2-1", "normal-1666997-2-2", "normal-1666997-2-3", "normal-1666997-2-4", "normal-1666997-2-5", "normal-1666997-2-6", "normal-1666997-3-0", "normal-1666997-3-1", "normal-1666997-3-2", "normal-1666997-3-3", "normal-1666997-3-4", "normal-1666997-3-5", "normal-1666997-3-6", "normal-1666997-3-7", "normal-1666997-4-0", "normal-1666997-4-1", "normal-1666997-4-2", "normal-1666997-4-3", "normal-1666997-5-0", "normal-1666997-5-1", "normal-1666997-6-0", "normal-1666997-6-1", "normal-1666997-6-2", "normal-1666997-6-3", "normal-1666997-7-0", "normal-1666997-7-1", "normal-1666997-7-2", "normal-1666997-7-3", "normal-1666997-8-0", "normal-1666997-8-1", "normal-1666997-8-2", "normal-1666997-8-3", "normal-1666997-8-4" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Harold Everett Greer (June 26, 1936 – April 14, 2018) was an American professional basketball player.", "He played for the Syracuse Nationals / Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association (NBA) from 1958 through 1973.", "A guard, Greer was a 10-time NBA All-Star and was named to the All-NBA Second Team seven times.", "He was named to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team and he had his uniform number retired by the 76ers.", "Greer is a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame.", "Born in Huntington, West Virginia, Greer attended Douglass Junior and Senior High School in Huntington.", "Douglass was an all-black school.", "He played as a guard for Douglass' men's basketball team.", "He enrolled at Marshall University and played college basketball for the Marshall Thundering Herd's basketball team, becoming the first African American to play for a public college in West Virginia.", "With the Thundering Herd, Greer scored 1,377 points with a .545 field goal percentage, setting a Marshall record.", "In 1956, Marshall won the Mid-American Conference championship, and made their first NCAA men's basketball tournament appearance.", "Greer was named All-Mid-American Conference in 1957 and 1958.", "He was named an All-American in 1958 as well.", "Greer finished his Marshall career averaging 19.4 points per game and 10.8 rebounds per game.", "In 1958, his senior year, Greer averaged 23.6 points per game.", "Greer also played for the school's baseball team in his sophomore year as a first baseman.", "The Syracuse Nationals selected Greer with the 13th selection in the 1958 NBA draft.", "Greer played for Syracuse for five seasons, raising his scoring average to 22.8 points a game in 1961.", "He was selected for the NBA All-Star team that year.", "In 1963, the Syracuse Nationals moved to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers.", "There, Greer teamed with Wilt Chamberlain on the 1966–67 team that won the NBA championship.", "In the 76ers' 15 playoff games that season, Greer averaged a team-best 27.7 points.", "Greer had an unusual but highly effective free throw technique, shooting a jump shot from the charity stripe.", "He is usually considered the third-best guard of the 1960s, behind Oscar Robertson and fellow West Virginia native Jerry West.", "Greer played in 10 NBA All-Star Games and was the MVP of the 1968 game when he went 8-for-8 from the field and scored 21 points, a record-breaking 19 in one quarter.", "He also was chosen to the All-NBA Second Team seven times, and scored 21,586 points during his NBA career.", "When he retired after the 1972-73 season, he ranked as the all-time leader in games played and was in the top ten in both points scored and field goals made.", "As of his death, Greer is the franchise record holder for points scored, field goals, field goal attempts, games played, and minutes played.", "In 1980, Greer coached the Philadelphia Kings of the Continental Basketball League.", "He also coached the basketball team for Germantown Academy in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania.", "Greer's hometown has honored his success by holding \"Hal Greer Day\" in 1966, and by renaming 16th Street, which carries West Virginia Route 10 as the main artery between the campus/downtown area and Interstate 64, as \"Hal Greer Boulevard\" in 1978.", "The 76ers retired Greer's uniform number, No. 15, in 1976; he was the first player the 76ers honored in this way.", "Marshall's men's basketball team retired Greer's No. 16.", "Marshall University inducted Greer into its Athletics Hall of Fame for his career in basketball and baseball in 1985.", "In 1982, Greer was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame along with Slater Martin, Frank Ramsey, Willis Reed, coach Clarence Gaines, and contributor Alva Duer.", "Greer is recognized as one of the first African-American athletes enshrined in a major sports hall of fame from West Virginia.", "He was named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996.", "The 76ers installed a statue of Greer at their training complex in 2017.", "Greer and his wife, Mayme, had a son and two daughters.", "Greer died on April 14, 2018, following a brief illness.", "The 76ers announced his death on April 16.", "They honored Greer prior to Game 2 of the 2018 NBA Playoffs vs the Miami Heat.", "For the remainder of the playoffs, the Sixers wore a black armband on the sleeve of their jersey with a small patch with the number 15." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 631349, "simple_article_title": "Hal Greer", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-631349-0-0", "simple-631349-0-1", "simple-631349-0-2", "simple-631349-1-0", "simple-631349-1-1", "simple-631349-1-2", "simple-631349-2-0" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Harold Everett Greer (June 26, 1936 – April 14, 2018) was an American professional basketball player.", "He was born in Huntington, West Virginia.", "He played for the Syracuse Nationals / Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association (NBA) from 1958 through 1973.", "Greer was a guard and a 10-time NBA All-Star.", "He was named to the All-NBA Second Team seven times.", "He was named to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team and he had his uniform number retired by the 76ers.", "Greer died of a short-illness in Phoenix, Arizona on April 14, 2018 at the age of 81." ] } }
{ "normal_paragraph_id": [ "normal-1666997-0", "normal-1666997-1", "normal-1666997-0", "normal-1666997-4", "normal-1666997-8" ], "simple_paragraph_id": [ "simple-631349-0", "simple-631349-0", "simple-631349-1", "simple-631349-1", "simple-631349-2" ] }
{ "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-1666997-8-1", "normal-1666997-0-0", "normal-1666997-1-0", "normal-1666997-0-1", "normal-1666997-0-2", "normal-1666997-0-2", "normal-1666997-0-3" ], "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-631349-2-0", "simple-631349-0-0", "simple-631349-0-1", "simple-631349-0-2", "simple-631349-1-0", "simple-631349-1-1", "simple-631349-1-2" ] }
{ "normal_article_id": 15415422, "normal_article_title": "Thiel-sur-Acolin", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-15415422-0-0" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Thiel-sur-Acolin is a commune in the Allier department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 382013, "simple_article_title": "Thiel-sur-Acolin", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-382013-0-0", "simple-382013-0-1" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Thiel-sur-Acolin is a commune.", "It is found in the Allier department in the center of France." ] } }
{ "normal_paragraph_id": [ "normal-15415422-0" ], "simple_paragraph_id": [ "simple-382013-0" ] }
{ "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-15415422-0-0", "normal-15415422-0-0" ], "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-382013-0-0", "simple-382013-0-1" ] }
{ "normal_article_id": 27086567, "normal_article_title": "Masayuki Ochiai (footballer)", "normal_article_url": "", "normal_article_content": { "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-27086567-0-0", "normal-27086567-1-0", "normal-27086567-1-1", "normal-27086567-1-2", "normal-27086567-1-3", "normal-27086567-1-4", "normal-27086567-1-5", "normal-27086567-1-6", "normal-27086567-1-7", "normal-27086567-1-8", "normal-27086567-1-9", "normal-27086567-1-10", "normal-27086567-1-11", "normal-27086567-1-12", "normal-27086567-1-13", "normal-27086567-1-14" ], "normal_sentence": [ "Masayuki Ochiai (落合 正幸 , Ochiai Masayuki , born July 11, 1981) is a former Japanese football player.", "Ochiai was born in Uki on July 11, 1981.", "After graduating from high school, he joined J1 League club Kashiwa Reysol in 2000.", "On November 23, 2002, he debuted as defensive midfielder against Sanfrecce Hiroshima.", "Although he played many matches as defensive midfielder in 2003, he could hardly play in the match in 2004.", "In September 2004, he moved to J2 League club Sagan Tosu on loan.", "He became a regular player as defensive midfielder.", "However he lost his regular position in April 2005 and he could hardly play in the match after that.", "In 2006, he returned to Kashiwa Reysol was relegated to J2 from 2006.", "However he could not play many matches.", "In 2007, he moved to J1 club Kawasaki Frontale.", "However he could not play many matches.", "In 2008, he moved to Japan Football League club Tochigi SC.", "He became a regular player and the club was promoted to J2 from 2008.", "Although he also played many matches as center back not only defensive midfielder until 2009, his opportunity to play decreased from 2010.", "He retired end of 2011 season." ] } }
{ "simple_article_id": 211959, "simple_article_title": "Masayuki Ochiai", "simple_article_url": "", "simple_article_content": { "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-211959-0-0", "simple-211959-0-1" ], "simple_sentence": [ "Masayuki Ochiai (born 11 July 1981) is a Japanese football player.", "He plays for Tochigi." ] } }
{ "normal_paragraph_id": [ "normal-27086567-0" ], "simple_paragraph_id": [ "simple-211959-0" ] }
{ "normal_sentence_id": [ "normal-27086567-0-0" ], "simple_sentence_id": [ "simple-211959-0-0" ] }

Dataset Card for WikiAuto

Dataset Summary

WikiAuto provides a set of aligned sentences from English Wikipedia and Simple English Wikipedia as a resource to train sentence simplification systems.

The authors first crowd-sourced a set of manual alignments between sentences in a subset of the Simple English Wikipedia and their corresponding versions in English Wikipedia (this corresponds to the manual config in this version of dataset), then trained a neural CRF system to predict these alignments.

The trained alignment prediction model was then applied to the other articles in Simple English Wikipedia with an English counterpart to create a larger corpus of aligned sentences (corresponding to the auto, auto_acl, auto_full_no_split, and auto_full_with_split configs here).

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

The dataset was created to support a text-simplification task. Success in these tasks is typically measured using the SARI and FKBLEU metrics described in the paper Optimizing Statistical Machine Translation for Text Simplification.


While both the input and output of the proposed task are in English (en), it should be noted that it is presented as a translation task where Wikipedia Simple English is treated as its own idiom. For a statement of what is intended (but not always observed) to constitute Simple English on this platform, see Simple English in Wikipedia.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

The data in all of the configurations looks a little different.

A manual config instance consists of a sentence from the Simple English Wikipedia article, one from the linked English Wikipedia article, IDs for each of them, and a label indicating whether they are aligned. Sentences on either side can be repeated so that the aligned sentences are in the same instances. For example:

{'alignment_label': 1,
 'normal_sentence_id': '0_66252-1-0-0',
 'simple_sentence_id': '0_66252-0-0-0',
 'normal_sentence': 'The Local Government Act 1985 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.', 'simple_sentence': 'The Local Government Act 1985 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom', 'gleu_score': 0.800000011920929}

Is followed by

{'alignment_label': 0,
 'normal_sentence_id': '0_66252-1-0-1',
 'simple_sentence_id': '0_66252-0-0-0',
 'normal_sentence': 'Its main effect was to abolish the six county councils of the metropolitan counties that had been set up in 1974, 11 years earlier, by the Local Government Act 1972, along with the Greater London Council that had been established in 1965.',
 'simple_sentence': 'The Local Government Act 1985 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom', 'gleu_score': 0.08641975373029709}

The auto config shows a pair of an English and corresponding Simple English Wikipedia as an instance, with an alignment at the paragraph and sentence level:

{'example_id': '0',
 'normal': {'normal_article_content': {'normal_sentence': ["Lata Mondal ( ; born: 16 January 1993, Dhaka) is a Bangladeshi cricketer who plays for the Bangladesh national women's cricket team.",
    'She is a right handed batter.',
    'Mondal was born on January 16, 1993 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.',
    "Mondal made her ODI career against the Ireland women's cricket team on November 26, 2011.",
    "Mondal made her T20I career against the Ireland women's cricket team on August 28, 2012.",
    "In October 2018, she was named in Bangladesh's squad for the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 tournament in the West Indies.",
    "Mondal was a member of the team that won a silver medal in cricket against the China national women's cricket team at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China."],
   'normal_sentence_id': ['normal-41918715-0-0',
  'normal_article_id': 41918715,
  'normal_article_title': 'Lata Mondal',
  'normal_article_url': ''},
 'paragraph_alignment': {'normal_paragraph_id': ['normal-41918715-0'],
  'simple_paragraph_id': ['simple-702227-0']},
 'sentence_alignment': {'normal_sentence_id': ['normal-41918715-0-0',
  'simple_sentence_id': ['simple-702227-0-0', 'simple-702227-0-1']},
 'simple': {'simple_article_content': {'simple_sentence': ["Lata Mondal (born: 16 January 1993) is a Bangladeshi cricketer who plays for the Bangladesh national women's cricket team.",
    'She is a right handed bat.'],
   'simple_sentence_id': ['simple-702227-0-0', 'simple-702227-0-1']},
  'simple_article_id': 702227,
  'simple_article_title': 'Lata Mondal',
  'simple_article_url': ''}}

Finally, the auto_acl, the auto_full_no_split, and the auto_full_with_split configs were obtained by selecting the aligned pairs of sentences from auto to provide a ready-to-go aligned dataset to train a sequence-to-sequence system. While auto_acl corresponds to the filtered version of the data used to train the systems in the paper, auto_full_no_split and auto_full_with_split correspond to the unfiltered versions with and without sentence splits respectively. In the auto_full_with_split config, we join the sentences in the simple article mapped to the same sentence in the complex article to capture sentence splitting. Split sentences are separated by a <SEP> token. In the auto_full_no_split config, we do not join the splits and treat them as separate pairs. An instance is a single pair of sentences:

{'normal_sentence': 'In early work , Rutherford discovered the concept of radioactive half-life , the radioactive element radon , and differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation .\n',
 'simple_sentence': 'Rutherford discovered the radioactive half-life , and the three parts of radiation which he named Alpha , Beta , and Gamma .\n'}

Data Fields

The data has the following field:

  • normal_sentence: a sentence from English Wikipedia.
  • normal_sentence_id: a unique ID for each English Wikipedia sentence. The last two dash-separated numbers correspond to the paragraph number in the article and the sentence number in the paragraph.
  • simple_sentence: a sentence from Simple English Wikipedia.
  • simple_sentence_id: a unique ID for each Simple English Wikipedia sentence. The last two dash-separated numbers correspond to the paragraph number in the article and the sentence number in the paragraph.
  • alignment_label: signifies whether a pair of sentences is aligned: labels are 2:partialAligned, 1:aligned and 0:notAligned
  • paragraph_alignment: a first step of alignment mapping English and Simple English paragraphs from linked articles
  • sentence_alignment: the full alignment mapping English and Simple English sentences from linked articles
  • gleu_score: the sentence level GLEU (Google-BLEU) score for each pair.

Data Splits

In auto, the part_2 split corresponds to the articles used in manual, and part_1 has the rest of Wikipedia.

The manual config is provided with a train/dev/test split with the following amounts of data:

train validation test
Total sentence pairs 373801 73249 118074
Aligned sentence pairs 1889 346 677

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

Simple English Wikipedia provides a ready source of training data for text simplification systems, as 1. articles in different languages are linked, making it easier to find parallel data and 2. the Simple English data is written by users for users rather than by professional translators. However, even though articles are aligned, finding a good sentence-level alignment can remain challenging. This work aims to provide a solution for this problem. By manually annotating a sub-set of the articles, they manage to achieve an F1 score of over 88% on predicting alignment, which allows to create a good quality sentence level aligned corpus using all of Simple English Wikipedia.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The authors mention that they "extracted 138,095 article pairs from the 2019/09 Wikipedia dump [...] using an improved version of the WikiExtractor library". The SpaCy library is used for sentence splitting.

Who are the source language producers?

The dataset uses langauge from Wikipedia: some demographic information is provided here.


Annotation process

Sentence alignment labels were obtained for 500 randomly sampled document pairs (10,123 sentence pairs total). The authors pre-selected several alignment candidates from English Wikipedia for each Simple Wikipedia sentence based on various similarity metrics, then asked the crowd-workers to annotate these pairs.

Who are the annotators?

No demographic annotation is provided for the crowd workers. [More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

The dataset was created by Chao Jiang, Mounica Maddela, Wuwei Lan, Yang Zhong, and Wei Xu working at Ohio State University.

Licensing Information

The dataset is not licensed by itself, but the source Wikipedia data is under a cc-by-sa-3.0 license.

Citation Information

You can cite the paper presenting the dataset as:

  author    = {Chao Jiang and
               Mounica Maddela and
               Wuwei Lan and
               Yang Zhong and
               Wei Xu},
  editor    = {Dan Jurafsky and
               Joyce Chai and
               Natalie Schluter and
               Joel R. Tetreault},
  title     = {Neural {CRF} Model for Sentence Alignment in Text Simplification},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational
               Linguistics, {ACL} 2020, Online, July 5-10, 2020},
  pages     = {7943--7960},
  publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
  year      = {2020},
  url       = {}


Thanks to @yjernite, @mounicam for adding this dataset.

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